Project: Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo

ST09 Issued for BCA Approval
Structural Calculations

Reference: 227268
Prepared for: Mott
MacDonald
Revision: 1
20 November 2012

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ST09 Issued for BCA Approval
Structural Calculations

Report Title
Document ID

227268

Project Number

File Path

P:\227268 - Raffles Cement Singapore\002-01\Report\ST 09 - Issued for
BCA Approval\227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Structural
Calculations - ST 09.docx

Client

Mott MacDonald

Client Contact

Revision Details/Status

Prepared by

Author

Verifier

Approver

TJH

MM/AW

TJH

GF

Rev

Date

1

20 November 2012

Current Revision

1

Approval
Author Signature

Approver Signature

Name

Name

Title

Title

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Structural Calculations - ST 09.docx | 20 November 2012 |
Revision 1

Contents
1.

Design Information
1.1

Project Information

1.2

Design Standards

1.3

Loadings
Wind Load

1.3.2

Seismic Load

1.3.3

Load Cases for Silo Storage Structure

1.3.4

Load Cases for Stair Tower, Silo Head House and Under Cone Steelwork

1.4

Materials

1.5

Detailing Guidelines

1.6

3.

1.3.1

1.5.1

Silo

1.5.2

Foundations

1.5.3

Steel Beams

1.5.4

Steel Columns

1.5.5

Flooring

1.5.6

Purlins and Rails (Girts)

Summary of Software and Computer Models
1.6.1

Finite Element Analysis

1.6.2

General Structural Analysis

1.6.3

Design of Reinforced Concrete Sections

1.6.4

Design of Steel Sections

Loadings
3.1

3.2

Wind Load
3.1.1

Wind Load with Uniform Distribution

3.1.2

Wind Load with Exact Distribution Pattern

Contents Load
3.2.1

Silo Geometry

3.2.2

Geometrical Parameters of Outer Cell

3.2.3

Geometrical Parameters of Inner Cell

3.2.4

Material Parameters

3.2.5

Basic Load Cases

3.2.6

Combination Load Cases

3.2.7

Loading Tables

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7.

High Rise Wall Reinforcement Design
7.1

7.2

Design Loading
7.1.1

Load Cases for Strength

7.1.2

Load Cases for Serviceability

7.1.3

Thermal Effects

7.1.4

Loading from Eurocode EN 1991:2006

7.1.5

Spreadsheet Output

Design Actions from Finite Element Model (Strand7) 6
7.2.1

7.3

Outer Reinforcement: Post Tensioning
7.3.1

7.4

7.5

Finite Element Model 6

Horizontal

Outer Reinforcement: Passive Reinforcement
7.4.1

Horizontal (Inner and Outer Face)

7.4.2

Vertical

7.4.3

Shear

Inner Passive Reinforcement
7.5.1

Horizontal

7.5.2

Vertical

7.5.3

Shear

7.6

Tabular and Graphical Output for Design Flow Specified Above

7.7

Outer Wall Section Interaction Diagrams

7.8

Graphical Output, Outer Wall

7.9

Spreadsheet Tabular Output, Outer Wall

7.10 Inner Wall Section Interaction Diagrams
7.11 Graphical Output, Inner Wall
7.12 Spreadsheet Tabular Output, Inner Wall
7.13 Inner Wall Passive Reinforcement Re-Design
9.

Main Roof
9.1

Roof Slab Design

9.2

Steel Frames
9.2.1

SPACE GASS Model

9.2.2

Beam and Connection Types

9.3

Pre-cambers

9.4

Design Parameters and Sketches

9.5

Calculation of Cast in Weld Plate Capacity

9.6

Inner Cell Steel Frame LIMCON Output – Connection Design
9.6.1

254 x 137 UB 37 to 838 x 126 UB 225

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Structural Calculations - ST 09.docx | 20 November 2012 |
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9.7

Outer Cell Steel Frame LIMCON Output – Connection Design
9.7.1

254 x 137 UB 37 to Cast in Weld Plate

9.8

Inner Cell Steel Frame SPACE GASS Output – Member Design

9.9

Outer Cell Steel Frame SPACE GASS Output – Member Design

9.10 Concrete Slab Design - LYSAUGHT BONDEK DESIGN SOFTWARE
10. Under Cone Steelwork
10.1 Column Design
10.1.1 Columns on Level 3
10.1.2 Columns on Level 2
10.1.3 Column on Level 1
10.2 Beam Design
10.2.1 Beams on Level 5
10.2.2 Beams on Level 4
10.2.3 Beams on Level 3
10.2.4 Beams on Level 2
10.2.5 Beams on Level 1
10.2.6 Beams on Ground Level
10.3 Design of the Connections
12. Stair Tower and Bucket Elevator Platform
12.1 Stair Tower
12.1.1 Beam Design
12.1.2 Column Design
12.1.3 Brace Design for Longitudinal Direction
12.1.4 Brace Design for Transverse Direction
12.2 Head House
12.2.1 Beam Design
12.2.2 Column Design
12.2.3 Brace Design
12.3 Bucket Elevator Platform
12.3.1 Brace Design
12.3.2 Design of the Connections to Silo Wall
13. Air Slide Steelwork
13.1 Beam Design
13.2 Trestle
13.2.1 Column Design for Trestle
13.2.2 Brace Design for Trestle
14. Conical Roof Design

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Structural Calculations - ST 09.docx | 20 November 2012 |
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P1-1

1.

Design Information

1.1

Project Information

Client:

Mott MacDonald

Project:

Raffles 25,000 Tonne Cement Silo

Discipline:

Civil/Structural

Site Location:

Singapore

1.2

Design Standards

AS 3774:1996

Loads on Bulk Solids Containers

BS 8110: 1997

Structural Use of Concrete

BS 5950-1:2000

Structural Use of Steelwork in Building, Part 1

CP 3: 1972

Code of Basic Data for the Design of Buildings, Chapter V: Part 2: Wind
Loads

CP 4: 2003

Singapore Standard. Code of Practice for Foundations

EN 1991-4

EUROCODE 1, Actions on Structures, Part 4: Silos and Tanks

1.3

Loadings

1.3.1

Wind Load

Parameter

Value

Basic wind speed (V)

41 m/s

Topography factor (S1)

1.0

Probability factor (S3)

1.0

1.3.2

Seismic Load

Design for seismic loads is not required.
1.3.3

Load Cases for Silo Storage Structure

Primary Load Cases
Load Case

Description

1

Self-Weight

2

Superimposed Dead Load

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3

Platform and Roof Live Load

4

Inner Cell Fill (Initial/Static) Storage

5

Inner Cell Discharge (Flow) Storage

6

Inner Cell Eccentric Discharge (rc=0.25r)

7

Inner Cell Eccentric Discharge (rc=0.4r)

8

Inner Cell Eccentric Discharge (rc=0.6r)

9

Outer Cell Fill (Initial/Static) Storage

10

Outer Cell Discharge (Flow) Storage

11

Outer Cell Eccentric Discharge (rc=0.25r)

12

Outer Cell Eccentric Discharge (rc=0.4r)

13

Outer Cell Eccentric Discharge (rc=0.6r)

14

Final Prestress (After All Immediate and Time Dependent Losses)

Combination Load Cases
Load Combination for Design of Low Rise Wall
Low rise wall is a supporting element for the storage zone. As such, it is designed for gravity loads
from the stored material without flow multipliers. The load combination used is:

1.4DL + 1.6Live + 1.4 Inner Cell Initial Storage + 1.4 Outer Cell Initial Storage + 1.0 Final
Prestress (after all losses).

Load Combination for Design of Inner Cell Ring Beam
A) Designing Inner Cell Support Beam:
Inner cell support beam at top of the outer cell cone is designed to support horizontal reactions from
the inner cell wall and inner cell cone and slip form prior to augmentation of the cross section after
erection of the inner cone panels. Therefore, the load combination used is:

1.4DL + 1.6LL

B) Designing Inner Cell Ring Beam:
Inner cell ring beam, in service, is designed to resist horizontal thrust and torsion from inner cell wall.
Therefore, the load combination used is:

DL + 1.6 LL + 1.6 Inner Cell Friction + 1.6 Outer Cell Wall Friction

Load Combination for Design of Outer Cell Ring Beam
Outer cell ring beam is a supporting element for the storage zone. As such, it is designed for gravity
loads from the stored material without flow multipliers. The load combination used is:

1.4DL + 1.6Live + 1.4 Inner Cell Initial Storage + 1.4 Outer Cell Initial Storage + 1.0 Final
Prestress (after all losses).

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Load Combination for Design of Precast Cone Panels
Precast cone panels are design for the following load combinations:

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Inner Cell Initial Storage + 1.6 Outer Cell Initial Storage

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Inner Cell Flow + 1.6 Outer Cell Flow

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Inner Cell Flow (Outer Cell Empty)

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Inner Cell Flow + 1.6 Inner Eccentric Discharge (Outer Cell Empty)

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Outer Cell Flow (Inner Cell Empty)

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Outer Cell Flow + 1.6 Outer Eccentric Discharge (Inner Cell Empty)

Load Combination for Design of High Rise Wall
A) Designing Outer Wall

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Outer Cell Flow + 1.0 Final Prestress (after all losses).

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Outer Cell Initial + 1.0 Final Prestress (after all losses).

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Outer Cell Flow + 1.6 Inner Cell Flow + 1.0 Final Prestress (after all
losses).

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Outer Cell Initial + 1.6 Inner Cell Initial + 1.0 Final Prestress (after all
losses).

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Outer Cell Eccentric Discharge (with flow channel radius being the
inner/outer wall distance) + 1.6 Inner Cell Flow + 1.0 Final Prestress (after all losses).

B) Designing Inner Wall

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Inner Cell Flow

1.4DL + 1.6LL (roof) + 1.6 Inner Cell Initial

1.4DL + 1.6LL (roof) + 1.6 Inner Cell Flow + 1.6 outer Cell Flow

1.4DL + 1.6LL (roof) + 1.6 Inner Cell Initial + 1.6 Outer Cell Initial

1.4DL + 1.6LL (roof) + 1.6 Inner Cell Eccentric Discharge (no opposing force from outer cell)

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Outer Cell Flow (Inner Cell Empty)

1.4DL + 1.6LL + 1.6 Outer Cell Flow + 1.6 Outer Eccentric Discharge (Inner Cell Empty)

1.3.4

Load Cases for Stair Tower, Silo Head House and Under Cone Steelwork

Primary Load Cases
Load Case
1

2

Description
Dead Load

Structure self-weight

Equipment dead load including bins

Imposed Loads

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Structural Calculations - ST 09.docx | 20 November 2012 |
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3

Floor walkway load including dust (5kPa)

Equipment load (as nominated on mechanical drawings)

Wind Loads (V=41 m/s)

Combination Load Cases
Load Case

Description

General Load Combination
4

1.4 Dead + 1.6 Imposed

Load Combination for External Members Exposed to Wind Load Only
5

1.2 Dead + 1.2 Imposed + 1.2 East/West Wind

6

1.2 Dead + 1.2 Imposed + 1.2 North/South Wind

7

1.4 Dead + 1.4 East/West Wind

8

1.4 Dead + 1.4 North/South Wind

9

1.0 Dead + 1.4 East/West Wind

10

1.0 Dead + 1.4 North/West Wind

1.4

Materials

Concrete

C40 (cube strength) for cast in-situ structural concrete
C50 (cube strength) for precast panels

Reinforcement

Deformed bar type 2, fy = 460 MPa

Structural Steel

Grade 275

Prestressing

- 12.7 mm diameter 7 wire super grade, low relaxation strand
- Ultimate tensile strength of strand = 1840 MPa
- Maximum jacking force = 0.75 x characteristic strength of tendon (min
breaking load)
- Assumed anchor friction loss = 2%
- Assumed anchorage draw in = 6 mm
- Assumed duct friction coefficient = 0.2
- Assumed duct profile coefficient = 0.0025

1.5

Detailing Guidelines

1.5.1

Silo

Loads on the silo to be developed using EN 1991-4.

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Structural Calculations - ST 09.docx | 20 November 2012 |
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P1-5

Material stored in the silo is cement, and material parameters for design are as listed below:

Parameter

Value

Design Density

1600 kg/m3

Angle of Repose

0 degrees

Angle of Internal Friction

25 to 37 degrees

Angle of Wall Friction

0.48 to 0.55 (for Wall Type D3)

Vertical Pressure Multiplier

0.45 to 0.65

Specific design criteria:



1.5.2


Grating type is webforge C325MPG.
Grating weight is 34.2 kg/m2.
Maximum clear span between support beam flanges is 1500mm.

Steel Plate


1.5.6

Flooring

Floor Grating


Steel Columns

Girts or rails not to be considered as effective buckling restraints for heavily loaded columns.
Columns to be designed for floor beam reactions applied at 50mm eccentricity and 5% accidental
eccentricity in the direction with no beam attached.
Refer standard fabrication drawings for typical splice and base plate details.

1.5.5

Steel Beams

Major support beams and beams supporting vibrating loads shall have bolted end plate
connections.
Minor beams may utilise fin plate connections.
Refer standard fabrication drawings for typical details.

1.5.4

Foundations

Pad footings generally to be founded on 20MPa (cube strength) blinding concrete.

1.5.3

Design considers the thermal gradients due to contents temperature of 90ᵒC and a coexisting
minimum external ambient temperature of 20ᵒC.
Design considers the effects of eccentric discharge from one outlet at any one time in
accordance with the methods introduced in EN 1991-4
Design considers the simultaneous discharge from the inner and outer cells
The silo is founded on 36 1400dia bored piles with a working load capacity of 1177 tonnes
each.

6mm thick, maximum span 1000mm.
Plates to be screw fixed to support beams by diameter 6 countersunk screws at 300mm
maximum centres.
Screw fixed plate not to be considered effective as a lateral restraint to supporting beams.
Purlins and Rails (Girts)

Maximum spacing to be 1500mm

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Structural Calculations - ST 09.docx | 20 November 2012 |
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1.6

Summary of Software and Computer Models

1.6.1

Finite Element Analysis

STRAND 7: Finite Element Analysis System, Release 2.4.4
1.6.2

General Structural Analysis

ETABS 9: Extended 3D Analysis of Building Systems, Nonlinear version 9.7.3
SAP 2000: Structural Analysis Program, version 15.0.1
1.6.3

Design of Reinforced Concrete Sections

GenCol: Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Column
Local spread sheets for design of concrete sections
1.6.4

Design of Steel Sections

Local spread sheets for design of concrete sections (based on BS 5950-1: 2000)

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Structural Calculations - ST 09.docx | 20 November 2012 |
Revision 1

3.

Loadings

3.1

Wind Load

3.2

3.1.1

Wind Load with Uniform Distribution

3.1.2

Wind Load with Exact Distribution Pattern

Contents Load
3.2.1

Silo Geometry

3.2.2

Geometrical Parameters of Outer Cell

3.2.3

Geometrical Parameters of Inner Cell

3.2.4

Material Parameters

3.2.5

Basic Load Cases

3.2.6

Combination Load Cases

3.2.7

Loading Tables

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Structural Calculations - ST 09.docx | 20 November 2012 |
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1.1.7.13 Inner Wall Passive Reinforcement Re-Design Project 227268 | File 227268 .7 Outer Wall Section Interaction Diagrams 7.1. High Rise Wall Reinforcement Design 7.4.5 Spreadsheet Output Design Actions from Finite Element Model (Strand7) 6 7. Outer Wall 7.1.2 Vertical 7.3 Shear 7.2 7.5.3 Shear Inner Passive Reinforcement 7.4 7.2.docx | 20 November 2012 | Revision 1 .2 Vertical 7.10 Inner Wall Section Interaction Diagrams 7. Inner Wall 7. Outer Wall 7.5.1 Design Loading 7.1 Horizontal 7.1 7.3 Thermal Effects 7.12 Spreadsheet Tabular Output.1 Horizontal (Inner and Outer Face) 7.9 Spreadsheet Tabular Output.2 Load Cases for Serviceability 7.ST 09. Inner Wall 7.11 Graphical Output.3.1 7.1.6 Tabular and Graphical Output for Design Flow Specified Above 7.4.4 Loading from Eurocode EN 1991:2006 7.5.1 Load Cases for Strength 7.000T Cement Silo .Raffles 25.4.8 Graphical Output.3 Outer Reinforcement: Post Tensioning 7.Structural Calculations .5 Finite Element Model 6 Horizontal Outer Reinforcement: Passive Reinforcement 7.

 cracks will not occur as the minimum post tension is significantly  higher than any hoop tension forces that occur.P7-1 7.HRW Calculations.1.1 Design Loading   7. keeping the wall section in permanent compression.1.Raffles 25. The serviceability load case under consideration does not include moments  generated from eccentric discharge loading.000T Cement Silo .  7.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 2 .1 Load Cases for Strength  Load cases considered for strength (ULS) for the high rise wall include:     Immediately after emptying with maximum post‐tension (PT TRANSFER) and maximum thermal  gradient   Immediately after emptying with minimum post‐tension (PT FINAL) and maximum thermal  gradient   Silo under discharge loads with Eccentric Discharge as defined in EN 1991:2006 and max  thermal gradient   Of these load cases.2 Load Cases for Serviceability  The serviceability criterion for the high rise wall is based on controlling the width of cracks that occur  in the high rise wall. In this case.  7. This load case is more critical than loads calculated from AS  3774 and greater than thermally induced moments alone. the eccentric discharge load case is governing due to the high moments  generated by the flow channel case.3 Thermal Effects  Assume the following formula (French code) for the thermal gradient above the silo contents (or for  the situation immediately after emptying  ∆ h ∆   h 0.08h           Project 227268 | File 227268 . as under normal operation eccentric discharge loads  should not occur.1.35 Assume the following formula for the thermal gradient in the wall below the silo contents  ∆ 0. High Rise Wall Reinforcement Design 7.08 ∆   104 0.

  where a flow channel forms against the silo wall.  As the horizontal capacities of the wall are everywhere greater than these values.000T Cement Silo .Raffles 25. This  thermal moment is 192 kNm for the external wall. 0.25rsilo.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 3 . In this case.6rsilo. where a flow channel forms inside the silo   o Normal Pressure on the wall (varies around the wall and with height)  o Vertical Traction on the wall (varies around the wall and with height)  The critical design case for the outer and inner cell high rise wall is the eccentric discharge case.HRW Calculations. rsilo  has been taken to be the distance between the inner and outer walls of the outer cell.  7. and 103 kNm for the inner wall. not a complete cylinder as given in the code.)  The design actions have been calculated using a spreadsheet which implements the equations given  in EN 1991. The  circumferential distance over which the eccentric loads are applied (the angle θc from EN 1991) have  also been adjusted to reflect the geometry of the annulus (a decrease from the angles for the  ‘normal’ concentric case. This specifies loads falling into the following categories:     Filling Pressure  o Normal Pressure on the wall (varies with height)  o Vertical Traction on the wall (varies with height)  Discharge Pressure  o Normal Pressure on the wall (varies with height)  o Vertical Traction on the wall (varies with height)  Eccentric Discharge Pressure. this load case is  acceptable for ULS.  The outer cell of the silo is an annulus. and EN 1991 specifies that 3 radii of be considered: 0. and 0. and 0 for internal wall) and zero other bending moment demand. The wall pressures and tractions depend on the  flow channel radius.4rsilo.P7-2 Ambient Temp  Internal (Contents) Temp  Outer Wall Thermal Gradient (silo  empty)  Outer Wall Thermal Gradient (silo full)  Inner Wall Thermal Gradient (silo  empty)  Inner Wall Thermal Gradient (silo full)  20  90  17  38  15  35  Table: Temperatures used in calculation of thermal gradient and thermal gradient values    The maximum thermally induced horizontal moment occurs with maximum axial compressive force  (PTTransfer for external wall. The figures below shows the definition of the variables in the spreadsheet from EN 1991  Project 227268 | File 227268 .1.4 Loading from Eurocode EN 1991:2006  The design loading applied to the high rise wall for the outer and inner cells has been calculated  using EN 1991:2006.

  and Phse)      Figure: Variable definitions from EN 1991 (Upper figure: filling or discharge loads.P7-3 and sample output for the normal pressures against the silo wall for a flow channel case (Phae.Raffles 25. Phce.HRW Calculations. Annular situation has been adapted from this figure)  Pressure (kPa) Eccecntric Discharge Pressures 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Phae Phce Phse Phf (trend) Phe (trend) Poly. and Phse    Project 227268 | File 227268 . (Phse) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Depth Below Effective Surface (m) 70   Figure: Representative Spreadsheet graphical output for the loads Phae. Lower figure:  Flow Channel Load Case. Phce.000T Cement Silo .docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 4 .

000T Cement Silo .docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 5 .1.        Project 227268 | File 227268 .P7-4 7.Raffles 25.5 Spreadsheet Output  The following pages contain full output from the loading spreadsheets.HRW Calculations.

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000T Cement Silo .2 Design Actions from Finite Element Model (Strand7)  7.Raffles 25. The loads calculated in  the previous section have been applied to the model which is shown in the Figure below.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 6 .1 Finite Element Model  The silo has been modelled in the finite element analysis software Strand7.HRW Calculations.6rsilo) to a  spreadsheet  Graph the results for the entire set of plate elements to visually inspect the design loads  Divide the outer and inner high rise wall into 61 vertical sections or slices  Determine the critical design actions for each vertical slice  o Maximum flexural moments (destabilising)  o Maximum hoop tension forces (destabilising)  Project 227268 | File 227268 .P7-19 7.     Figure: Strand7 Model of Silo    To determine the design actions on the silo.2. 0. the following process has been undertaken:       Select all plate elements forming the inner and outer high rise walls  Export the design actions for the governing load case (eccentric discharge.

 The approach is conservative as the critical design actions for the  entire wall are selected.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 7 .000T Cement Silo .  The following pages contain graphical output.Raffles 25.P7-20 Minimum vertical compression forces (stabilising due to effect on interaction  diagram)  Incorporate critical design actions into design spreadsheet for each of the vertical slices  o    It is noted that the design actions vary around the wall of the silo due to the presence of the flow  channel in one area.  This approach also ensures that the maximum design action is chosen without the need to visually  interpret the coloured contours of the Strand7 model graphical user interface.               Project 227268 | File 227268 . Full tabular output is impractical to reproduce in print  form.HRW Calculations. and the critical values of each parameter (moment. without reference to circumferential location. axial load) may not occur  together as has been assumed.

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HRW Calculations.  Maximum Hoop Tension  Post Tension Final  Net Compression  Distance Above Beam  1.16 MN  3.000T Cement Silo .865 MN  3.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 8 .1 Horizontal  The design of the outer wall post tension is governed by the need to maintain compression in the  wall section under the hoop tension forces generated by the cement loading.Raffles 25. and by the increase in  the wall section moment capacity due to the compressive force.P7-31 7.3.06 m  Table: Comparison of Maximum Factored Hoop Tension Force and Post Tension Force                                  Project 227268 | File 227268 .3 Outer Reinforcement: Post Tensioning  7.0 MPa  6.  In all cases the factored hoop tension loads on the outer high rise wall are less than 60% of PT FINAL.

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P7-55.1 .

2 .P7-55.

3 RAFFLES SILO POST TENSION STRAND7 MODEL SCREEN SHOTS 1/2 226542 AW Figure: Entire Strand7 model showing deflected shape (colour gradient is plate axial force) the model is of the high rise wall only. with full fixity at top and bottom Figure: Strand7 model showing close up of base (with deflections) .P7-55.

P7-55.4 RAFFLES SILO POST TENSION STRAND7 MODEL SCREEN SHOTS 2/2 226542 AW Figure: Strand7 model with wall elements cut away to show tendons (spaced at actual spacing) Figure: Strand7 model showing close up of the tendons and the pinned links fixing them to wall element vertices .

5 .P7-55.

6 .P7-55.

P7-55.87  D20 @ 150 Mn(P*) P -300 364 -400 381 -500 399 -600 416 -700 433 -800 450 -900 467 -1000 484 -1100 501 -1200 517 -1300 533 -1400 549 -1500 565 -1600 581 -1700 596 -1800 611 -1900 626 D 20 @ 175 Mn(P*) P -300 322 -400 340 -500 357 -600 375 -700 392 -800 409 -900 426 -1000 443 -1100 460 -1200 476 -1300 493 -1400 509 -1500 524 -1600 540 -1700 555 -1800 570 -1900 585 D 20 @ 200 Mn(P*) P 500 148 0 238 -500 326 -1000 412 -1500 494 -2000 569 -2500 638 -3000 699 -3500 752 -4000 796 -4500 831 -5000 855 -5500 851 -6000 844 -6500 834 -7000 819 -7500 799 D 25 @ 200 Mn(P*) P -300 411 -400 428 -500 445 -600 462 -700 479 -800 496 -900 513 -1000 529 -1100 546 -1200 562 -1300 578 -1400 594 -1500 609 -1600 625 -1700 640 -1800 655 -1900 669 D 16 @ 200 Mn(P*) P 500 63 0 157 -500 248 -1000 336 -1500 419 -2000 495 -2500 563 -3000 624 -3500 676 -4000 720 -4500 754 -5000 780 -5500 782 -6000 781 -6500 774 -7000 762 -7500 743 1000 425 395 30 Steel properties Es 2.77 1 Reduction factor 0.003000 cu f'c 40 0.7 REINFORCED CONCRETE SECTION  INTERACTION TABLES 1000mm wide * 425mm deep WALL SECTION 30mm cover to longitudinal reinforcement Geometry Bw Lw d' d Concrete properties Ec 27898 -0.00E+05 fy 460 .85 1 0.

8 Interaction Diagram.P7-55. D20 @ 200 Bending capacity Mn (kNm) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 800 1000 -16000 -14000 Axial capacity Nn (kNm) -12000 -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 Interaction Diagram D16 @ 200 Bending capacity Mn (kNm) 0 -16000 -14000 Axial capacity Nn (kNm) -12000 -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 200 400 600 .

P7-55.9 .

000 17.000 ‐2.280 8.483 718.Note: The tabulated horizontal steel assumed below (T16@200c/s .188 718.188 718.000 17.678.368 ‐2.000 ‐3.836.999 802.470 7.865.000 ‐3.686.000 ‐3.000 ‐3.320 ‐3.000 ‐4.690 5.188 718.110 7.890 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 40.454 49.999 802.672.580 7.865 0.720 8.000 17.000 17.089 638.000 ‐4.588 743.000 17.865 0.865 0.444 ‐2.553 29.865 0.672.000 ‐2.865 0.865 0.000 ‐3.483 718.540 5.000 17.188 718.672.000 84.000 17.089 638.188 718.000 ‐3.188 718.827.890 477.000 17.089 537.984.672.000 ‐3.865 0.865 0.000 ‐3.827.262 44.362 24.590 7.080.686.320 ‐2.865 0.999 802.188 718.483 743.979 13.000 17.984.483 743.590 7.000 17.686.060.865 0.688 28.000 ‐3.080.000 ‐4.930 8.999 771.686.227 25.596 3.836.865 0.089 638.475 36.080 P7-55.865 0.672.984.000 17.823 27.865 0.000 ‐2.000 ‐2.000 17.999 802.089 537.870 ‐1.610 35.295.000 ‐2.000 ‐2.999 802.238.000 1.000 ‐3.188 718.000 17.965 537.000 17.000 ‐2.000 17.865 0.380 ‐1.368 ‐2.000 Vertical nominal R.787 8.000 17.520 7.483 743.865 0.263 ‐3.320.080.080.444 ‐2.483 743.965 477.965 477.865 0.014 32.588 771.000 ‐1.865.588 771.461 4.990 ‐7.518 10.580 ‐1.089 638.745 34.865 0.444 ‐2.850 ‐1.000 17.520 5. Post Tension Strand Force After Losses (N) 79.865.844 14.865 0.238.865 1.320 ‐6.980 7.801 40.827.T20@200c/s) is far less than the reinforcing required for the silo under the in-service design loads.000 17.000 ‐1.672.865 0.865 0.170 ‐1.000 ‐4.709 15.000 ‐2.588 771.800 42.686.000 17.000 17.000 17.000 17.L.483 743.120 5.865 0.10 .686.420 ‐2.284 31.999 802.130 ‐814 ‐495 199 107 ‐318 ‐776 ‐988 ‐1.319 50.000 ‐4.865 0.686.879 33.980 ‐3.999 802.000 17.901 20.865 0.295.320.000 D 24.263 ‐3.343.340 37.000 ‐2.526 HORIZONTAL STEEL HORIZONTAL STEEL TENSION INNER FACE TENSION OUTER FACE Spacing PT Force  PT Force DEMAND mm Final in N/m  Initial in N/m YY Moment (from Strand7) 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 425 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 475 475 475 475 475 475 475 475 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 600 600 600 600 600 800 800 800 800 1.900 ‐7.920 ‐1.890 477.060.678.865 0.333 ‐2.000 ‐3.089 638.000 17.000 17.560 7.188 718.188 718.588 743.672.865 0.900 ‐8.080.865.999 802.000 ‐3.540 6.444 ‐2.999 802.000 ‐2.600 8.000 17.865 0.865 0.240 6.000 ‐3.000 1.160.188 718.686.000 ‐1.238.080.631 22.326 5.060.672.000 1.188 718.188 718.686.588 771.092 25.865 0.000 ‐3.000 ‐3.000 17.667 41.999 802.483 743.320.263 ‐3.750 ‐1.000 ‐1.127 44.397 43.686.865 0.188 718.510 7.368 ‐2.000 ‐1.700 7.890 477.588 771.890 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 20 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 YY Moment (from Strand7) 802.188 718.089 638.089 638.000 0.188 718.483 743.000 17.190 ‐2.360 6.999 771.865.865 0.060 7.000 ‐3.700 8.865 0.188 718.483 743.320.000 ‐3.000 17.483 743.993 45.188 718.000 ‐4.588 771.000 ‐2.000 17.957 26.827.000 17.865 0.686.770 ‐1.000 17.652 9.999 802.836.444 ‐2.900 6.600 ‐11.827.865 0.000 ‐3.999 802.750 ‐1.000 ‐4.672.188 718.630 ‐13.000 17.330 ‐1.588 771.827.890 477.865 0.000 17.000 ‐3.343.368 ‐2.483 743.000 ‐3.588 771.984.532 42.810 26.160.090 ‐582 ‐113 ‐215 ‐480 ‐687 ‐752 ‐817 ‐823 ‐805 ‐786 ‐745 ‐738 ‐837 ‐1.000 ‐3.865 0.320.188 718.000 ‐1.984.188 718.060.238.000 ‐4.000 ‐3.444 ‐2.686.686.760 ‐1.672.000 ‐2.188 718.672.320.865 0.030 147 ‐3.206 38.000 17.295.766 21.368 ‐2.100 CAPACITY Reo Schedule DEMAND CAPACITY Reo Schedule 802.330 ‐1.444 ‐2.000 17.865 0.000 ‐3.000 ‐3.865 0.865 0.000 17.000 ‐2.936 39.588 771.984.188 638.000 17.965 537.000 ‐3.320.672.672.188 718.610 8.000 ‐2.000 17.483 743.890 477.686.035 19.588 771.740 977 5.588 771.430 7.000 ‐2.000 ‐4.238.333 ‐2.483 743.900 9.483 743.444 ‐2.865.320.160.200 ‐23.830 5.686.000 ‐3.865 0.188 718.000 ‐2.188 718.160.000 ‐4.280 7.686.188 718.000 ‐4.188 638.730 2.483 743.263 ‐3.000 17.000 ‐4.590 8.865 Strands 17.678.865 0.588 48.360 8.000 ‐2.865 0.188 718.188 718.865 0.000 ‐4.188 718.000 ‐4.080.343.672.000 17.500 9.350 ‐18.865 0.160.723 47.672.188 718.270 7.000 ‐1.984.915 0.000 ‐1.444 ‐2.000 17.383 11.000 17.810 5.370 9.000 17.000 17.965 537.984.333 ‐1.000 17.000 ‐4.865 0.320.333 ‐2.678.865 0.071 38.827.672.000 17.000 ‐4.999 802.865 0.865.000 ‐3.295.263 ‐3.865 0.120 7.000 ‐2.000 ‐3.965 537.588 771.880 4.540 8.000 ‐4.890 477.049 51.320.188 718.600 ‐9.760 7.130 ‐2.188 718.890 477.560 7.865 0.800 ‐23.865 0.000 ‐2.999 802.180 ‐225 ‐70 ‐316 ‐485 ‐832 ‐1.000 ‐2.865.160.000 ‐4.865 0.750 ‐1.160 8.999 802.588 771.760 8.113 12.184 51.000 ‐3.680 ‐1.260 8.965 537.440 17.000 ‐2.000 17.188 718.999 802.984.150 ‐1.000 17.858 46.500 ‐18.368 ‐2.570 ‐1.160 8.370 ‐5.000 ‐4.188 718.170 19.672.000 ‐2.149 32.260 8.836.080.588 771.865 0.865 0.000 17. Height  Section m Increment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 0.672.000 17.686.730 7.340 9.368 ‐2.588 771.686.000 17.280 8.000 ‐2.160.080.000 ‐4.999 802.000 ‐3.080.865 0.984.588 771.000 17.000 17.188 718.590 ‐154 ‐1.865 0.750 ‐1.160.000 ‐2.960 ‐2.827.750 ‐1.160.000 ‐3.865 0.999 802.836.970 7.574 16.368 ‐2.496 23.188 718.100 ‐5.444 ‐2.588 771.160.672.191 6.922 7.530 7.000 ‐3.343.965 537.890 477.089 638.588 771.263 ‐3.865 0.000 17.000 1.865 0.000 17.000 ‐3.057 6.418 30.263 ‐3.000 17.686.000 ‐3.248 12.333 ‐2.865 0.263 ‐3.343.060.000 17.865 0.000 17.000 ‐1.000 17.305 18.

318 414.892 185.680 202.390 385 69 ‐228 ‐248 ‐125 ‐14 193 308 ‐137 ‐1.467 481.870 ‐8.276.676 ‐771.142 ‐534.980 ‐7.820 4.233 263.484.000 ‐5.770 5.062 487.140 CAPACITY Reo Schedule DEMAND CAPACITY Reo Schedule 498.11 29.075 ‐59.217.633.010 4.509 162.807 297.270 ‐2.339 386.009.692 29.767 ‐89.550 ‐32.424 274.330 1.701 174.860 4.603.276 ‐1.573 341.000 ‐88.759 ‐475.526 ‐593.892 448.134 ‐920.765 353.169 347.818 ‐1.668 ‐1.722 409.351 ‐1.420 ‐31.620 7.977 336.914 420.637 258.658 230.552 369.850 943 ‐1.400 ‐13.217 ‐623.900 ‐3.770 ‐2.233 263.976 ‐1.446 246.540 822 ‐823 ‐1.403 302.105 168.148 375.914 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 YY Moment (from Strand7) 498.650 ‐2.359 ‐1.593 ‐1.454.534 ‐207.601 ‐682.990 3.743 381.297 442.840 5.365.684 ‐385.488 453.580 ‐3.765 353.735 ‐1.488 190.780 1.275 470.531 397.860 ‐4.375 ‐415.692 VERTICAL STEEL VERTICAL STEEL TENSION INNER FACE TENSION OUTER FACE Vertical Force DEMAND 1.000 ‐36.850 241.968 ‐1.254 235.000 ‐28.710 2.543.190 6.871 476.090 964 2.150 ‐148.829 269.751 ‐861.999 308.760 ‐3.871 213.336.100 ‐1.826 ‐950.509 ‐1.585 ‐1.992 ‐356.630 3.190 702 2.020 280.297 179.980 4.500 1.871 213.297 179.193 ‐1.211 291.300 ‐326.043 ‐1.367 ‐801.701 174.084 459.051 ‐1.637 258.984 ‐742.170 3.914 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 16 @ 200 415.679 465.871 476.458 ‐118.275 207.722 409.395.450 ‐504.531 397.909 ‐653.901 ‐1.660 ‐1.041 252.275 207.807 297.594 313.893 ‐1.520 ‐1.730 1.740 2.403 302.383 ‐29.490 1.041 252.690 ‐10.820 6.360 3.550 2.829 269.247.260 ‐4.0 SW YY Moment (from Strand7) ‐1.063 224.442 ‐890.830 ‐4.488 190.180 3.850 241.722.810 ‐1.999 308.318 414.680 202.039.616 286.811.410 2.126 403.200 ‐68.970 1.700 1.190 319.446 246.360 6.500 ‐35.820 ‐3.600 ‐3.700 ‐112.190 319.917 ‐267.701 437.157.410 289 4.400 ‐1.098.662.284 ‐1.514.573 341.970 ‐6.000 ‐6.382 330.790 ‐160 ‐2.892 448.914 420.068.201 ‐1.425.540 1.692.810 1.100 ‐53.105 431.126 403.P7-55.275 470.956 364.360 2.609 ‐296.187.743 ‐1.084 196.339 386.935 392.084 459.260 ‐3.520 ‐9.170 758 2.063 224.020 280.306.658 493.977 336.160 ‐8.892 185.150 807 ‐280 ‐2.552 369.467 218.743 381.658 230.382 330.956 364.360 358.501 ‐1.570 550 ‐1.062 487.701 437.000 ‐37.500 ‐11.488 453.126 ‐1.509 162.169 347.118 ‐1.211 291.786 325.467 218.210 ‐3.970 1.594 313.000 .900 3.370 4.834 ‐564.300 ‐3.509 425.460 1.509 425.770 ‐1.067 ‐445.781.658 493.842 ‐178.297 442.000 211.010 ‐6.751.200 ‐105.426 ‐1.570 2.800 2.830 ‐5.935 392.692 210.084 196.254 235.616 286.424 274.209 ‐1.573.000 ‐112.660 ‐75 ‐1.148 375.520 4.700 ‐82.059 ‐831.300 ‐14.128.300 ‐10.679 465.467 481.105 431.105 168.350 3.786 325.517 ‐979.000 ‐28.434 ‐1.900 124.000 ‐86.225 ‐237.292 ‐712.540 1.840 7.360 358.

RAFFLES SILO POST TENSION LOAD CASE (PT INITIAL * 1.0) UPPER GRAPH SHOWS HORIZONTAL MOMENT GENERATED BY THE PT FORCES LOWER GRAPH SHOWS VERTICAL MOMENT GENERATED BY THE PT FORCES CAPACITIES SHOWN ARE FROM THE ATTACHED SPREADSHEET 7/09/2012 Horizontal Post Tensioning Moment 1.000 800.000 200.000 Bending Moment (Horizontal.000 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 ‐200.000 Height up High Rise Wall (m) 35 38 40 43 45 48 50 53 55 .m) 500.000 ‐1. N.000.000 ‐400.000 ‐800.000 250.m) 600.12 The resulting horizontal and vertical demands are shown below to be small.000 ‐500. N.P7-55.000 0 0 3 5 8 10 13 15 18 20 23 25 28 30 33 ‐250.000 Height up High Rise Wall (m) Vertical Post Tensioning Moment Bending Moment (Vertical.000 400.000 ‐600.000.

11 1.840 7.310 1.56 1.69 0.11 1.001 0.12 0.310 1.80 0.31 0.005.900 183.61 2.50 0.006 0.200 68.00 1.79 0.310 1.3 0.37 0.094 0.11 1.310 1.250 759 289 134 206 255 255 109 873 2.3 0.50 0.3 0.840 1.001 0.630 3.005.50 0.310 1.11 1.005.11 1.690 2.713 SHEAR STEEL Table 3.3 1.001 0.005.014 0.310 1.660 4.12 0.00 0.563 1.03 1.810 1.3 0.310 1.540 822 823 1.007 0.00 1.005.11 1.740 5.50 0.860 4.310 1.006 0.400 13.3 0.310 1.920 13.490 1.50 0.3 0.360 3.005.3 0.005.005.310 1.03 1.50 0.27 0.310 1.11 1.000 168.50 0.11 1.016 0.11 1.3 0.005.003 0.005 0.11 1.005.84 1.92 0.010 6.260 8.12 1.008 0.550 2.75 0.310 1.005.800 39.3 0.03 1.310 1.03 1.03 1.11 1.13 h d fcu min (0.59 2.11 1.06 0.005.03 1.03 1.11 1.360 2.3 0.00 1.11 1.71 0.06 0.50 0.03 1.23 0.50 0.50 0.310 1.11 1.005.005.20 1.000 N/m SHEAR  DEMAND in Mpa 561.200 105.50 0.50 0.87 0.40 2.03 1.003 0.50 0.11 1.9 MOMENT DEMAND SHEAR DEMAND Nm/m (from Strand7) 415.03 1.21 0.310 1.010 4.3 0.83 1.39 0.02 0.3 0.3 0.50 0. 5N/mm^2) 425 359 40 0.980 4.900 3.011 0.3 0.3 0.510 As 1.50 0.310 1.037 0.3 0.600 3.11 1.30 0.04 0.50 0.830 1.13 1.070 2.50 0.03 1.300 7.310 100*As/(bv*d) 400/d limited to <=3 limited to >=1 0.11 1.420 31.45 1.30 0.67 1.28 0.3 0.310 1.50 0.310 1.005.210 2.69 1.50 0.005.50 0.50 0.50 0.005.3 0.75 0.03 1.27 0.005.770 5.88 1.3 0.50 0.820 6.310 1.800 42.002 0.03 0.012 0.280 2.250 1.005.11 1.11 1.310 1.50 0.310 1.03 1.72 0.03 1.05 2.03 1.3 0.134 0.03 1.18 0.79 1.310 1.300 40.033 0.82 2.71 2.11 1.11 1.000 6.310 1.970 1.600 33.28 0.00 0.11 1.95 0.50 0.005.03 1.3 0.005.11 1.03 1.77 0.50 0.005.3 0.3 0.11 1.005.640 702 1.540 1.11 1.005 0.310 1.170 3.006 0.50 0.005.11 1.050 4.02 2.540 1.110 0.03 1.5.190 4.03 1.56 0.3 0.11 1.85 0.360 6.005.410 289 4.570 2.006 0.06 1.00 0.50 0.002 0.03 1.570 550 1.03 1.03 1.005 0.012 0.020 2.29 1.03 1.005.11 1.03 1.03 1.11 1.06 0.11 1.00 1.50 0.16 0.59 0.50 0.50 0.047 0.03 1.310 1.3 0.000 12.11 1.11 1.050 1.03 1.330 2.15 0.310 1.03 1.59 0.870 8.008 0.3 0.005.002 0.94 0.700 16.11 1.3 0.11 1.9 vc V*h/M v'c limited to <=1 1.39 2.03 1.022 0.3 0.03 1.20 0.012 0.005.005.310 1.50 0.000 1.3 0.310 1.50 0.000 0.047 0.310 1.037 0.016 0.11 1.310 1.11 1.190 6.310 1.100 16.11 1.50 1.50 0.005.03 1.03 1.005.3 0.620 7.120 1.000 29.11 1.50 0.73 0.054 0.50 0.310 1.03 1.310 1.005.11 1.00 v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v v'c > v .005.84 0.63 Clause 3.720 1.00 0.50 0.84 0.000 86.310 1.03 1.520 4.310 1.57 0.310 1.3 0.99 1.03 1.310 1.50 0.400 1.500 35.119 0.11 1.310 1.310 1.005.790 5.3 0.005.50 0.03 1.300 3.11 1.005.310 1.033 0.500 2.730 1.3 0.310 1.03 1.11 1.8*sqrt(fcu).03 1.005.00 1.360 1.034 0.03 1.310 1.03 1.005.460 1.3 0.31 0.11 (400/d)^(1/4) Table 3.50 0.000 211.03 1.03 1.11 1.08 0.91 0.005.60 0.84 1.19 0.023 0.007 0.005.005.310 1.68 1.3 0.82 1.690 2.005.11 1.005.39 1.3 0.410 12.16 0.4.3 0.005.03 1.50 0.88 1.950 2.190 702 2.310 1.310 1.710 2.005.3 0.50 0.48 0.310 1.310 1.00 1.270 2.50 0.310 1.50 0.001 0.310 1.11 1.310 1.3 0.008 0.11 1.005.700 11.3 0.50 0.005.50 0.310 1.520 1.3 0.11 1.320 2.310 1.900 124.11 1.114 0.004 0.10 1.3 0.11 1.69 0.005.50 1.004 0.3 0.780 1.11 1.67 0.11 1.005.082 0.970 1.310 1.03 1.005.300 13.005.760 1.03 1.3 0.3 0.468 0.19 0.11 1.50 0.35 0.005.370 4.11 1.03 1.54 0.3 0.004 0.3 0.30 1.P7-55.230 3.3 0.014 0.005.410 2.005 0.005.63 0.017 0.03 1.3 0.03 1.50 0.50 0.005.39 2.50 0.3 0.62 1.50 0.310 1.850 943 1.3 0.11 1.000 28.50 0.03 1.23 0.3 0.50 0.310 1.50 0.03 1.03 1.11 1.3 0.005 0.50 0.790 160 2.310 1.00 0.11 1.50 0.00 0.50 0.03 1.03 1.005.310 1.50 0.50 0.3 0.60 0.3 0.03 1.3 0.770 4.91 1.11 1.24 0.040 4.00 1.006 0.03 1.000 0.310 1.50 0.05 0.30 1.310 1.03 1.000 407.005.013 0.3 0.03 1.3 0.59 0.94 1.005.290 5.990 3.11 1.007 0.006 0.005.03 0.005.03 1.11 1.11 1.03 1.400 6.18 0.48 1.96 1.11 1.280 4.03 1.3 0.12 0.310 1.50 0.520 9.820 1.005.600 19.50 0.66 0.01 1.3 0.006 0.00 0.

000 ‐2.500.000.000.0 Shear Stress Shear Capacity from Spreadsheet Shear Stress (MPa) 2.000 ‐1. AND INTERPLAY BETWEEN VARYING VALUES OF SHEAR AND MOMENT.000.000 Shear Stress (MPa) ‐1.0 0.000 Height up High Rise Wall (m) Shear Stress 3.000 ‐2.0 Height up High Rise Wall (m) NOTE THAT THE SHEAR CAPACITY ON THE ABOVE SHEET VARIES WIDELY DUE TO THE (V/M) TERM IN THE SHEAR CAPACITY EQUAITON.500.500.000 ‐3.000 PT Final ‐5.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ‐1.000.0 Shear Capacity from Spreadsheet 1.500.000.14 RAFFLES SILO POST TENSION LOAD CASE DESIGN ACTION OUTPUT FROM STRAND7 7/09/2012 UPPER PLOT SHOWS XX FORCE (AXIAL LOAD DUE TO POST TENSION) LOWER PLOT SHOWS SHEAR STRESS AND SHEAR CAPACITY CALCULATED ON ATTACHED SPREADSHEET Axial Force (Transfer and Final) 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 ‐500.000 ‐3.0 ‐3. WHICH ARE RELATIVELY LOW COMPARED TO OTHER LOAD CASES 55 .000 ‐4.P7-55.0 ‐2.000 PT Initial ‐4.

P7-55.15 .

P7-55.16 .

P7-55.17 .

P7-55.18 .

10 .7.7 Note: Sections 7.12 have been subsequently amended in Section 7. . Amendment to the original design was made where T32 horizontal bars have been reduced to T25's at closer spacings so as to reduce the risk of potentially spalling the cover concrete due to the tight inner wall radius.13.

.

.

10 .7. Amendment to the original design was made where T32 horizontal bars have been reduced to T25's at closer spacings so as to reduce the risk of potentially spalling the cover concrete due to the tight inner wall radius. .13.12 have been subsequently amended in Section 7.7 Note: Sections 7.

.

.

.

.

13.12 have been subsequently amended in Section 7.10 .7 Note: Sections 7. Amendment to the original design was made where T32 horizontal bars have been reduced to T25's at closer spacings so as to reduce the risk of potentially spalling the cover concrete due to the tight inner wall radius. .7.

.

.

.

13 Inner Wall Passive Reinforcement Re-Design General Date of calculations: Engineer 23 August 2012 AW The following concerns the inner wall passive reinforcement design for the Raffles Cement Silo following the imposition of the new design constraints below:   maximum reinforcement ratio for each face of no greater than 25mm dia spaced at 125mm minimum cover requirement of 50mm The following is intended to show that the wall capacity meets the design actions as calculated based on design loads from EN 1991 using a finite element model of the silo in the software Strand 7.145 GPa E2 12.P7-65 7.145 GPa Table 2: Cracked Young’s Modulus Values (Isotropic Material) . EN 1991 Flow Channel Radius 0.0015 GPa E3 17.4 * cell radius Young’s Modulus Cracked concrete ** Wall thickness 350 mm Inner cover 50 mm Outer cover 50 mm * Reinforcement Dia. Design Actions from Strand 7 The design actions on the inner high rise wall have been re-calculated with the following assumptions. 25 mm Minimum spacing 125 mm * outer 50mm cover has been conservatively assumed for capacity only ** see table below Table 1: Design Assumptions E1 17.

reinforcement schedule and capacity for Horizontal bending moment (inner and outer face) Vertical bending moment (inner and outer face) Shear    Axial Load-Moment Interaction for Wall Section The following graphs show axial load-bending moment capacity interaction tables and graphs for the inner wall 350mm thick wall section (tables attached to this document).P7-66 Spreadsheet Summary The spreadsheet attached to this document lays out the design actions. Interaction Diagram D25 @ 125 Bending capacity Mn (kNm) -16000 -14000 Axial capacity Nn (kNm) -12000 -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 0 200 400 600 800 .

P7-67 Interaction Diagram D25 @ 150 Bending capacity Mn (kNm) -14000 0 200 400 600 800 -12000 Axial capacity Nn (kNm) -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 Interaction Diagram D25 @ 175 Bending capacity Mn (kNm) -14000 -12000 Axial capacity Nn (kNm) -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 .

P7-68 Interaction Diagram D25 @ 200 Bending capacity Mn (kNm) -14000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 -12000 Axial capacity Nn (kNm) -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 4000 Interaction Diagram D16 @ 200 Bending capacity Mn (kNm) -12000 Axial capacity Nn (kNm) -10000 -8000 -6000 -4000 -2000 0 2000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 .

85 1 0.87  D 25 @ 150 Mn(P*) P 2000 102 1850 124 1700 143 1550 162 1400 180 1250 198 1100 216 950 234 800 252 650 270 500 288 350 306 200 324 50 342 -100 360 -250 378 -400 396 D 25 @ 175 Mn(P*) P 2000 42 1850 66 1700 90 1550 113 1400 135 1250 153 1100 171 950 189 800 207 650 226 500 244 350 262 200 281 50 299 -100 317 -250 335 -400 353 c 27 34 36 38 40 41 43 45 47 49 52 54 57 59 62 65 69 D25 @ 200 c 0 0 9 18 27 34 38 43 49 54 61 67 74 81 89 96 104 P 2000 1850 1700 1550 1400 1250 1100 950 800 650 500 350 200 50 ‐100 ‐250 ‐400 Mn(P*) 0 20 45 69 93 116 137 155 174 192 210 229 247 266 284 302 320 c 5 12 18 25 31 36 38 40 42 44 47 49 52 55 58 62 c 11 17 24 30 36 37 39 41 43 45 48 50 53 55 58 61 65 .77 1 Steel properties Es 2.5 62.00E+05 fy 460 Reduction factor 0.P7-69 REINFORCED CONCRETE SECTION  INTERACTION TABLES 1000mm wide * 350mm deep WALL SECTION 50mm cover to reinforcement Geometry Bw Lw d' d 1000 350 287.003000 cu f'c 40 0.5 D 25 @ 125 Mn(P*) P 2000 170 1850 188 1700 206 1550 224 1400 242 1250 260 1100 278 950 296 800 314 650 332 500 350 350 367 200 385 50 403 -100 421 -250 438 -400 456 D 16 @ 200 Mn(P*) P 1000 0 800 1 600 35 400 68 200 100 0 129 -200 155 -400 182 -600 208 -800 234 -1000 259 -1200 284 -1400 308 -1600 331 -1800 353 -2000 374 -2200 394 c 37 38 40 41 43 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 59 61 64 67 70 Concrete properties Ec 27898 -0.

.P7-70 Figure es show wing De esign Actions A from f Sttrand7 The follo owing figuress show design actions as output from Strand7.

P7-71 .

P7-72

P7-73

P7-74

P7-75

P7-76

These sheets provide an overview of the design actions and capacities of the inner high rise wall of the Raffles cement silo.

23/08/2012

The demand and capacity has been re‐calculated in response to the comments by Peter und Lochner GmbH dated 21 July and 15 Aug 2012

PAGE 2/3

Changes incorporated from previous iterations include 50mm cover to the steel, maximum reo. of 25mm @ 125 spacing and calculation of design actions based on cracked concrete E values
GEOMETRY

DESIGN ACTIONS FROM S7

HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT DESIGN
PASSIVE REINFORCEMENT (INNER FACE)
strand7 convention has positive moment == inner face tension

Vertical

DWG 
Elevation

Strand7 
Elevation

Height 

Max Hoop Tension

Min Hoop Tension

Min Vertical 
Compression

DEMAND

Section

R.L. (m)

R.L. (m)

Increment

in Newtons

in Newtons

in Newtons

YY Moment

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

115.358
116.083
116.808
117.534
118.259
118.984
119.709
120.434
121.160
121.885
122.610
123.335
124.060
124.786
125.511
126.236
126.961
127.686
128.412
129.137
129.862
130.587
131.312
132.038
132.763
133.488
134.213
134.938
135.664
136.389
137.114
137.839
138.564
139.290
140.015
140.740
141.465
142.190
142.916
143.641
144.366
145.091
145.816
146.542
147.267
147.992
148.717
149.442
150.168
150.893
151.618
152.343
153.068
153.794
154.519
155.244
155.969
156.694
157.420
158.145
158.870

20.161
20.886
21.611
22.337
23.062
23.787
24.512
25.237
25.963
26.688
27.413
28.138
28.863
29.589
30.314
31.039
31.764
32.489
33.215
33.940
34.665
35.390
36.115
36.841
37.566
38.291
39.016
39.741
40.467
41.192
41.917
42.642
43.367
44.093
44.818
45.543
46.268
46.993
47.719
48.444
49.169
49.894
50.619
51.345
52.070
52.795
53.520
54.245
54.971
55.696
56.421
57.146
57.871
58.597
59.322
60.047
60.772
61.497
62.223
62.948
63.673

0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725
0.725

659,000
768,000
949,000
1,290,000
1,430,000
1,490,000
1,490,000
1,480,000
1,450,000
1,410,000
1,380,000
1,360,000
1,350,000
1,340,000
1,330,000
1,320,000
1,320,000
1,310,000
1,290,000
1,280,000
1,270,000
1,270,000
1,260,000
1,250,000
1,240,000
1,230,000
1,220,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
1,190,000
1,170,000
1,150,000
1,140,000
1,130,000
1,120,000
1,090,000
1,080,000
1,060,000
1,040,000
1,010,000
997,000
980,000
938,000
907,000
872,000
846,000
793,000
762,000
721,000
678,000
615,000
564,000
509,000
440,000
376,000
304,000
242,000
189,000
228,000
249,000
239,000

‐340,000
‐153,000
164,000
599,000
1,010,000
1,100,000
1,120,000
1,140,000
1,140,000
1,170,000
1,190,000
1,200,000
1,180,000
1,170,000
1,160,000
1,160,000
1,170,000
1,170,000
1,160,000
1,160,000
1,150,000
1,150,000
1,150,000
1,150,000
1,130,000
1,120,000
1,110,000
1,110,000
1,100,000
1,100,000
1,080,000
1,070,000
1,060,000
1,040,000
1,020,000
1,010,000
997,000
972,000
957,000
935,000
907,000
879,000
840,000
811,000
775,000
747,000
714,000
672,000
626,000
569,000
519,000
455,000
394,000
336,000
252,000
195,000
136,000
113,000
114,000
79,700
‐66,600

‐1,680,000
‐1,830,000
‐1,930,000
‐2,090,000
‐2,340,000
‐2,530,000
‐2,570,000
‐2,530,000
‐2,460,000
‐2,380,000
‐2,310,000
‐2,240,000
‐2,150,000
‐2,050,000
‐1,960,000
‐1,900,000
‐1,820,000
‐1,730,000
‐1,660,000
‐1,590,000
‐1,530,000
‐1,450,000
‐1,380,000
‐1,300,000
‐1,230,000
‐1,160,000
‐1,100,000
‐1,050,000
‐980,000
‐919,000
‐857,000
‐800,000
‐750,000
‐696,000
‐649,000
‐594,000
‐542,000
‐498,000
‐446,000
‐396,000
‐361,000
‐314,000
‐269,000
‐213,000
‐185,000
‐144,000
‐116,000
‐70,400
‐38,800
‐13,100
14,200
48,800
65,100
80,300
91,200
102,000
104,000
106,000
105,000
69,000
88,400

27,300
17,300
42,700
80,800
119,000
137,000
155,000
175,000
185,000
201,000
208,000
217,000
224,000
228,000
235,000
239,000
242,000
247,000
250,000
250,000
252,000
253,000
254,000
252,000
251,000
250,000
249,000
246,000
245,000
240,000
237,000
232,000
232,000
224,000
221,000
215,000
211,000
206,000
199,000
194,000
187,000
180,000
170,000
162,000
153,000
145,000
136,000
130,000
121,000
108,000
101,000
88,900
79,200
69,800
60,500
51,000
41,700
32,000
23,100
13,200
8,430

CAPACITY

449,425
427,096
389,246
337,305
288,231
277,485
275,097
272,708
272,708
269,126
266,738
265,544
267,932
269,126
270,320
270,320
269,126
269,126
270,320
270,320
271,514
271,514
271,514
271,514
273,903
275,097
276,291
276,291
277,485
277,485
279,873
281,067
282,261
284,649
287,037
251,735
253,705
257,494
259,768
263,102
221,174
225,772
232,176
236,939
242,850
247,448
252,867
173,914
179,938
187,402
193,950
202,332
210,320
217,916
228,916
236,381
244,108
247,120
246,989
251,481
270,640

Capacity / Demand

16.46
24.69
9.12
4.17
2.42
2.03
1.77
1.56
1.47
1.34
1.28
1.22
1.20
1.18
1.15
1.13
1.11
1.09
1.08
1.08
1.08
1.07
1.07
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.16
1.18
1.21
1.22
1.27
1.30
1.17
1.20
1.25
1.31
1.36
1.18
1.25
1.37
1.46
1.59
1.71
1.86
1.34
1.49
1.74
1.92
2.28
2.66
3.12
3.78
4.63
5.85
7.72
10.69
19.05
32.10

PASSIVE REINFORCEMENT (OUTER FACE)
strand7 convention has negative moment == outer face tension
25mm

DEMAND

 dia. bar 
spacing

YY Moment

125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
150
150
150
150
150
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200

‐22,300
‐27,600
‐46,900
‐69,000
‐84,400
‐91,500
‐104,000
‐107,000
‐115,000
‐122,000
‐125,000
‐127,000
‐129,000
‐131,000
‐133,000
‐133,000
‐133,000
‐132,000
‐133,000
‐132,000
‐131,000
‐130,000
‐129,000
‐128,000
‐125,000
‐125,000
‐122,000
‐119,000
‐117,000
‐115,000
‐114,000
‐111,000
‐108,000
‐106,000
‐103,000
‐101,000
‐98,900
‐94,200
‐90,400
‐88,100
‐85,000
‐81,700
‐78,500
‐72,200
‐70,000
‐65,600
‐61,200
‐56,800
‐51,500
‐47,100
‐43,000
‐38,700
‐32,900
‐29,100
‐25,100
‐21,400
‐16,700
‐13,800
‐9,130
‐8,620
‐21,500

DEMAND
Increased by 
Temp
Gradient
117,993
124,141
141,313
164,100
178,061
184,478
194,097
196,294
202,223
207,347
209,401
210,788
212,330
213,881
215,442
215,306
215,306
214,318
214,899
213,910
212,921
212,069
211,080
210,092
207,408
207,268
204,590
201,778
200,100
198,282
197,150
194,352
191,713
189,908
187,286
175,186
173,321
169,205
165,837
163,513
153,385
150,520
147,326
141,947
139,652
135,863
131,596
122,120
117,530
113,573
109,423
105,396
100,301
96,225
92,124
88,012
83,502
80,343
78,588
78,865
86,489

CAPACITY

Capacity / 
Demand

25mm
 dia. bar 
spacing

449,425
427,096
389,246
337,305
288,231
277,485
275,097
272,708
272,708
269,126
266,738
265,544
267,932
269,126
270,320
270,320
269,126
269,126
270,320
270,320
271,514
271,514
271,514
271,514
273,903
275,097
276,291
276,291
277,485
277,485
279,873
281,067
282,261
284,649
287,037
251,735
253,705
257,494
259,768
263,102
221,174
225,772
232,176
236,939
242,850
247,448
252,867
173,914
179,938
187,402
193,950
202,332
210,320
217,916
228,916
236,381
244,108
247,120
246,989
251,481
270,640

3.8
3.4
2.8
2.1
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.4
1.5
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.1

125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
150
150
150
150
150
175
175
175
175
175
175
175
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200

P7-77

PAGE 2/3

E1

1.71450E+10

E values used in Streand7 model

E2

1.20015E+10

(Isotropic Material)

E3

1.71450E+10

VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT DESIGN
PASSIVE REINFORCEMENT (INNER FACE)
strand7 convention has positive moment == inner face tension
DEMAND

CAPACITY

YY Moment

PASSIVE REINFORCEMENT (OUTER FACE)
strand7 convention has negative moment == outer face tension

Capacity / 

25mm

DEMAND

Demand

 dia. bar spacing

YY Moment

2.9
4.9
90.9
68.6
19.3
16.2
14.0
11.7
11.0
10.7
10.4
10.0
9.2
8.7
8.2
8.0
7.8
7.6
7.5
7.2
6.8
6.6
6.6
6.3
6.1
6.0
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.1
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.7
4.9
4.9
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.8
6.1
6.8
8.0
9.0
10.1
9.8
9.6
9.4
10.8
>10
>10

 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200
 16 @ 200

(from Strand7)
149,000
92,900
5,160
7,230
28,000
35,400
41,200
48,800
50,900
51,000
51,400
52,300
54,900
56,100
57,700
57,800
57,600
57,000
56,500
57,400
59,100
58,600
56,800
57,000
57,100
56,500
57,100
55,400
54,400
53,500
53,600
53,600
51,600
50,700
49,800
48,900
47,600
45,400
44,400
43,400
40,900
40,200
38,800
36,900
34,800
33,400
30,800
28,900
27,300
24,000
22,300
19,100
15,800
13,800
12,100
12,300
12,500
12,700
11,100
‐574
‐14,900

CAPACITY

Capacity / 

25mm

Demand

 dia. bar spacing

‐2.6
‐4.6
‐7.5
‐8.0
‐9.0
‐13.7
‐17.0
‐18.6
‐19.7
‐17.9
‐17.0
‐15.7
‐15.4
‐15.4
‐16.3
‐15.5
‐15.3
‐15.0
‐14.5
‐13.9
‐14.5
‐14.1
‐14.0
‐13.4
‐13.2
‐12.5
‐13.1
‐12.8
‐12.5
‐11.8
‐11.7
‐11.8
‐12.2
‐12.1
‐12.1
‐11.8
‐11.2
‐11.6
‐11.9
‐11.1
‐10.9
‐11.1
‐11.4
‐11.6
‐11.3
‐11.6
‐12.1
‐12.3
‐13.0
‐13.9
‐14.1
‐14.9
‐16.2
‐19.4
‐23.9
‐39.5
‐2,387.5
40.2
‐28.6
‐3.5
‐1.4

16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200
16 @ 200

(from Strand7)
425,999
451,720
468,867
496,303
539,171
571,751
578,610
571,751
559,748
546,030
534,027
522,024
506,591
489,444
474,011
463,723
450,005
434,572
422,569
410,566
400,277
386,559
374,556
360,838
348,835
336,832
326,544
317,970
305,967
295,507
284,875
275,101
266,528
257,268
249,209
239,778
230,861
223,316
214,400
205,826
199,824
191,765
184,049
174,446
169,645
162,614
157,813
149,994
144,575
140,169
135,487
129,554
126,759
124,153
122,284
120,432
120,089
119,746
119,917
126,091
122,764

‐165,000
‐98,900
‐62,300
‐62,000
‐59,900
‐41,800
‐34,100
‐30,800
‐28,400
‐30,500
‐31,500
‐33,200
‐33,000
‐31,800
‐29,100
‐30,000
‐29,500
‐28,900
‐29,100
‐29,500
‐27,600
‐27,500
‐26,800
‐27,000
‐26,400
‐26,900
‐24,900
‐24,800
‐24,500
‐25,000
‐24,400
‐23,300
‐21,800
‐21,200
‐20,600
‐20,400
‐20,600
‐19,200
‐18,000
‐18,500
‐18,400
‐17,300
‐16,200
‐15,000
‐15,000
‐14,000
‐13,000
‐12,200
‐11,100
‐10,100
‐9,620
‐8,670
‐7,830
‐6,410
‐5,120
‐3,050
‐50
2,980
‐4,200
‐36,000
‐89,100

425,999
451,720
468,867
496,303
539,171
571,751
578,610
571,751
559,748
546,030
534,027
522,024
506,591
489,444
474,011
463,723
450,005
434,572
422,569
410,566
400,277
386,559
374,556
360,838
348,835
336,832
326,544
317,970
305,967
295,507
284,875
275,101
266,528
257,268
249,209
239,778
230,861
223,316
214,400
205,826
199,824
191,765
184,049
174,446
169,645
162,614
157,813
149,994
144,575
140,169
135,487
129,554
126,759
124,153
122,284
120,432
120,089
119,746
119,917
126,091
122,764

P7-78

PAGE 3/3

h
d
fcu
min (0.8*sqrt(fcu), 5N/mm^2)

350
287.5
40
5.000
DEMAND

SHEAR STEEL
PASSIVE REINFORCEMENT INNER FACE

Not used as conservative with tension load
Table 3.9

SHEAR DEMAND

SHEAR DEMAND

YY Moment

Fyz in N/m

in Mpa

(from Strand7)
117,993
124,141
141,313
164,100
178,061
184,478
194,097
196,294
202,223
207,347
209,401
217,000
224,000
228,000
235,000
239,000
242,000
247,000
250,000
250,000
252,000
253,000
254,000
252,000
251,000
250,000
249,000
246,000
245,000
240,000
237,000
232,000
232,000
224,000
221,000
215,000
211,000
206,000
199,000
194,000
187,000
180,000
170,000
162,000
153,000
145,000
136,000
130,000
121,000
113,573
109,423
105,396
100,301
96,225
92,124
88,012
83,502
80,343
78,588
78,865
86,489

(from Strand7)
322,000
106,000
63,900
96,000
92,800
106,000
112,000
115,000
125,000
131,000
133,000
143,000
146,000
148,000
150,000
145,000
146,000
149,000
150,000
149,000
143,000
146,000
146,000
143,000
138,000
140,000
140,000
137,000
154,000
136,000
139,000
136,000
129,000
127,000
124,000
120,000
117,000
114,000
109,000
106,000
103,000
97,800
91,200
84,400
81,200
77,000
72,000
66,700
61,900
55,900
50,400
45,400
38,100
34,600
27,900
22,000
19,100
10,900
8,300
13,100
200,000

1.120
0.369
0.222
0.334
0.323
0.369
0.390
0.400
0.435
0.456
0.463
0.497
0.508
0.515
0.522
0.504
0.508
0.518
0.522
0.518
0.497
0.508
0.508
0.497
0.480
0.487
0.487
0.477
0.536
0.473
0.483
0.473
0.449
0.442
0.431
0.417
0.407
0.397
0.379
0.369
0.358
0.340
0.317
0.294
0.282
0.268
0.250
0.232
0.215
0.194
0.175
0.158
0.133
0.120
0.097
0.077
0.066
0.038
0.029
0.046
0.696

As

7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
7,853.982
6,544.985
6,544.985
6,544.985
6,544.985
6,544.985
5,609.987
5,609.987
5,609.987
5,609.987
5,609.987
5,609.987
5,609.987
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739
4,908.739

100*As/(bv*d)

400/d

limited to <=3

limited to >=1

2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.7
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7

1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39

(400/d)^(1/4)

Table 3.9
vc

V*h/M

v'c

limited to <=1
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09
1.09

1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.06
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96

0.96
0.30
0.16
0.20
0.18
0.20
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.22
0.22
0.23
0.23
0.23
0.22
0.21
0.21
0.21
0.21
0.21
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.19
0.20
0.20
0.19
0.22
0.20
0.21
0.21
0.19
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.18
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.18
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.13
0.13
0.11
0.09
0.08
0.05
0.04
0.06
0.81

0.04
0.73
0.87
0.67
0.68
0.61
0.61
0.60
0.59
0.59
0.60
0.59
0.59
0.60
0.61
0.64
0.65
0.65
0.66
0.67
0.69
0.68
0.69
0.70
0.71
0.71
0.71
0.72
0.67
0.72
0.71
0.72
0.74
0.74
0.75
0.69
0.70
0.70
0.71
0.73
0.67
0.68
0.70
0.72
0.73
0.73
0.75
0.73
0.74
0.76
0.79
0.81
0.84
0.87
0.89
0.91
0.93
0.94
0.95
0.94
0.63

Clause

As/sv

3.4.5.12

3.4.5.12 EQ 6a

v'c + 0.4 < v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c > v
v'c + 0.4 > v

2.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.0

vertical 
spacing

125

horizontal 
spacing

200

Area/m2

<13mm bar

Area Provided / Area 
Required

required

132.7

67.2

diameter bar
1.97

13mm Bar ok

high shear due to model boundary conditions not present in as‐built silo

v'c / 
demand

0.04
1.98
3.89
2.01
2.09
1.65
1.56
1.51
1.35
1.29
1.29
1.18
1.17
1.17
1.18
1.27
1.27
1.25
1.26
1.28
1.39
1.35
1.36
1.40
1.49
1.46
1.46
1.52
1.25
1.52
1.47
1.52
1.66
1.67
1.73
1.66
1.71
1.78
1.89
1.97
1.88
2.01
2.21
2.45
2.57
2.74
3.00
3.13
3.43
3.91
4.51
5.16
6.37
7.19
9.19
11.95
13.95
24.92
32.76
20.53
0.90

P7-79

P9-1 

. 
.1

Main Roof
Roof Slab Design

The Roof slab design has been checked using Lysaught Megafloor software, which is capable of
checking the design of a slab subjected to vertical construction, dead and live loading. The design
parameters used for this software are as follows:

Decking System 
Slab Depth 
Nominal Width Considered 
Simply Supported Span 
SDL/Construction Load 
Live Load 
Reinforcement dia. 
Spacing Top 
Spacing Bottom 
Asmin 
Asprovided 

Bondek X1.0_G550 
200mm 
1000mm 
1950mm 
2 kPa 
5 kPa 
16mm dia 
200mm each way 
200mm each way 
260 mm2/ m 
1005 mm2 / m 

The design software indicates that this design is adequate for a simply supported span. The output is
attached to the end of this section. It is noted that the design of a previous silo with slightly larger
diameter and slab span (Pan United, 2001) used an equivalent slab desgn.
The following interaction diagram gives the section capacity under axial tension and compression.

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Roof Calculations.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page
2

P9-2

Interaction Diagram, 200mm slab, d = 123mm, D16 @ 200

0

50

Bending capacity Mn (kNm)
100
150

200

-8000
-7000

Axial capacity Nn (kN)

-6000
-5000
-4000
-3000
-2000
-1000
0
1000
2000
From the previous calculations (Pan United, 2001) the expected maximum axial and radial tension and
compression is < 50kN. The reinforcement required for this compressive or tensile force is less than
the minimum steel requirement (260 mm2/m = 192 MPa) and the interaction does not compromise the
bending moment capacity in the span direction, which remains in excess of 50 kNm.

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Roof Calculations.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page
3

P9-3 

.2 
.2.1

Steel Frames
SPACE GASS Model

The design of the steel members for the roof frames have been undertaken using SPACE GASS
software which includes the capability to design and check members according to
BS 5950:2000. The output from the SPACE GASS program confirming the design is attached at the
end of this section.
The chosen member sizes have been specified for all members. Design loads have been applied to
the model and the member design checked using the SPACE GASS software checks. These include
all applicable member bending moment, shear, and combined action checks specified in BS 5950 but
does not include checks specific to connection design. Further details can be found in the software
output following this description.
An imposed load of 5 kPa has been assumed for design. An additional non-cumulative point load of 5
kN has been applied to the centre of all members with the exception of the main inner beams where a
point load of 20kN is used. Specific dead loads have been calculated and applied for the dust
extractors and the landing of the roof columns. All other equipment dead loads combined are smaller
than the extra point loads applied and have therefore been deemed insignificant. 
.2.2

Beam and Connection Types

Section 
254x146 UB 37 
838x292 UB 226 

Number of Members 
46 
18 

Total Length 
96.07 
26.911 

Table: Steel Beam Bill of Materials

Mass 
3.559 
6.103 

The table above shows the beam sizes, number of members of each size and the total length /mass.

Connection 
W01A 
838x292 UB 226 to 254x146 UB 37 

Number
46 
18 

Table: Steel Beam Bill of Materials

The maximum shear demand on the supports from the SPACE GASS model is less than 50 kN. The
capacity of the W01A cast in plate is greater than this value. The only constraint on the cast in weld
plates is the physical size as compared to the fin plate length. 

.3

Pre-cambers

The pre-camber for the two main steel beams has been calculated from the deflections under the
dead load cases with no load factors applied. These are shown in the following table

Beam 
838x292 UB 226 (1) 
838x292 UB 226 (2) 

Location 
Under Roof Column 
Adjacent to Extractor 

Precamber (mm) 
24 
19 

Ratio of Span 
span / 561 
span / 708 

Project 227268 | File 227268 - Raffles 25,000T Cement Silo - Roof Calculations.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page
4

Global. aurecon Project 227268 | File 227268 .Raffles 25. .Roof Calculations.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 5 Leading.P9-4 .000T Cement Silo . VIbrant.4 Design Parameters and Sketches The following pages contain the design load parameters for the roof steel frame followed by sketches of the roof frames.

27 5.3 1 320 kN wind pressure uplift.27 0.95 m kN kN kN/m kN/m 1/4 of roof load evenly distributed along main beam 1/4 of roof load evenly distributed along main beam .30 kN/m Parallel distributor 44 kN udl on four supporting beams  center of silo All other equipment dead loads below 5kN and are not included UPPER ROOF STRUCTURE LOADS Area of Roof Cladding.7 * Δ 13.Calculation of Imposed Loads for Steel Roof Frame P9-5 INNER CELL ROOF STRUCTURE SLAB DEAD LOAD 200mm  construction Δ ponding total Bondek total 5 0.50 0.08 80.5 kN 8.0BMT SLAB CONSTRUCTION LOAD slab load 2 kPa IMPOSED LOADS General Live Load 5 kPa Inner Extractor  perimeter UDL on perimeter 27.14 5.46 80. Purlins Steelwork Roof LL 117 0.5 kPa 1.54 kg/m2 for 1.25 m2 kPa kPa kPa Wind Speed Wind Speed n/a m/s 50 m/s assumed SLS assumed ULS qz Cpe Cpe Total Load 1.08 5.95 5. critical INCLUDES LOAD FACTORS main beam length column point load column point load main beam UDL roof main beam UDL roof 13.10 0.015 0.33 m 3. not critical downforce.41 kPa mm kPa kPa kPa kPa concrete density 25 kN/m3 span / 130 0.

15 G 10.28 6.54 kg/m2 for 1.63 .22 Q 9.P9-6 Calculation of Imposed Loads for Steel Roof Frame OUTER CELL ROOF STRUCTURE SLAB DEAD LOAD 200mm  construction Δ ponding total Bondek total 5 0.30 kN/m udl on four supporting beams  All other equipment dead loads below 5kN and are not included TRIBUTARY WIDTHS 1.0BMT SLAB CONSTRUCTION LOAD slab load 2 kPa IMPOSED LOADS General Live Load 5 kPa Outer Extractor perimeter UDL on perimeter 27.85 1.41 kPa mm kPa kPa kPa kPa concrete density 25 kN/m3 span / 130 0.33 Q 14.015 0.27 5.27 0.14 5.33 m 3.5 kN 8.9 1.42 9.7 * Δ 13.50 5.25 8.725 G 15.75 2.

90 mm 55 kN where φ = 0. > 46 kN OK P9-7 .Calculation of Lateral Restraint Provided by Shear Studs (most critical case) RESTRAINT AGAINST LATERAL LOAD To ensure lateral restraint the system must be able to transfer  a transverse force at the critical flange of 0. smaller beams will have smaller demand.00 mm 79 kN where φ = 0. This is the most critical case.85 Therefore 1 shear connector is enough to limit lateral torsional  buckling effective length t othe spacing of the shear connectors.85 diameter φfus 15.025 * the flange force For an  838 x 292 UB 176 Ms 2025 kNm Stress at flange centroid Flange force 336 Mpa 1842 kN Restraint Force Standard Headed Studs section moment capacity 46 kN fvs kN diameter φfus 19.

' I ROOF COLUMN APPROXIMATE LOCATION I I I ---~~. ri 838x292 UB 226 SPECIAL CONNECTION / SEE DWGS 11970 PECIAL CONNECTION EE DWGS BONDEK SPAN DIRECTION ROOF COLUMN APPROXIMATE LOCATION SKETCH: INNER CELL MEMBER SIZES ALL BEAMS 254x146 UB 37 UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED ALL CAST IN CONNECTIONS W01A UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED ..P9-8 SPECIAL CONNECTION ~ SEE DWGS PECIAL CONNECTION EE DWGS .-r= --- I I I 1 • 0 0 0 ~ ow:f ... ..

P9-9 9.000° SKETCH: INNER CELL MEMBER SIZES ALL BEAMS 254x146 UB 37 UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED ALL CAST IN CONNECTIONS W01A UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED .

P9-10 SPACE GASS 10. Stress: MPa Scales . Torsion: None Sections: 1 254x146 UB 37 2 838x292 UB 226 . Moment: None. Temp: Celsius.Frame: 1:75. Trans: mm. Force: kN.AURECON AUSTRALIA PTY LTD 30 Apr 2012.Len: m.35) 36 40 47 5 35 34 29 28 22 47 57 56 48 58 55 21 33 27 53 27 26 44 20 6 9 67 5 37 39 25 2 26 20 24 43 19 32 1 42 17 10 88 1 16 29 36 7 2 37 25 19 31 32 38 24 23 46 18 33 10 11 33 51 46 54 1213 11 38 14 4 40 44 21 34 45 16 50 52 45 13 4 28 41 43 39 23 22 1415 12 30 41 49 4849 17 62 15 51 42 61 52 60 64 30 63 50 59 18 9 Materials: 1 STEEL Job: C:\raffles\Roof calcs\space gass\Roof SG model 5 Units . Sec: mm. Mass: T. Acc: g's. 1:27 pm Y X Z 35 31 (30.85 . Mom: kNm. Shear: None. Dens: T/m^3. Disp: None. Axial: None. Mat: MPa. Load: None.

85 . Trans: mm. Axial: None.AURECON AUSTRALIA PTY LTD 30 Apr 2012. Stress: MPa Scales .30) 75 24 22 Materials: 1 STEEL Job: C:\raffles\Roof calcs\space gass\Roof SG model 1 OUTER Units .P9-11 SPACE GASS 10. Mom: kNm. Disp: None. Mat: MPa. Load: None. Force: kN. Moment: None. Temp: Celsius. 1:30 pm Y X 69 67 65 71 Z 73 63 77 61 68 66 64 62 39 87 38 46 94 47 95 48 96 70 72 97 76 58 78 51 99 84 50 104 34 82 47 45 31 79 43 40113 11 42 41 10 3 78 37 62 35 110 9 976 115 7 60 117 8 174 8 4 61 108 7 109 6 59 114 116 4 2 33 25 5 3675 107 3111 21 73 112 34 105 57 13 17 29 27 25 23 14 13 65 14 66 15 67 20 72 19 71 20 32 30 28 26 16 18 16 68 17 69 18 70 12 12 64 19 21 91 11 63 15 31 89 103 55 90 44 32 80 87 102 54 88 46 33 81 85 101 53 86 48 49 100 52 82 52 51 83 80 54 106 81 50 98 39 56 37 85 79 74 60 38 86 53 45 93 41 89 40 88 55 44 92 43 91 42 90 59 57 (20. Acc: g's.Frame: 1:110. Sec: mm. Shear: None. Dens: T/m^3. Torsion: None Sections: 1 254x146 UB 37 . Mass: T.Len: m.

Raffles 25. Project 227268 | File 227268 .P9-12 9.000T Cement Silo .docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 6 .5 Calculation of Cast in Weld Plate Capacity The following pages contain the capacity verification for the cast in weld plates for connection to the 254 UB roof steel beams. Note only connection W01A is specified for the roof structure.Roof Calculations.

P9-13 Calculation of Cast in Conection Capacity ‐ Roof Steel Frame The moment arm of the connector is required to calculate the capacity  against the eccentric moment of the bolted fin plate connection This is the minimum of the distance between the T12 bars and the lowest stud and the length of the plate CONNECTION TYPE W01A Connection Number W01A Plate length 300 Number of T12 bars Number of 19mm studs mm 2 2 distance.85 Where capacities are from Pan United Silo Calcs (2001) VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY SHEAR STUDS Shear Capacity 158 kN VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY MOMENT GENERATED BY ECCENTRIC CONNECTION Bolted Connection Eccentricity Capacity of T12 100 mm 74 kN Shear Capacity 147 kN LIMITING VALUE: 147 kN . T12 bars to bottom studs 200 mm LEVER ARM 200 mm Capactiy of T12 bar in tension (parallel) Capacity of T12 bar in tension (45 degrees to bar ‐ horizontal) φfus Capacity of 19.0mm stud in shear 52 kN 37 kN 79 kN where φ = 0.

Calculation of Cast in Conection Capacity ‐ Roof Steel Frame The moment arm of the connector is required to calculate the capacity  against the eccentric moment of the bolted fin plate connection This is the minimum of the distance between the T12 bars and the lowest stud and the length of the plate CONNECTION TYPE W01 Connection Number W01 Plate length 300 Number of T12 bars Number of 19mm studs 0 4 Capactiy of T12 bar in tension (parallel) Capacity of T12 bar in tension (45 degrees to bar ‐ horizontal) φfus Capacity of 19.85 P9-14 .0mm stud in shear 52 kN 37 kN 79 kN Where capacities are from Pan United Silo Calcs (2001) VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY SHEAR STUDS Shear Capacity mm 316 kN where φ = 0.

 T12 bars to bottom studs 399 mm LEVER ARM 399 mm Capactiy of T12 bar in tension (parallel to bar) Capacity of T12 bar in tension (45 degrees to bar ‐ horizontal) φfus Capacity of 19.Calculation of Cast in Conection Capacity ‐ Roof Steel Frame The moment arm of the connector is required to calculate the capacity  against the eccentric moment of the bolted fin plate connection This is the minimum of the distance between the T12 bars and the lowest stud and the length of the plate CONNECTION TYPE W03A Connection Number W03A Plate length 300 mm Number of T12 bars Number of 19mm studs 2 6 distance.0mm stud in shear 52 kN 37 kN 79 kN where φ = 0.85 Where capacities are from Pan United Silo Calcs (2001) VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY SHEAR STUDS Shear Capacity 474 kN VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY MOMENT GENERATED BY ECCENTRIC CONNECTION Bolted Connection Eccentricity Capacity of T12 100 mm 74 kN Shear Capacity 293 kN LIMITING VALUE: 293 kN P9-15 .

0mm stud in shear Where capacities are from Pan United Silo Calcs (2001) VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY SHEAR STUDS Shear Capacity 632 kN 0 8 52 kN 37 kN 79 kN where φ = 0.Calculation of Cast in Conection Capacity ‐ Roof Steel Frame The moment arm of the connector is required to calculate the capacity  against the eccentric moment of the bolted fin plate connection This is the minimum of the distance between the T12 bars and the lowest stud and the length of the plate CONNECTION TYPE W02 Connection Number W02 Plate length 400 mm Number of T12 bars Number of 19mm studs Capactiy of T12 bar in tension (parallel to bar) Capacity of T12 bar in tension (45 degrees to bar ‐ horizontal) φfus Capacity of 19.85 P9-16 .

85 Where capacities are from Pan United Silo Calcs (2001) VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY SHEAR STUDS Shear Capacity 474 kN VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY MOMENT GENERATED BY ECCENTRIC CONNECTION Bolted Connection Eccentricity Capacity of T12 100 mm 74 kN Shear Capacity 368 kN LIMITING VALUE: 368 kN .0mm stud in shear φfus 52 kN 37 kN 79 kN where φ = 0.P9-17 Calculation of Cast in Conection Capacity ‐ Roof Steel Frame The moment arm of the connector is required to calculate the capacity  against the eccentric moment of the bolted fin plate connection This is the minimum of the distance between the T12 bars and the lowest stud and the length of the plate CONNECTION TYPE W04A Connection Number W04A Plate length 600 mm Number of T12 bars Number of 19mm studs 2 6 distance. T12 bars to bottom studs 500 mm LEVER ARM 500 mm Capactiy of T12 bar in tension (parallel to bar) Capacity of T12 bar in tension (45 degrees to bar ‐ horizontal) Capacity of 19.

85 P9-18 .0mm stud in shear φfus 52 kN 37 kN 79 kN Where capacities are from Pan United Silo Calcs (2001) VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY SHEAR STUDS Shear Capacity 0 8 632 kN where φ = 0.Calculation of Cast in Conection Capacity ‐ Roof Steel Frame The moment arm of the connector is required to calculate the capacity  against the eccentric moment of the bolted fin plate connection This is the minimum of the distance between the T12 bars and the lowest stud and the length of the plate CONNECTION TYPE W03 Connection Number W03 Plate length 500 mm Number of T12 bars Number of 19mm studs Capactiy of T12 bar in tension (parallel to bar) Capacity of T12 bar in tension (45 degrees to bar ‐ horizontal) Capacity of 19.

Calculation of Cast in Conection Capacity ‐ Roof Steel Frame The moment arm of the connector is required to calculate the capacity  against the eccentric moment of the bolted fin plate connection This is the minimum of the distance between the T12 bars and the lowest stud and the length of the plate CONNECTION TYPE W05A Connection Number W05A Plate length 700 mm Number of T12 bars Number of 19mm stud 2 6 distance.0mm stud in shear φfus 52 kN 37 kN 79 kN where φ = 0. T12 bars to bottom studs 600 mm LEVER ARM 600 mm Capactiy of T12 bar in tension (parallel to bar) Capacity of T12 bar in tension (45 degrees to bar ‐ horizon Capacity of 19.85 Where capacities are from Pan United Silo Calcs (2001) VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY SHEAR STUDS Shear Capacity 474 kN VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY MOMENT GENERATED BY ECCENTRIC CONNECTION Bolted Connection Eccentricity Capacity of T12 100 mm 74 kN Shear Capacity 441 kN LIMITING VALUE: 441 kN P9-19 .

0mm stud in shear φfus Where capacities are from Pan United Silo Calcs (2001) VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY SHEAR STUDS Shear Capacity 632 kN 52 kN 37 kN 79 kN 0 8 where φ = 0.85 P9-20 .Calculation of Cast in Conection Capacity ‐ Roof Steel Frame The moment arm of the connector is required to calculate the capacity  against the eccentric moment of the bolted fin plate connection This is the minimum of the distance between the T12 bars and the lowest stud and the length of the plate CONNECTION TYPE W04 Connection Number W04 Plate length 600 mm Number of T12 bars Number of 19mm stud Capactiy of T12 bar in tension (parallel to bar) Capacity of T12 bar in tension (45 degrees to bar ‐ horizon Capacity of 19.

0mm stud in shear φfus Where capacities are from Pan United Silo Calcs (2001) VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY SHEAR STUDS Shear Capacity 632 kN 52 kN 37 kN 79 kN 0 8 where φ = 0.Calculation of Cast in Conection Capacity ‐ Roof Steel Frame The moment arm of the connector is required to calculate the capacity  against the eccentric moment of the bolted fin plate connection This is the minimum of the distance between the T12 bars and the lowest stud and the length of the plate CONNECTION TYPE W05 Connection Number W04 Plate length 700 mm Number of T12 bars Number of 19mm studs Capactiy of T12 bar in tension (parallel to bar) Capacity of T12 bar in tension (45 degrees to bar ‐ horizon Capacity of 19.85 P9-21 .

Calculation of Cast in Conection Capacity ‐ Roof Steel Frame The moment arm of the connector is required to calculate the capacity  against the eccentric moment of the bolted fin plate connection This is the minimum of the distance between the T12 bars and the lowest stud and the length of the plate CONNECTION TYPE W06 Connection Number W04 Plate length 800 mm Number of T12 bars Number of 19mm studs Capactiy of T12 bar in tension (parallel to bar) Capacity of T12 bar in tension (45 degrees to bar ‐ horizon Capacity of 19.85 P9-22 .0mm stud in shear φfus Where capacities are from Pan United Silo Calcs (2001) VERTICAL SHEAR CAPACITY LIMITED BY SHEAR STUDS Shear Capacity 791 kN 52 kN 37 kN 79 kN 0 10 where φ = 0.

Figure: Connection Diagram from LIMCON Project 227268 | File 227268 .1 254 x 137 UB 37 to 838 x 126 UB 225 The design of the connection between the 254 UB and the 838 UB supporting beam has been performed using LIMCON software.6.Roof Calculations. As the capacity of this connection is greater than 100 kN and the demand is under 50 kN this approach is deemed conservative.Raffles 25.000T Cement Silo . Due to unexpected unavailability of a software license for the British Standard code BS 5950:2000.P9-23 9.6 Inner Cell Steel Frame LIMCON Output – Connection Design 9. Full LIMCON output for this connection is attached at the end of this section. the connection design has been confirmed to the equivalent Australian Standard.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 7 .

m.110503 {111511} C:\raffles\Roof calcs\limcon\innerCellBeamBeam.lmc . CONNECTION: outercell .9 kg Welds: 0.0 kg                                   Limcon V3.8/X in 1 col. 35 70 35 70 Gr.Fin Plate Plate: 90x8x140 Gr.60.S275 Weld: 6 FW/500/SP to support (B/S) Bolts: 2 x M20 8.8 kg Bolts: 0.S275 UB838X292X226 C1 55 Top cope = 35x150 6 Plates: 0.P9-24 Aurecon Australia Job: innerCellBeamBeam -.S275 UB254X146X37 B1 Gr.Connection: outercell Page 1 of 3 09/05/2012 11:49:56 p.

m.110503 {111511} C:\raffles\Roof calcs\limcon\innerCellBeamBeam.                                                                        Limcon V3.P9-25 Aurecon Australia Job: innerCellBeamBeam -.60.lmc .Connection: outercell Page 2 of 3 09/05/2012 11:49:56 p.

P9-26 Aurecon Australia Job: innerCellBeamBeam -.lmc .110503 {111511} C:\raffles\Roof calcs\limcon\innerCellBeamBeam.                                     Limcon V3.m.Connection: outercell Page 3 of 3 09/05/2012 11:49:56 p.60.

Figure: Connection Diagram from LIMCON Project 227268 | File 227268 . Full LIMCON output for this connection is attached at the end of this section. As the capacity of this connection is greater than 100 kN and the demand is under 50 kN this approach is deemed conservative.Raffles 25. the connection design has been confirmed to the equivalent Australian Standard.000T Cement Silo .1 254 x 137 UB 37 to Cast in Weld Plate The design of the connection between the 254 UB and the cast in weld plate has been performed using LIMCON software. Due to unexpected unavailability of a software license for the British Standard code BS 5950:2000.7.7 Outer Cell Steel Frame LIMCON Output – Connection Design 9.P9-27 9.Roof Calculations.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 8 .

S275 Weld: 6 FW/500/SP to support (B/S) Bolts: 2 x M20 8.9 kg Welds: 0.lmc .110503 {111511} C:\raffles\Roof calcs\limcon\outercellfinplate.S275 UB254X146X37 B1 55 6 Plates: 0.m.60. 35 35 Gr.P9-28 Aurecon Australia Job: outercellfinplate -.Fin Plate Plate: 90x8x140 Gr.8/S/X in 1 col.Connection: outercell Page 1 of 3 09/05/2012 11:34:51 p. CONNECTION: outercell .0 kg                                   Limcon V3.8 kg Bolts: 0.

110503 {111511} C:\raffles\Roof calcs\limcon\outercellfinplate.                                                                       Limcon V3.P9-29 Aurecon Australia Job: outercellfinplate -.Connection: outercell Page 2 of 3 09/05/2012 11:34:51 p.lmc .m.60.

m.P9-30 Aurecon Australia Job: outercellfinplate -.110503 {111511} C:\raffles\Roof calcs\limcon\outercellfinplate.Connection: outercell Page 3 of 3 09/05/2012 11:34:51 p.60.lmc .                   Limcon V3.

000T Cement Silo .P9-31 9.Raffles 25.Roof Calculations. Project 227268 | File 227268 .8 Inner Cell Steel Frame SPACE GASS Output – Member Design The following pages contain SPACE GASS output for the inner frame beams.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 9 .

Force: kN. Disp: None.Frame: 1:75. Dens: T/m^3. Mass: T. Torsion: None Sections: 1 254x146 UB 37 2 838x292 UB 226 .35) 36 40 47 5 35 34 29 28 22 47 57 56 48 58 55 21 33 27 53 27 26 44 20 6 9 67 5 37 39 25 2 26 20 24 43 19 32 1 42 17 10 88 1 16 29 36 7 2 37 25 19 31 32 38 24 23 46 18 33 10 11 33 51 46 54 1213 11 38 14 4 40 44 21 34 45 16 50 52 45 13 4 28 41 43 39 23 22 1415 12 30 41 49 4849 17 62 15 51 42 61 52 60 64 30 63 50 59 18 9 Materials: 1 STEEL Job: C:\raffles\Roof calcs\space gass\Roof SG model 5 Units .P9-32 SPACE GASS 10. 1:27 pm Y X Z 35 31 (30.Len: m. Temp: Celsius. Stress: MPa Scales .85 . Mat: MPa. Mom: kNm.AURECON AUSTRALIA PTY LTD 30 Apr 2012. Axial: None. Shear: None. Acc: g's. Sec: mm. Moment: None. Load: None. Trans: mm.

Roof Calculations.P9-33 9. Project 227268 | File 227268 .Raffles 25.docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 10 .000T Cement Silo .9 Outer Cell Steel Frame SPACE GASS Output – Member Design The following pages contain SPACE GASS output for the outer frame beams.

Mat: MPa. Sec: mm. Acc: g's. Axial: None. 1:30 pm Y X 69 67 65 71 Z 73 63 77 61 68 66 64 62 39 87 38 46 94 47 95 48 96 70 72 97 76 58 78 51 99 84 50 104 34 82 47 45 31 79 43 40113 11 42 41 10 3 78 37 62 35 110 9 976 115 7 60 117 8 174 8 4 61 108 7 109 6 59 114 116 4 2 33 25 5 3675 107 3111 21 73 112 34 105 57 13 17 29 27 25 23 14 13 65 14 66 15 67 20 72 19 71 20 32 30 28 26 16 18 16 68 17 69 18 70 12 12 64 19 21 91 11 63 15 31 89 103 55 90 44 32 80 87 102 54 88 46 33 81 85 101 53 86 48 49 100 52 82 52 51 83 80 54 106 81 50 98 39 56 37 85 79 74 60 38 86 53 45 93 41 89 40 88 55 44 92 43 91 42 90 59 57 (20. Torsion: None Sections: 1 254x146 UB 37 . Dens: T/m^3. Mom: kNm. Moment: None. Shear: None.P9-34 SPACE GASS 10. Force: kN. Disp: None. Temp: Celsius.Frame: 1:110. Trans: mm. Stress: MPa Scales .AURECON AUSTRALIA PTY LTD 30 Apr 2012.30) 75 24 22 Materials: 1 STEEL Job: C:\raffles\Roof calcs\space gass\Roof SG model 1 OUTER Units .Len: m.85 . Mass: T. Load: None.

(Unbraced) Bending eff lengths: +ve bending => 0. Top flange restr pos'ns: Bot flange restr pos'ns: Top flange restr types: FF Bot flange restr types: FF Group: 15 normal members Member list: 15 Compr'n eff lengths: Major axis => 0.600.600 Minor axis => 0.600 (Unbraced) -ve bending => 0.600 (Unbraced) -ve bending => 0.m. (Unbraced) Bending eff lengths: +ve bending => 0.600 .600 Minor axis => 0. (Unbraced) Bending eff lengths: +ve bending => 0.600.600.600.600 Minor axis => 0. (Unbraced) Bending eff lengths: +ve bending => 0.600 (Unbraced) -ve bending => 0. Top flange restr pos'ns: Bot flange restr pos'ns: Top flange restr types: FF Bot flange restr types: FF Group: 13 normal members Member list: 13 Compr'n eff lengths: Major axis => 0.600 Minor axis => 0.600 Minor axis => 0.P9-35 SPACE GASS 10. Top flange restr pos'ns: Bot flange restr pos'ns: Top flange restr types: FF Bot flange restr types: FF Minor axis => 0. (Unbraced) Bending eff lengths: +ve bending => 0. (Unbraced) Bending eff lengths: +ve bending => 0.600 (Unbraced) -ve bending => 0. Top flange restr pos'ns: Bot flange restr pos'ns: Top flange restr types: FF Bot flange restr types: FF Group: 14 normal members Member list: 14 Compr'n eff lengths: Major axis => 0.600 (Unbraced) -ve bending => 0.600 (Unbraced) -ve bending => 0.600.600.600.AURECON AUSTRALIA PTY LTD Job: C:\raffles\Roof calcs\space gass\Roof SG model 1 OUTER Designer: Date: 2 May 2012.600.600.600. Top flange restr pos'ns: Bot flange restr pos'ns: Top flange restr types: FF Bot flange restr types: FF Group: 17 normal members Member list: 17 Compr'n eff lengths: Major axis => 0. Top flange restr pos'ns: Bot flange restr pos'ns: Top flange restr types: FF Bot flange restr types: FF Group: 12 normal members Member list: 12 Compr'n eff lengths: Major axis => 0.600. (Unbraced) Bending eff lengths: +ve bending => 0.85 .600 (Unbraced) -ve bending => 0.600. Page: 1 STEEL MEMBER DESIGN DATA (m) -----------------------Restraint codes are: F => Fixed restraint P => Partial restraint R => Fixed and rotational restraint S => Partial and rotational restraint L => Lateral restraint U => Unrestrained C => Continuous lateral restraint I => Ignore segment Group: 11 normal members Member list: 11 Compr'n eff lengths: Major axis => 0. 5:14 p.600.600 Minor axis => 0. Top flange restr pos'ns: Bot flange restr pos'ns: Top flange restr types: FF Bot flange restr types: FF Group: 16 normal members Member list: 16 Compr'n eff lengths: Major axis => 0.600.

00 kN = 1298.5.1) Fvy My = = Vw Pcy Pvy Mcy Mf Mry Fw Mpw Pw May Mxy Moy = 0.3) (H.1(a)) (Pass) .2.82 kNm (4.00 kNm = 0.7.1) (I.3) kNm (Plastic) Pt Pcx Pvx Mcx Mb Mrx Mw Mcw Pcw Max Mab Mox Mob = 0.4) (4.00 kN = 473.94 kN = 132.AURECON AUSTRALIA PTY LTD Job: C:\raffles\Roof calcs\space gass\Roof SG model 1 OUTER Designer: Date: 2 May 2012.1) (I.2) (4.11 kN = 32.72 kNm = 0.3) (4.18 kNm = 0.75 75.3.1) (4.82 kNm = 0.00 kN = 0.3.2.00 kNm = 132.5.1) (H.2.1) (I.4) (4.Comp and bending/out-plane (I.00 0.69 kN = 266.8.82 kNm = 132.00 kNm = 0.82 kNm = 132.00 kNm = 0.4) (4.1) (H. 5:14 p.2.82 kNm = 0. F Fvx Mx MLT = = = = 0.3.3) (4.8.16 kN 0.75 kN kN kNm (4.2) (4.2.P9-36 SPACE GASS 10.5.00 kNm = 0.6) (4.00 kN = 1255.1) (I.3) (H.00 kNm = 32.m.6.1) (I.1) Governing mode .3.4.00 kNm (Plastic) (4.1) (H.00 kNm Page: 96 -28.8.85 .1) (I.3.3.4.1) (H.82 kNm = 132.3.7.4.3.2.00 kNm = 132.1) (I.00 75.82 kNm = 132.82 kNm = 132.2) (4.

docx | 30 March 2012 | Revision 0 | Page 11 Leading. .LYSAUGHT BONDEK DESIGN SOFTWARE The following pages contain program output for the slab design confirmation.Raffles 25.P9-37 9. Global.10 Concrete Slab Design . aurecon Project 227268 | File 227268 .000T Cement Silo .Roof Calculations. VIbrant.

P9-38 .

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Complete .000T Cement Silo .docx | 15 August 2012 | Revision 1 .14.Structural Calculations .Raffles 25.Rev1. Conical Roof Design Project 227268 | File 227268 .

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Libya. Botswana. Malawi. Namibia.com Aurecon offices are located in: Angola. Ethiopia. Vietnam. Nigeria. Philippines. Mozambique. Singapore. Hong Kong.Aurecon New Zealand Limited Level 1. Swaziland. South Africa. United Arab Emirates. Indonesia. Tanzania. Thailand. 102 Customhouse Quay Wellington 6011 PO Box 1591 Wellington 6140 New Zealand T +64 4 472 9589 F +64 4 472 9922 E wellington@aurecongroup. New Zealand. Australia. Lesotho. Uganda.com W aurecongroup. . China.

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