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Proprietary & Restricted Rights Notice

© 2007 UGS Corp. All Rights Reserved. This software and related documentation are proprietary to UGS Corp. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NX Nastran is an enhanced proprietary version developed and maintained by UGS Corp. MSC is a registered trademark of MSC.Software Corporation. MSC.Nastran and MSC.Patran are trademarks of MSC.Software Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

2

NX Nastran 4 New Features

Summary of NX Nastran Release 4

This release includes important new capabilities that further extend the breadth and enhance the performance of NX Nastran. These capabilities include: • • • • • • • • • • • • Improvements to Advanced Nonlinear Solutions Surface Contact for SOL 101 Enhancements for Analyzing Composites PBEND/CBEND Enhancements Modal Dynamics Improvements Treatment of Superelement Boundary Elements Addition of Rotor Dynamics Capability HDMP Improvements Eigenvalue Solution Performance Improvements 64-Bit Memory Upgrade Variable Little/Big Endian for OUTPUT2 and OUTPUT4 ﬁles Miscellaneous Enhancements

NX Nastran 4 New Features

3

Chapter

1 Improvements to Advanced Nonlinear Solutions

**Introducing the new Advanced Nonlinear Explicit Solver SOL 701
**

The new SOL 701 Explicit solution is useful for impact-type problems that have shorter time duration. The inputs for a SOL 701 solution are similar to those used in SOL 601, except for a few parameters, particularly those on the NXSTRAT bulk entry. For detailed descriptions of the Advanced Nonlinear Implicit (SOL 601) and Explicit (SOL 701) Solvers, see the Advanced Nonlinear Theory and Modeling Guide.

**General Enhancements to the Advanced Nonlinear Solution Capabilities
**

The following enhancements apply to SOL 601 and the new SOL 701. • Improvements to the Nonlinear Material capabilities: – Using the new MATHE bulk data entry, you can now enter Hyperelastic (rubber-like) material model inputs. The models available for use on the MATHE include the Generalized Mooney-Rivlin, Arruda-Boyce, HyperFoam and Ogden. You can enter stress-strain data directly on the MATHP. A curve ﬁt using the Generalized Mooney-Rivlin material model will be done during the solution from the values entered on the TABI and TABD tables.

–

• • • •

You can now deﬁne nonlinear springs using the CBUSH1D/PBUSH1D bulk data entries. You can enter material coordinate systems directly on CQUADi and CTRIi element deﬁnitions by using a coordinate system ID in the MCID ﬁeld. You can create new coordinate systems relative to existing ones using the RID ﬁeld on the CORD2C, CORD2R, and CORD2S bulk data entries. The Advanced Nonlinear solvers will now take into account the half thickness of shell elements when contact conditions are deﬁned. To turn this option on, set the ﬁeld OFFTYPE equal to 2 on the contact set parameters bulk entry BCTPARA. As the CQUAD4 now supports incompatible modes by default, it will now have a more realistic (softer) in-plane bending stiffness when used with an Advanced Nonlinear analysis. Specify ICMODE = 0 on the NXSTRAT entry to turn the incompatible modes off. The CQUAD4 element formulation has been improved for large strain analysis. Good accuracy can now be obtained with the CQUAD4 without using very small time steps.

•

•

NX Nastran 4 New Features

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Chapter 1

Improvements to Advanced Nonlinear Solutions

• •

The conversion of the CQUAD8 to a 9-grid shell element is now supported through the use of the ELCV parameter on the NXSTRAT bulk entry. The output of gasket and contact results is now available in the .f06 ﬁle.

1-2

NX Nastran 4 New Features

Chapter

2

Surface Contact for SOL 101

NX Nastran now provides a surface to surface contact capability that you can use with the SOL 101 linear statics solution. Including contact conditions in your bulk data deck allows the SOL 101 solution to search and detect when element faces come into contact. The software then creates contact elements, thus preventing the faces from penetrating and allowing ﬁnite sliding with optional friction effects.

The solver uses pre-deﬁned regions of element free faces to detect contact conditions in the model. From each element free face, it projects a normal, then checks to see if any of the normals intersect with other element free faces. A contact element is created during the solution if: • • NX Nastran ﬁnds an intersection between element faces, and the distance between the two faces is equal to or less than a distance that you specify.

For more information on linear contact, see “Surface Contact for SOL 101” in the NX Nastran User’s Guide. Note: The term “contact element” is used to describe a transient element created by the solver to detect and analyze contact. You cannot create a contact element, and it is not documented in the NX Nastran Element Library.

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Chapter

3 Enhancements for Analyzing Composites

New enhancements are included in this release to expand the capabilities of composites.

**Addition of the SMEAR and SMCORE options on the PCOMP
**

When a structure is made of various material layers stacked together, creating what is known as a composite or laminate, the PCOMP bulk entry is used to deﬁne its properties. The options in the LAM ﬁeld of the PCOMP entry deﬁne how a laminate input will be interpreted during the solve. The previously available options were: • • MEM - which computes only the membrane terms of each laminate layer. BEND - which computes only the bending terms of each laminate layer.

In this release of NX Nastran 4, two additional LAM options are: • The SMEAR option approximates the composite solution by treating the bending calculation as if it is uniform through the entire composite thickness. The membrane and bending coupling effects between the laminate layers are ignored when using this option. The result is analogous to ‘smearing’ the calculations between all composite layers. The SMCORE option allows for a skin and core combination where the calculations at the skin are smeared with no membrane and bending coupling between the layers. The calculations for the core inertial terms with this option are treated exactly, and the core stiffness terms are ignored.

•

These four options for the LAM ﬁeld are particularly useful early in a design stage when it is safe to assume that the stacking sequence effects are not considered as signiﬁcant as other general design variables, and thus can be approximated.

**Temperature-Dependent Composites
**

In previous releases, the laminate properties for a composite material were calculated once at the beginning of the analysis using the reference temperature with no gradient through the thickness. The thermal strain was calculated using a secant method with the coefﬁcient of thermal expansion at the initial and load temperatures. For a nonlinear analysis where the

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Chapter 3

Enhancements for Analyzing Composites

temperature could change signiﬁcantly through the thickness, a more realistic method was

needed. In NX Nastran 4, the laminate properties can be updated with the temperature-dependent material properties of the individual plies by taking into account the temperature at the grid points and the thermal gradient at those locations when speciﬁed. A new parameter, COMPMATT, has been created to control whether the temperature-dependent properties for the plies are updated for each load step. The default for COMPMATT is NO, indicating that the temperature-dependent properties for the plies will be computed only at the reference temperature given on the PCOMP Bulk entry. If the parameter is set to YES, the temperature-dependent properties for the plies are updated and smeared at the current temperature for each load step. These enhancements apply only to nonlinear analysis solution 106, and CQUAD4/CTRIA3 elements. In addition, temperature dependence for shell orthotropic materials is now required to compute the laminate material properties. A new MATT8 card has been created to support temperature-dependent orthotropic properties.

3-2

NX Nastran 4 New Features

Chapter

4 PBEND/CBEND Enhancements

The PBEND/CBEND element has been updated in this release with the following more current standards and practices: • The ASME standard, Nuclear code case N-319-3 (January 17, 2000 approval date), which deﬁnes ﬂexibility factors in both the in-plane and out-of-plane directions for pressurized pipe systems. You must set the FSI option on the PBEND entry to 4 in order to activate this new ASME code. Options to analyze miter bend ﬂexibility and stress intensiﬁcation factors deﬁned for both a “closely spaced miter bend” and a “widely spaced miter bend”. The equations and case information are included in the CBEND element section of the NX Nastran Element Library Reference Manual. You must use two additional ﬁelds on the PBEND entry when using these new miter bend conﬁgurations: miter spacing at centerline ‘SACL’ and a one-half angle between adjacent miter axis ‘ALPHA’ (as shown below).

•

Set the FSI option on the PBEND entry to 5 in order to active this new ASME code. An elbow bend will be assumed if ‘ALPHA’ is not deﬁned (blank). If ‘ALPHA’ is deﬁned and ‘SACL’ is not deﬁned, then the widely spaced miter bend is used. When both ‘SACL’ and ‘ALPHA’ are deﬁned, the closely spaced miter bend will be used if the spacing at the center line is less than RM*(1 + tan(ALPHA)), where RM is the mean cross-sectional radius of the curved pipe. • A new ‘FLANGE’ option on the PBEND entry now lets you deﬁne ﬂanges on one or both ends by setting the ‘FLANGE’ option to 1 or 2. The default value of zero indicates no ﬂanges are present. The ‘FLANGE’ option is only supported for ASME code B31.1-2001 for elbow and closely spaced miter bends.

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Chapter 4

PBEND/CBEND Enhancements

•

User-deﬁnable ﬂexibility and stress intensiﬁcation factors will now be handled by setting the FSI option to 6, and will be added to the PBEND entry. The ﬂexibility factors are: ‘Kx’ = torsional factor; ‘Ky’ = out-of-plane factor; and ‘Kz’ = in-plane factor. The stress intensiﬁcation factors are: ‘Sy’ = out-of-plane factor and ‘Sz’ = in-plane factor. The values of Kx, Ky, Kz, Sy, and Sz all must be ≥ to 1.0.

For more information, see the PBEND/CBEND bulk entries in the NX Nastran Quick Reference Guide, and in the NX Nastran Element Library Reference Manual.

4-2

NX Nastran 4 New Features

Chapter

5

Modal Dynamics Improvements

Improvements have been made to the residual vector capability, and new modal energy output options are available for SOL 111.

**Residual Vector Enhancements
**

In version 4.0, the residual vector capability includes mass-related vectors when coupled mass is requested, which is done by setting the parameter COUPMASS greater than 0. By default, the parameter COUPMASS is set to -1, indicating that the solution will use the lumped mass matrices. Because residual vector generation has been shown to be more accurate than the mode acceleration method, residual vector generation now occurs automatically when there is enforced motion present, unless you have speciﬁcally requested mode acceleration via the PARAM, MODACC entry.

**Output of Modal Energy for SOL 111
**

You can now request modal kinetic and strain energy for a modal frequency response solution (SOL 111). The new case control entry MODALE has been created to request the output of these results in either SORT1 or SORT2 formats. These modal energy results now show how the energy of each normal mode contributes to a dynamic response calculation. The Modal Strain Energy Output is computed using:

The Modal Kinetic Energy Output is computed using:

NX Nastran 4 New Features

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Chapter

6 Treatment of Superelement Boundary Elements

Previously, elements whose grid points were all external boundary points of a superelement (SE, would contribute their stiffness, mass, damping, and grid-point weight to the residual structure (RS) rather than the SE. In version 4.0, a new AUTOSEEL parameter allows you to include these elements in the SE. Set AUTOSEEL = YES for these elements to automatically be assigned to the SE. The default is AUTOSEEL = NO, meaning the elements are assigned to the RS. In instances where an external grid exists on more than one SE, this new automatic assignment of elements becomes ambiguous. In such cases, you must explicitly select the SE these elements will belong to using the SEELT bulk data entry. This only applies to traditional super element deﬁnitions; partitioned super element deﬁnitions using the “BEGIN SUPER” capability are not affected, since elements are already assigned to speciﬁc super elements.

NX Nastran 4 New Features

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Chapter

7 Addition of Rotor Dynamics Capability

A new Rotor Dynamics capability has been added to NX NASTRAN 4 for the analysis of structures with rotating parts such as aircraft engines and automobiles. This new capability, which is incorporated into the modal complex solution SOL 110, generates centrifugal and gyroscopic matrices in addition to the existing mass, damping, and stiffness matrices. Rotor Dynamics also includes internal and external damping matrices for rotor stability. You can use Rotor Dynamics to analyze a broad spectrum of rotating parts, such as: • • • • Turbines Generators Automotive wheels and drive train Pumps

With NX Nastran Rotor Dynamics, you can: • • • analyze single or multiple rotors in either a ﬁxed or rotating reference system solve unsymmetrical models execute both a synchronous and asynchronous analysis.

Rotor parameters are deﬁned using a new bulk data entry ROTORD, which is selected with the new case control entry RMETHOD. You can write frequency and rotor speed results data from a Rotor Dynamics analysis into a Microsoft Excel ﬁle, then use it to create Campbell’s diagrams. These diagrams, which are plots of the eigenfrequencies over rotor speeds, help determine the points where resonance occurs, and the subsequent design changes needed to avoid these conditions at rotor operating speeds. Convert Campbell’s diagram from a ﬁxed coordinate reference to one that rotates to ﬁnd whirl modes (asynchronous complex modes), along with the directions of the whirling motions. For more information on using this new capability, see the NX Nastran Rotor Dynamics User’s Guide.

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Chapter

8

HDMP Improvements

Improvements have been made to the pre-solution and post-solution phases of the Hierarchic Domain Parallel Normal Modes (HDMP) via Lanczos technology. The new GPARTN module is required to take advantage of the enhancements. This module is a change to the HDMP data ﬂow. The SEQP module geometry partitioning is skipped and the GPARTN module is executed under the following conditions: • • setting the new optional “gpart” keyword to 1, and setting either the new keywords “fsegs” and “gdom”, or the previous keywords “dmp” and “nclust”.

In addition, two new command line keywords have been introduced to make HDMP submittal easier.

**Improved pre-solution phase
**

This improvement enables the execution of response analysis (SOL 111, 112) in a DMP fashion. Speciﬁcally, this allows the mode computation part to be executed as in SOL 103. This improved pre-solution phase also allows the partitioning of models with virtual mass (MFLUID) or when coupled matrices (acoustics) are applied. It should also perform better on models with extremely large number of MPCs (spot weld models). Example of HDMP performance running a modal frequency response solution (SOL 111) in NX Nastran 4 • • • • • • • • • NX Nastran V4, SOL 111 New GPARTN module used IBM p630 server 4 (1.5 GHz) CPUs 800 excitation frequencies 80 modes in frequency range ~710,000 grids, ~760,000 elements ~4.2 mill total, ~3.6 mill free DOF Serial Execution: ~760 minutes, ~210MW, ~30GB HDMP with 4 CPUs: ~200 minutes, ~170MW, ~19GB

NX Nastran 4 New Features

8-1

Chapter 8

HDMP Improvements

**Improved post-solution phase
**

Previously, the eigenvectors were distributed after the READ module in the geometric domain method. In version 4, they are gathered up by a newly created GMERGE module. This enables the use of frequency domain distributed modal calculations and serial data recovery operations in connection with the distributed eigenvalue analysis techniques in modal response solutions.

**New HDMP keywords
**

The new keywords “fsegs” and “gdoms” have been created to simplify HDMP submittal, and can be used in place of the “dmp” and “nclust” keywords. fsegs : Speciﬁes the number of frequency segments for an HDMP analysis. It must be deﬁned in conjunction with the “gdoms”: keyword. The value must be an integer greater than 1. It is equivalent to the”numseg” and “nclust” keywords. gdoms : Speciﬁes the number of geometry domains for an HDMP analysis. It must be deﬁned in conjunction with the “fsegs” keyword. The value must be an integer greater than 1. The product of “fsegs” x “gdoms” will be the same value as the “dmparallel” keyword.

8-2

NX Nastran 4 New Features

Chapter

9 Eigenvalue Solution Performance Improvements

The performance of real eigenvalue analysis solutions has been improved in this release. The improvement: • • reduces the cost of the orthogonalization process is applicable in SOL 103, 110, 111, 112, and 200

These new performance improvements are controlled by the system cell 417, named ’redorth’. They are switched on by the statement: nastran redorth=1 or nastran system(417)=1. The default is 0 (reduced-orthogonalization option turned off). Performance improvements are seen only in sparse models like car bodies. It is not effective in dense, engine-type eigenvalue problems. Example of Lanczos performance improvement in NX Nastran 4 using a car body model • • • • • • • • • NX Nastran V4, SOL 103 IBM p650 Power4+ (1.5 GHz) CPU ~380,000 grids, ~375,000 elements ~2.3 mill total DOF 0-200 Hz frequency range ~900 modes via Lanczos ~230 MW memory, ~60 GB disk NX Nastran 3: ~400 minutes of elapsed time NX Nastran 4: ~330 minutes of elapsed time

NX Nastran 4 New Features

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Chapter

10

64-bit Memory Upgrade

With ﬁnite element model sizes becoming larger, the need for increased memory allocation has become more important. In response to this need, new NX Nastran executables are available for AIX and HP-UX Itanium, which are compiled with a 64-bit integer size instead of 32-bits. The 32-bit integer executable can allocate up to 8 Gb of memory, while the new executable compiled with a 64-bit integer size can allocate approximately 20 million terabytes. Practically speaking, there are no machines currently supporting more than half a terabyte, thus the amount of memory these new executables can allocate is only limited by the amount of memory installed on the machine. With the addition of the 64-bit integer executable type, there are now three different executables available for Nastran: • • • 32-bit word size and 32-bit memory pointer size, designated ILP-32. Integers are 32-bits and ﬂoating point uses two 32-bit words. 32-bit word size and 64-bit memory pointer size, designated LP-64. Integers are 32-bits and ﬂoating point uses two 32-bit words. 64-bit word size and 64-bit memory pointer size, designated ILP-64. Integers are 64-bits and ﬂoating point uses one 64-bit word.

The table below lists system conﬁgurations and supported executable types: Hardware - OS HP9000 - HP-UX Intel - Linux Intel - Windows IBM RS/6000 - AIX (64-bit) Sun SPARC - Solaris SGI - IRIX 64 X86_64 - Linux (AMD Opteron/EM64T) Intel Itanium - HP-UX Intel Itanium - Linux SGI Altix - SGI Propack ILP-32 X X X X X X X X X X LP-64 X ILP-64

X

When the ILP-32 and LP-64 executables are used, the bytes_per_word is 4, but when the new ILP-64 executable is used, the bytes_per_word is 8. This difference is important to remember when you are specifying memory with the “memory” keyword. See the “memory” keyword in the NX Nastran Quick Reference Guide for more information.

NX Nastran 4 New Features

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Chapter 10

64-bit Memory Upgrade

**ILP-64 executable ﬁle formats
**

The ILP-32 and LP-64 both write binary output ﬁles as 32-bit. However, the new ILP-64 produces a very different binary ﬁle format since all integers and ﬂoating point data are written out with a 64-bit precision. Depending on the use of the binary output ﬁles from a 64-bit machine, you may need to convert a 64-bit ﬁle’s format back to 32-bit. For example, post-processors currently only support 32-bit integers, thus the need to convert .op2 ﬁles to 32-bit. Three new parameters have been created to convert binary output ﬁles from 64-bit machines to 32-bit: • • • OP2FMT: converts a 64-bit integer .op2 ﬁle to 32-bit integer format on an ILP-64 machine. OP4FMT: converts a 64-bit integer .op4 ﬁle to 32-bit integer format on an ILP-64 machine. INP4FMT: allows a 32-bit integer .op4 ﬁle to be read with the INPUT4 module on an ILP-64 machine.

In addition to binary ﬁle format changes, the .f04 and .f06 output ﬁles will have the following differences when written from ILP-64 machines: • • The matrix trailers and the format of ﬂoating point numbers will change, since all matrices that were double-precision will now show as single-precision. The exponent descriptor will be an “E” instead of a “D”.

The new ILP-64 executables have the following limitations: • • • You only convert those data blocks that are NDDL deﬁned from 64-bit to 32-bit. See chapter 3 of the NX Nastran DMAP Programmer’s Guide for more information on NDDL. All .op2 ﬁles written during a solution are in one precision format, that is, they are all either 32-bit or 64-bit precision .op2 ﬁles. The INPUT2 ﬁles are not converted.

10-2

NX Nastran 4 New Features

Chapter

11 Variable Little/Big Endian OUTPUT2 and OUTPUT4

The compatibility of binary results ﬁles becomes important in cases when you run NX Nastran on one type of workstation, then transfer your binary ﬁles to another for post processing. Previously, OUTPUT2 and OUTPUT4 ﬁles were always formatted differentl, depending on the workstation type which created them. This difference in formatting is more speciﬁcally related to the byte ordering for numerical data: • • “Big Endian” format indicates that the most signiﬁcant byte of data is stored at the lowest address. “Little Endian” format indicates that the least signiﬁcant byte of data is stored at the lowest address.

In general, Intel and Linux workstations use the Little Endian format, and UNIX use Big Endian. Running an NX Nastran solution on UNIX for example, then bringing the .op2 results ﬁle to an Intel workstation for post processing, creates an incompatibility. Previously, in order to convert binary ﬁles from one machine to another, you had to convert the ﬁles (.op2 ﬁles only) from machine A to a neutral format, and then on machine B, use the “rcout2” utility executable to convert the neutral ﬁles to the desired binary format. This process was tedious and disk-space intensive. In NX Nastran 4, the OUTPUT2, OUTPUT4, and INPUT4 modules have been enhanced to allow you to specify the format of your binary ﬁles. You can do this using the ASSIGN statement in the ﬁle management section. The ASSIGN statement has been updated with two new options on the FORM speciﬁer to control binary ﬁle formatting: “LITTLEENDIAN” and “BIGENDIAN”. This allows the .op2 and .op4 ﬁles to be directly imported into a post processor running on the target machine, thus saving time and disk space. The “LITTLEENDIAN” and “BIGENDIAN” format options have the following limitation: • Only datablocks which are NDDL deﬁned are converted from one endian format to the other.

NX Nastran 4 New Features

11-1

Chapter

12

Miscellaneous Enhancements

**Linux scripts are now compatible with the BASH shell
**

In NX Nastran version 4, Linux shell scripts have been rewritten to be compatible with the default BASH shell. This improvement eliminates the need to obtain alternate shells in order to work around memory and ﬁle size limitations in previous versions of NX Nastran. These shell scripts are no longer compatible with UNIX shell environments, thus Linux and UNIX installations can no longer exist under the same nfs/samba server installation.

**HP MPI now included with NX Nastran Installation
**

On Linux platforms, LAM MPI has been replaced by HP MPI, which is included with the NX Nastran installation. This standarizes the MPI version for Linux, which simpliﬁes the system requirements for running DMP & HDMP solutions.

**New pre-conditioner option for the element iterative solver
**

A new optional pre-conditioning option for the element iterative solver is now available in this release. It has been found to produce faster convergence for models which contain large numbers of elements with poor aspect ratios. To turn this new option on, enter ‘PRIMAL’ in the PRECOND ﬁeld on the ITER bulk data card.

NX Nastran 4 New Features

12-1

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