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of Instruction? How are these events related to the learning process?
Robert Gagne • • • • American educational psychologist Conditions of Learning Instructional Theory Instructional Design Model
According to Robert Gagne, there are nine events that activate processes needed for effective learning. Instructional Design Model • • • • Gagne created a nine-step process called The Events of Instruction The events of instruction are related to the learning process The events of instruction lead to various learning outcomes The events of instruction support the internal processes of learning
1. Gain Attention • • Capture the attention of those learning (animated tutorial) Stimuli that ensure reception of coming instruction
2. Inform Learner of Objectives • • • • • Internal process of expectancy List of learning objectives Level of expectation for learning What will the learner be able to perform after the instruction? Motivate the learner to complete the lesson.
3. Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning • • Recall of existing, relevant knowledge Retrieval to working, short-term memory
Previous experience, previous concepts Correlate new information with prior knowledge
4. Present Stimulus Material • • • • Display the content Pattern recognition; selective perception New content (chunked, explained, then demonstrated) Multimedia (audio, video, graphics)
5. Provide Learner Guidance • • • • Guidance on the new content Chunking, rehearsal, encoding Assist learners in order to encode information for long-term storage Guidance strategies (case studies, examples, mnemonics)
6. Elicit Performance • • • • Practice (new skills or behavior) Confirm correct understanding Demonstrating learning Retrieval, responding
7. Provide Feedback • • Specific, immediate feedback on learner's performance Reinforcement, error correction
8. Assess Performance • • • Post-test, final assessment No additional coaching; feedback Mastery of material
9. Enhance Retention and Transfer • • • Determine whether or not the skills were learned Apply the skills that were learned Retention, retrieval, generalization
References • Gagne's Learning Outcomes http://online.sfsu.edu/~foreman/itec800/finalprojects/annie/gagne'slearningoutco me.html • Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction -http://online.sfsu.edu/~foreman/itec800/finalprojects/annie/gagne'snineevents.htm l • Conditions of Learning http://tip.psychology.org/gagne.html • Conditions of Learning: Exponent/Originator http://www.educationau.edu.au/archives/cp/04d.htm • Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction http://ide.ed.psu.edu/idde/9events.htm • Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction: An Introduction http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_3.htm • The Nine Events of Instruction http://hungary.usembassy.gov/uploads/images/94KMTTRtqw2d0IiAmOyeA/gagnes Thank you, Christopher Pappas www.christopher-pappas.com