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NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES - LECTURE
1. Non-conventional Energy Sources Non-conventional Energy Sources – also referred to as renewable energy sources, these are actually energy flows which are replenished as they are used, hence, the use of the term renewable. These are characterized by a maximum theoretical rate at which energy may be extracted in a renewable mode, that is, the rate at which new energy is arriving or flowing into the reservoirs associated with many of the renewable energy flows. All forms of energy sources with the exception of geothermal energy, salinity gradient and tidal energy are indirect manifestations of solar energy. 2. Solar Energy There are many applications for the direct use of solar thermal energy, space heating and cooling, water heating, crop drying and solar cooking. Solar Constant = 1353 W/m2 Useful energy from the sun is between 10 AM – 2 PM = 1000 W/m2 3. Solar Radiation Phenomena a. Atmospheric scattering by air molecules, water vapor, dust. b. Atmospheric absorption by O3 (ozone), H2O, CO2. 4. Forms of Solar Radiation a. Beam or direct radiation – without having beam scattered by the atmosphere. b. Diffuse radiation – direction is changed by scattering. c. Total or global solar radiation – the sum of beam and diffuse radiation. 5. Pyranometer Pyranometer – is the instrument used to measure the total solar radiation. 6. Photovoltaic Cell Photovoltaic cell – is a device which converts solar energy to electrical energy. 7. Solar Collectors Solar Collectors – whose ideal characteristics are high absorptivity and low emissivity. 7.1 Flat Plate Collectors (FPC) a. Area absorbing solar radiation is the same as the area intercepting solar radiation. b. Uses both beam and diffuse radiation. c. Does not require orientation. d. Little maintenance. e. Working fluid is either air or water. f. Measure of performance is by means of collection efficiency. Collection efficiency = useful gain / incident solar radiation. 7.2 Focusing or concentrating collectors a. Utilize optical systems, either reflectors or refractors. b. Uses beam radiation only. c. Needs tracking. 1. Total or full-tracking. 2. Fixed-reflector, tracking-receiver. 3. Fixed-reflector, tracking-reflector. 1
Solid absorbent 8. Open a.LECTURE d. 2. Continuous 1. 1. 8. Array or heliostat (reflectors) f. a.4 Solar power conversion a. auxiliary heating equipment. Plane receiver.2 Solar space heating.J. e. Measure of performance is by means of concentration ratio. Forced circulation system – requires a pump to circulate water. 2. Solar vapor-compression system. Classifications: 1. tank may not be located above collector. Circular: photovoltaic cell. 2 . Closed a. Cadmium-sulfide (CdS). Conversion and Applications of Solar Energy 8. Intermittent 1.1 Solar water heating systems (swsh). 2. a. no circulation at night. Liquid absorbent 2. 2. Parabolic concentrators. Concentration ratio = aperture area / receiver area e. Natural circulation system – tank is located above collector. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES . 3. Gallium arsenide 4. Absorption system b. 3. lithium bromide (LiBr) – water.g. Hot water systems 8. auxiliary equipment may be needed. Concentrator types. Classifications 1. Liquid desiccant b. Solar thermal electric power (STEP). Single crystal silicon – most widely-used and technically-developed. Solid desiccant b. The purpose of concentrator is to increase the flux of radiation n receiver.3 Solar space cooling. b. Cylindrical: focus on a line. a. Thermoelectric and thermionic b. Ho t air systems b. Fresnel reflectors or refractors 4. employs check valve whose purpose is to prevent reverse circulation of water and to prevent nighttime thermal losses from the collector. Flat plate collector. 8. Photovoltaic (PV) devices or solar cells 1. storage tank. plane reflectors 2.
Propeller type d. To drive rice and corn mills. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES . yaw-active. 10. Savonius rotors – employ S-shaped blades and are primarily drag devices. b. Panemone type 12. 1. 11. To drive water pumps. Darrieus rotors c. Dutch sail type e. b.J. Water pumping which could be used directly for irrigation. d. Site selection Wind power is proportional to the cube of the wind velocity. Pumped-hydro storage energy. Used in the production of hydrogen by electrolysis of seawater (in the case of off-shore winds). Turbine type b. Thermal energy storage systems. Types of windmills. a. e. Cross-wind horizontal-axis rotors 13. Conversion and Applications of Wind Energy a. Used for direct heat applications. To generate power. Horizontal-axis rotors – axis of rotation is parallel to the direction of the wind. d. c. Flywheel 15. 14. meaning it changes position depending on wind direction. Turbulence. To charge batteries. Acceleration or retardation. b. design is simplet. Rotor type c. Compressed air storage systems. Hydrogen gas produced from pyrolysis of water. Batteries in the form of chemical energy. can be either lift or drag-type. Typical uses of wind power. Types of wind energy collectors a.LECTURE 9. c. b. Windshear. or rapid change in speed and/or direction. 2. Used in centralized utility applications to drive synchronous AC electrical generators. 3 . Vertical-axis rotors – do not have to be turned into the wind as wind stream direction changes. Wind Power Winds – are a result of air motion caused by uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun and rotation of the earth. Wind Energy Storage Systems a. a. c. Factors to be considered a. Used to compress air for use in a variety of applications including operating electricity during peak demand periods of a public utility system. e. d. f. c. b.
This is used as a fuel for cooking and Lighting. Fuel wood d. Bio-mass source a. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES . Herbaceous crops 4 . Fast-growing trees: ipil-ipil 2. above 99% water g. Aquatic plants: water hyacinth h.J.LECTURE 16. Crop residues c. Biofuels: Converting biomass into liquid fuels for transportation. Wind Power Performance Betz’s law – is a theory about the maximum possible energy to be derived from a wind turbine. or converting it into a gaseous fuel or oil. The factor 0. Biopower: Burning biomass directly. to generate electricity.02 – 0. Oil and hydrocarbon crops: coconut oil 4. Bioproducts: Converting biomass into chemicals for making products that typically are made from petroleum. 18. 19. b. Bio-Energy or Bio-mass Biogas is a good fuel. The ideal or maximum theoretical efficiency. Urban refuse: paper. also called power coefficient. Sugar and starch crops: cassava in ethanol production 3. This mixture is the biogas. vegetable wastes and weeds undergo decomposition in the absence of oxygen in a biogas plant and form a mixture of gases. Have you thought how this is formed? Biomass like animal excreta. Aerobic and anaerobic bio-conversion process a. Sugar crops e.593 is known as Betz’s coefficient. Total power available from the wind 1 Ptotal = ρAV 3 2 Maximum available power from the windmill 1 Pmax = ρ AV 3η c 2 where: ρ = wind density A = swept area = π 2 D 4 V = wind velocity D = blade diameter 17. c. Municipal sewage-sewage sludge: 0.03% solids. It is the maximum fraction of the power in a wind stream that can be extracted. Manure b. yard and food wastes f. Its main constituent is methane. of a wind turbine is the ratio of maximum power from the wind to the total power available in the wind. Energy farming: denthrothermal or energy crops 1.
Inexpensive b. In the Philippines. Tidal Power Tidal power – is basically hydro-electric power utilizing the difference in elevation between high and low tide to produce energy. Pyrolysis – an irreversible chemical change caused by the action of heat in the absence of oxygen. A basin is required to catch the sea water during high tide while the water drives the turbine. Thermochemical 1. Convertible to gaseous/liquid fuels e. 2. 24. Low bulk density d. Simple to store 22. Bio-mass Conversion Processes a. Ethanol fermentation 2. and exhaust to a jet condenser maintained at the saturation pressure of the subsurface water temperature pumped from the sea bottom. Surface water which is at relatively high temperature is pumped to an evaporator where the water evaporates into saturated steam. Biochemical: introduction of microorganisms 1. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES . Complete combustion takes place with excess oxygen or at least 100% theoretical oxygen. Generates additional employment g. This steam drives a single stage turbine thereby producing electricity. whereas gasification takes pace with an oxygen deficit. High moisture content. commercialization is not full-scale since it is found that the average difference is only about 6 meters. 21. 5 .J. Less CO2 build-up f. Combustion/gasificiation Gasification – is the conversion of a solid fuel to a combustible gas as a means of thermochemical reaction. it utilizes the temperature difference between the ocean surface water and the water at the sea bottom. Low sulfur content c. Transpo uneconomical e. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) This is otherwise known as low thermal head plant.LECTURE 20. approximately 50% c. Disadvantages a. only about 20 MJ/kg b. Rarely homogeneous f. Low concentration 23. Low thermal content. Anaerobic digestion b. Reduces environmental hazard d. Advantages a.
environmentally benign and reliable for power production. These electrons can return to hot metal through an external load thereby producing electrical power. is passed through an expansion tube lined with a strong magnetic field. Fuel Cell Fuel cell – is a device which converts chemical energy to electrical energy. Fuel cells are efficient. 25. Thermionic Converter Thermionic converter – is a device which converts heat energy directly to electrical energy. Magneto Hydrodynamic Plant Magneto hydrodynamic generator – where combustion gases produced in a combustion chamber at high pressure and temperature and seeded with metal vapor to increase its electrical conductivity. These electrons can travel through a space and collected on a cooled metal. Fuel cells produce electricity from an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. thereby generating electricity. 27. 26. full-scale commercialization is also not economically-viable because of the small temperature difference out waters have. The use of fuel cells has been demonstrated for stationary/portable power generation and other applications.J. This induces an electric voltage in the gas conductor and effect the flow of electrons through the electrodes along the magnetic field. All metals and some oxides have free electrons which are released on heating. End - 6 . NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES .LECTURE In the Philippines.
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