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Unit 3: Matter





3.1 What is Matter?

Chapter 3: Matter Everything (living or non living things), which has mass and occupies space is called matter .

Heat Non-matter do not have mass and do not occupy space



3.2 The States of Matter

Matter is made up of many fine and tiny small discrete particles We may determine the state of matter by their arrangement of particles

Experiments :To show that matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles
A copper sulphate crystals is drop to the clear water The clear water soon becomes blue in colour The particles of blue crystals separates and mixed the space between the water particles

Few days later the balloon becomes smaller This is because air is made up of many fine particles thus allowed it to diffuse through the tiny pores of the wall of balloon

Three states of matter

Experiment (I): Arrangement of particle in solid

There are spaces between the solid particle (gel). These allow the potassium permanganate to move around between the gel particles in gel tube

Experiment (II): Arrangement of particle in liquid

Water and alcohol are liquid form of particles, therefore the particle of water and alcohol fill the empty spaces of each other

Experiment (III): Arrangement of particle in gas

The gas particle can move very fast and freely in the jar because there are lots of spaces between the gas particles that allowed the gas particle in air to move very far apart one another

Brownian motion
Brownian motion is the movement of particles without direction and this can be seen by viewing a smoke cell under microscope

3.2 The Concept of Density

Density is defined as mass per unit volume
Mass (g)

Density (g/cm3) =


The density of a substance increases if the mass is increases increases, the volume is decreases

How to compare the densities of objects An object which is less dense will float in a liquid which is denser. An object which is denser will sink in a liquid that is less dense

3.4 The Use of Properties of Matter in Everyday Life

Gases can be compressed and transported in the form of liquid

Petroleum gases are liquefied under high pressure and stored in gas cylinder which is more economical and easily transported to our homes

Applying the concept of density (ship and boat)

The air space in ships and boats enables it to float on the water surface regardless of its weights Therefore, the density of a ship or boat is lower than water

Hot air balloon

o Fill the balloon with helium which is less dense than the air outside the balloon o To raise the hot air balloon, heated the air in the balloon. Air temperature increases when heated and become less dense than the air outside o To lower the balloon, reduce the air temperature in the balloon and the cooled air will become denser than the air outside

Buoy and float

Buoy filled with air will float on the surface of sea to acts as a guide to sailors for safe journey A float is used to keep someone to float stay at their position in the sea and avoid drowning

Transporting logs
Logs (timbers) transported by river, since timbers are less dense than water . They float on water.