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km, Nigeria is the largest country in tropical West Africa. It extends between Latitudes 4o 16 N and 13o 52 N and between Longitude 2o 49 E and 14o 37 E and is bounded by Cameroon and Chad Republic to the East, Niger Republic to the North and Benin Republic to the West. The southern coastline is dominated by the delta of the River Niger. Although only the twelfth largest country in Africa, Nigeria contains a quarter of the continents people and a greater population than any other African country. Nigeria has a population of over 140 million people. The nation features a great diversity of ecosystems - from the rainforest through dry savannah to drylands and flat coastal zones to plateaus and highlands.

2.0 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND LAND USE POLICIES IN NIGERIA. Environmental Control is the maintenance of safe levels of environmental items such as land, air, water, etc. It also involves removal of risk factors from the environment. In other words, it is Modification and control of soil, water, and air environments of humans and other living organisms (Answers, 2012) Land use is simply defined as the use to which land is put. (Essaghah, 1997). Land use Planning is concerned with the examination of decisionmaking as regards the best use of land resource. It is aimed at determining how urban and rural lands can be physically arranged so that the net economic gain from carrying out the activity will lead to better utilization of the resources. In this planning all available lands and all water bodies in a given area or territory are closely examined, evaluated and zoned for major

land use activities like residential, industrial, commercial, institutional/public service use, recreational, open spaces, and transportation (Awogbemi, 1981). In land use planning, land is synonymous with physical environment of man and natural resources which are sub-adjacent and super-adjacent to the earth surface. Therefore, the terms land, space, physical environment and natural resources are so closely connected in physical planning to the extent that they appear the same (Obateru, 2003) In general, land use planning involves making decisions about how a city or county will develop now and into the future. The purpose of land use planning is to ensure orderly and efficient development that provides for economic growth and the conservation/protection of natural resources while maintaining a high quality of life for residents. Policy is defined as a set of course of action adopted by the government to address issues in a specific sector. Land use Policy is a set of course of action adopted by the government mainly to guide the use to which land is put. Land is required for various uses in both the urban and rural areas of all society. It is a major factor of production and a vital element in the socioeconomic development of any country or society (FMH&UD, 2006). Thus, as nations grew in size and rural areas become urban centres and urban centres become large metropolitan areas, there is always increased competition as well as demand for land for different purposes. This requires adequate planning and control to ensure harmonious and sustainable development and functional efficiency of these uses and settlements. To achieve this fundamental and acceptable activity, layouts of various land uses such as residential, commercial. Industrial, open spaces and recreation, circulation and institutional uses among others are undertaken to standardize and control physical developments and ensure harmonious growth. Furthermore,

as the population of the world becomes more urbanized and cities grow, urban planning becomes more critical (Smith and Engel, 2006). According to Oyesiku (1997), the forms and patterns of distribution of structures in general to promote the good health, accessibility, convenience and harmonious land use in environment are a function, to a considerable extent, of the rights and methods of dealing with land. Thus, effective land control and management particularly in areas with rapid urban sprawl such as Nigeria is crucial to tackling growing environmental and land use problems such as slum formation, rising costs of land, accessibility to urban land for land housing, incompatible use, flooding, overcrowding and congestion among others for the purpose of achieving sustainable city development and ensure the safety and health of the people. Thus, great attention has been paid by researchers, professionals and decision makers to the urban land planning and management problems and the design of policies to combat it. In Nigeria, a number of policies that impinge on land use management has been articulated and implemented. These include the Land Use Act of 1978, Urban Development Policy of 1992, Urban and Regional Planning Act 1992 as well as the Housing and Urban Development policy of 2002. Similarly, land use planning and control measures have been introduced to improve land use planning and development. The aims of these policies are summarized below:

1. The Land Use Act (LUA) of 1978: The LUA was established purposely to unify land policy through-out Nigeria and to eradicate land speculation so as to protect the rights of all Nigerians to land. It is in the public interest of all Nigerians to use and enjoy land in the Country and the natural fruits thereof in sufficient quantity to enable them provide for the sustenance of themselves and their families. Its main aim was to make it easy for government to acquire

lands for public purposes such as for the provision of infrastructures, social amenities, etc for public and environment good. 2. Urban Development Policy of 1992: The goal of the Urban Development Policy of 1992 is to develop a dynamic system of urban settlements, which will foster sustainable economic growth, promote efficient urban and regional development and ensure improved standards of living and wellbeing for all Nigerians. The direct involvement of the citizens in decision-making is a priority for the success of the national policy. 3. Urban and Regional Planning Act 1992: The URP Act of 1992 main aim was to guide the practice of urban and regional planning in the country. It provided the legal basis for the formulation of urban development plans and policies and the legal backings to the implementation and implementing bodies whether at the federal, state or local government levels. The Act also provided for public participation in the development of National

Development Plans and other physical developments plans. 4. Housing and Urban Development Policy of 2002: The goal of the Housing and Urban Development policy of 2002 is to ensure that all Nigerians own or have access to decent, safe and sanitary housing accommodation at affordable cost with secured tenure through private sector initiative with government encouragement and involvement. Despite the existence of these laws and policies, urban land use management problems still persist in Nigeria. Consequently, there is need for a better understanding of the problems and also to articulate how to improve the existing ineffective land use planning and control methods in Nigerian cities. These land use policies have been largely ineffective due to but not limited to the following the factors: 1. Non Adoption and Utilization of Modern Approaches:

Following the leading of the international community, a number of concepts and approaches that emphasized citizen participation in decision-making have been devised and adopted. Studies have shown that, these new approaches and methodologies have not been incorporated into land use planning and management in Nigerian Cities. As shown by Aribigbola and Ebehikhalu, (2006), the basis of planning in Akure is the traditional master plan approach that emphasizes the utilization of the professional expertise of planners to determine and articulate physical development plan for the city. Therefore; non-adoption and incorporation of the new approaches are a major constraint that needs to be surmounted to ensure better management of land in any Nigerian cities. 2. Outdated and Outmoded land use Planning Policies, Laws and Regulations : Land use and management in Nigeria is still based on the land use Act of 1978 .This law was mainly concerned with use and allocation of land in the country. The Urban and Regional planning Act of 1992 that was meant to improve planning activity in Nigeria did not contain any provision to promote and enhance public participation in planning decision. Besides, sixteen years after the enactment of the law, it is yet to be implemented. Planning in most Nigerian towns and cities in Nigeria is still based on the 1946 Act which itself was based on the 1932 Town and Country Planning Act in United Kingdom. Thus, one of the major constraints to effective and efficient land management in many Nigerian towns and cities is the absence of up to date and dynamic laws and regulation to guide and control land use activity and management. The land use act mainly deals with allocation and acquisition and confirmation of title on owners, it does not indicate the vital aspect of management which is the control of development on the land. 3. Inadequate Manpower

Closely associated with the above constraints is inadequacy of qualified planning personnel to manage land use in the city. Most institutional frameworks for the management of the environment have inadequate manpower and this greatly make them inefficient in managing and control the land use in most Nigerian towns and cities. 4. Poor and Inadequate Funding Another major constraint to effective land control is poor and inadequate funding of most institutional frameworks responsible. A close observation of governments yearly budget to these institutions shows very poor allocation mainly for salaries of personnel. In such a situation, it becomes difficult to initiate plans and development schemes to organize land use and land management and undertake other essential planning tasks germane to land management. This explains why the most master plan prepared for Nigeria towns and cities are old and outdated. As a result of poor funding, essential facilities required to undertake planning activity are not available.

3.0 URBAN AREA The definition of urban varies from country to country, and, with periodic reclassification, can also vary within one country over time, making direct comparisons difficult. An urban area can be defined by one or more of the following: administrative criteria or political boundaries (e.g., area within the jurisdiction of a municipality or town committee), a threshold population size (where the minimum for an urban settlement is typically in the region of 2,000 people, although this varies globally between 200 and 50,000), population density, economic function (e.g., where a significant majority of the population is not primarily engaged in agriculture, or where there is surplus employment) or the presence of urban characteristics (e.g., paved streets, electric lighting, sewerage).

European countries define urbanized areas on the basis of urban-type land use, not allowing any gaps of typically more than 200 m, and use satellite imagery instead of census blocks to determine the boundaries of the urban area. In less developed countries, in addition to land use and density requirements, a requirement that a large majority of the population, typically 75%, is not engaged in agriculture and/or fishing is sometimes used. In 2010, 3.5 billion people lived in areas classified as urban (UNICEF, 2012). 3.1 Problems of Urban Areas Urban areas do not have only local environmental impacts but also large socalled ecological footprints (WWF 2000). In their immediate vicinity, cities have a variety of impacts: conversion of agricultural or forest land for urban uses and infrastructure, reclaiming of wetlands, quarrying and excavation of sand, gravel and building materials in large quantities and, in some regions, deforestation to meet fuel demand. The use of biomass fuel also causes indoor and outdoor air pollution. Other effects can be felt further afield such as pollution of waterways, lakes and coastal waters by untreated effluent. Air pollution from cities has an impact on residents health as well as on vegetation and soils at a considerable distance. Urban transport contributes to air pollution and the large concentration of cars and industries in cities causes the lions share of urban global greenhouse gas emiss ions. Cities are often located in prime agricultural areas. If this land is converted for urban uses, this puts additional pressure on nearby areas that may be less suitable for agriculture. Urbanization in coastal areas often leads to the destruction of sensitive ecosystems and can also alter the hydrology of coasts and their natural features such as mangrove swamps, reefs and beaches that serve as barriers to erosion and form important habitats for species. Low to medium density residential areas (urban sprawl) around urban centres are common in the developed world. Well developed infrastructure

and the increasing use of the car have facilitated this trend. Urban sprawl has an especially damaging effect on the environment associated with the increase in use of private motorized transport. Furthermore, low density development occupies proportionally larger areas of land per capita. Water is a key issue in urban areas. The intensity of demand in cities can quickly exceed local supply. The price of water is typically lower than the actual cost of obtaining, treating and distributing it, partly because of government subsidies. As a result, households and industries have little incentive to conserve water (UNEP 2000). Pollution from urban run-off, sewage and untreated discharges of industries has adversely affected many water bodies, leaving many cities with unsafe water supply. Although local environmental problems tend to diminish with increasing income levels, other environmental problems tend to become worse (McGranahan and others 2001). The most obvious are high levels of energy use and increasing levels of consumption and waste production. Urban residents rely heavily on fossil fuels and electricity, and wealthy cities tend to use more energy and produce more waste. Inadequate waste collection and waste management systems are the cause of serious urban pollution and health hazards, especially in cities in developing countries. Cities in industrialized countries are now also facing the consequences of past environmentally damaging production techniques and inadequate waste disposal. This has resulted in many different forms of pollution and in particular the formation of brownfields: abandoned, vacant or underused former industrial areas where redevelopment is hampered by environmental problems and lack of adequate information on contaminated land management (Butler 1996). Another problem emerging in developed countries is the lack of suitable landfill sites to cater for the increasing demand for solid waste

disposal. Worsening environmental conditions can have serious effects on human health and welfare, particularly for the poor (Hardoy, Mitlin and Satterthwaite 1992). Poor sanitation creates environmental and health hazards particularly by direct exposure to faeces and drinking water contamination. Air and water pollution cause chronic and infectious respiratory disease, water-borne diseases such as diarrhoea and intestinal worm infections, increased mortality rates particularly among children and premature deaths especially among the poor (OECD-DAC 2000, Listorti 1999, Satterthwaite 1997, McGranahan 1993, Hardoy, Cairncross and Satterthwaite 1990). However, worldwide epidemiological and demographic information suggests that survival rates are better in cities than in rural areas because of better access to health services (UNCHS 2001b). The urban poor are particularly exposed because of their location and because they have limited resources with which to compensate for these problems by buying potable water, securing medical care or escaping floods. There are many other less quantifiable but nonetheless important environmental impacts, such as loss of green space in urban areas, destruction of special local ecosystems, noise pollution, and aesthetically unpleasant sights and smells. These not only constitute a genuine loss of well-being but they can also erode civic pride and lower morale, leading to indifference and cynicism locally and to a negative image externally.

4.0 RURAL AREAS Rural areas or the country or countryside are areas of land that are not urbanized, though when large areas are described, country towns and smaller cities will be included. They have a low population density, and typically much of the land is devoted to agriculture and there may be less air and water pollution than in an urban area. The degree to which areas of wilderness are

included in the term varies; very large wilderness areas are not likely to be described by the term in most contexts. In most parts of the world, rural areas have been declining since the 19th century or earlier, both as a proportion of land area, and in terms of the proportion of the population living in them. Urbanization encroaches on rural land, and the mechanization of agriculture has reduced the number of workers needed to work the land, while alternative employment is typically easier to obtain in cities. In parts of the developed world urban sprawl has greatly reduced the areas that can be called rural, and land use planning measures are used to protect the character of rural areas in various ways. 4.1 Problems of Rural Areas Rural areas experience a number of environmental problems like pollutions of air, water and land, land degradation and urbanization. Air Pollution in villages is caused due to burning of agricultural wastes and straw, burning of fire wood and dung cakes, and decomposition of crop wastes and animal wastes. Considerable amount of methane produced due to bio-degradation of crop residues and animal wastes contribute heavily in the rural air pollution. Rural women suffer from many respiratory and eye diseases as they cook food by burning wood. Rural houses are often built unscientifically. Due to this the extent of indoor air pollution is greater in these areas. The practice of Jhoom- cultivation damages forests and other vegetations on one hand and enhances the CO2 load on the atmosphere on the other hand. The increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere contributes to the Global Warming. Principal water pollutants in the rural areas are animal wastes and agrochemicals like synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, hormones etc. These chemicals reach to the water bodies of the rural areas through surface run off where they cause Eutrophication. Eutrophication is the nutrient enrichment of water bodies. In Eutrophication, varieties of aquatic plants grow in the water


that absorbs dissolved oxygen. The scarcity of dissolved oxygen in the water kills aquatic animals and plants. The bacteria that go to decompose those bodies further absorb the oxygen causing its acute scarcity and the process goes on. Pesticides are poisonous chemicals that are applied in agriculture to kill pests. These chemicals join water bodies through the surface run off, enter into the food-chains and get accumulated inside fruits, grains and vegetables and bodies of aquatic animals. This is called as bio-accumulation. Biologically accumulated poisons in the animal bodies go on increasing and this process is called as Bio-magnification. Pesticides accumulate and get magnified into the fatty tissues of human beings through fish and other aquatic foods. Land pollution in rural areas is caused due to dumping of animal wastes, agricultural residues and mixing of agrochemicals in the soil. Animal wastes dumped on the ground, leach into the soil and contaminate water sources. Secondly, these wastes invite a number of parasitic worms & disease causing micro organisms to develop and spread in the environment through water and air. These worms and micro organisms cause various types of diseases in rural people. Decomposing residues of agricultural materials produce lots of methane and encourage the production of disease causing micro organisms. Agrochemicals like synthetic fertilizers alter the composition of soil and make it infertile. Pesticides applied in fields kill soil micro organisms and enter into the food chain and reach to human beings. Bioaccumulations of poisonous pesticides in human beings cause diseases of nervous system, kidneys and reproductive systems in human beings. Pesticides laced seeds are often eaten by birds that visit fields frequently. Thus different types of seed eating birds are vanishing out of rural areas. Such incidents have been reported from Rajasthan, an Indian state where many peacocks died after eating pesticide laced seeds. The population


of sparrows is vanishing out of many Indian states due to application of pesticides on large scale. Since the days of green revolution, Mono agriculture has been encouraged to raise production of crops on commercial level. Mono agriculture is the practice of growing single crop on a large farm repeatedly for many years. This practice demands more care, more fertilizers and more pesticides. When topmost fertile layer of soil is washed away through rain water or it is carried away by wind, the process is called as soil erosion. Thus wind and rainfall are the principal factors that cause soil erosion. Soil erosion is the major problem of rural environment. It is caused due to(i) Overgrazing by cattle. (ii) Deforestation and denudation of land. (iii) Cultivation along river banks. Over grazing is the activity of repeated grazing by cattle including sheep and goats, in a particular field. This results into the complete loss of grass species leaving the land uncovered. Such a land becomes prone to soil erosion through rain water and by wind. The human activity of cutting forest trees puts severe stress on land and atmosphere. A land denuded of forests and other vegetation, is always prone to serious soil erosion. Loss of forests makes numerous species of birds and animals homeless and causes adverse alterations in climatic conditions. Cultivation along river banks makes the soil loose. Loose soil can easily be washed away into the river during rains. Most of the Indian rivers have been silted severely due to heavy soil erosions in the catchments areas. This condition is the root cause of floods in different Indian states during rainy seasons.


5.0 POVERTY AND NATURAL RESOURCES Man have always been dependent on the environment for survival and poverty have greatly increase this dependency. Poverty is the condition that is said to exist when people lack the means to satisfy their needs. The basic need refers to those things necessary for survival. From the vicious circle of poverty, it reveals that poverty causes environmental stress and, in turn, perpetuates more poverty (Uchegbu, 2002). Poverty puts pressure on people nations, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, to engage in unsustainable and ecological damaging practices. The poor make an effort to survive, and impoverished nations turn to exploitation of their own natural resources. According to United Nations (1996), every second some 750 tons of topsoil are lost. Each day some 4700 backstairs of forest are destroyed, and 346,000 hectares of land are turned to desert. Each day and estimated 100 to 300 species become extinct. 5.1 The Effects of Poverty on the Nigerian Environment The long-term results of short-term exploitation of the environment are devastating, often increasing rather than alleviating poverty. Here are a few examples of the consequences of such devastation of the environment: 1. Deforestation This is the temporary or permanent clearance of forests for agriculture or other purposes. Clearing forests to increase food production in the tropical countries often has the opposite result. For example, between 1973 and 1977 forest covered 1.3 million hectares of land, but today it is not more than one million hectare (UN 1996). The basins of Njaba River located about 25 km north of Owerri town such as Amucha, Okwudor are exemplified.


In Amucha, for instance, the town has been covered up with several big gullies traversing the land because of the deforestation of the land. Okwudor, just 2km from Amucha, is besieged with giant gulls. This has endangered the existence of the Okwudor Secondary School along the Owerri-Orlu road. The Nigerian environmental study action team revealed that 35,000sqkm representing 38% of the total populations of the country are living under desertification, which implies living in poverty. The rate of deforestation in Nigeria is among the highest in the world. Many studies have indicated that if forest resources continue to be depleted at the present rate, many nations like Nigeria will have no remaining forests outside the protected area by the end of the first decade in the 21st century. Absolute poverty coincides with area of deforestation in Nigeria, which triggers other environmental problems, such as soil erosion as in Amucha, Okwudor, Ezeagu, Umuahia and Agulu . Other problems are the reduction of biological diversity, such as water loss, species extinction, reduced capacity to breed improved crop varieties, changes in buffering of water flows, increased sedimentation of rivers and possible changes in rainfall characteristic and changes in global temperature. 2. Declining Fish Stocks The poor are disproportionately affected by the decline in world fish stock, which provides them with 40 percent of their dietary protein. From 1950 to 1990, the fish catch increased fivefold supported by industrialized countries that subsidized fishing companies and encouraged them to over fish new seas off the coasts of developing countries. In Calabar, Oron and part of Rivers State, they have realized the damage done and agreed on remedial measures under a 1995 United Nations brokered fisheries agreement, but the loss will take years to overcome.


3. Pollution and Hazardous Wastes The damage to the environment and population from pollutions and the dumping of hazardous wastes is already evident. We are aware of the damage the toxic waste did to the Koko community in Delta State. The pollutant poisoned the air, water and the food chain. It also depleted the food supply and destroyed the health of these impoverished people. In Kaduna, the Rido River has been polluted with petroleum waste discharge from the Kaduna Oil Refinery. Industrialists have turned Kano citys major source of drin king water, River Chalawa, into an effluent dump. The oil spill in Warri, Western Division near Facades Estuary River has caused damage in Odido, Opukushi and the Alsere community to a greater extent. 4. Global Warming The unsustainable production and consumption pattern, in addition to depleting natural resources and increasing environmental pollution, also creates other problems, such as global warming and the depletion of the earths ozone layer, which jeopardize the ecological balance of the planet. The environmental consequences of this situation reinforce social inequality, poverty, and the water so that low- lying lands eat others such as the rise in sea levels up. The Atlantic Oceans effect on the Lagos Bar Beach is a typical example of this state of affairs. The lifes and property within the shore of Lagos Bar Beach are in danger, which before the year 2,005 if not checked a catastrophe may occur in Lagos. 5. Unsustainable Losses In the long term, however, environmental losses are reflected in balance sheets. Those of developing and developed countries alike feel the economic impact of environmental degradation when their agricultural yields decline, their fish catches fall and the cost begins to mount for cleaning up their


wastes, providing health -care and alleviating hunger. Everywhere this falling productivity reduces living standards, creating more poverty.

6.0 NATURAL RESOURCES AND SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability is the process suggested to improve the quality of human life within the limitations of the global environment. It involves solutions for improving human welfare that does not result in degrading the environment or impinging on the well-being of other people. Although there is no general agreement about the precise meaning of sustainability, there seems to be a general consensus that three basic concepts are involved in sustainable measures: living within certain limits of the earths capacity to maintain life; understanding the interconnections among economy, society, and

environment; and maintaining a fair distribution of resources and opportunity for this generation and the next. Becker (2002) also suggests that the term sustainability is another side of the coin of competitiveness, and provides some form of organization. Sustainability is the acknowledgment of the various environmental and cultural diversities which could be transformed into advantages at different geographical scales. Here, sustainability is seen as the optimisation of natural alternatives that each local, region or nation has (through their individual cultural and environmental differences) in the process of development. 6.1 Resource Use and Sustainability Resources are the backbone of every economy and provide two basic functions - raw materials for production of goods and services, and environmental services. A common classification of natural resources is as follows (de Zeeuw, 2000, in EC-DG Environment, 2002): Non renewable and non recyclable resources such as fossil fuels Non renewable but recyclable resources, such as minerals


Quickly renewable resources such as fish Slowly renewable resources such as forests Environmental resources, such as air, water and soil Flow resources, such as solar and wind energy The issue of depletion plays an important role in the use of non renewable and renewable natural resources. In the renewable resources depletion occurs when extraction exceeds renewal rate. Environmental

services include the sink function which assimilates and recycles waste products from production and consumption. resources are not depleted and always exist. Flow and environmental However, environmental

resources can be degraded by pollution, and rendered useless. 6.2 Resource Use and Environmental Concerns Throughout history, resources have been found in abundance, depleted and substituted with others, often with new technology and development strategies. As societies became more complex with trading systems, natural resource surpluses were converted into financial and infrastructural wealth. Ruttan (1993) summarises that there were three waves of concern about resources and the environment. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, was the initial concern of quantitative relationships between resource availability and economic development which resulted in technical progress to increase rates of production. By the late 1960s and early 1970s, was the awareness that scarce natural resources led to limits in growth as well as the concern about the capacity of the environment to recycle pollution derived from growth. This led to a serious conflict of interests in the demand for environmental services. On one hand was the concern about the capacity of the ecosystem to process the pollution created by commodity production and consumption, and the other


was the increase in consumer demand for environmental amenities as a result of rapid growth in per capita income. Ecologists view natural systems as assets that serve as reservoirs of energy and materials and have been concerned about the resilience of these systems to recover following stress or intervention. Economists concentrate on the market and see that environmental quality has not been included in market transactions and thus been undervalued and underprovided. Their solution is basically to seek better methods of evaluation for environmental amenities (Howarth and Nogaard 1992, in Erekson, 1999). In 1972, the Club of Rome published a report called Limits to Growth, which drew worldwide attention to the limits of resources and an inevitable collapse of all life on earth if the current rate of resource depletion was not changed. This led to Ruttans third wave of concern of the mid-1980s which was about the implications of serious global environmental changes on environmental quality, food production, and human health for this and the next generations. The Club of Romes report was however disputed for a number of reasons. One was that the current reserves of resources were found to be much larger than was estimated, mostly due to advances in technology which improved and increased access to these resources. Secondly the use of resources did not grow as much as was predicted due to increasing resource efficiency, development of substitutes and increased levels of recycling. 6.3 Resource Use and the Future The Bruntland Commissions definition of sustainability to not preventing future generations from having the same sort of share of the resources and opportunities- or intergenerational equity - has also led to disagreeing opinions. Kennys (2004) simple summary of one school of thought is to question exactly how one would reconcile the issue of intergenerational


equity when exploiting non renewable resources, for example. In his opinion, although it is currently not known when energy resources will become uneconomic for exploitation; it is only common sense that at any fraction of use of the resources, only a small percentage of the original amount will be available for future generations - contradicting the whole concept of equity. The other side of the argument of resource availability and economic scarcity is recapitulated by Tilton (2001) in his example of the decline of the supply of whale oil as many species of whales were hunted almost to extinction, in the early 1960s. The development of low-cost petroleum products and electricity, replaced the needs for whale oil, and therefore prevented this physical decline from producing economic scarcity.

Examining the period between 1870 and 1957, Barnett and Morse (1963) found that both renewable and non-renewable resources (particularly nonrenewable mineral resources), became more and not less. As a result of new technologies which lowered the costs of finding new resources, allowed the exploitation of previously known but uneconomic resources, led to substitution of less scarce resources for more scarce resources and reduced the amount of resources needed to produce final goods and services. This on-going argument is a result of the different hypotheses that each side uses (Tilton 1996, in Tilton, 2001). Although conceding with the advantages of technological advances, the environmentalists believe that falling production costs, and rising environmental costs associated with resource depletion have not been included. Tilton (1991) suggests that there is currently a hybrid of both schools of thought which agrees with abandoning the fixed stock paradigm and rather focussing on the opportunity costs of finding and extracting mineral resources. According to Tilton, the opportunity cost paradigm says that with increasing prices, demand continues to fall such that at zero, production will


stop with some level of the non-renewable resources remaining (e.g. minerals). Economic depletion therefore occurs before physical depletion becomes an issue. In addition, higher prices strengthen the economic incentives to develop new cost saving technology, to discover new deposits, to recycle obsolete mineral commodities, and to find less-costly substitutes. Such self-correcting mechanisms, they believe, make the economy much more resilient to the threat of depletion than many suppose. Even with increase in population, this may lead to more good minds to create better technology. As Gregori (1987, p. 1243, 1247) points out, humans are the active agent, having ideas that they use to transform the environment for human purposes<.Resources are not fixed and finite, because they are not natural. They are a product of human ingenuity resulting form the creation of technology and science. Simply put, natural resources do not exist independent of man and are not materials that are found and exploited like buried treasure. They are created by mankind. The pessimists on the other hand are well aware that these forces, and in particular new technology, have in the past kept mineral costs and prices from rising. Their concern, however, is for the future. They see the demand for mineral commodities rising rapidly, and question the wisdom of assuming that market incentives and new technology can indefinitely keep mineral scarcity in check. New technology for them is a two-edge sword, to be viewed with some suspicion. Whiles being beneficial (such as lower-cost mineral commodities), it also creates serious problems (such as global warming and loss of biodiversity). Future trends in resource availability will therefore depend largely on the outcome of the cost-increasing effects of depletion and the cost-reducing effects of new technology.


7.0 STRATEGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE PLANNING AND PROTECTION Poor environmental resource planning may lead to environmental problems. According to UNCHS (1989), an environmental problem is taken to mean either an inadequate supply of a resource essential to human health or wellbeing or urban production or the presence of pathogens or toxic substances in the human environment which can damage human health or physical resources. To avoid this environmental problem, part of the solution is adequate environmental planning, which would lead to sustainable environment and development. Sustainable environment may connote the use of environmental environment. According to Arunsi (1998) every environmental planning and development problem starts with man and his ability to think up, possible strategies for environmental resource planning. These include: 1. Legislation on the control of hazards from exploration and exploitation of environmental resources and. their implementation 2. Land use demarcation/planning/control 3. Zoning 4. Public participation in poly formulation Environmental education and en1igitenment 5. Cost-benefit analysis of any action 1. Legislation on the Control of Hazards from Exploration and Exploitation of Environmental Resources and Their Implementation. As a matter of fact there is need for putting in place effective legislation. There have been some legislations especially in the oil industry in Nigeria. These include the Oil pipeline Act (1958); Petroleum Regulations (1967), Oil in Navigation Waters Act No. 34 (1968); the International Convention for the prevention of pollution of the sea by oil (1954), the Petroleum Act of 1969. The resources without undue adverse effects on the


problem or weakness of this planning motive is lack of or ineffective implementation. According to Anne Ene-Ita (1984) Looking at the state of affairs, it appears as if little or no cognizance is taken of these existing laws since there is no mechanism to enforce them by the government. However, despite this initial missing link, more legislation has been put in place since then not only for the oil industry, but also for other solid mineral resources. As solid minerals, the first major statutory provision for controlling the pollution of land, air and water, in Nigeria was the minerals Act of 1946. There was also the Minerals (Safety) Regulations of 1963 and their updates. The gap is practical prosecution of defaulters. Part of the control on the exploitation/exploration is for explorers/exploiters to observe mining regulations so as to generate the lowest level of pollution. There is the need to enhance the monitoring of oil spill programmes to ensure the fuller enforcement of the various petroleum decrees and regulations. Other policies worthy of monitoring and re-invigoration include: The policies of Ministry of Environment The Natural Resources Conservation Council set up via Decree 50 of 1989. The National Policy on the Environment The National Environmental Impact Assessment Policy of 1992. There is the need to implement the Town Planning Law of 1992 to the fullest which made for the creation of planning commission at the federal level, planning boards at the state level and planning authorities at the local government levels. It seems that there would not be a better environment without a vibrant planning system (Agwu, 2000).


2. Land Use Planning/Control There is the need for adequate land use demarcation, planning and control. Areas noted for the production of certain natural resources such as crude oil and solid minerals should be appropriately demarcated and regarded as fragile zones. In this respect people who wish to dwell there would regard themselves as endangered species. Moreover, fuller attention would be given to these environmental resources (solid minerals and oil) areas for their fuller monitoring or exploration/exploitation to enhance environmental quality. 3. Zoning Mineral resources area should be zoned off from heavy settlement to avoid the risk of environmental degradation from mineral exploration/exploitation in such areas. In the case of crude oil, pipelines should be zoned off from water bodies and residential areas as much as possible to guard against the catastrophic consequences of oil spills and their deleterious effects. In the case of the Niger Delta where there are lots of swampy areas a different approach could be adopted. 4. Public Participation in Policy Formulation As much as possible the people in mineral and fossil fuel producing areas should be involved in policies affecting them to ensure fuller compliance when the policies are finally adopted. The federal constitution of Nigeria states that exploitation of human or natural resources in any form whatsoever for reasons other than the good of the community shall be prevented. People have risen from riverine areas of Nigeria to oppose the exploitation of sub-surface resources. The involvement of the affected citizens in policies of mineral exploration or exploitation would make them bear the pain in the event of environmental degradation from associated activities. They would equally help in monitoring other exploration/exploitation projects to conform


with legally stipulated standards. They would not equally involve themselves in tampering with oil pipelines or installations. 5. Environmental Education and Enlightenment Environmental Resources Conservation and Preservation The public needs to be extensively educated on how to preserve environmental resources. For example, forest resources should not be unduly exploited. People should be educated on the dangers of tampering with oil pipes and on the hazards of exposing oneself to industrial hazards and on how to adapt in cases of oil spillage, mine explosions, exposure to gas flaring fumes, acid rains etc. Environmental education and public participation give increasing awareness of environmental, precautions as far as environmental resources are concerned. 6. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Any Action Programmes should be considered in terms of costs and benefits. In terms of environmental resources, the cost should be in terms of number of deaths of plants, animals and man arising from land, air and water pollution, oil spillage, land excavation for mining, deforestation etc. These are not normally easy to quantify. For instance, what is the cost of the loss of one human being arising from environmental resource? The disaster benefits of harnessing from or enjoying an




exploration/exploitation are normally in terms of revenue, foreign exchange employment etc. But can the benefits match the costs? There should be a standard measures for weighting the costs and benefits of environmental resources exploitation in any exploitation of environmental resource in which the costs outweigh the benefits, given

standard weighting, the exploitation should be stopped.


7. Alternative Energy Sources Finally, adequate planning policies and programmes to prevent pollution should be made for the use of energy sources. In this case the use of oil, gas, coal, etc with pollution tendencies should be replaced with renewable energy sources of solar energy, wind/hydropower etc. This should be the first strategy towards environmental resource planning.

8.0 CONCLUSION Environmental resources planning is not an easy task. Environmental resources which man enjoys have costs in terms of pollution of all kinds such as deaths, land degradation etc and benefits in terms of revenue, foreign exchange, etc. We should look at the two faces and evolve programmes for environmental preservation while fully enjoying our environmental resources. This could be achieved through appropriate planning programmes. Planners have an uphill task in this direction so as to realize this call for sustainable environment. The land use policies in Nigeria have been largely ineffective in controlling land use and the environment at large. This is due to the outdated nature of some of these policies, non-implementation, and other factors as seen above. These policies need to be reviewed in line with the current situation after extensive and intensive studies. Also, the implementing agencies need to be empowered by way of adequate quality trained staff and improved and adequate funding. This will greatly improve environmental control through land use policies.


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