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I. GENERAL REMARKS Teacher Name: Adriana Fekete Office: Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, 58 T. Mihali st., Cluj-Napoca, room 016 (ground floor) Telephone: 0264-418655 E-mail: Course identification information: Course title: Practical course of business English Course code: EBL 1006, EBL 2006 first year, 2 semesters Course type: compulsory

The course addresses intermediate (Common European Framework of Reference B1) students. To help you decide what level you are, we suggest you use the following descriptors of language ability as given by the Common European Framework of Reference. level description Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help. Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need. Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans. Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options. Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.






Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent C2 presentation. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in more complex situations. (Source: It is absolutely necessary that students whose level is lower than intermediate should work individually to reach that level. To this purpose, students can use practical grammars which

contain essential theoretical information and practical tasks (see Suggested bibliography) or take English language courses offered by specialised institutions. COURSE DESCRIPTION Objectives The purpose of English for1st Year Business Students is to develop the written and oral communication skills of business students. The course focuses on two vital areas of the learning process: improving reading and writing skills as well as developing learning skills. The subject matter, drawn from various business fields, is not excessively specialised. Structure

Eight units are devoted to training students in the skills of reading, developing vocabulary, and writing. These units are designed to help students: Become familiar with the various vocabulary items related to business English Become familiar with the various expressions related to specific language functions Improving reading skills by focusing on both content and the use of theses expressions in task-based writing exercises Build up writing skills by practising the contextual use of the vocabulary items and focusing on grammar in controlled practice exercises. Learn and review basic business vocabulary

The structure of the units is systematic, concise and explicit, responsive to the variety of communicative circumstances in business. The content is formative, aiming at developing students awareness of the need for communicating correctly in a foreign language. Mainly designed to be used as self-study material, the book intends to encourage students to take individual study more seriously, to offer standardised exercises, to provide concrete examples, to focus on language use (knowledge of language, language skills, awareness of the nature of learning, awareness of the reading process, attitudes to reading: unknown words, strategies, meaning, opportunities for discussion/ exchanges of opinion). The texts provide opportunities for review and expansion of the skills throughout the year. Furthermore, the units organisation allows the student to take advantage of individual study. The abundance of material in the texts makes them easily adaptable to varying learner interests, student specialties, and language levels. The units of the book deal with texts that offer the possibility of learning specific vocabulary, grammar structures and functional language in appropriate contexts. The tasks students will have to carry out will help them develop their language skills in an integrated way, i.e. extracting the main ideas from a text// taking notes etc. The structure of most units is the following: a. Lead-in b. Reading c. Vocabulary development d. Language focus e. Functions The lead-in section is devised to introduce students to the topic of the unit. It consists of questions or exercises that forecast the subject matter to be dealt with in the reading section.

The reading section contains texts that offer both information connected with the business environment and the opportunity to improve and enrich students vocabulary with new words and expressions. The vocabulary development section offers explanation of some of the lexical items from the text and expands the learning context to the lexical areas of the words/ expressions studied. It presents both general and specialised vocabulary and the activities initiated here require sustained individual work with the dictionary. The language focus section starts from examples found in the text. It has two sub-sections: one that deals with the theoretical input of a certain grammar problem (rules, examples etc.) and the second Practice that contains different types of exercises. However, students should decide whether they need more practice and if so, they should use additional selfstudy materials (practical grammars). The functions section contains a number of expressions that represent certain language functions. This may help students become familiar with the context in which these expressions are used. The section also contains suggested writing activities in order to focus attention on individual activities that offer the possibility of making use of the knowledge acquired within each unit, as a whole. In some units there is a section entitled English in Use. This section aims at familiarising students with the structure of the Language in Use section of the language ability examination that they will have to take on graduation. Assessment

First semester - participation in classroom activities (oral) 50% - end of semester written test 50% Second semester - participation in classroom activities (oral) 50% - mid-semester written test 25% - end of semester written test 25%


Students should be able to use the vocabulary under INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS COMMUNICATION to communicate about: Communication in business settings Importance of communicating effectively Factors that influence effective communication Qualities of a good communicator Forms of communication Forms of written communication Forms of spoken communication Formal versus informal language Prevention of communication breakdowns Verbal and non-verbal communication share verb shoptalk noun [U] shorthand for sth small talk noun [U] speech noun stationery noun [U] talk noun [C, U] telegram noun [C] telex noun [C or U] template noun [C] tete-a-tete noun [C] text verb [T] the Internet noun virtual adjective well-mannered adjective window noun [C] word processing noun [U]


be in communication with somebody noun [U] FORMAL biodata noun [U] business card noun [C] by word of mouth communication noun conversation noun [C or U] corporate communication [U] correspondence noun [U] discourse noun FORMAL engage sb in conversation FORMAL etiquette noun [U] exchange noun face-to-face adjective facsimile noun [C] fax noun [C, U] formal adjective illegible adjective in short in writing indecipherable adjective informal adjective information noun [U] interface noun [C] IT noun [U] legible adjective manners plural noun means of communication noun [C] message verb [T] networking noun [U] nonverbal communication noun [U] pleasantry noun [C] FORMAL polite adjective political correctness noun [U] respect noun [U]

Students should be able to use the vocabulary under PRESENTATIONS to communicate about: Types of presentations made in business Preparing and planning a presentation Audience analysis Presentation materials Delivery techniques Body language and voice Signalling words and phrases Question-and-answer session Golden rules for presentations

address verb [T] FORMAL audience noun [C] board noun [C] body language noun [U] chart noun [ C ] file noun [C] flip chart noun [C] flow chart noun [C] folder noun [C] harangue noun [C] have the floor information overload noun [U] in-tray noun [C] keynote address/speech/speaker noun [C] language barrier noun [C] lecture noun [C] misunderstanding noun [C,U] monologue noun [C] non-verbal adjective

noticeboard noun [C] observer noun [C] onlooker noun [C] oration noun [C] FORMAL outline noun [C] out-tray noun [C] overhead transparency noun [C] overhead projector noun [C] pie chart noun presentation noun [ C, U ] printer noun [C] rephrase verb [T] ring binder noun [C] seminar noun [ C ] spectator noun [C] take the floor talk noun [C] visual aid noun [C] whiteboard noun [C] workshop noun [C]


Students should be able to use the vocabulary under COMPANY STRUCTURE to communicate about: Business aims of companies Business activities of companies (according to the type of work they are involved with) Types of companies general characteristics Types of organisations by size Internal structure of companies Corporate culture

acquisition noun [C,U] affiliate noun [C] agency noun [C] alliance noun [C] annual general meeting noun [C] associate adjective authority noun [C] blue chip company noun [C] branch noun [C] brokerage noun [C] bureau noun [C] buy sb out phrasal verb [M] chamber of commerce noun [C] clearing house noun [C] client noun [C] clientele group noun [S] Co. noun [U] commercial adjective consultancy noun Corp. noun [C] corporate adjective counterpart noun [C] daughter company noun [C] department noun [C] division noun [C] e-business noun [C, U] enterprise noun Est. adjective establishment noun [C] expand verb [I,T] family business noun [C] fellow noun [C] firm noun [C] franchise noun [C] head office group noun [C] human resources plural noun Incorporated adjective

joint venture noun [C] make a takeover bid for sth manufacturers plural noun merger noun [C] monopoly noun [C or S] multinational noun [C] NGO noun [C] office noun [C, U] offshore adjective parent company noun [C] partnership noun personnel group noun [U] plc, PLC noun [C] position noun [C] private adjective proprietor noun [C] public company/corporation/enterprise noun [C] public utility noun [C] run a business verb [I] sister company noun [C] small business noun [C] spokesman noun [C] stakeholder society noun [C] status noun [U] strategic alliance noun [C] subordinate adjective subsidiary noun [C] SWOT noun [U] syndicate noun [C] tender noun [C] tertiary adjective trade verb [I, T] transact verb [T] FORMAL trust company noun [C] unlimited company noun [C] venture noun [C]


Students should be able to use the vocabulary under BUSINESS ETHICS to communicate about: Definition of business ethics Importance of business ethics in todays business climate Basic ethical considerations that a company needs to address Codes of ethics Unethical behaviour in the workplace Training in business ethics

account verb acid rain noun [U] age discrimination biodegradable adjective bioethics noun [U] biological control noun [U] carbon tax noun [C] conservation noun [U] corporate social responsibility noun [C] decontaminate verb [T] deforest verb [T] depopulate verb [T] dumping noun [U] emission noun environment noun [C or U] ethic noun [C] global warming noun [U] globalisation noun [U] green adjective integrity noun [U] just adjective life-support system noun [C] litter verb [T] moral adjective

natural resources noun noise pollution noun [U] norm noun [C usually plural] nuclear waste noun [U] oil slick noun [C] overpopulated adjective ozone noun [U] poison verb [T] pollute verb [T] positive discrimination noun precept noun [C] FORMAL preservation noun [U] principle noun [C or U] protected adjective race discrimination noun recycle verb [T] refuse dump noun [C] reusable adjective scrap yard noun [C] smog noun [S or U] social conscience noun [U] the polluter pays principle throwaway adjective unethical adjective

Students should be able to use the vocabulary under MANAGEMENT to communicate about: Definition of management Managerial tasks Basic managerial skills Managerial responsibilities Leading versus managing Management styles Women in senior managerial positions

action plan noun [C] administer verb [T often passive] assess verb [T] authority noun autocrat noun [C] boss (MANAGER) noun [C] bureaucracy noun [C or U] campaign verb [I] CEO noun [C] chairman, chair, chairperson noun [C] challenge noun [C] chief noun [C] collaborative working noun [U] consensus noun [U] coordinate verb [T] decentralisation noun [U] decision-maker noun [C] delegate verb [T] democratic adjective deputy noun [C] direct verb employer noun [C] empower verb [T] executive adjective facilitate verb [T] feedback noun [U] goal noun [C] governor noun [C] guide noun [C] head noun [C] hierarchy noun [C] implement a policy/plan/decision verb [T]

implementation noun [U] laissez-faire approach noun [C] leader noun [C] line manager noun manage verb [T] MD noun [C] mediate verb [I, T] mentor noun [C] middle management noun [U] motivation noun [U] office noun [C] operator noun [C] outcome noun [C] oversee verb [T] paperwork noun [U] partner noun [C] people skills noun [C usu. pl.] plan noun [C] president noun [C] prioritise verb [I, T] problem-solving noun [U] rationalise verb [I or T] restructure verb [T] silent partner noun [C] sleeping partner noun [C] strategist noun [C] supervisor noun [C] team noun [C] vice president noun [C] vision noun [C] vote of confidence noun [C]

Students should be able to use the vocabulary under RECRUITMENT to communicate about: The recruitment process Recruitment strategies Role of the Human Resources Department Candidate selection Interviewer/interviewee training Equal opportunity in hiring load noun [C] motivation noun [U] night shift noun [C] occupation noun [C] off-duty adjective office hours plural noun opportunity noun part-time adverb, adjective performance appraisal noun [C] placement noun [C, U] position noun [C] post noun [C] probation noun [U] profession group noun [C] qualification noun recruit verb [T] redundancy noun [C, U] referee noun [C] remuneration noun [C,U] rsum noun [C] retire verb [I] sack verb [T] self-employed adjective shift group noun [C] shortlist noun [C] Situations Vacant noun [S or U] skilled adjective temp noun [C] INFORMAL tenure noun [U] FORMAL testimonial noun [C] under pressure understaffed adjective unemployed adjective unprofessional adjective unqualified adjective unskilled adjective welfare noun [U] white-collar adjective

apply verb [I] applicant noun [C] apply yourself verb [R] appoint verb [T] appraisal noun [C, U] assign verb [T] assign sb to sth phrasal verb assignment noun [C, U] be at work be in work/out of work biodata noun [U] blue-collar adjective bonus noun [C] candidate noun [C] career noun [C] clerk noun [C] deadline noun [C] delegate verb [I, T] division of labour noun [U] do a good/bad job employ verb [T] entry-level adjective fire verb [T] flexitime noun [U] freelance adjective, adverb fringe benefit noun [C] go on strike golden handshake noun [C] hard-working adjective headhunt verb [T] hectic adjective hire verb [T] in the line of duty incentive noun [C] in-service adjective intake noun [U] job noun [C] layoff noun livelihood noun [C, U]


Students should be able to use the vocabulary under BUSINESS TRAVEL to communicate about: Definition of business ethics Importance of business ethics in todays business climate Basic ethical considerations that a company needs to address Codes of ethics Unethical behaviour in the workplace Training in business ethics jet lag noun [U] journey verb [I usually + adverb or preposition] land verb lobby noun [C] motel noun [C] motor inn noun [C] national holiday noun [C] overseas adverb package tour noun [C] passage noun passport noun [C] public holiday noun [C] public transport noun [U] reception noun [U] reservation noun resort noun [C] return ticket/fare etc noun schedule noun [C] self-catering adjective, noun [U] shuttle verb [I or T] sightseeing noun [U] suite noun [C] the sights noun tour verb tourist noun [C] travel verb twin-bedded adjective vacancy noun [C] valet noun [C] visa noun [C] youth hostel noun [C]

accommodations plural noun B and B noun [C] bank holiday noun [C] bed and breakfast noun [C or U] bellboy noun [C] book verb [I or T] business class noun [U], adverb caravan site noun [C] charter verb [ transitive ] check in/check into sth phrasal verb check out phrasal verb clerk noun [C] cruise verb destination noun [C] disembark verb [I] FORMAL doorman noun [C] double room noun [C] double-book verb [I; T] economy class noun [U], adverb ecotourism noun [U] embark verb [ intransitive ] fare noun [C] first class adjective, adverb flight noun [C] full board noun [U] gate noun guide noun [C] half board noun [U] holiday noun hotel noun [C] inn noun [C] itinerant adjective

Suggested Bibliography
*** Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary (London: Collins ELT, Harper Collins Publishers, 2003) Budai, L., Gramatica englez teorie i exerciii (Bucureti: Teora, 2001) A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar (London: Oxford University Press, 1996) Vince, M., Advanced Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT, 1994) Vince, M., Intermediate Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT, 1998) Websites,,, Free-access online dictionaries:,,

Further Language Study

THE TENSE SYSTEM Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice Tense consolidation Units 1 4 (pp. 1-24) Progress Test (pp. 25-29) Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice Units 2 9 (pp. 3-36) Problems, Errors and Consolidation (p. 37) A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet A Practical English Grammar The present tenses (pp. 152-162) The past and perfect tenses (pp. 161-179) The future (pp. 180-194) GERUND/INFINITIVE Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice Unit 19 (pp. 107-113) Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice Units 38 39 (pp. 152-165) A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet A Practical English Grammar The infinitive (p. 212-227) The gerund (pp. 228-233) Infinitive and gerund constructions (pp. 234-238) ACTIVE/PASSIVE Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice Units 6-7 (pp. 30-40) Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice Units 15 16 (pp. 58-63) A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet A Practical English Grammar The passive voice (pp. 263-268) MODALS Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice Units 11-12 (pp. 59-70) Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice Units 17 18 (pp. 64-71)

A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet A Practical English Grammar May and can for permission and possibility (pp. 128-133) Can and be able for ability (pp. 134-136) Ought, should, must, have to, need for obligation (pp. 137-146) Must, have, will and should for deduction and assumption (pp. 147-149)



Suggested Bibliography.............................................................................................12 Further Language Study...........................................................................................12 UNIT ONE INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS COMMUNICATION...............15 UNIT TWO PRESENTATIONS............................................................................28 UNIT THREE THE STRUCTURE OF THE FIRM............................................39 UNIT FOUR BUSINESS ETHICS.......................................................................50 UNIT FIVE MANAGEMENT...............................................................................59 UNIT SIX RECRUITMENT..................................................................................75 Read the text below and fill in the gaps with ONE word.........................................75 Main Recruitment Process Steps..............................................................................75 UNIT SEVEN BUSINESS TRAVEL....................................................................89 UNIT EIGHT CULTURE AND CIVILISATION................................................95

UNIT ONE INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS COMMUNICATION 1. Communication 1.1. Lead-in COMMUNICATION definition: the process by which people exchange information or express their thoughts and feelings (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) Forms and Components of Human Communication Humans communicate in order to share knowledge and experiences. Common forms of human communication include sign language, speaking, writing, gestures, and broadcasting. Communication can be interactive, transactive, intentional, or unintentional; it can also be verbal or nonverbal. Communication varies considerably in form and style when considering scale. Internal communication, within oneself, is intrapersonal while communication between two individuals is interpersonal. At larger scales of communication both the system of communication and media of communication change. Small group communication takes place in settings of between three and 12 individuals creating a different set of interactions than large groups such as organisational communication in settings like companies or communities. At the largest scales mass communication describes communication to huge numbers of individuals through mass media. Communication also has a time component, being either synchronous or asynchronous. There are a number of theories of communication that attempt to explain human communication. However, various theories relating to human communication have the same core philosophy. Communication follows a five-step process, which begins with the creation of a message and then sending it to another individual, organisation or a group of people. This message is received and then interpreted. Finally this message is responded to, which completes the process of communication. ( Answer the following questions: What possible barriers to interpersonal communication can you identify? How can people communicate in international contexts where people speak different languages? What language is mainly used in international communication? Why? 1.2. Reading Read the following short texts referring to communication and answer the questions that follow.

Text 1. "Have you ever said to yourself, "I wish I had spoken up"? Or, "If only I had introduced myself"? Or, "Did I say the wrong thing"? Conversational Confidence is the answer. Just by listening, you'll master the proven interpersonal skills you need to deal with every individual, every group, every occasion. The result? New doors will open to you. You won't hesitate to accept an invitation, to approach someone important, to seize an opportunity. You'll never again feel like an outsider. Success will naturally flow your way--and with less effort than you ever imagined possible." ~verbalAdvantage (advertisement in The New Republic, March 12, 2001) 1. Why are people sometimes reluctant to speak up their minds? 2. What is the role of listening in a conversation? 3. How can people develop their communication skills? Text 2. "'Communication' is a registry of modern longings. The term evokes a utopia where nothing is misunderstood, hearts are open, and expression is uninhibited. Desire being most intense when the object is absent, longings for communication also index a deep sense of dereliction in social relationships. ... 'Communication' is a rich tangle of intellectual and cultural strands that encodes our time's confrontations with itself. To understand communication is to understand much more. An apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner thought and outer word, the notion illustrates our strange lives at this point in history. It is a sink into which most of our hopes and fears seem to be poured." John Durham Peters, Speaking into the Air A History of the Idea of Communication (1999, p. 2) 1. According to the author, how can the nature of communication be defined? 2. What does the author mean by inner thought and outer word? 3. How can misunderstanding appear? Text 3. "A word (or in general any sign) is interindividual. Everything that is said, expressed, is located outside the soul of the speaker and does not belong only to him. The word cannot be assigned to a single speaker. The author (speaker) has his own inalienable right to the word, but the listener has his rights, and those whose voices are heard in the word before the author comes upon it also have their rights (after all, there are no words that belong to no one)." M. Bakhtin Speech Genres and Other Late Essays (Trans. Vern McGee). Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986, p. 121 1. What do words refer to? 2. The same word may mean different things to different persons. Try to explain how this happens. 3. How do new words appear in a language?

1.3. Vocabulary development 1.3.1. Match the phrases in column 1 with their meaning in column 2. 1. at the hands of sb 2. be at an end 3. be in sbs debt 4. beyond the call of duty 5. give rise to sth 6. have the honour of doing sth 7. hold sway 8. in large part 9. lay down you life (for sb/sth) 10. lay waste to sth 11. on the threshold of sth A. to have finished B. (not) give careful attention to sb/sth C. show your respect for sb by visiting them, going to their funeral, attending a memorial service, etc. D. at the beginning of sth E. feel grateful to sb for their help, kindness, etc. F. die in order to protect or save sb/sth G. say or do sth to show your respect and admiration for sb H. to a great extent I. make sth definite or complete J. used to indicate the result or consequence of a situation or action K. performed with greater courage or effort than is usual or expected L. cause something to happen or exist M. completely destroy a place or area N. because of sbs actions O. start disagreeing or arguing with sb about sth P. be given the opportunity of doing sth that makes you feel proud Q. polite formula when disagreeing with sb R. have power or influence over a group of people or a region

12. pay (no) heed to sb/sth

13. pay tribute to sb 14. pay your respects (to sb) 15. set the seal on sth 16. take issue with sth/sb (over/about sth) 17. therein lies sth 18. with (all due) respect to

1.3.2. Fill in the gaps in the following texts by using the phrases 1-18 given in the vocabulary task 1.3.1. A. (1) ___ the Prime Minister, it is the people of this country who have, (2) ___, suffered (3) ___ his government, and I am sure they will want to (4) ___ his last remark. B. Thousands of people gathered to (5) ___ the many local servicemen who (6) ___ their country. C. Terrorists still (7) ___ in many of the rural areas and (8) ___ the problem. They have already (9) ___ much valuable farmland, and we could be facing yet another drought. Any hopes that this awful situation might (10) ___ look premature. D. James Mauplins groundbreaking research not only (11) ___ his highly esteemed books and (12) ___ a glistering academic career, it also put us (13) ___ a major breakthrough in the treatment of Parkinsons Disease. I now (14) ___ introducing Professor Mauplin.

E. I would like to (15) ___ the young police officer who, (16) ___ his own safety, went to the help of our daughter and saved her from certain death. It was an act of considerable bravery, way (17) ___, and we will forever (18) ___. 1.3.3. Look at the phrases given in 1.3.1. Then match 1-8 with a-h. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. have pay take give hold set lay down lay A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. rise to something the seal on something waste to something the honour to do something tribute to somebody issue with somebody sway your life for something

1.4 Functions Information exchange Asking for information useful expressions Could you tell me...? Do you know...? Do you happen to know...? I'd like to know... 1.5. Writing Comment on the following quotation:

Could you find out...? I'm interested in ... I'm looking for...

Words, words, words! They shut one off from the universe. Three quarters of the time one's never in contact with things, only with the beastly words that stand for them. Aldous Huxley 2. Communication and the media

NOTE the media noun [uncountable] The noun should always be accompanied by the definite article and should be followed by a verb in the plural. 2.1. Lead in Answer the following questions: What role do the media play in the society? Are you interested in the news? Do you read newspapers or watch news bulletins on TV? 2.2. Vocabulary development Group the following words into the three categories given in the table below. Use a dictionary.

journalism investigative

newspapers and magazines circulation

radio and television broadcast

circulation gonzo correspondent columnist editor tabloid pay-per-view channel compact 2.3. Reading

colour supplement satellite article edition feature column chequebook review

scoop broadcast transmit frequency editorial station show reporter episode.

news bulletin investigative airtime cable commercial broadsheet network

Read the following text. To what extent do you agree with it? Give your pros and cons. While reading, fill in the gaps with ONE word. The growing role of the media in our society Paragraph 1 In the world of today, the media have become almost as necessary 1 ___ food and clothing. It is true that the media are playing an outstanding role in strengthening the society; they are a mirror of 2 ___ society. Their duty is to inform, educate and entertain the people. They help us to know what is going on 3 ___ the world. They 4 ___ their lives in danger during attacks or natural disasters, just to inform us of the situation. It is partly due to them that awareness is spreading in the society. It is the media 5 ___ shape our lives. Our lives would be incomplete 6 ___ the media. Paragraph 2 The media 7 ___ the watchdog of the political democracy. If they 8 ___ their role honestly, they will be a great force in building the nation but, nowadays, the media have become a commercialised sector eying only for news that is hot and sells. 9 ___ of giving important information and educative programmes, all that one gets on television is sensational depiction of all news stories, their only goal being gaining television rating points (TRPs). Paragraph 3 Every issue is hyped for a day or two, so much so 10 ___ you switch to any channel, they all will be flashing the same story but then when the heat is over there is no

following of the case. The news then jostles 11 ___ space with other stories that are carrying the heat then. Even 12 ___ we cannot think of a world without television sets, media has become so much a part of us that to recognise its impact, we need to step 13 ___ and consciously think about how they shape our lives and what they are saying. Paragraph 4 The media affects peoples perspective not 14 ___ through television, but 15 ___ through radio and newspapers. In this way, even many messages 16 ___ which we cannot agree inevitably come to us from diverse constellations of media. They can even be turned 17 ___ our benefit by whetting our understanding and articulation of what we believe; today news channels and even some newspapers are mouthpiece of some political parties. Their work then limits only to spread the ideology of the party 18 ___ than give correct news. People have to judge 19 ___ their own by looking and listening to different channels for the same news and then form a conclusion. Paragraph 5 The media are an integral part of our society. However, a matter of concern is their excessive intervention in everything. Sometimes, just for making money, insignificant news is given so 20 ___ priority that the real news is not even brought 21 ___ notice. Yes, it does also entertain but again its a debatable issue because by entertainment we mean healthy entertainment and not those nonsense TV serials. So 21 ___ last, like science they are a tool, which we have to use by our judgment to provide maximum satisfaction side by side without harming ourselves. The other disadvantage is that sometimes they also publish or broadcast some vulgar news, and sometimes unessential activities are served 22 ___ very important news and broadcast again and again. This does not broaden the reach of the media. Paragraph 6 In spite of being sensational and biased, the significance of the media cannot be ignored, especially in an age, in which globalisation and liberalisation have become the order of the day. In this globalised world, the task and duties of the media are increasing day by day. There is still a lot to be done by the media for the betterment of the society. (adapted from 2.3. Vocabulary development 2.3.1. Match the following words or phrases from the text with their appropriate definition.

1. awareness (par. 1) 2. watchdog (par. 2) 3. hyped (par. 3) 4. whet(ting) (par. 4) 5. mouthpiece (par. 4) 6. entertain (par. 5)

a. increase someones desire for something b. a person, newspaper etc. that expresses the opinions of a government or a political organisation c. unfairly preferring a person or a group over another d. a person or group of people whose job is to protect the rights of people who buy things and to make sure companies do not do anything illegal or harmful e. to amuse or interest people in a way that gives them pleasure f. very excited or nervous and unable to keep still

7. biased (par. 6)
8. betterment (par. 6)

g. knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or situation h. (formal) improvement, especially in someones social and economic position

Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the words above. Show them to your neighbour and ask them whether they understand the meaning illustrated. If they dont, make the necessary corrections. 2.3.2. Write one word in each gap. 1. Obviously it goes ___ saying that I dont want you to tell anyone else about this. 2. Reading ___ lines, it seems that the governments considering tightening media regulations. 3. Im afraid that book is ___ of print, but Ill see if we can find a second-hand copy for you somewhere. 4. I followed your instructions ___ the letter but I still couldnt get the printer to work properly. 5. Getting Elaine to edit your article is just asking ___ trouble; you know how pedantic and opinionated she is! 6. ___ answer to your question, no, I have never had any business dealings with Mr Partridge. 7. Even if youve got a great idea for a novel, its incredibly hard putting pen ___ paper for the first time. 8. Put your ideas down ___ paper and well discuss them at the next meeting. 9. Youve had some good news, havent you? Its written all ___ your face. 2.3.3. Use the words given in brackets to form a word that fits in the space. A. The (1) ___ (SAY) never judge a book by its cover could not be more true for Ridiculous Rules by Marjorie Allen. The cover is completely blank, whereas the book is crammed full of wonderful examples and anecdotes. Allen is an (2) ___ (SPEAK) critic of much of what is taught to native and non-native speakers of English, and has issued a (3) ___ (DECLARE) of war against textbooks and style books which tell lies. Take the ridiculous and (4) ___ (MEAN) rule of never ending a sentence with a preposition. The lovely if famous story goes, that Winston Churchill, well known for his numerous (5)___ (WRITE) as well as for being British Prime Minister during the Second World War , received a manuscript back from an ignorant (6) ___ (EDIT) who had told him rather rudely that he had to (7) ___ (PHRASE) a sentence which ended with a preposition. Churchill responded by making the simple yet forceful (8) ___ (STATE) in the margin: This is an impertinence up with which I will not put. the (9) ___ (IMPLY) being that not to end a sentence with a preposition often sounds ridiculous in English. Sadly, Allen informs us that the story is probably mere (10) ___ (HEAR), and that Churchill may have actually only written rubbish! in the margin. B. I love watching (1) ___ (DISCUSS) programmes, and I love politics, so youd think Id enjoy watching (2) ___ (POLITICS) being interviewed on TV. But I dont. All too often, (3) ___ (JOURNAL) ask them the most (4) ___ (RIDICULE) questions, and, when they do get an interesting question, sit there watching in (5) ___ (BELIEVE) as some of the most (6) ___ (POWER) people in the country give totally (7) ___

(CONVINCE) responses. Its as if they dont care whether their reply is (8) (BELIEVE) or not. Often, theyre very poor (9) ___ (COMMUNICATE) , and theyre frequently even more (10) ___ (INFORM) about key issues than I am. I dont expect them to be particularly (11) ___ (HUMOUR) they are serious people, after all but at least they could say something interesting occasionally. It makes me want to stand for election myself. 2.3.4. Study the vocabulary given below and then fill in the gaps in the following text by using the appropriate phrases.

add up (informal) seem reasonable or logical (used mainly in a negative sense) boil down to sth if a situation or problem boils down to one thing, that thins is the main point in the situation, or the main cause of the problem capitalise on sth gain a further advantage for yourself from a situation come/be under fire be criticised severely for sth you have done in the final analysis used to state a basic truth after everything has been discussed and considered neck and neck (of two people or groups) level with each other in a race or competition pluck sth out of the air say a name, number, etc. without giving it any thought quick/slow off the mark fast/slow in reacting to a situation stop the rot stop a bad situation from getting worse talk sth up describe or discuss sth in a way that makes it sound better than it is

The prime minister has (1) ____ during the election campaign for being slow to respond to events, but he was (2) ___ this morning. In a speech in Dover, he claimed that the Oppositions tax policies didnt (3) ___, and that they were (4) ___ numbers ___. Meanwhile, the Opposition were trying to (5) ___ the latest bad unemployment figures, which clearly illustrated, in their view, that the only thing which could (6) ___ was a change of government. They also (7) ___ the latest opinion poll-figures, which now put them (8) ___ with the government. (9) ___ it will just (10) ___ who the voters choose to believe. 2.4. Language Focus: The Noun Number Agreement Number Agreement the number of is followed generally by singular, while a number of by plural The number of investors was huge. A number of shareholders were expected to sell their shares. nouns/pronouns can be coordinated with the following simple or correlative conjunctions: and, or, either or, neither nor, both and, not only but also. a) and, both and require the plural form of the verb The president and the secretary general are not present. Both the president and the secretary general are on a business trip. b) or, either or follow the rule of proximity ( the closest subject dictates the number of the verb)

His supporters or he has to take this issue very seriously. Either he or his supporters have to take a decision. c) neither nor may follow the rule of proximity (as above), but in everyday use the plural is preferred Neither the guests nor the host is to be blamed. or Neither the guest nor the host are to be blamed. With as well as, except, but, with only the first noun dictates the agreement with the predicate. Mr. Jones as well as all his colleagues is expected to come. All the members of the board, but David, are here. A man with a young child was asking for help. 2.5. Functions a. Identifying yourself Hello, Im from Hello, my name isI work for Hello, let me introduce myself, ImIm in charge of// Im responsible for Hello, first name+ surnameIve got an appointment with b. Greetings when you meet someone for the first time First greeting Reply to the greeting Neutral How do you do? Im (very) pleased/ How do you do? Its (very) nice delighted to meet you. to meet you too. Its (very) nice to meet you. Im pleased to meet you too. Informal How do you do? Nice/ good to meet Nice/ good to meet you too. you. Hello. Nice to have you with us. Pleased to meet you too. Hi. Pleased to meet you. 3. IT and Human Interaction 3.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: Can the full effect of the current information revolution be predicted? Is meeting face-to-face more valuable than corresponding electronically? In what ways have the PC and the Internet made our lives easier? 3.2. Reading Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. They are given in the box below the text. They are lettered A to J. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 10 with the corresponding missing parts A to J. New video examines impact of computers on human interaction by Barbara McKenna Through the advent of the web, we can get whatever we want online 1 ___. We can bank online, make friends online, even attend virtual concerts and art shows online. One man in Dallas, 2 ___, has even gone so far as to confine himself to his home for a full year, acquiring everything he needs (including a Valentine's Day date) through the web.

Observing the increasing "realness" of virtual reality, UCSC (University of California, Santa Cruz) film professor Chip Lord has produced a video that explores the question of how 3 ___. The video, Awakening from the Twentieth Century, aired recently on public television and is the winner of the Dallas Video Festival's Latham Award for 1999. "I started working on this during a sabbatical in early 1998," Lord says. "I wanted to look at how the computer is changing the ways in which we conduct daily life. One of my central goals was to find out whether the Internet and virtual networking telecommuting, distance learning, e-commerce have had an effect 4 ___." To explore this, Lord combines montages of life in San Francisco with interviews. Among those he interviews are Homer Flynn, spokesperson for a San Francisco underground, multimedia band named The Residents; John Sanborn, director of the online rock and roll murder mystery "Paul Is Dead"; Ellen Ullman, a software engineer, commentator, and author of Close to the Machine; Gannon Hall, a web site designer; and Rebecca Solnit, a social commentator and author of the justpublished book, Wanderlust: A History of Walking (Viking Press). Rather than aim to prove a point, Lord is out to 5 ___. One montage opens with a view of the old-fashioned marble-floored interior of a Wells Fargo Bank branch bank in San Francisco and fades to a nearby Safeway, in which a Wells Fargo "minibank" is built into the wall. The juxtaposition continues 6 ___ the bank's dramatic picture of racing horses pulling a stagecoach and, over that image, in stark white, the URL "Is the physical space of the bank becoming obsolete?" Lord asks. Through his interviews Lord also explores the impending fate of such things as the automobile, film, community. But the question that most concerns Lord is whether the physical space of the city itself 7 ___. Lord gets very different opinions from his subjects. Web designer and computing specialist Gannon Hall conducts most of his business virtually through e-mail, web sites, and the phone. "Gannon recognizes that 8 ___, but once he starts working on a project he does everything virtually, via the Internet. For Gannon, because his business is virtual, he could be anywhere. He doesn't need the city. To him, the city is like fashion. You choose it the same way you would choose clothes. He says, 'you wear the city.' " But social commentator Rebecca Solnit feels very differently, affirming the importance of real-life interaction at such places as the Farmer's Market, where 9 ___. To flesh out this perspective, Lord also shows footage of two groups of San Franciscans bicyclists and rollerbladers. The bicycling event, called Critical Mass, is anything but virtual, drawing some 3,000 bicyclists each month who hit the streets during a Friday rush hour. As Lord trails along with the rollerbladers, hundreds of whom come out each Friday for the "Friday Night Skate," he comes to this conclusion: "Maybe because of the utopian images we hear about the new technologies, I thought that broadcasting, netcasting, wireless networks, and pagers, cellphones,

and beepers all 10 ___ for celebration and the ritual rubbing of shoulders in streets, plazas, and squares. But I was wrong. Because we still need fashion. We still need to wear the city because the city is..." Lord trails off, letting Humphrey Bogart, in the character of San Francisco detective Sam Spade, finish his sentence: "The stuff that dreams are made of." ( A. an initial face-to-face meeting with clients is necessary B. the computer is affecting the ways we interact with each other and our environment C. groceries, prescriptions, even pets D. vendors and customers interact directly and chance encounters with friends can take place E. explore the implications of our emerging computer-generated culture F. were conspiring to end the need for public gathering G. is becoming obsolete H. who calls himself DotComGuy I. on how we use our physical space J. with a shot of a billboard advertising Make a list of the advantages and disadvantages that you can identify. 3.3. Vocabulary development 3.3.1. Match the following words or phrases from the text with their appropriate definition. 1. rollerblader (n) 2. footage (n) 3. to flesh sth out (v) a. no longer useful, because something newer and better has been invented b. referring to an event or situation, especially an unpleasant one, which is going to happen very soon c. the act of putting things together, especially things that are not normally together, in order to compare them or to make something new d. working at home using a computer connected to a company's main office e. a period when someone, especially someone in a university job, stops doing their usual work in order to study or travel f. cinema film showing a particular event g. to keep someone or something within the limits of a particular activity or subject h. the time when something first begins to be widely used i. very plain in appearance, with little or no colour or decoration j. to add more details to something in order to make it clear, more interesting etc k. person who uses special boots with a single row of wheels fixed under it to skate on hard surfaces l. to gradually disappear

4. obsolete (adj)
5. stark (adj) 6. impending (adj) 7. juxtaposition (n) 8. to fade (v) 9. telecommuting (n) 10. sabbatical (n) 11. to confine (v) 12. advent (n)

3.3.2. If the word in bold is correct, put a tick. If it is incorrect, replace it with one of the words in bold from the other sentences.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The Internet is a really vast console of computers, all connected together. Since we got resource, weve been watching music videos online. Early computer games seem quite nuclear compared with todays games. It seems to me that primitive power is far cleaner than oil. These ancient tools have been crafted with an enormous amount of skill. The next generation of games technique will have better graphics. Theres a network in computing called beta testing, which means you test something to see if it works properly before it becomes official. 8. This latest breakthrough will mean cheaper, faster internet access for all. 9. The computer has finished analysing all the broadband. 10. The sea is a great natural data but we need the right technology to use it. 3.3.3. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space. We often think of ourselves as living in a time of 1___ (CONTINUE) technological change and development. We tend to believe that we are unique in history in dealing with a constantly 2 ___ (EVOLVE) world of gadgets, devices and innovations. However, the end of the nineteenth century and the start of the twentieth was also a time that saw many 3 ___ (REVOLT) changes. People had needed to show 4 ___ (FLEXIBLE) throughout the nineteenth century, as the effects of the Industrial Revolution meant constantly making 5 ___ (ADJUST) to deal with changing working conditions. Towards the end of the century, though, people had to become more 6 ___ (ADAPT) than ever before. The typewriter (1873), the telephone (1876) and other 7 ___ (INFLUENCE) developments gave people the 8 ___ (CAPABLE) to live and work in ways their grandparents could not have imagined. Over the next 30 years, little remained 9 ___ (ALTER) as the camera, the cinema, the phonograph, the plane and radio all had an 10 ___ (ELECTRIC) effect on people and society. 3.4. Functions Presenting and supporting opinions Asking for opinions What are your feelings on this? To one person What are your views on.? What are your feelings about? What do you think of .? Whats your opinion about that? To a group of people Any reaction to that? Has anybody any strong feeling about / views on that? Whats the general view on/ feeling about that? Has anybody any comments to make?

4. Writing: One of the most negative aspects of the impact of the Internet in our daily life is the fact that it alters social behaviour, habits and abilities of people. Write an

argumentative essay in response to the following statement: The Internet makes people lonelier.

UNIT TWO PRESENTATIONS Speaking in public is often cited as the number one fear of adults. The Book of Lists places the fear of death in fifth place while public speaking ranks first. Jerry Seinfeld said, "That would mean at a funeral, people are five times more likely to want to be in the casket than giving the eulogy."

1. Business presentations Lead-in Answer the following questions: Have you ever given a presentation? How can one prepare before a presentation? Why do you think some people are afraid of public speaking? How can they overcome this fear? Do you agree with the quotation given above? Explain. 1.1. Reading comprehension

Read the following article about business presentations. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- K the one which fits each gap (1-10). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Effective Public Speaking in Business Presentations By Doug Staneart Right or wrong, people form a perception about how competent you are by how you present yourself when you stand and speak. 1____ In fact, public speaking is an easy way to set yourself apart from your competition, because when you stand up and say what you want to say, the way that you want to say it, you are doing what 95% of the people in the audience wish they could do. A person who is confident in front of a group gives off an air of competence, whereas a person who fumbles might leave a negative impression. When I was in college, I had an internship with a major oil company, and at the end of the summer, I had to present a summary of my internship to a group of department managers and vice-presidents. 2____ Many of the other interns were graduate students who were much more comfortable in front of a group. When I spoke, I could feel the sweat beads on my forehead, and I could see my hands shaking. The butterflies in my stomach were uncontrollable. After the presentation, I asked myself, "If I were the decision-maker in that room, and I only had one permanent position to offer, would I choose me?" 3____ Over the next few years, I trained with some of the most successful public speaking coaches in the country. 4____ Below are some of the great public speaking tips that I have found that really work. Realize 90% of nervousness doesn't even show. The audience usually can't see the butterflies, or shaky hands, or sweaty palms. The problem occurs when we start thinking about these symptoms rather than focusing on the audience and our topic. 5____ Focus on them and two things will happen: 1) they will like you more, and 2) much of the nervousness that you feel will go away. Add some enthusiasm to your talk. Your audience will never be more excited about your talk than you are, so give them some energy, and they will give it

back to you. Walk about a half step faster. Smile. Let your gestures and voice emphasis come naturally. 6____ Limit your talk to a few key points. Narrow down your topic to either one key point for a short talk, or three key points for a longer talk (a talk longer than 30minutes.) Ask yourself, "If my audience only remembered one thing from my talk, what would be most important thing for them to remember?" 7____ For instance, think of the Statue of Liberty. What do you see? You probably see a picture in your mind of the statue. Now think of a pink elephant. Again, you probably see a picture in your mind, but the important question iswhere did the statue go? Your mind can only truly focus on one thing at a time. 8____ The more points your presentation has, the less focus the audience will have on each individual point. Once you have your key points, then create your PowerPoint slides. That will keep you from having hundreds of PowerPoint slides. Tell stories. Don't tell little white lies, but do tell anecdotes and personal experiences. Stories build rapport with your audience, and they give you more credibility. Your audience will remember your stories a lot longer than they will remember your talking points. 9____ Kids in town made fun of him, but Les found out that this man's house had caught on fire, and his two baby girls died in the blaze. The man attempted to go in and save them many times, but the heat was too great. When his brother-in-law showed up, he verbally assaulted the man calling him a chicken for not going in to save his girls. 10____ I heard this story years ago, and I can't remember the specific point Les Brown was making on stage. I do remember the "chicken-man," though, and I frequently think about how I should get all the facts before passing judgment on people. Les Brown's stories have longevity, and your stories will have that type of impact as well. When in doubt, speak from the heart. Let your audience see the real you, and you will have a great speaking performance. (adapted and abridged from public_ speaking_in_ business_presentations.html) A. Since then, I have spoken before thousands of people, and coached hundreds of managers, executives, and other leaders on how to present more effectively to groups. B. I was the youngest person in the room, just 20. C. I heard Les Brown, a famous motivational speaker, years ago, and he told a story about how a man in his hometown went around the town square holding two baby dolls and squawking like a chicken. D. The reason this is so important is that the human mind likes to think of only one thing at a time. E. By human nature, most people are focused on themselves not on you. F. Ever since then, the man has not spoken a word -- instead he just clucks like a chicken. G. They also form perceptions about the company you represent based on your performance. H. I thought they would. I. As you add additional points, each previous point will become diluted. J. Don't over do it, but give more energy than what you normally would. K. I had to answer "no." 1.2. English in use

1.2.1. Read the article below and fill in the gaps with ONE word. 15 Strategies for Giving Oral Presentations Lynn F. Jacobs, Jeremy S. Hyman More 1 ___ death and taxes, the thing people fear most is speaking 2 ___ public. Needless to say, college students are not immune 3 ___ this terror, which, for you psychology hounds, even has a 4 ___: glossophobia. Unfortunately, in college, its not always so easy to avoid public speaking. Some schools have required courses in speech. And even in colleges 5 ___ speech isnt a subject, there often is a broad variety of courses that incorporate presentations or reportsand sometimes fulllength seminarsinto the regular class activities. Still, theres 6 ___ need to lose your breakfast (or lunch or dinner) 7 ___ your upcoming presentation. Our 15 tips for improving your public speaking will make even a garden-variety speaker into a real Cicero: 1. Do your homework. Nobody 8 ___ give a good presentation 9 ___ putting in some serious time preparing remarks. Many gifted speakers look as if theyre just talking off the cuff, saying 10 ___ comes to mind. But, in truth, theyve spent considerable time figuring out what theyre going to say. You should, too. 4-Star Tip. Its always a good idea to try out your presentation on your professor 11 ___ giving it in class. Office hours work well for this. 2. Play the parts. Good presentations are structured in sections. Many presentations need only two or three main points. Organizing your points 12 ___ a few main parts and telling your audience 13 ___ these parts are both before and as you go through your presentation can be the difference 14 ___ a winning presentation and a loser. 3. Do a dry run. Its always good to do a run-through (or even a couple of runthroughs) the night 15 ___ the presentation. This can help 16 ___ both your timing and your manner of presentation. Be sure to make mental notes if you went on 17 ___ long or got nervous or stuck. Some people find it useful to have a friend pretend to be the audience: He or she can build up your confidence and maybe even ask a question or two. 4. Look presentable. No need to wear a suit, but its hard for people to take a presentation seriously when you look like someone 18 ___ just rolled out of bed. 5. Talk; dont read. Nobody enjoys seeing a speaker burying his or her face in a script, reading stiffly 19 ___ a piece of paper. Try to talk from notes, or, if you use a written-out text, try to look down 20 ___ it only occasionally. Its less important that you capture the text word for word than that you present the main ideas in a natural and relaxed way. 6. Take it slow. The single biggest mistake inexperienced speakers make is going too fast. Remember that your audience hears the material for the first time and isnt nearly as familiar 21 ___ the topic as you are. Extra Pointer. If you find yourself running 22 ___ of time, either drop or briefly summarize any leftover material. If your presentation includes a discussion period,

gesture at the points you havent fully covered and suggest them as things that could be discussed later. 7. Use aids. For certain sorts of presentations, visual 23 ___ such as PowerPoints, handouts, even things written on the board can help your audience locate and grasp the main points. Just be sure to explain these materials fully in your presentation: No one is happy to see an outline that cant be made heads or 24 ___ of. 8. Dont bury the crowd. Including massive numbers of quotations or unfathomable amounts of data can overwhelm even the 25 ___ attentive audience. 9. Be yourself. As important 26 ___ the content you present is your authenticity in presenting it, so dont try to be someone youre not. Youll never succeed. 10. Play it straight. Theres 27 ___ harm in including a little humor in your presentations, especially if you can carry it off well. But in most college presentations, clowns will get Cs. 11. Circle the crowd. A very important part of public speaking is to make 28 ___ contact with people seated in all parts of the room even those nodding off in the back. That shows people that youre interested 29 ___ communicating with them not just getting 30 ___ this experience as quickly as possible. And it wouldnt hurt to go out from in back of the podium or desk and walk around the room a little. Sharing space with the audience can also communicate your interest in sharing your results 31 ___ them, something you surely want to do. 12. Appear relaxed. You dont have to actually be relaxedfew speakers are but at least try to appear as relaxed as possible. Bring along some water or a drink, take short 32 ___ from time to time, and think pleasant thoughts. No one enjoys speakers 33 ___ are trembling and sweating bullets. 13. Finish strong. Always be sure to have a satisfying conclusion 34 ___ your presentation in 35 ___ you make clear to the listeners what they now know. It creates a warm feeling in the minds of your listeners and shows them that theyve really learned something from your talk which they probably have. 14. Welcome interruptions. Some speakers are terrified that someone will interrupt them 36 ___ a question or comment. Actually, this is one of the 37 ___ things that can happen, because it shows that someone in the audience has engaged 38 ___ what youre saying, and, if you have the time to offer a brief response, it can actually lead to genuine progress on the point you were making. And two-way conversation (assuming youre minimally good at it) is always a tension-reducer. 15. Know when to stop lecturing. Certain presentations especially in advanced or upper-division classes or seminars can require you to present some material, then lead a discussion. Be sure to attentively listen 39 ___ any comments or questions your classmates might raise 40 ___ starting on your answer. And in a discussion period, never lecture (only discuss), and be sure to answer exactly the question asked. In many classes, how you discuss is as important as how you present.

(adapted from 1.3. Vocabulary development Study the following phrases.

a nervous wreck (informal) very upset and worried jump in interrupt somebody while they are talking lose sight of sth forget an important fact about a situation nod off (informal) to fall asleep nothing could be further from the truth used to emphasize that something is definitely not true pare sth down to reduce something, especially by making a lot of small reductions sit through sth to attend a meeting, performance etc. and stay until the end, even if it is long and boring set in if something sets in, especially something unpleasant, it begins and seems likely to continue for a long time (talk) at cross purposes if two people are at cross purposes they do not understand each other because they are talking about different things but fail to realize this Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text: We had to 1 ___ Robs disastrous presentation to the group today. We were overloaded with information, and he completely 2 ___ the main points; he should 3 ___ it ___. He thought a good powerpoint would compensate for poor presentation skills, but nothing could have been 4 ___. Most of the time he spoke too slowly (one or two people were 5 ___). Then Dr Jones asked him a tricky question and you could see the panic 6 ___. When Elaine asked about projected sales he 7 ___ before shed finished, and they ended up 8 ___. He was hoping it would be the presentation 9 ___, but instead he ended up a 10 ___.

2. First meetings Lead-in Are you a sociable person? What kind of persons do you find it difficult to relate to? What factors can influence the success of a first meeting? 2.1. Reading comprehension Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. They are given in the box below the text. They are lettered A to L. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 10 with the corresponding missing parts A to L. There are two letters that you do not need. What to Say When Meeting Someone for the First Time

It can be quite a nervous time when you are meeting someone new and often people can wonder what they should say. It doesn't matter if it is a date, a new work colleague, a business meeting or someone you meet in a social situation, you can find yourself stuck for what to say when meeting someone for the first time. However, 1 ____ and begin a relationship on good terms. The greeting The first thing to do when meeting someone is to smile and greet them, telling them your name. A smile will relax you as well as making you appear friendly and open, so the other person also relaxes and 2 ___. You should say your name (probably just your first name unless it is a business situation). Again, this relaxes you and the other person because it makes you appear open and 3 ___. It doesn't matter that they may well forget your name later; you made yourself appear open to them. Use the situation You have met together for a purpose, whether that is a meeting, a party, or whatever. You can find some connection between you to talk about in that. If you are at a company meeting you 4 ___. Or at a party you might ask how they know the host. Beyond that, you could use your physical surroundings to find something to talk about. So you may ask about the other person's journey or remark upon the decor etc. Ask their opinion about something and show that you are interested in what they think. Keep it light Keep your comments light and positive and you should get a response that is also in the same manner. Don't voice 5 ___ until you know the person better as it is possible you could offend them. Keep controversial conversation topics for a later meeting. Relax You have reason to be confident when meeting someone for the first time because in this situation they have never met you either. You are equals, both in the same position in that respect. Even though you have to be a little careful not to offend people, don't feel you need to put on an act. It is the real you 6 ___ if you are to have a lasting and positive relationship so that is what you should present to them. Use your manners Even if you have offended someone on a first meeting, you can rescue the situation so there is no need to panic about it. Simply apologize and let it be known that 7 ___. If people can see that your apology is sincere and that you meant no offence, the vast majority of people will be fine with your apology and not hold a grudge against you. Don't outstay your welcome If you are meeting someone for the first time, 8 ___, or at least work out some kind of exit strategy if the meeting is not going well. Often, this is simple; all you have to do is say that you need to go talk to a friend you have just spotted across the room. Be sure to thank them for their time in speaking with you and 9 ___ and the door is open for you to go back to talk with them again.

So, what to say when meeting someone for the first time should be light, open and friendly. It should 10 ___. It is enough to smile and be open and interested in the other person and make light conversation about the situation that brings you together. (adapted from A B C D E F G H I J K L that you need the other person to connect with and to like feels more happily disposed toward you could ask how long the other person has worked for the company it is out of your reach you may well want to keep the meeting quite short not probe too deeply into personal issues nor disclose too much of yourself any particularly strong opinions all of these situations offer you opportunities to strike up a conversation leave on good terms so they are left with a good impression of you nothing bad can happen it connects the two of you it was not your intention to cause offence

2.2 Vocabulary development 2.2.1. Study the following phrases.

a meeting of minds a situation in which people have similar ideas and opinions be on the same wavelength (informal) think in a similar way about sth be struck by sb/sth (informal) be impressed by or interested in sth (feel) at home (feel) comfortable and relaxed make sth of sb/sth understand or regard sb or sth on a particular way my heart was in my mouth used to say you felt very nervous or frightened about sth play it by ear deal with a situation by reacting as things happen rather than having a plan (right) from the word go (right) from the beginning to start/begin with at the beginning with open arms welcome sb in a very affectionate and enthusiastic way

Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text: When I met my new boss, it wasnt exactly 1 ___. I didnt know what 2 ___ him really, and 3 ___, I just had to 4 ___. But were OK now. My first host family are fantastic! We got on really well 5 ___ . They welcomed me 6 ___, and I 7 ___ almost immediately. I met my boyfriend on the Internet and I reckoned wed 8 ___. But as I was driving to meet him in person, 9 ___. He was lovely, though, and I 10 ___ his quirky sense of fun immediately.

2.2.2. Replace the underlined word/phrases with another word/phrase that has the same meaning.

1. Hows life? 2. They were very unwilling to leave. 3. She recognizes and is grateful for everything youve done. 4. In the beginning it was a difficult relationship. 5. He is prepared to take responsibility for what happened. 6. There is widespread admiration for what he has achieved. 7. Weve had good times and bad times in our relationship. 8. I had a tough time last year but things are improving now. 9. I like the situation as it is. 10. Because of the special connection parents have with their children, they often
give up many important things for them.

3. Business meetings 2.1. Read the following text about meetings. Some of the underlined parts are correct; some have a mistake in them (a grammar mistake, a vocabulary mistake, a spelling mistake, a missing word, an unnecessary word, and inappropriateness in the context). Identify the mistakes and correct them. Why are you presenting? This is the first thing that 1. you will need asking to ask yourself. Why are you presenting? Is 2. it there an important message to give or are you simply making up numbers? Are you looking 3. to rise raise your personal profile or are you standing in for someone who has dropped out? Are you comfortable 4. about with your subject matter or have you been given the topic of the presentation? If you have serious doubts now is the time to start 5. to consider considering if you need to be speaking or if you can start to change the topic of the presentation. Block out some time in your diary. This is one of 6. the most commonly common mistakes that we see a lot of. For an important business presentation, we suggest 7. that you block out around 20 hours of your time. This is how much time it will take to do a good job - in research, planning and most importantly in rehearsing. 8. If you haven't got that much space in the diary then you will simply have to move something out, or you 9. will must have to work in evenings or weekends. This is what most of us end up doing. Your competitive advantage We have 10. sat in through thousands of business presentations - and many can be quite boring affairs. The one common factor that we see a lot is bullet points. These are 11. a very uneffective ineffective way of communicating. If there is only one piece of advice that you could follow from this site - it would be to use pictures rather than bullet points. Business research shows 12. that the chances of achieving your objectives increase from around 33% up to around 66%. And that is a major competitive advantage. Rehearsing

This is an absolute must. You may be 13. quick-witted and like to ad lib, but I'll tell you one thing. Learn 14. your speech word with for word and you will be able to ad lib better! Remember the comedian Frankie Howard with his bumbling delivery "ooh now where was I?" Every one of those remarks 15. was carefully scripted and practised for hours in front of a mirror. 2.2. Fill in the gaps in the text below with the most appropriate words or phrases in the following box. irrelevant issues all the way up to evidence fall apart lifeblood shapes and sizes on average effective project coordination more than enough any clear result

Business Meetings that Matter - it's Possible! Meetings come in all 1. ___. There are the everyday office meetings, board meetings, seminars 2. ___ major conferences. And meetings can now be face-toface, teleconference, videoconference, or online via the Internet. And when is the last time you heard someone say, "Gee, we need to have more meetings."? There are 3. ___ meetings to go around these days, and for a good reason. Meetings are more important than ever. Modern workplaces are built on teams, sharing of ideas, and 4. ___. If communication is the 5. ___ of any organization, then meetings are the heart and mind. The place where we communicate our ideas, hash them out, share our passion for better or worse, develop new understandings and new directions. It's where deals can happen or 6. ___, where strategies are articulated and debated -in short -- where we engage with others. That's what it's all about, people meeting with people. Survey results published by the Annenberg School of Communications at UCLA and the University of Minnesota's Training & Development Research Center show that executives 7. ___ spend 40%-50% of their working hours in business meetings. Further 8. ___ of the pervasiveness of meetings comes from a recent issue of Fast Company magazine, where organizational psychologist Jon Ryburg says he advises corporate clients to provide twice as much meeting space as they did 20 years ago. How to Plan a Meeting Studies also point out a discouraging trend: Surveyed professionals agree that as much as 50% of that meeting time is unproductive and that up to 25% of meeting time is spent discussing 9. ___. Typically, they complain that meetings are too long, are scheduled without adequate time to prepare and end without 10. ___. 2.3. Fill in the gaps in the following text with a word derived from the word given in brackets. Most of us have been to seminars or conferences where we've left feeling inspired and 1. ___ (JUVENILE). But how many of us have ever left everyday meetings feeling the same way. Rarely, no doubt. The reason is that good seminars and conferences are organized precisely to engage us. Sadly, most office meetings are not.

Believe it or not, meetings can and should be the most 2. ___ (INTEREST) and 3. ___ (PRODUCE) part of your day. And if you've ever been to a great conference or seminar, you already have seen some of the basic principles at work. These can be 4. ___ (SUMMARY) as: 1) preparation 2) facilitation 3) inspiration 4) results Preparation means making sure your meeting has a clear, stated purpose, and an agenda. Participants are chosen carefully, invited in 5. ___ (PROFESSION) way and given sufficient prior information. Preparation also means attention to details including: room 6. ___ (BOOK), catering, a/v equipment, 7. ____ (MIND). Facilitation means that someone or a team is responsible for guiding the meeting, a plan for the meeting is reflected in the agenda and the facilitator (or chair) keeps things on time and on track. Inspiration is probably the most 8. ___ (LOOK) aspect of everyday meetings. All the attention to detail and process can push the opportunity for 9. ___ (SPONTANEOUS) and enthusiasm aside. Build in activites that engage participants, use strategies to generate discussion, or visual aids to grab attention. Results means that every meeting should be directed toward one or more 10. ___ (COME). Participants must feel that something has been accomplished, and they must see all of their meetings as part of the bigger strategy to involve them in the future of the organization. Achievements at one meeting should be recapped in the next, and so on. 2.4. Vocabulary development Study the following phrases.

forge ahead (with sth) make strong and steady progress with sth hold the floor speak during a discussion, especially for a long time so that nobody else can speak in dribs and drabs gradually and in small amounts or numbers lay sth down officially state rules, principles, etc. that people must obey or follow leave sth hanging fail to make a definite decision or statement about sth ramble on (informal) speak about sth for a long time in a boring or confusing way run over continue for longer than planned rush into sth do something without thinking carefully about it first throw sth together make or produce sth in a hurry to the detriment of sth/sb resulting in harm or damage to sth/sb

Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text. The chairperson may be responsible when a meeting goes badly. Heres why: - Participants are allowed to arrive 1 ___.

They dont know whats happening because the chairperson has 2 ___ the agenda at the last minute and hasnt 3 ___ clear rules for the conduct of the meeting. Without firm guidance from the chair, one or two people may 4 ___ and 5 ___ for ages, and as a result, the meeting 6 ___ with nothing achieved. Poor time management may mean people 7 ___ decisions, or that decisions are 8 ___. One person at the meeting (often the chairperson) 9 ___ their own agenda, 10 ___ the meeting and the other participants.

3. Writing Comment on the following statement: Meetings are a waste of time.


1. Types of Businesses 1.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: How much do you know about the private business activity? Would you plan to set up your own small business after graduation? What sort of business would it be? What makes, in your opinion, a successful businessman/woman in your country? 1.2. Reading Read the following text and fill in the gaps with ONE word. Types of Companies under the Companies Act UK Legislation governing Companies The internal governance procedures and management, rights of shareholders and duties and responsibilities of company officers are governed 1 ___ the Companies Act 2 ___ 1985. Registering a Company To register a company, the required documents must be filed and certain conditions imposed by the Registrar of Companies satisfied. A certificate of incorporation will then be issued and the company brought 3 ___ existence. A companys first shareholders are subscribers and can be natural persons or other companies. Incorporation Documents The documents which must be filed include, importantly, the memorandum of association and the articles of association. The memorandum lists the company name, its objects, the country of its registered office, the liability of its shareholders and the share capital. The articles list the company regulations and rules 4 ___ the internal administration. After the certificate of incorporation is issued, the company is considered as registered and can commence trading. A public limited company must 5 ___ specific capital requirements before it can commence business. A private limited company requires only one member, whereas a public limited company requires a minimum of two. Classification of Companies The Companies Act broadly categorises companies as either public 6 ___ private companies. There are three categories of liability of the company shareholders, which refer to their liability for the companys debts if or when it enters liquidation: Shareholders' liability for companies limited by shares is limited to any amount still owing to the company for their shares. This is referred to as 'limited liability' and is the 7 ___ popular form of company, as the directors and shareholders do not become personally liable for the debts and conduct of the company, except in special circumstances.

For companies limited by guarantee, members liability is limited to their undertaking to pay certain sums on its winding 8 ___, and unlimited companies offer no protection to shareholders for company debts. Moving on from these basic models for shareholders' liability, the Companies Act permits incorporation of private companies limited by shares; public companies limited by shares; private companies limited by guarantee and private unlimited companies. Private Companies Private companies are defined by reference to public limited companies. All companies that are not public companies are private companies. A private company is not permitted to offer its shares to the public. Due 9 ___ the capitalisation requirements, the vehicle tends to be used for smaller businesses. Where a private company is limited by its shares, shareholders are liable to contribute to the assets any unpaid amount on shares issued to that shareholder. The nominal value of the shares, including premiums payable on subscription, determines the amount 10 ___ is payable. The memorandum of association has to be generally in the form prescribed by the Secretary of State. Where a private company is limited 11 ___ guarantee, shareholders will be liable to contribute to the assets of the company the amount required for payment of the companys debts and costs of winding up, up to the maximum set out in the memorandum. This is usually 1. Public Companies A public company must be limited by shares; the memorandum must explicitly state that 12 ___ is a public company. The name must end with public limited company or the abbreviation "PLC". The share capital must not be less 13 ___ 50,000. At least one-quarter of each shares nominal value and the whole of any premium on it must be paid before it can be allotted. If there are less than two shareholders of the company for more than six months, the single member will be jointly and severally liable with the company for its debts, thus limited liability protection 14 ___ be lost, as the company does not satisfy the requirements of the Act. The Stock Exchange may deal with the shares of a public company, or the Alternative Investment Market. Such companies are described as publicly quoted, publicly traded or listed companies. Unlimited Companies A member of such a company has no limit on their liability for a companys debts and obligations if it becomes insolvent. Shareholders may not 15 ___ sued by creditors, who must petition for the winding up of the company. Any share capital must be stated in the articles of association. Overseas Companies This is where the company has been incorporated 16 ___ than in Great Britain, though has an established business in Great Britain. The provision contained in the Act includes those concerning their constitution and officers and an address for service within the jurisdiction, the preparation and delivery of accounts, and the registration of charges over property.

The formation of a company for most trading enterprises means forming a company limited by shares. 1.3. Vocabulary development 1.3.1. Match the following words from the text with the correct definitions:

1. jurisdiction
2. partnership 3. capital 4. liability 5. insolvent

6. to petition
7. memorandum

8. to incorporate 9. shareholder 10. severally

11. to allot

a. (legal) responsibility b. the right to use an official power to make legal decisions, or the area where this right exists c. to use a particular amount of time for something, or give a particular share of money, space etc to someone or something d. not having enough money to pay what you owe e. to include something as part of a group, system, plan etc f. two or more owners who have agreed to divide, in some proportion, the risks taken and the profits earned by the firm g. to ask the government or an organization to do something by sending them a petition; to make a formal request to someone in authority, to a court of law, or to God h. money or property, especially when it is used to start a business or to produce more wealth: i. differently and separately j. a short legal document that contains the important details of an agreement k. person that owns shares/ stocks

1.3.2. Notice the difference: Own/ owe Own: possess; have possession of, be in possession of, be the owner of, hold Owe: be indebted, be in debt, be obliged, have a loan from 1.3.3. Notice how the following words are formed: Proprietorship, partnership, ownership: ~ + ship Liability, responsibility < liable, responsible ~ + ty Savings, belongings: verb + ing(s) Unlimited: un + adj 1.3.4. Complete the sentences by changing the form of the word in capitals. 1. How dare they ___ blame without knowing all the facts first? PORTION 2. At the ___ of summer, the temperature can reach 500C. HIGH 3. Id like to make a ___ from my bank account, please. DRAW 4. Doris Carter, who is 107 today, puts her ___ down to having a loving family, and seven cups of tea a day. LONG 5. A ___ of residents now support the proposal to build a new roundabout in the town centre. MAJOR 6. What strength ___ do those binoculars have? MAGNIFY

7. We took out a loan from the bank, so were going to have to make monthly ___ for the next five years. PAY 8. Liskeard and Callington are basically ___ from here, so itll take about the same time to get to either of them. DISTANT 9. Their help was hugely ___. BENEFIT 10. Please keep e-mails short. ___ makes everyones lives easier. BRIEF 11. The schools football pitch has been ___ over the summer to conform to new national standards. LONG 12. I dont want to ___ the agony for you, but Im afraid youll have to wait another two days to know how much money youve won. LONG 1.4. Functions Presenting information Im going to talk about. First of all, lets look at. After that. As you can see from the bar graph Now, if we turn to.. Now, turning to. Finally , lets look at. In conclusion.. So, to conclude. Writing Present the advantages and disadvantages of having ones own business in Romania. 2. The place of work 2.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: Can you imagine what jobs will be the most frequent in the future? What jobs will disappear? Why? What will the workplace be like? Describe it. What are the factors that contribute to job satisfaction? 2.2. Reading Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. They are given in the box below the text. They are lettered A to I. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 8 with the corresponding missing parts A to I. There is one letter that you do not need. The Natural Productivity Cycle In your personal life, when attending to business or working on side projects, how often do you spend 8 consecutive hours in front of a computer? It doesnt make sense because 1 ___. Everyone goes through alternating periods of high and low mental acuity. There are days when I work on personal projects for well over 8 hours, but the time is always divided into multiple sessions. I might spend a few hours coding a design, a few hours writing, and a few hours reading feeds, moderating comments, and responding to email.

I work this way because 2 ___. Any more than 3 hours in front of a computer and my eyes start hurting and I become restless. I lose the ability to do my best work. Instead of forcing myself to continue, 3 ___. These breaks maximize productivity by eliminating down periods. Its counter productive to force work when the mental energy isnt there. The Problem with an 8 Hour Work Day A continuous 8 hour work day is a relic of the past. It makes sense for physical labour and manufacturing work, but with information workers it 4 ___. The ability of a factory worker to think analytically is irrelevant, hes either cranking widgets or he isnt. In the case of the modern information worker, nearly all tasks involve creative or strategic thinking. The way someone answers an email or interprets a piece of information can differ drastically depending on his or her energy level. Nobody does their best work 5:30 in the afternoon after 5 ___ I cant speak for all workers, but Ive observed that productivity levels generally peak twice a day first thing in the morning and shortly after lunch. The most productive period is the beginning of the day. People are capable of creative tasks like writing and solving complex technical problems. After a couple hours of intense work, 6 ___ like responding to email and tinkering with existing creations. Towards the end of the cycle, the mind is so cluttered and drained that workers resort to work related activities that appear productive but dont contribute to the bottom line. The afternoon cycle is similar but the productivity peak isnt as high. For different people the peaks and valleys will vary, but 7 ___ This number isnt caused by slacking. You cant force an information worker to be highly productive when the energy isnt there. Workers can try their hardest, but the work just wont have that creative edge. The low ratio of highly productive hours to total hours worked is the result 8 ____. When workers reach the low energy part of the cycle, they cant recharge with a non-work activity. The only option is office purgatory. You cant be highly productive because youre mentally fatigued, but you cant recharge because the 8 hour work day requires the appearance of constant productivity. The result is millions of unproductive workers trapped at their desks when theyd rather be doing something else. A energy levels drop and workers downgrade to less demanding tasks B we lose the ability to concentrate effectively within a few hours. C doesnt account for the mental energy cycle. D overall Id estimate only 3-4 hours a day could be classified as highly productive. E I switch to an activity that allows my mind to recharge. F of the continuous 8 hour work day. G the environment has become more accommodating. H it aligns with my mental energy cycle I theyve been sucking down coffee all day to stay awake.

2.3. Language in use Fill in the gaps in the following text with ONE word. Alternative Work Arrangements The obvious solution 1 ___ this problem is planning around the mental energy cycle 2 ___ breaking the work day into multiple segments. The traditional office setting doesnt accommodate this because there are few available recharge activities. People cant 3 ___ household chores, run errands, or engage in recreational activities without leaving the workplace. Some companies have tried to make the work environment 4___ accommodating by offering meals, fitness centres, and special areas 5 ___ relaxation. Although these amenities are certainly an improvement, theyre expensive for employers and only partially satisfy employees. The solution that 6 ___ the most sense is a remote work arrangement because it reduces employer costs and allows employees to adjust their work schedule 7 ___ their mental energy cycle. When a worker becomes mentally fatigued, they can go off the clock and engage 8 ___ recharge activities that are personally productive like exercise or relaxation. When energy returns, the worker can start working again 9 ___ a high level, effectively cutting 10 ___ the low productivity period of the cycle. Employers dont pay for unproductive time and employees get to work in a more natural pattern that adjusts to their personal lives. Why isnt everyone doing this already? Many workers already are, and 11 ___ commutes get worse and communications improve, the number will continue to increase. Of course there will always be a need 12 ___ office workers in businesses (like doctors offices and law firms) that require daily customer interaction, but for most companies it really isnt necessary. There is also the argument that people need to collaborate 13 ___ person. This is steadily becoming less essential. Most office communications are already done through email 14 ___ instant messenger. Face to face meetings are certainly necessary, but for the vast majority of lower and mid level employees meetings are the exception and could be conducted via phone/video conference or condensed into one or two days 15 ___ week. Another common objection is that employees will abuse remote work arrangements by slacking off. Im inclined to believe that most adults value their employment enough that this isnt a problem. In cases where supervision is required, web cams and other technology can 16 ___ used to monitor a worker. I suspect the real reason remote work arrangements are still the exception is inertia. Companies are used to doing business in the office and are reluctant to change. There is also the presence of office politics. If one person is given a remote arrangement, jealous employees will complain. Doesnt it make sense to give everyone what they want and save a boat load of cash on office space? I may only be a kid in his 20s, but I can tell when something just makes sense. I perceive an increasing number of people are noticing the same phenomena. Forty

years from now well be telling our grandchildren about the olden days when everyones mommy and daddy went to work in an office. ( 2.4. Vocabulary development 2.4.1. Match to make sentences. 1. I put a lot of effort 2. Theyve made their decision 3. Its not in your interest to 4. The secretarys kept me 5. I dont know why you didnt apply 6. I think were all in agreement 7. Deans been out 8. The shop hasnt been in 9. Im glad youre finally taking an interest 10. Jason lives fairly near his place of A on hold for ages. B about whos going to get promoted. C of work for over two months now. D into writing this report. E business along. F in your work. G for that position. H accept a pay cut. I work, doesnt he? J on this, arent we?

2.4.2. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space. Although a certain percentage of graduates will still be 1 ___ (EMPLOY) six months after leaving university, the majority will have found 2 ___ (EMPLOY) by then. Many of these will even have been offered a job while at university, as a result of visiting a job fair. Job fairs are held at many universities each year. Companies come along to advertise jobs, which are usually in 3 ___ (MANAGE), and the career structures and benefit packages that go with them. Job fairs are an 4 ___ (EFFECT) way for undergraduates to find out what kind of job they might be interested in. If you go to a job fair, dress 5 ___ (PROFESSION). Dont wear jeans and a T-shirt. Wear a suit! You dont want to look 6 ___ (RESPONSIBLE) when you have your first 7 ___ (MEET) with your potential 8 ___ (EMPLOY). If youre interested in a job on offer, you may have to fill out an 9 ___ (APPLY) form, so its 10 ___ (HELP) to take along relevant information with you. Youll also need proof of all your 11 ___ (QUALIFY), so dont forget to take photocopies of all your certificates with you. 2.5. Functions Forecasting Certainty Will definitely+ vb. I am sure that. To be bound to It certainly + vb. Probability Will probably X should + vb. X is likely to. The likelihood is that Possibility X could + vb. Its possible we X may + vb. There might be Theres just a chance that. Improbability X is unlikely to I doubt if.

Discussion topics

A. Describe the office of your dreams to your partner, using the expressions given above, and then listen to their story. B. Imagine that you are speaking to a group of consultants who are evaluating the efficiency of your department/ faculty/ organisation etc. Give a detailed description of the duties and responsibilities of your present job. Writing: Use the expressions given under forecasting to refer to the university you would build. 3. Fund Raising 3.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: Is it necessary for a company to have its own fund-raising policy? Does a well-defined policy contribute to the success of the company in the business world? 3.2. Reading Read the following text and fill in the gaps with ONE word. Corporations How Corporations Raise Funds For Investment 1. By investing in new issues of a companys stock, shareholders provide the funds for a company to begin new or expanded operations. However, most stock sales do not involve new issues of stock. Instead, when someone 1 ___ owns stock decides to sell some or all of their shares, that stock is typically traded on one of the national 2 ___ exchanges, which are specialised markets for buying and selling stocks. In those transactions, the person who sells the stock not the corporation whose stock is traded receives the funds from the sale. 2. An existing corporation that wants to secure funds to expand its operations has three options: It can issue new shares of stock, using the process described earlier. That option will reduce the share of the business that current stockholders 3 ___, so a majority of the current stockholders have to approve the issue of new shares of stock. New issues are often approved because if the expansion proves to be profitable, the current stockholders are likely to benefit 4 ___ higher stock prices and increased dividends. Dividends are corporate profits that some companies periodically pay out to shareholders. 3. The second way for a corporation to secure funds is by borrowing money from banks, from other financial institutions, or from individuals. To do this the corporation often issues bonds, which are legal obligations to repay the amount of money borrowed, plus interest, 5 ___ a designated time. If a corporation goes out of business, it is legally required to pay 6 ___ any bonds it has issued before any money is returned to stockholders. That means that stocks are riskier investments than bonds. On the other hand, all a bondholder will ever receive is the amount of

money specified in the bond. Stockholders can enjoy much larger returns, if the corporation is profitable. 4. The final way for a corporation to pay for new investments is by reinvesting some of the profits it has earned. After paying taxes, profits are 7 ___ paid out to stockholders as dividends or held as retained earnings to use in running and expanding the business. Those retained earnings come 8 ___ the profits that belong to the stockholders, so reinvesting some of those profits increases the value of what the stockholders own and have risked in the business, which is known as stockholders equity. On the other hand, if the corporation incurs losses, the value of what the stockholders own in the business goes down, so stockholders equity decreases. ( 3.3. Vocabulary development 3.3.1. Match the words with the correct definition:

1. issues (par. 1) 2. to incur (par. 4) 3. transaction (par. 1) 4. to secure (par. 2) 5. expansion (par. 2) 6. dividends (par. 2)

7. bonds (par. 3) 8. returns (par. 3) 9. profits (par. 4)

10. equity (par. 4)

a. corporate profits that some companies periodically pay out to shareholders b. legal obligations to repay the amount of money borrowed, plus interest, at a designated time c. the value of a property after you have taken away the amount left to pay on the mortgage // the value of a companys shares d. the action or process of buying and selling something e. a set of things, for example shares in a company, that are made available to people at a particular time f. money that you make by selling something or from your business, especially the money that remains after you have paid all your business costs g. to get money from a bank or from a person by promising to give them goods or property if you cannot return the money h. a profit on money that you have invested i. the process of making a business, organisation, or activity grow by including more people, moving into new areas, selling more products etc. j. to lose money, owe money, or have to pay money as a result of doing something

3.4. Vocabulary development 3.4.1. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space.

1 working (WORK) at Shepparton Carpets Ltd voted today to continue with their industrial action. Union leader Elaine Watkins issued a statement saying: Although we do not envisage an all-out strike at this stage, everyone at the plant will continue to refuse to work 2 overtime(TIME) until this dispute is settled. We urge (3)managers(MANAGE) to reconsider their proposals. The industrial action, which began three weeks ago, has affected 4production(PRODUCE) at the factory. Joe Turner, Managing Director of Shepparton Carpets, has, however, refused to bow to union demands. If Shepparton Carpets wants to survive, it has to become more 5competitive(COMPETE), he said. It is my responsibility as an 6 employer(EMPLOY) of over 500 7 employes(EMPLOY) to ensure this company continues to make a profit. 8periodicly (PERIOD), we have to make changes to improve efficiency. If we dont, well be all out of a job. It may not be pleasant, but it is essential. Some of the working practices at the factory are, frankly, 9 antiqueted (ANTIQUE) and totally 10 inapplicable(APPLY) to the modern world. I just wish the unions would work with me on this, rather than fighting me every step of the way. 3.5. Functions Trends upward movement:

a rise an increase a climb a jump a fall a drop a decline a decrease

to rise to increase, to go up to climb to jump to fall to drop to decline to decrease

downward movement:

use of prepositions:

The percentage rose The amount stood / stayed at The figure rose by .. There was a rise of.

contrast contrast words or phrases: but, although, despite, in spite of the fact that, whereas, however, nevertheless in contrast (to). On the other hand. On the contrary similarity both..and. likeX. the same. X is similar to.. Neither nor.. Similarly.. Writing: ..while. against. compared to.. In comparison (to)

Imagine that you are the CEO of a car manufacturing company. How would you choose to raise funds in the present context?

UNIT FOUR BUSINESS ETHICS 1. Lead-in In your opinion, what is business ethics? Have you ever been in a difficult situation which involved taking a decision that you were not sure was ethical? Discussion topic Business ethics is concerned with issues of morality in commercial decision making. Ethical questions include the relationship between business and the environment, between companies and their employees, product types, quality, pricing and many other aspects of business. Categorise the following commercial practices using a scale from 1 to 5: 1 = acceptable in some circumstances 2 = usually acceptable 3 = depends on situation 4 = usually unacceptable 5 = always unacceptable Do not forget to give reasons for your choices. 4* manufacturing and selling cosmetics tested on animals 4* making employees redundant without any warning 4* headhunting key people from rival companies 3* hacking into other companies computer systems to get important market information 5* making false claims of selling environmentally-friendly products when, in fact, they are harmful for the environment 5 employing illegal immigrants as cheap labour and depriving them of their legal rights 5* doing business with companies which exploit children 3* exaggerating your companys achievements in negotiations * dropping your prices to force competitors out of the market. 2. English in use 2.1. You are going to read a text about business ethics. For each blank think of ONE word that can best fit in the context. e.g. 0 what Let's Start With "What is ethics?" Simply put, ethics involves learning 0 ___ is right or wrong, and then doing the right thing -- but "the right thing" is not nearly 1 ___ straightforward as conveyed in a great deal of business ethics literature. Most ethical dilemmas in the workplace are not simply a 2 ___ of "Should Bob steal from Jack?" or "Should Jack lie to his boss?" (Many ethicists assert there's always a right thing to 3 ___ based on moral principle, and others believe the right thing to do depends on the situation -- ultimately it's 4 ___ to the individual.) Many philosophers 5 ___ ethics to be the "science of conduct." Twin Cities consultants Doug Wallace and John Pekel explain that ethics

includes the fundamental ground 6 ___ by which we live our lives. Philosophers have been discussing ethics for at 7 ___ 2500 years, since the time of Socrates and Plato. Many ethicists consider emerging ethical beliefs to be "state of the art" legal matters, i.e., what becomes an ethical guideline today is often translated to a law, regulation or rule 8 ___ Values which guide how we ought to behave are considered moral values, e.g., values such as respect, honesty, fairness, responsibility, etc. Statements around how these values are applied are sometimes called moral or ethical principles. So What is "Business Ethics"? The concept has come to mean various things to various people, but generally it's coming to know what is right or wrong in the workplace and doing what's right -- this is in regard 9 ___ effects of products/services and in relationships with stakeholders. Wallace and Pekel explain that attention to business ethics is critical during times of fundamental change -- times much 10 ___ those faced now by businesses, 11 ___ nonprofit and for-profit. In times of fundamental change, values that were previously 12 ___ for granted are now strongly questioned. Many of these values are no longer followed. Consequently, there is no clear moral compass to guide leaders through complex dilemmas about what is right or wrong. Attention to ethics in the workplace sensitizes leaders and staff to how they 13 ___ act. Perhaps most important, attention to ethics in the workplaces helps ensure that when leaders and managers are struggling in times of crises and confusion, 14 ___ retain a strong moral compass. However, attention to business ethics provides numerous other benefits, as well. Note that many people react that business ethics, with its continuing attention to "doing the right thing," only asserts the obvious ("be good," "don't lie," etc.), and so these people don't take business ethics 15 ___. For many of us, these principles of the obvious can go right out the door during times of stress. Consequently, business ethics can be strong preventative medicine. (adapted and abridged from 2.2. Read the second part of the article about business ethics and fill in the gaps with the words in the box. There is one word that you do not need: daily, mismanagement, misunderstanding, remedies, practices, preaching Two Broad Areas of Business Ethics 1. Managerial mischief. Madsen and Shafritz, in their book "Essentials of Business Ethics" (Penguin Books, 1990) further explain that "managerial mischief" includes "illegal, unethical, or questionable 1 ___ of individual managers or organizations, as well as the causes of such behaviors and 2 ___ to eradicate them." There has been a great deal written about managerial mischief, leading many to believe that business ethics is merely a matter of 3 ___ the basics of what is right and wrong. More often, though, business ethics is a matter of dealing with dilemmas that have no clear indication of what is right or wrong. 2. Moral mazes. The other broad area of business ethics is "moral mazes of management" and includes the numerous ethical problems that managers must deal with on a 4 ___ basis, such as potential conflicts of interest, wrongful use of resources, 5 ___ of contracts and agreements, etc. (adapted and abridged from 2.3. Read the last part of the text and use the following words to form a word that fits in the same numbered space in the text.

1. 2. 3. 4.

special expect poor research

5. supply 6. emerge 7. organise 8. guide

Business ethics is now a management discipline. Business ethics has come to be considered a management discipline, 1 ___ since the birth of the social responsibility movement in the 1960s. In that decade, social awareness movements raised 2 ___ of businesses to use their massive financial and social influence to address social problems such as 3 ___, crime, environmental protection, equal rights, public health and improving education. An increasing number of people asserted that because businesses were making a profit from using our country's resources, these businesses owed it to our country to work to improve society. Many 4 ___, business schools and managers have recognized this broader constituency, and in their planning and operations have replaced the word "stockholder" with "stakeholder," meaning to include employees, customers, 5 ___ and the wider community The 6 ___ of business ethics is similar to other management disciplines. For example, organizations realized that they needed to manage a more positive image to the public and so the recent discipline of public relations was born. 7 ___ realized they needed to better manage their human resources and so the recent discipline of human resources was born. As commerce became more complicated and dynamic, organizations realized they needed more 8 ___ to ensure their dealings supported the common good and did not harm others -- and so business ethics was born. Note that 90% of business schools now provide some form of training in business ethics. Today, ethics in the workplace can be managed through use of codes of ethics, codes of conduct, roles of ethicists and ethics committees, policies and procedures, procedures to resolve ethical dilemmas, ethics training, etc. (adapted and abridged from 3. Discussion topics Consider the following questions and discuss possible answers: 1. What issues are involved in ethical considerations? 2. Why do companies have to take an ethical position? 3. Do you think that as societies become richer, consumers become more critical and more likely to adopt ethical standpoints? Extended discussion Defend or attack the following statements. Start by giving some answers to the first question. Does anything go in business? Modern business cannot afford to ignore the ethics. Ethics are all hypocrisy. Business ethics exists in a utopian society but could never be part of todays hectic business world. Companies have a responsibility to give a good example.

4. English in use In the following article some of the underlined parts are correct; some have a mistake in them (a grammar mistake, a vocabulary mistake, a spelling mistake, a missing word, an unnecessary word, and inappropriateness in the context). If the part is correct, write CORRECT in its corresponding numbered space; if the part is incorrect, write the correct version in its corresponding numbered space: 9 Myths About Business Ethics (1) Business ethics in the workplace is about prioritising moral values for the workplace and ensuring behaviours are aligned with those values -- it's values management. Yet, myths abound about business ethics. Some of these myths arise from general confusion about the notion of ethics. Other myths (2) arise from narrow or simplistic views of ethical dilemmas. 1. Myth: Business ethics is more a matter of religion than management. Diane Kirrane, in "Managing Values: A Systematic Approach to Business Ethics," (Training and Development Journal, November 1990), (3) asserts that "altering peoples values or souls isn't the aim of an organizational ethics program -- managing values and conflict among them is ..." 2. Myth: Our employees are ethical so we don't need attention to business ethics. Most of the ethical dilemmas faced by managers in the workplace are highly complex. Wallace explains that one knows when they have a significant ethical conflict when there is presence of a) significant value conflicts among differing (4) interests, b) real alternatives that are equality justifiable and c) significant consequences on "stakeholders" in the situation. Kirrane mentions that when the topic of business ethics comes up, people are quick to speak of the Golden Rule, honesty and courtesy. (5) But when presented with complex ethical dilemmas, most people realize there's a wide "gray area" when trying to apply ethical principles. 3. Myth: Business ethics is a discipline best led by philosophers, academics and theologians. Lack of involvement of leaders and managers in business ethics literature and discussions has led many to believe that business ethics is a fad or movement, having little to do with the day-to-day realities of running an organization. They believe (6) business ethics is primary a complex philosophical debate or a religion. However, business ethics is a management discipline with a programmatic approach that includes several practical tools. Ethics management programs have practical applications in other areas of management areas, as well. 4. Myth: Business ethics is superfluous -- it only asserts the obvious: "do good!" (7) Many people react that codes of ethics, or lists of ethical values to which the organization aspires, are rather superfluous because they represent values to which everyone should naturally aspire. However, the value of a code of ethics to an organization is its priority and focus regarding certain ethical values in that workplace. For example, its obvious that all people should be honest. However, if an organization (8) is struggling around continuing occasions of deceit in the workplace, a priority on honesty is very timely -- and honesty should be listed in that organizations code of ethics. Note that a code of ethics is an organic instrument that changes with the needs of society and the organization.

5. Myth: Business ethics is a matter of the good guys preaching to the bad guys. Some writers do seem to claim a moral high ground (9) while lamenting about the poor condition of business and its leaders. However, those people well versed in managing organizations realize that good people can take bad actions, particularly when stressed or confused. (Stress or confusion are not excuses for unethical actions -- they are reasons.) Managing ethics in the workplace includes all of us working together to help each other remain ethical and to work through confusing and stressful ethical dilemmas. 6. Myth: Ethics can't be managed. Actually, ethics is always "managed" -- but, too often, indirectly. For example, (10) the behaviour of the organisations founder or current leader is a strong moral influence, or directive if you will, on behaviour or employees in the workplace. Strategic priorities (profit maximization, expanding market share, cutting costs, etc.) can be very strong influences on morality. Laws, regulations and rules directly influence behaviours to be more ethical, usually in a manner that improves the general good and/or minimizes harm to the community. Some are still sceptical about business ethics, believing you can't manage values in an organization. Donaldson and Davis (Management Decision, V28, N6) (11) note that management, after everything, is a value system. Sceptics might consider the tremendous influence of several "codes of ethics," such as the "10 Commandments" in Christian religions or the U.S. Constitution. Codes can be very powerful in smaller "organizations" as well. 7. Myth: Business ethics and social responsibility are the same thing. The social responsibility movement is one aspect of the overall discipline of business ethics. Madsen and Shafritz (12) refine the definition of business ethics to be: 1) an application of ethics to the corporate community, 2) a way to determine responsibility in business dealings, 3) the identification of important business and social issues, and 4) a critique of business. (13) Items 3 and 4 are often matters of social responsability. (There has been a great deal of public discussion and writing about items 3 and 4. However, there needs to be more written about items 1 and 2, about how business ethics can be managed.) Writings about social responsibility often do not address practical matters of managing ethics in the workplace, e.g., developing codes, updating polices and procedures, approaches to resolving ethical dilemmas, etc. 8. Myth: Our organization is not in trouble with the law, so we're ethical. (14) One can often be unethical, yet operate within the limits of the law, e.g., withhold information from superiors, fudge on budgets, constantly complain about others, etc. However, breaking the law often starts with unethical behaviour that has gone unnoticed. The "boil the frog" phenomena is a useful parable here: If you put a frog in hot water, it immediately jumps out. If you put a frog in cool water and slowly heat up the water, you can eventually boil the frog. The frog doesn't seem to notice the adverse change in its environment. 9. Myth: Managing ethics in the workplace has little practical relevance. Managing ethics in the workplace involves identifying and prioritizing values to guide behaviours in the organization, (15) and establishing associated policies and procedures to ensure those behaviours are conducted. One might call this "values management." Values management is also highly important in other management practices, e.g., managing diversity, Total Quality Management and strategic planning. (adapted and abridged from

5. Discussion point Take a look at the following real-to-life examples of complex ethical dilemmas and decide what you would do in each situation. 1. "A customer (or client) asked for a product (or service) from us today. After telling him our price, he said he couldn't afford it. I know he could get it cheaper from a competitor. Should I tell him about the competitor -- or let him go without getting what he needs? What should I do?" 2. "Our company prides itself on hiring minorities. One Asian candidate fully fits the job requirements for our open position. However, we're concerned that our customers won't understand his limited command of the English language. What should I do?" 3. "My boss told me that one of my employees is among several others to be laid off soon, and that I'm not to tell my employee yet or he might tell the whole organization which would soon be in an uproar. Meanwhile, I heard from my employee that he plans to buy braces for his daughter and a new carpet for his house. What should I do?"

4. "My computer operator told me he'd noticed several personal letters printed
from a computer that I was responsible to manage. While we had no specific policies then against personal use of company facilities, I was concerned. I approached the letter writer to discuss the situation. She told me she'd written the letters on her own time to practise using our word processor. What should I do?" 5. "A fellow employee told me that he plans to quit the company in two months and start a new job which has been guaranteed to him. Meanwhile, my boss told me that he wasn't going to give me a new opportunity in our company because he was going to give it to my fellow employee now. What should I do?" (adapted and abridged from 6. English in use Read the following article about codes of ethics. In some of the lines there is an extra word which is either grammatically incorrect or does not fit with the meaning of the text. If a line is correct, write CORRECT against the corresponding number; if there is an extra word in the line, write the extra word in capital letters against the corresponding number: Ethics Tools: Codes of Ethics 1According to Wallace, "A credo generally describes the highest values to which the same 2company aspires to operate. It contains the `thou shalt's. A code of ethics specifies the 3ethical rules of operation. It's the `thou shalt not's." In the latter of 1980s, The Conference 4Board, a leading business membership organization, found that 76% of its corporations surveyed had codes of ethics.

5Some business ethicists also disagree that codes have any value. They explain that too 6much focus is put on the codes themselves, and that codes themselves are not 7influential in managing ethics in the workplace. Then many ethicists note that it's the 8developing and continuing dialogue around the code's values that is most important. 9Occasionally, employees react to codes with suspicion, believing in the values are 10"motherhood and apple pie" and codes are for the window dressing. But, when managing 11a complex issue, especially in a crisis, having a code is critical. More important, it's 12having developed a code. In the mid-70s, Johnson and Johnson updated their credo in a 13series of challenge meetings. Bob Kniffin, Vice President of External Affairs, he 14explains, "We pored over each phrase and word. However we asked ourselves, `Do we 15still believe this?' Our meetings have resulted in some fine tuning, but basically we didn't 16change the values. The meetings infused the values in the minds of all of us managers." (adapted and abridged from 7. Discussion topic ETHICAL MARKETING is providing a product or service in a way which considers not only the consumers and the users of the product, but also the general public, the wider needs of society and the environment. Try to decide on a reasonable ethical position on the issues below. Are there any particular conditions that we should take into consideration when choosing which of them are acceptable or unacceptable? Selling unhealthy food despite warnings Marketing sweets and junk food snacks to small children Marketing cigarettes Selling expensive clothing items in poor countries Using overtly sexual images to sell products Focusing too much on anorexic looking body shape when marketing products for teenagers Selling environmentally unfriendly products AND at the same time claiming they do little harm to our environment.

8. Reading comprehension Read the following article. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- J the one which fits each gap (1-9). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. Ethical Decision-making Quick Test by Bruce A. Hamm

Often, making ethical decisions in the work place is a delicate balancing act between competing forces. Easy decisions like "should I embezzle hundreds of thousands of dollars" are obvious and generally do not require much help or analysis to determine whether they are ethical or not. 1 ___. Having a quick test allows you to make the easy decisions and recognize when the decision may be a bit more difficult. If at any point, you cannot legitimately answer the question, you might consider asking someone else for help. 2 ___. Remember, generally the decisions are yours and you have to live with the results, so be prepared to accept responsibility for them. Is it legal? This is the first filter through which your ethical decision will pass. 3 ___. A business law professor in an MBA course once stated that the law is generally about 12 years behind society's concept of ethical practices. Don't simply stop your ethical decision making process at whether an action is legal. It may not be against the law but it may also not be the right thing to do. If the answer is no or raises objections, you must stop, reject the action and take another course 4 ___. How would it look in the news? Okay, you've determined that your action is legal. Now, how would it look to the rest of your community, the nation and ever more frequently, the world? It's one thing for you or even your close associates to know about your decisions and actions but entirely another when people outside your inner circle know about them. 5 ___ Would you be embarrassed to have these events known? How would your company perceive publicity surrounding your actions? If the answer is unacceptable, stop, reject the action and take another course. If the answer is acceptable, go on to the next criteria. Does it comply with our company values? What are your company values? Okay, let's first assume your company values are legitimate ones. Do your actions conform to them? For example: if your values say something about treating employees fairly, do you have a legitimate process for applying discipline and/or discharge? Do managers fire people in the heat of an emotional upheaval or is there an appropriate escalation of discipline before the company allows such a step? 6 ___. If your action conforms to your corporate values, move on to the next criteria. Under the same circumstances, would I want the result of this decision to happen to everyone? Am I treating others as I want to be treated? How do you want to be treated? If you've made a mistake do you take responsibility for it? Have you accepted appropriate discipline with an attitude conducive to correcting the behaviour? 7 ___. If you've done something well, do you expect an appropriate reward, even if it is only verbal? Do you give that same level of reward to your staff or co-workers? For decisions concerning others, is the result of the action fair? Does the person affected get only the appropriate degree of reward or discipline? Would others agree with your perception of the outcome? If no, stop, reject the action and take another course. If yes, move on to the next criteria. How will I feel after the decision is known? Can I face myself the next morning? This is the man in the mirror story (updated to include the woman in the mirror). 8 ___. How do you feel about the decision? Even if it is a tough decision and the outcome would affect someone negatively, have you acted out of the overall best

interest of everyone concerned? If the answer is no, stop, reject the action and find another course. If yes, take the action with good confidence you've resolved your dilemma. Often with subsequent information we regret our actions but we also realize that we make decisions with the information available at the time. If the decision does not need to be made immediately, have you given your proposed action enough reflection to feel confident about its outcome? This process may seem long and involved. 9 ___. Every time you discard a particular option run the next alternative through this same practice. Taking the time to review decisions with an ethical perspective is critical to making the right choices. When a company's people focus on their ethical behaviour, everyone involved is better off. (adapted and abridged from ID=3935) A. If it is legal, go on to the next criteria. B. If your ethical dilemma is obviously at odds with your company values, stop, reject the action and take another course. C. When you shave or apply your makeup and you think of the action you will take, can you look yourself in the mirror and know you are satisfied you've done the right thing? D. It's a bit tougher when the decision is between two competing right things to do. E. In general, they may even share part of the responsibility. F. However, the more you use it, the more quickly you can work through the decision review process on subsequent occasions. G. The word discipline has its origins in the Greek word meaning to teach not to punish. H. Talk to your supervisor or, if you are lucky enough to have an ethics officer or ethics helpline, talk to whoever can help you make the final decision. I. How will the people you don't know perceive your actions? J. Legal and ethical are not equivalent concepts. 9. Writing Pick one of the dilemmas from exercise 5 and describe the decision you would take giving arguments for your decision. (200 words)

UNIT FIVE MANAGEMENT 1. Management Art or Science? 1.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: How would you define management? What is the importance of management? What is the role of a manager? Could you be a manager? Explain. 1.2. Reading Read the following article. While reading, fill in the gaps with ONE word. Which of the two approaches do you favour? The Art and Science of Management One of the enduring questions in the field of management is whether it is an art or a science. Webster's College Dictionary defines an art as skill in conducting any human activity" and science as "any skill or technique that reflects a precise application of facts or a principle." Reflected in the differences in these definitions is the use of precision in science, in that 1 ___ is a particular, prescribed way in which a manager should act. Thus, management as a science would indicate that 2 ___ practice, managers use a specific body of information and facts to guide their behaviours, but that management as an art requires no specific body of knowledge, only skill. Conversely, those who believe that management is an art are likely to believe that there is 3 ___ specific way to teach or understand management, and that 4 ___ is a skill borne of personality and ability. Those who believe in management as an art are likely to believe that certain people are 5 ___ predisposed to be effective managers than are others, and that some people cannot 6 ___ taught to be effective managers. That is, even with an understanding of management research and an education in management, some people will not be capable of being effective practising managers. Foundations of the Management as a Science Perspective Practising managers who believe in management as a science are likely to believe that there are ideal managerial practices for certain situations. That is, when faced with a managerial dilemma, the manager 7 ___ believes in the scientific foundation of his or her craft will expect that there is a rational and objective way to determine the correct course of action. This manager is likely to follow general principles and theories and also create and test hypotheses. 8 ___ instance, if a manager has a problem with an employee's poor work performance, the manager will look to specific means of performance improvement, expecting that certain principles will work in most situations. He or she may rely 9 ___ concepts learned in business school or through a company training programme when determining a course of action, perhaps paying 10 ___ attention to political and social factors involved in the situation. Many early management researchers subscribed to the vision of managers as scientists. The scientific management movement was the primary driver of 11 ___ perspective. Scientific management, pioneered by Frederick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and others, attempted to discover "the one best way" to perform jobs. They used scientific processes to evaluate and organise work 12 ___ that it became more efficient and effective. Scientific management's emphasis 13 ___ both

reducing inefficiencies and on understanding the psychology of workers changed manager and employee attitudes 14 ___ the practice of management. Foundations of the Management as an Art Perspective Practising managers who believe in management as an art are unlikely to believe that scientific principles and theories will be able to be implemented in actual managerial situations. Instead, these managers are likely to rely on the social and political environment surrounding the managerial issue, using their own knowledge of a situation, rather 15 ___ generic rules, to determine a course of action. For example, as a contrast 16 ___ the example given previously, a manager who has a problem with an employee's poor work performance is likely to rely on his or her own experiences and judgement when addressing this issue. Rather than having a standard response to such a problem, this manager is likely to consider a broad range of social and political factors, and is likely to take different actions depending 17 ___ the context of the problem. Henry Mintzberg is probably the most well-known and prominent advocate of the school of thought that management is an art. Mintzberg is an academic researcher whose work capturing the actual daily tasks of real managers was ground breaking research for its time. Mintzberg, through his observation of actual managers in their daily work, determined that managers did not sit at their desks, thinking, evaluating, and deciding all day long, working for long, uninterrupted time periods. Rather, Mintzberg determined that mangers engaged in very fragmented work, with constant interruptions and rare opportunities to quietly consider managerial issues. Thus, Mintzberg revolutionized thinking 18 ___ managers at the time that his work was published, challenging the prior notion that managers behaved rationally and methodically. This was 19 ___ line with the perspective of management as an art, because it indicated that managers did not necessarily have routine behaviours throughout their days, but instead used their own social and political skills to solve problems that arose throughout the course of work. Another scholar that promoted the notion of management as an art was David E. Lilienthal, who in 1967 had his series of lectures titled Management: A Humanist Art published. In this set of published lectures, Lilienthal argues that management requires 20 ___ than a mastery of techniques and skills; instead, it also requires that managers understand individuals and their motivations and help them achieve their goals. Lilienthal believed that effective managerial behaviour meant combining management and leadership into practice, by not only getting work done but understanding the meaning behind the work. Thus, he promoted the idea of the manager as a motivator and facilitator of others. This manager as an artist was likely to respond differently to each employee and situation, rather than use a prescribed set of responses dictated 21 ___ set of known guidelines. Another proponent of the management as art school of thought is Peter Drucker, famed management scholar who is best known for developing ideas related to total quality management. Drucker terms management a liberal art". He argues that the discipline (i.e., the science) of management attempts to create a paradigm for managers, in which facts are established, and exceptions 22 ___ these facts are ignored as anomalies. He is critical 23 ___ the assumptions that make up the management paradigm, because these assumptions change 24 ___ time as society and the business environment change. Thus, management is more of an art, 25 ___ scientific "facts" do not remain stable over time. (

1.3. Vocabulary development 1.3.1. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. This should be a viable ... of good management. 2. All executives involved in the project did their job to the best of their ... . 3. Given the very few clues we have, this is a hardly ... flaw in our business plan. 4. In order to be a ... businesswoman, you have to be acquainted with the main issues of inter-gender communication. 5. Unfortunately, I cannot attach too much ... to your statistics. 6. Good ... is essential for the success of any kind of business. 7. One shouldnt elude ... when dealing with serious occupational tasks. 8. His greatest ... is that of being a flawless leader. 9. I would ... like to specify that we are behind schedule. 10. The effort which you put into our project will turn out to be an invaluable ... . 11. Acting in ... with present legislation will prevent any problems with the authorities. 12. The ... for this initiative to become fruitful are that all of you should work overtime. 13. At the trade fair last year, our company received an award for ... . 14. ... talent is supposed to be in-born rather than acquired. 15. Thanks to our ... intervention, the company didnt go bankrupt. CHARACTER ABLE IDENTITY SUCCESS CREDIBLE LEAD RESPONSIBLE ACCOMPLISH PARTICULAR INVEST ACCORD REQUIRE EXCEL MANAGE TIME

1.3.2. Fill in the blanks with ten of the following fifteen phrasal verbs from the list. Use the remaining five in sentences of your own. You may want to consult a dictionary for the meaning of certain verbs. call back set out bring forth call upon set back bring back call for set forth bring about call up set off bring out call out set aside bring up

1. We had to ___ the help of a consulting firm in order to solve our queries regarding auditing. 2. They finally ___ to invite their business partners to the annual conference on regional development. 3. Im sorry to ___ the subject of solvency but Im afraid we have to deal with this issue as well. 4. Given that the new procedure failed, he decided to ___ the previous one. 5. Please, dont hesitate to ___ me ___ as soon as youve got word from our main investor.

6. I suppose we will have to ___ our differences and concentrate our efforts on solving the problem in hand. 7. I wouldnt like the problem of travel costs to ___ you ___ in your intention to take part in this years trade fair. 8. Following the news of the market crash, desperate firm owners began to ___ for help through all media. 9. I am sorry that Mr. Brown is not in his office now, but please dont hesitate to ___ in an hour. 10. The new management restructuring has ___ significant changes in the companys policy. 1.3.3. A. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word derived from the one given in brackets. Art and Science in Management Research Noted 1 ___ (RESEARCH) Thomas Kuhn, in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, addresses issues associated with the state of current 2 ___ (SCIENCE) research and the opportunities for scientific discovery. Kuhn, in his previous editions of this text, drew distinctions between mature and 3 ___ (MATURE) fields of study. In mature fields of study, many of the central questions of that field have been answered, and strong consensus exists among researchers regarding the fundamental 4 ___ (ASSUME) of that field. Conversely, in immature fields of study, there is still a great deal of debate on major questions in the field, and gains in 5 ___ (KNOW) come sporadically. In many ways, management is an immature science. While its 6 ___ (FOUND) in psychology, sociology, and other related areas give it a long and rich history, the nature of the areas of study renders it immature. That is, due to the difficulties of studying human behavior in a number of disparate 7 ___ (SET), the study of management is still very young when compared with other fields of research (e.g., in the physical sciences). In fact, many scholars have argued that the social sciences (e.g., management research) suffer from envy of the physical sciences, in which "truths" are able to be determined through research. As such, social sciences researchers may strive to create a more "scientific" approach to their fields in order to grant them more 8 ___ (LEGITIMATE). B. In some of the sentences there is an extra word which does not fit with the meaning of the text. Find the extra word. Despite of its relative immaturity, some consistent answers have been developed in the field of management. In many ways this is due to the many increased sophistication of management research. However, there are still a number of research of gaps in management; despite our increased knowledge in some areas, there is still a very great deal of disagreement and confusion in other areas. In these circumstances, the practice of management is likely to will be dictated by the perspective of management as an art. Because of there are no hard and fast rules in certain circumstances, individual managers' experiences and skills must to guide them. Today, much of the management research conducted in academic institutions blends with the notion of management as an art and as a science.

1.4. Language focus: Reflexive Pronouns 1.4.1. Reflexive Pronouns Look at the following example of a reflexive pronoun: They are thus called upon to commit themselves to maximum performance and investment of their full potential in teams and project. Fill in with the suitable reflexive pronoun forms: I you he she it we you they


1.4.2. Fill in the blanks with the right reflexive pronouns. 1. You should commit ___ more to our line of action. 2. She couldnt find ___ a better position. 3. I should have more confidence in ___ when it comes to work involvement. 4. He keeps deluding ___ about how efficient a manager he is. 5. The firm didnt manage to protect ___ from cut-throat competition. 6. We should show more consideration to ___ when we have to deal with unscrupulous business partners like them. 7. I doubt whether they have given ___ a second chance to set things straight in the department affairs. Writing. In not more than 300 words, describe the ideal manager. 2. Motivation and Work Relationships 2.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: How would you define motivation? It is the role of the manager to motivate employees. Would you prefer a male boss or a female boss? Why? Should your boss get involved in your personal problems? Why? Should you compete with your colleagues to win favour with your boss? Why? To what extent does age difference count in work relationships? 2.2. Reading A. Read the following text and choose the motivation theory that you like best. Motivation and Communication The ability to motivate others and improve morale is a soft skill difficult to acquire and almost impossible to measure. Four key thinkers contributed to this field in the 1950s and 60s, and their work is still the basis for contemporary approaches: 1. Maslow developed his hierarchy of needs a. self-actualisation needs b. ego (self-esteem) needs c. social needs

d. security needs e. physiological needs We move to the next stage up only when the lower need is met. And as soon as any need is met, then it is no longer a motivator. The bottom two are usually not an issue in business (unless you are hungry or in danger). After that, our next need is to feel accepted and part of a group (social need). If that happens, then next we have ego needs: recognition and acknowledgement from others, as well as a sense of status or importance. Finally, if that need is met, we want self-fulfilment (self-actualisation in Maslows terms): to achieve, to develop to out fullest potential.

2. Herzberg expressed similar ideas. He agreed that the most important motivators
at work were the sense of achievement, earned recognition and interest in the job itself. But then there was another set of job factors (hygiene or maintenance factors) that do not motivate employees, but can cause dissatisfaction if they are missing. These include salary, job security, working conditions and good relations with co-workers

3. McGregor observed that managers generally fall into two categories: Theory X
and Theory Y. Theory X managers believe that most people dislike work and must be controlled and directed to achieve the organisations goals. Theory Y managers believe that most people like work and actively seek responsibility. They believe in empowerment (= giving employees the authority to make decisions without traditional managerial approval) and enabling (= giving them the tools).

4. Drucker believed in management by objectives (MBO). MBO calls on managers

to work with employees to formulate clear, ambitious but achievable goals. There has to be monitoring and measurement to ensure objectives are being met, and workers who achieve their objectives can be rewarded with pay rises, bonuses, etc. Communication Communication is two-way: top-down and bottom-up. It can also be external: the PR function handles this. Inside an organisation, informal communication happens all the time; everyone enjoys discussing office politics at the water cooler and picking up information on the grapevine (= passed from one person to another in conversation). Formal communication is through the medium of meetings, presentations, reports, etc. But two other key communication skills are required: Active listening. This means listening with full attention, not interrupting except to ask for clarification, and giving consideration to the other persons point of view. Assertiveness. This means stating your needs and opinions confidently and clearly, without on the one hand being indirect or suffering in silence, or on the other being aggressive and rude. B. Read the following text and choose the personality type that you think you belong to. Teamwork A team (or taskforce or working party) needs a variety of personality types to perform well: Head people who are good at thinking and problem-solving

Hands people who are good at doing and acting Heart people who are good at networking and resolving conflicts

Once a team has been set up, it usually goes through the five stages identified by Bruce Tucker: 1. Forming people get to know each other 2. Storming this refers both to brainstorming as ideas get suggested for the first time, and also to conflicts that arise as team members clarify their roles and expectations. 3. Norming members sort out a way of working together and begin to own and share the team objectives. 4. Performing members focus on solving problems and doing tasks. Progress can be seen as they pass various milestones (= events that mark an important stage in a process). 5. Adjourning the job is finished, and there is often a public recognition and celebration of achievements. 2.3. Vocabulary development 2.3.1. Fill in the missing letters. 1. The level of confidence and positive feelings that people have, especially people who work together, is their level of mo_ _ _ e (slightly different from motivation which is linked to doing things). 2. When we have the recognition and respect of the others, it adds greatly to our self-es_ _ _ m (= the feeling that we are valued and important). 3. When we have been successful, it is good to have the ackn_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ nt (= public recognition and thanks) of others. 4. Developing to our fullest potential was called self-actualisation by Maslow. A more common term is self-ful_ _ _ ment. 5. Being successful after a lot of effort gives us a sense of ach_ _ _ _ _ _nt. 6. Giving people more control over their work is called em_ _ _ _ _ _ _nt. 7. Giving someone the tools and skills to do something is called en_ _ _ing them. 8. Successful managers are neither passive nor aggressive. Instead, they are ass_ _ _ _ve. 9. Business leaders need to have vision and comm_ _ _ _ nt (= enthusiasm, determination and a strong belief in what they are doing). 2.3.2. Read the text and then answer the questions below. The work of Maslow and Herzberg has been developed into the theory of job enrichment. This theory states that there are five characteristics affecting an individuals motivation and performance. 1. Skill variety the extent to which the job demands different skills. 2. Task identity the degree to which a job has visible outcome. 3. Task significance the degree to which a job has an impact on the work of others. 4. Autonomy the degree of freedom and choice that people have in scheduling work and determining procedures. 5. Feedback the amount of direct and clear information that is received about performance.

The first three factors above contribute to the meaningfulness of the job. The fourth gives a feeling of responsibility. The fifth contributes to a feeling of achievement and recognition. Job enrichment tries to maximize the above five factors within the constraints of the organisation. It also includes two specific strategies: a. job enlargement combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment b. job rotation moving employees from one job to another Find a word in the text which means: 1. making something better and more enjoyable 2. result 3. power to make independent decisions 4. quality of being serious, useful and important 5. making something bigger 6. piece of work that you must do as part of your job or course of study 2.3.3. Study the collocations referring to decision making. Check any unknown words in the dictionary. achieve, define, establish, fail in, fall short of, fulfil, identify, meet, reach, set address, cause, clear up, create, deal with, give rise to, handle, overcome, resolve, solve, tackle accept, agree to/with, come up with, make, offer, put forward, reject, rule out, take up, turn down arrive at, come to, defer, make, overrule, overturn, postpone, put off, reach, reverse, take collective, critical, crucial, difficult, hard, important, joint, key, major, tough, unanimous anticipated, desirable, eventual, expected, favourable, final, likely, satisfactory, successful an objective a problem a suggestion a decision decision outcome

Now divide the words in each box into three groups, based on their meaning. achieve, meet, reach, fulfil define, identify, establish, set fail in, fall short of an objective a problem a suggestion a decision decision outcome 2.3.4. Match the team roles in the box to the descriptions below. This task is based on the ideas of Belbin and Margerison-McCann. Coordinator Promoter Innovator Shaper Evaluator Specialist Finisher Implementer Team worker

Head people 1. ___________ - solves difficult problems with creative ideas; not afraid to challenge norms; may ignore details. 2. ___________ - thinks carefully and accurately about things; listens patiently; may lack energy to inspire others. 3. ___________ - has expert knowledge in key areas; may be uninterested in all other areas. Hands people 4. ___________ - takes basic ideas and makes them work in practice; methodical and organised; can be slow. 5. ___________ - gets involved quickly with lots of energy; more interested in the final result than the process; may be impatient. 6. ___________ - likes completing things on time, on budget, and to specification; can worry too much. Heart people 7. ___________ - central person who makes sure everyone works well together; helps everyone focus; can be seen as too controlling. 8. ___________ - caring, a good listener, and works hard to resolve problems; may have difficulty making decisions. 9. ___________ - enthusiastic, sees the big picture and good at explaining it to people outside the group; can be too optimistic and lose initial energy. 2.3.5. Fill in the blanks with the required dependent preposition: 1. I feel deeply committed ___ my employees. 2. We should contribute more ___ the development of this business. 3. The board of directors finally decided ___ a plan for future restructuring. 4. She should pay more attention ___ the way in which she treats her subordinates. 5. There have been no changes ___ salary agreements. 6. The influence ___ human resources policy is due ___ the increased pressure ___ the part of international competition. 7. ___ what means do you think we could reduce costs? 8. Im afraid that the manager is opposed ___ our strategy of concentrating ___ cost reduction only. 9. Our cooperation could be conducive ___ further success. 10. I would like to ensure ___ particular that no change ___ the company has taken place ___ the absence of careful deliberation. 2.4. Language focus: The tense system: Present Simple vs. Present Continuous 2.4.1. The tense system: Present Simple vs. Present Continuous Compare: Human resources management works in close collaboration with senior executives. (permanent situation) Jane is working for Mr. Jones this week because his secretary is on holiday. (temporary situation) Present Simple

Form: short infinitive;! 3rd pers. sg: + s;? do/ does(3rd pers. sg.); - dont/ doesnt He writes. Does he write? Yes, he does/ No, he doesnt. It indicates: habitual actions/ regular, repeated actions: He goes to work at 7 every morning. general truths, permanent situations: The sun shines. planned future actions, performed according to a schedule: The train leaves at 8 oclock. Specific adverbs: every day/ month/ year, often, usually, always, never Present Continuous Form: to be (in the present) + verb + -ing It indicates: an action happening now: I am reading now. an action happening in a limited period of time, a temporary situation: I am writing the paper today. an arrangement in the near future: We are visiting them next week. complaints about bad habits: Why are you always interrupting? ! STATE VERBS ARE NOT normally used in the continuous form: verbs of perception: see, hear, smell, feel, notice, recognize verbs of emotion: want, refuse, forgive, wish, like, hate, dislike, prefer verbs of mental activities: think, understand, know, mean, believe, suppose, remember, forget, realize verbs of possession: have, own, possess, belong verbs of appearance/ seeming: seam, signify, appear (= to seem), contain, consist, keep (= to continue), concern, matter the auxiliaries; exception: to have = to eat: I am having lunch. Their progressive meaning is suggested by using CAN in front of some of them: I can hear. He can see. 2.4.2. Find the mistakes in the following sentences and correct them. 1. We work in your office till they finish painting ours. 2. Our firm is usually getting in touch with customers by mail. 3. Their company does not do very well these days. 4. Since we all work in the same office, we are spending most of our time together. 5. They want to know if the price is including VAT. 6. Human resources policy is giving consideration to various internal and external factors. 7. At present our CEOs try to establish the priorities for the further development of the firm. 8. What do you think this job is involving? 9. Are you realising that if we dont apply the new procedure in due course we will suffer great profit losses? 10. Most managers are not able to attend the meeting because they are having flu. 11. I know that the competition is tough this year, but we survive on the market. 12. We sell our shares in the company. Do you want to buy them? 13. While Sarah is on holiday, Tracy handles her work as a secretary.

14. To be honest, I am doubting whether you will be able to succeed in this move. 15. You shouldnt pay any attention to the new manager. He is just sarcastic again. 2.5. Writing Choose a leader that you admire. Explain why you admire them. Write approximately 300 words. 3. Multinationals 3.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: What determined the need for multinational corporations? Why is it more difficult to manage a multinational corporation? Would you like to work in a multinational corporation? Why? What factors influence communication in a multinational corporation? 3.2. Reading Read the following text and fill in the blanks with ONE word. Then answer the question in the title. Multinationals: heroes or villains of the global economy? Foreign-owned multinationals employ one worker in every five in European manufacturing and one in seven in US manufacturing. They sell one euro in every four of manufactured goods in Europe and one dollar in five in the United States. Yet policy-makers and the public 1 ___ the world have mixed feelings about multinationals: they see them 2 ___ as welcome bearers of foreign wealth and knowledge or as unwelcome threats to national wealth and identity. Policy-makers want multinationals to invest in their country, but are unhappy when national firms close 3 ___ domestic activities and open up foreign ones or when foreign brands compete successfully with national ones. This Jekyll and Hyde perception of multinationals stems more 4 ___ ambiguous feelings about large market players with no national identity than from rigorous economic analysis. Indeed, the debate 5 ___ multinationals is rarely grounded on economic arguments and there is little understanding of what multinationals are, or of what costs and benefits they bring to local economies. Multinationals are often different 6 ___ purely national firms and some concerns are legitimate. They are relatively large and they do have competitive power in the market place and bargaining power in the policy-making arena, particularly in smaller developing countries. They are global players that can circumvent local regulations and policies 7 ___ easily than national firms. They are footloose, able to move activities between their plants 8 ___ relatively low cost, removing benefits as rapidly as they deliver them. And they do mass-produce standardised products, jeopardising product variety. Yet other features of multinationals also explain why countries compete fiercely to attract them. They often bring scarce technologies, skills and financial resources. They are fast in 9 ___ advantage of new opportunities and

contributing to national wealth creation. They are bound by international standards and market competition and they often offer better employment conditions and product qualities 10 ___ national firms. Moreover, multinationals are 11 ___ just giant corporations like Microsoft or Coca Cola. Many small and medium-sized enterprises, firms with limited market power in domestic and foreign markets, have one or more foreign subsidiaries. Investing abroad and thus becoming a multinational is a strategy open to many types of firms. What are multinationals? Multinationals are firms that own a significant equity share typically 50% or more of another company operating in a foreign country. They include modern corporations 12 ___ IBM, General Motors, Intel and Nike, but also small firms like Calzaturificio Carmens, a shoemaker employing 250 workers divided 13 ___ Padua (Italy) and Vranje (Serbia). The activities of multinationals are best measured by firm-level data like sales or number of employees. Unfortunately, these data 14 ___ not widely available. Instead, researchers rely on data on flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) recorded from balance of payment statistics and which are available across time, industrial sectors and for many receiving and sending countries. FDI is an investment in a foreign company where the foreign investor owns at least 10% of the ordinary shares, undertaken 15 ___ the objective of establishing a lasting interest in the country, a long-term relationship and significant influence on the management of the firm. FDI flows are different from portfolio investments, which can be divested easily and do not have significant influence on the management of the firm. Thus, to create, acquire or expand a foreign subsidiary, multinationals undertake FDI. ( 3.3. Vocabulary development 3.3.1. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. We have decided to form a(n) ... with partners we have so far considered rivals. 2. Companies like Coca-Cola are world famous ... . 3. I wouldnt like to create any ... as concerns the terms of this contract. 4. All countries in the third world need relief supplies given their ... state. 5. I am sorry that because of your incompetence the problem we are dealing with has become ... . 6. No discrimination based on ... will be exercised by this multinational company. 7. I dont want to sound ... of your achievement but I think you need to practise PR a bit more. 8. ... issued ordinance enables small companies to retain a larger part of their profits. 9. Turning on the answer phone I discovered to my dismay that ALLY NATION UNDERSTAND DEVELOP MANAGE ETHNIC APPRECIATE GOVERNMENT COMPREHEND

all messages were rather ... . 10. She is a brisk, ... woman who has shown great competence in dealing with all our clients so far.


3.3.2. Fill in the blanks with the required dependent preposition: 1. We are sure that the present crisis stems ___ our MDs inability to deal ___ cultural diversity in our company. 2. I am afraid I cannot find any solution ___ our major problem. 3. In order to make it a perfect match you will have to gear the components of this device ___ the abilities of the other. 4. Our success is dependent ___ your manner ___ coping ___ this merger. 5. I wouldnt like to impose my way ___ you, but you should understand my concern. 6. By allowing ___ slight variations ___ the original design, you will be able to manage this problem ___ your own. 7. Differences ___ cultural attitudes have to be taken ___ account. 8. What is your attitude ___ the Italian way? 9. His approach ___ cultural diversity lacks ___ careful preparation. 10. You have to possess ample preparation ___ management to ensure a successful outcome of this meeting. 3.3.3. Write ONE word in each gap: I was working as an IT Manager for a small publishing company (in fact, I was standing 1 ___ for the actual manager while she was away on maternity leave) when the company was taken 2 ___ by a large multinational media organisation. It was in the depths of the recession, and initially our new owners promised to see our small company 3 ___ the hard times. Things got worse, though, and they finally backed 4 ___ of their agreement. Our company closed 5 ___. We were all made redundant it was horrible! I wasnt sure what I wanted to do next. I 6 ___ down several offers of work as I didnt want to rush into anything. Then, one day, I woke up and thought: Im going to set 7 ___ my own business! At first it was tough. I had to 8 ___ to everything myself I was the only employee! but I set 9 ___ it with dedication and refused to give up, whatever happened. Over the last five years, as the companys grown, Ive taken 10 ___ more and more staff. Dicksons now employs over five hundred people. I set 11 ___ to be successful, and Ive managed it, I feel very lucky, although, to be honest, luck has nothing to do with it. It just takes hard work and commitment. I dont feel satisfied yet, though. Were bringing 12 ___ new products all the time, and I want to continue doing that. I also want to speed 13 ___ our production process to make it more efficient. Im not planning to slow 14 ___ any time soon! 3.3.4. Complete the following passage, using suitable words from the box below: agreement compromise (v) investment equity inflexible negotiate stalemate/deadlock counter-proposals shareholding deal concession withdraw/pull out

Many countries, such as Nigeria and India, are trying to get more control over their economies. They welcome foreign 1 ___ but insist that their own nationals own a percentage of the companys 2 ___. The size of the 3 ___ varies, ranging from 20% to 60%, though it can be higher or lower. When governments try to increase their nationals equity shareholding, foreign companies are not pleased. Generally, they try to 4 ___ with the government to keep the percentage as low as possible. They argue and haggle, make proposals and 5 ___, to persuade the government to give way and make some kind of 6 ___. If the foreign company employs many local people, or earns a lot of foreign currency, the government may be willing to 7 ___. Some governments are very 8 ___ and will make no concessions. In this case, the negotiations end in a 9 ___, with neither side giving way. The foreign company ends up by 10 ___ from the country. This usually leads to feelings of great bitterness on both sides. No company wants to leave a country. In general, the foreign firm will make every effort to reach 11 ___ or make some sort of 12 ___ with the host government. 3.3.5. Study the following list of expressions. If necessary, use a dictionary. get back on ones feet (again) fall on ones feet put ones foot down have a foothold in get a foot in the door have/get cold feet put ones foot in

Rewrite the following sentences replacing the words in italics with the correct forms of the expressions above. 1. The management has acted firmly concerning smoking in the factory. 2. We dont have a contract with them but weve taken the first steps towards getting one. 3. I was laid off in January but I was really lucky because I found an even better job a month later. 4. I made a bad mistake when I told our Marketing Director that the new product would fail. 5. For some time, we were planning to enter the US market. Then, at the last moment, we lost our nerve and decided not to. 6. The group of department stores made losses for three years running. However, now it has recovered. 7. It took three years hard work, but at last weve got a secure position in the Japanese market. 3.4. Language focus: The tense system: Past Simple vs. Past Continuous 3.4.1. The tense system: Past Simple vs. Past Continuous Simple Past Form: Regular verbs: - ed: worked, dropped, played, tried Irregular verbs: 2nd form: see, saw; write, wrote; buy, bought

Interrogative: Did he buy? Negative: did not/ didnt It indicates: a past, finished action, having no connection with the present: He told me to be punctual. When I was 20 I lived in London. - An action performed in the past: We met two weeks ago. - a past habit: He played football twice a week. = He used to play = He would play.. Specific adverbs: yesterday, last week/ month/ year, two days/ months/ years.ago, when Past Continuous/Progressive Form: to be (in the past tense) + verb + -ing I was running. Was I running? Yes, I was. No, I wasnt. It indicates: past actions in progress: I was writing when he entered the room. gradual development: It was getting cold. Parallel actions in the past, one of which is in development: We listened to the radio while we were having lunch. - A gradual action, interrupted by a past, momentary action: I was writing when he entered. - An action continuing, especially after the time it was expected to finish: At ten I was still reading. Specific adverbs: at.o clock, at that time, this time yesterday, this time last month !!! Simple and Progressive Past while, as, when, whenever introduce the Past Progressive: While/ as I was crossing the street, I saw him. When I was talking to him, she came in. They listened carefully whenever he was delivering a speech. 3.4.2. Choose the correct tense in the following sentences: 1. When the manager arrived he noticed/was noticing that the secretary had left. 2. I was trying/tried to get in touch with your secretary all day yesterday but I couldnt. 3. He typed/was typing the contract when his boss came/was coming in. 4. What did you do/were you doing yesterday as I tried/was trying to get through to you? 5. At that time he worked/was working in a pharmaceutical company. 6. I realised/was realising that somebody was ringing me up/rang me up as I was going/went into the conference room. 7. My secretary did not understand/was not understanding how the new computer programme was working/worked. 8. It was only later that I found out/was finding out there was somebody who knew/was knowing that she spent/was spending time in prison at the time for tax evasion. 9. As nobody watched/was watching, it was easy for me to conduct the transaction my way.

10. He was going/went on his business trip to France when her plane crashed/was crashing. Discussion topic Draw a list of advantages and disadvantages of multinational corporations. Writing Using the list you have drawn in the previous activity, comment (in approximately 300 words) on the statement Multinational corporations are robbing poor countries of their national assets.

UNIT SIX RECRUITMENT 1. The Recruitment Process 1.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: Where can you find information about job vacancies? What information do companies generally give when they advertise for vacancies? What are the steps that one has to take in order to apply for a job? What are your expectations when looking for a job? Should people accept any employment conditions simply because they are unemployed? Why? 1.2. Reading Read the text below and fill in the gaps with ONE word. Main Recruitment Process Steps The aim of the HRM Function is 1 ___ the recruitment process design as simple as possible. The HR Recruiters should not forget about this main goal during the design phase of the recruitment process development. The recruitment process is simple on the high level, but it contains a lot of interaction 2 ___ different participants in the recruitment process. The HRM Function, the line manager and candidates need to receive and share a lot of information and their interaction is usually the main issue during the recruitment process. The main steps of the recruitment process are: 1. Job Design 2. Opening Job Position 3. Collecting CVs 4. Preselection of CVs 5. Job Interviews 6. Job Offer The job design is the most important part of the recruitment process. The job design is a phase about design of the job profile 3 ___ a clear agreement between the line manager and the HRM Function. The Job Design is 4 ___ the agreement about the profile of the ideal job candidate and the agreement about the skills and competencies, which are essential. The information gathered can be used during other steps of the recruitment process to 5 ___ it up. The Opening of the Job Position is generally the job of the HR Recruiter. Skilled and experienced HR Recruiters should decide 6 ___ the right mix of the recruitment sources to find the best candidates for the job position. This is another key step in the recruitment process. The next step is collecting CVs and preselecting them. This step in the recruitment process is very important today 7 ___ many organisations waste a lot of time in this step. Today, the organisation cannot wait with the preselection of the CVs. Generally, this should be the last step done purely by the HRM Function.

The job interviews are the main step in the recruitment process, which should be clearly designed and agreed 8 ___ HRM and the line management. The job interview should discover the job candidate who 9 ___ the requirements and fits best the corporate culture and the department. The job offer is the 10 ___ step of the recruitment process, which is done by the HRM Function; it finalises all the other steps and the winner of the job interviews gets the offer from the organisation to join. 1.3. Vocabulary development 1.3.1. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. If you are looking for a job you should carefully read the ... page of newspapers. 2. Generally companies decide to advertise their job ... in a newspaper. 3. If you decide to apply for a job you must be sure that you meet the ... specified in the job description. 4. You should send your CV and a letter of application at the address ... in the advertisement. 5. Your letter of application should ... your suitability for the job you are applying for. 6. After reading the CVs and the letters sent by the ..., the company will draw a shortlist of candidates, who are invited to attend an interview. 7. Henkel needs young candidates for position in ... teams. 8. The company offers a ... salary and generous benefits. 9. ... count as much as work experience. 10. It is useful to have recommendations from two or three ... (e.g. former employers, teachers, etc.). APPOINT VACANT REQUIRE SPECIFIC EMPHATIC APPLY CULTURE COMPETE QUALIFY REFER

1.3.2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition. 1. Our company finally decided to advertise ___ their newly launched products. 2. As Mr. Jones retired, Peter decided to apply ___ the position of senior production manager. 3. Should you need further information, apply ___ our PR assistant. 4. If you want this job you should be ready to work ___ pressure. 5. You will be responsible ___ all aspects of production if you want this position. 6. Our employees are very committed ___ our companys goals. 7. Try not to be envious ___ Johns success! You know he deserves a promotion. 8. My letter comes ___ reply to your advertisement for the position of operations officer.

9. Mr. Jackson is not really interested ___ the position of customer services

10. This position involves looking ___ very young children.

1.3.3. Read the following tips to help you get on at work. Then match the phrases in the first column with their appropriate explanation in the second column in the table.

First, you need to get your foot in the door. Learn to take things in your stride whatever happens. Dont pin your hopes on others. If necessary, have the courage to go it alone. Dont put all your eggs in one basket try to keep your options open. Keep in with your colleagues you may need their support. Keep your ear to the ground you hear important things on the grapevine. If you can make a name for yourself, things will get easier. Always keep your feet on the ground. a. have a sensible and realistic attitude b. make sure you find out about recent developments in a particular situation c. rely on only one thing for success d. become well known and respected by many people e. get your first opportunity to work for an organisation or business, which could later bring you success f. stay friends with sb. because you think you will benefit from it g. hope that sb. will help you or that sth. will happen because all your plans depend on this h. accept and deal with sth. difficult without letting it worry you i. do sth without help from anyone j. by talking in an informal way to other people

1. get your foot in the door 2. take sth/things in your stride 3. pin (all) your hopes on others 4. go it alone I 5. put all your eggs in one basket 6. keep in with sb. 7. keep your ear to the ground 8. on the grapevine 9. make a name for yourself 10. keep your feet on the ground 1.3.4. Complete the text.

Sandra got her 1 ___ in the door when she was very young, and once she started at Berwicks, she took everything in her 2 ___ and quickly made a 3 ___ for herself. She was offered jobs in other cities but wanted to keep her 4 ___ open by staying in London where she could keep her ear to the 5 ___ and wait for something really exciting to come up. She was 6 ___ her hopes on getting a top job with C&M, and when she heard on the 7 ___ that they wanted someone to run the Singapore office, she applied for it and got it. In a couple more years, shell have enough experience to go it 8 ___ if she wants to, but I know she has continued to 9 ___ in with her colleagues at Berwicks, so who knows where shell end up. 1.3.5. Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the phrases in the table above.

1.4. Language focus: The tense system: Present Perfect Simple 1.4.1. The tense system: Present Perfect Simple The verbs in bold in the following sentence are in the Present Perfect tense. You have just graduated (preferably in business administration) at university level or you have already worked for several years at a consumer goods producer (cosmetics experience is beneficial). Form: to have (in the present) + the Past Participle I have seen her. /Have I seen her?/ Yes, I have. No, I havent. It indicates: action begun in the past that continues in the present: I have known him for two years. Specific adverbs: for, (ever) since, all day, often, seldom, ever, never always, yet past action with results in the present: He has broken his leg. Specific adverbs: already, recently, lately, so far, till now, up to now, up to the present, just finished action: He has just entered. Have you seen him yet? Specific adverbs: just, yet, already an action that has been completed: They have repaired the fax. 1.4.2. Choose the correct tense (Past Simple, Present Perfect Simple) of the verbs given in brackets to fill in the blanks in the following sentences: 1. Our company (to buy) ten new computers last month. 2. They (not hear) from their business partner since last summer. 3. Jane (attend) a seminar on recruitment techniques yesterday. 4. It is the first time that we (find) the right person for the job. 5. She (work) as a marketing assistant for twenty years, that is between 1960 and 1990. 6. He already (send) three letters of application to three different companies. 7. How many times you (apply) for a job? 8. When (come) the new manager to this factory? 9. Until recently nobody (know) how to operate the new security system in the office. 10. When the executive (arrive) we (feel) very confident of the companys success. Discussion topic Imagine that you are speaking to a group of students from another university who are interested in applying for a research project in your particular field of study. Discuss the different job opportunities in this field. Writing. Describe your favourite job in approximately 300 words. Give reasons in support of your choice.

2. CVs and letters of application 2.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: What information do you have to give in a curriculum vitae? What is the role of the letter of application? To what extent do the CV and the letter of application represent ones suitability for a certain position? What aspects referring to your private life are of real interest to your potential employer? What personal quality do you consider to recommend you as a potential reliable employee? 2.2. Reading The most common contents of a CV include: Personal Details Skills and Career Summary Key Achievements Qualifications Career History Don't forget: The ultimate test of YOUR CV is whether it meets the needs of the person making the buying decision, and whether YOU feel comfortable with its content and style. ( a) Look at the structure of a CV. CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL DETAILS Name: Date of birth: Nationality: Marital status: Address: Telephone: EDUCATION/QUALIFICATIONS PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE/WORK HISTORY/WORK EXPERIENCE (you can mention your employment periods either in ascending or in descending order; you may want to mention outstanding achievements during each period) ADDITIONAL SKILLS (mention any training courses or periods of part-time employment that you consider relevant) INTERESTS (mention your favourite pastime activities, organisations or associations that you may belong to especially if they are in a field relevant to the position you are applying for)

REFERENCES (give two or three names of persons who have known you for some time and can recommend you for the job) b) Consider the following advice on writing covering letter). a letter of application (also called

The letter of application introduces you and your CV to a recruitment consultant or potential employer. Such a letter should contain three distinct parts: Introduction and statement of source Statement of relevance to role advertised Conclusion Introduction and Statement of Source The first section should clearly state the source of the advertisement, ie the newspaper name, Internet or other source, the date that it was advertised, the job number and reference number, if provided. Examples of the first paragraph in a letter of application are: "I am writing to express my interest in applying for the role of Sales Manager, advertised in The Times on 13 May, 2000, Reference number MX/67845." Or "Following our recent conversation, I am writing to express my interest in the position of Architect that was advertised on your Internet site on 13 February, 2000." The purpose of this first paragraph is to clearly put you in the running for the job you have applied for. Busy recruiters recruit a number of positions with similar titles at the same time, and advertise these on similar dates. The first paragraph should give you a fighting chance for the job by at least getting your application into the right pile. Statement of Relevance to Advertised Role The second section of your letter of application should clarify why you are an appropriate candidate for this particular job. In preparing to write the second section, you should read the advertisement clearly and identify the selection criteria articulated in the advertisement. You should also be guided by conversations that you have had with recruitment consultants or company recruiters, so that you clearly understand what they think is important in the role. They often give you extra clues that are not in the advertised media. How you express this section is up to you. For example, you might be more comfortable with the succinct: "I believe I am ideally suited to this role because I have over 15 years experience in sales, tertiary qualifications, managed accounts in excess of 10,000 etc, etc" or you may prefer bullet-point form, for example: "I believe I am ideally suited to this role because: I have 15 years experience in sales I have tertiary qualifications in sales and marketing I have managed accounts well in excess of 10,000"

Concluding Section In concluding your letter, express your interest in the job and provide any particular contact details that may be unique, for example: "I look forward to discussing this application with you in the near future. I can be contacted on XXX or alternatively, XXX during work hours." Another example might be: "I look forward to discussing this application with you in greater detail in the near future and will be available for interview at a mutually convenient time." ( 2.3. Vocabulary development 2.3.1. Fill in the blanks in the following text with the words and phrases given below: ago among hygiene suppliers brand styling sales market field worldwide kind leading since consistent continuously ___ its foundation over 126 years ___ our company has put ___ focus on customer oriented product development. The Schwarzkopf & Henkel division is one of the largest of its ___ in the world and its ___ -name products business is ___ expanding. With our cosmetic products we achieved ___ of 2085 million Euro in 150 countries ___. We hold ___ market positions in all of the international ___ segments of our strategic business units. Our company stands for brand-name products in the ___ of hair colorants, hair ___ and care, toiletries, skin care, oral ___ and fragrances. The Schwarzkopf Professional hairdressing unit is ___ the worlds four leading ___ of hair salon products. ( 2.3.2. Look up the following phrasal verbs. Fill in the blanks in the sentences below with the required tense form of the suitable phrasal verb. break in with look after break off look for break out look forward break through look into break look out

1. The meeting was interrupted when the secretary ___ to say that the building 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
was on fire. They ___ negotiations weeks ago because of the financial crisis. The value of our shares fell dramatically when the scandal about the merger ___. The new management had almost no difficulty in ___ the lines of competition. We are deeply sorry, but we had to ___ our allies after more than one flaw were identified in the contract. We are very disappointed to find out that our MD is always ___ his own interests only. Our company ___ an experienced production manager. In conclusion, we ___ to your reply. We will have to ___ the possibility of hiring more PR assistants. If you dont ___ you may end up in bankruptcy.

2.3.3. Study the phrases given in the table below.

close on part of the furniture take sb under your wing the tricks of the trade pass sth on (to sb) take some doing throw your weight around/about

(used with time, age, distance, etc.) almost; very nearly sth/sb so familiar that you no longer notice it/them look after sb who has less experience than you the clever ways of doing things in a particular job give sth to sb else, especially after receiving it yourself (inf.) be difficult to do, or involve a lot of effort or time (inf.) tell people what to do in a bossy way

Correct the mistake in each sentence. 1. You need someone to show you the tricks of the business. 2. Ive been there all my life, so Im some of the furniture. 3. Its a hard job and itll make some doing. 4. The boss tells me what to do, and I pass it through to the others. 5. It was lucky for me that Mary took me under her arm and helped me. 6. Simone has worked here close by ten years. 7. Hes very bossy and likes to throw his size about. 2.3.4. Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the phrases in 2.3.3. 2.4. Writing Write a CV and a letter of application in response to the following job advertisement: Research Executive / Executive Assistant We are currently looking for researchers to join MORI's Social Research Institute. To fill these roles you will need the following skills & experience: An understanding of issues facing the public sector and their relevance to SRI's work An ability to work on a wide range of research projects under the supervision of a project manager First class report writing skills An understanding of the demands of working in commercial environment An ability to work on a number of different projects simultaneously and to prioritise a demanding workload

A Research Executive is generally expected to have at least 1-2 years' relevant research experience, while those with less experience generally join at the Executive Assistant level. To find out more about our work, visit the Social Research Institute. If you're interested in this vacancy, please send your CV and your letter of application to (

2.5. Language focus: The tense system: Present Perfect Continuous 2.5.1. The tense system: Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Continuous/ Progressive Form: to be (in the present perfect) + verb + ing: He has been writing for two hours. Has he been writing?/ Yes, he has. No, he hasnt. It indicates: an action or situation in progress (and not the completion of that action): I have been reading the book. Temporary actions or situations: Ive been living in London (for two years). Actions in the recent past we know about because of a present evidence: You are wet. You have been walking in the rain. Actions indicating how long something has been going on: How long have you been playing chess? !!!!!! If you want to emphasize a situation in progress and not its completion present perfect progressive can be used with verbs like: see, hear, look, taste, smell, want, realize, remember: Ive been wanting to meet you for ages. But If you want to emphasize the completion of the action, present perfect is used: Ive always wanted a good computer. there are verbs that suggest an action in progress by their meaning: live, rain, sit, study, wait, work (they can be used both with the present perfect simple and the present perfect progressive, with little difference in meaning): He has worked/ has been working in this office for two years.

2.5.2. Choose the correct form of the verb in the following sentences: 1. This morning our secretary has written/has been writing more than twenty letters to our suppliers. 2. I have been applying/have applied for various jobs since September. 3. They have been trying/have tried to attract them into a profitable partnership for a very long time, but with little success. 4. Our production manager has made/has been making the same mistake again. 5. How many times have you brought up/have you been bringing up the issue of working overtime in a production meeting? 6. Sales figures have improved/have been improving lately. 7. He has answered/has been answering the phone since 10 oclock. Thats why he is so tired. 8. We havent seen/havent been seeing our partner since the end of July. 9. The candidate hasnt said/hasnt been saying a word about his qualifications yet. 10. Why havent we thought/havent we been thinking of this solution earlier? It could have saved us.

3. The interview 3.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: What is the role of the job interview? How much attention should one pay to appearance when attending a job interview? Why is the presence of a psychologist useful in an interviewing team? How can you fight stress during a job interview? What questions do you expect to be asked in a job interview? 3.2. Reading Read the following text and fill in the gaps. Job interview Advice Before your interview, find 1 ___ everything you can about the company (read their annual report which can be obtained 2 ___ telephoning them). Re-read your application, thinking through your own career and the questions they might ask you. You should try to anticipate the general questions which they will ask and also prepare some questions to ask them. To do well at the interview you will need to convince the interviewer you are technically qualified to do the job. You will 3 ___ need to show that you are sufficiently motivated to get the job 4 ___ well and that you will fit in with the companys organisational structure and the team in which you will work. You should dress smartly for the interview and should leave home earlier 5 ___ you need to on the day of the interview you may de delayed by traffic or 6 ___ other reasons. Be courteous to all employees of the company. At the interview itself you must be positive about yourself and your abilities but do not waffle. When you are being interviewed it is very important that you give out the right signals. You should always look attentive so do not slouch in your chair. Never lie to anyone in an interview, your 7 ___ language and tone of voice or the words you use will probably give you 8 ___ classic body language giveaways include scratching your nose and not looking directly at the other person when you are speaking to them. If you have a moustache you may want to consider shaving it off people with moustaches can be perceived as being aggressive. You can always grow it again once you have got the job. ( 3.3. Vocabulary development 3.3.1. Match the words and phrases with their corresponding definitions:

1. anticipate 2. waffle
3. annual 4. slouch 5. smartly

a. yearly b. expect, foresee c. pleasantly neat and clean in appearance d. polite, respectful and considerate e. talking a lot without saying very much that is clear

6. delay 7. giveaway

8. courteous 9. scratch 10. perceive

or important f. rub g. realise, notice, see or hear it especially when it is not obvious to other people h. sit/stand/walk in a lazy or tired way, with your shoulders and head dropping down i. cause somebody to be late j. revealing, disclosing (usually something secret)

3.3.2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. ... should be dressed smartly when attending a job interview. 2. This handbook will offer you ample ... on how to best use the computer system. 3. The auditor will ... have done the right thing while going through our papers. 4. You must be well-prepared ... if you want to succeed in being recruited for a promising job. 5. She couldnt ... her shyness in front of the recruitment board. 6. Your CV is sadly ... . We are sorry to inform you that you have not been offered this position. 7. Being ... prepared, you risk missing out on one of the biggest career opportunities youve ever had. 8. Thanks to her ... skills the candidate selection process left us with one of the best professionals we could have ever found. 9. Without wanting to sound ..., I think that this firm is not really one of the best. 10. The failure of certain candidates to submit a complete application package resulted in their immediate ... from the job contest. VIEW GUIDE HOPE HAND COME CONVINCE SUFFICE ORGANISE COURT QUALIFY

3.3.3. The following text describes a typical selection process, but the sentences are in the wrong order! Re-arrange the sentences in each section so that the whole text makes sense. The first sentence has been done for you.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Firstly, a vacancy is advertised and suitable candidates are invited for interview. These are sorted and applications are received. and applicants are interviewed. After that, a final short list is drawn up. Next, appointments are arranged A job offer is made to the successful candidate, and one of them is selected. and finally, an employment contract is signed. The candidates on the list are interviewed again,

3.3.4. Read the text below and select the best option from the drop-down menu of words.

If you have 1 ___ the interview stage, your CV and letter of application must have been 2 ___! The company now wants to know more about you. But there is still more work to do if you want to get that job! Make sure you have 3 ___ the company as thoroughly as possible - use the Internet, company reports, recruitment literature etc. 4 ___ yourself of why you applied to this company. Make a list of the skills, experience, and interests you can 5 ___ the organisation. Finally, try to 6 ___ the questions you will be expected to answer - imagine you are the interviewer! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A gained A effective A researched A remember A show A ask B reached B important B inquired B remind B present B suggest C arrived C impressive C examined C imagine C offer C give D achieved D significant D discovered D summarise D demonstrate D predict

3.4. Language focus A. The Subjunctive Form: Synthetic: present subjunctive: identical with the short infinitive: be, have, work. It indicates: a possible action: It is necessary that you be here. It is important that the president inform the investors expressions: Suffice it to say. So be it! Synthetic: past subjunctive: identical with the past tense simple It indicates: an action contrary to reality: I wish I were a doctor. (but Im not) Its time you went home. She behaved as if she were the headmaster. It is used after: if, if only, as if, as though wish (to indicate regret, an unreal fact) The synthetic subjunctive is rarely used. Analytical: Form: Should/ would/ may/ might/ could + short infinitive Should/ would/ may/ might/ could + perfect infinitive It indicates: hypothetical facts/actions (suppositions, doubts, conditions, concessions, purposes): They took the airplane so that they might arrive in time. A less probable condition: If he should succeed, I will be happy. In negative purpose sentences, after lest, for fear, in case: They paid for fear they shouldnt get the merchandise. It is used with: impersonal expressions: it is advisable/ important/ essential/ desirable/ possible/ likely/ probable/ strange/ unusual/ impossible/ (un)fortunate/, remarkable, surprising: It is important that the chairman should call the meeting.

it is/ was a pity/ shame/ surprise/ wonder: It was a pity (that) they should be fired. the nouns: idea, hint, thought, reason, supposition: The idea that they should be present annoyed her. the verbs: command, order, demand, insist, request, suggest, propose, arrange, offer, agree, settle: They requested the goods should be delivered fast. adjectives: to be + glad, anxious, pleased, sorry: I was glad that he should graduate this summer. After: although, though, whatever, however, no matter: He will win whatever he should do. // so that: They phoned so that I wouldnt be taken by surprise. I took the money so that they could buy the firm.

B. Active/Passive Voice Look at these examples: Performances are held everywhere (3) His photographs were exhibited..were presented (5) Works that have never been shown (5) Life couldnt be imagined (6) Active/ Passive Voice Rule: to be (any tense required) + the Past Participle of the verb to be conjugated They give her flowers. Flowers are given to her. She is given flowers. The use of the passive When the logical subject is obvious or is not important: Goods should be delivered as soon as possible. When the object is more important than the logical subject: The manager was informed on the situation. When the speaker avoids mentioning the logical subject: The order has already been placed. In formal notices: Passengers are requested not to Newspapers: President sacked because Processes in science or engineering: The wheel is tested Passive Structures: modals + passive: The meeting can be postponed. Passive + infinitive + object: with the verbs: advise, believe, expect, feel, forbid, mean, order, report, request, require, say, teach, understand: They were advised to negotiate the price. It + the passive of: agree, announce, discover, expect, hope, suggest: It was suggested that they would work hard. 3.5. Writing

Write a list of personal qualities that you would be looking for in a candidate for the position of personal assistant. Would you qualify for this position? Give reasons in approximately 250 words.

UNIT SEVEN BUSINESS TRAVEL 1. Lead-in 1) Think of three problems that a businessperson may encounter in his/her business trip 2) Now think of a solution or a way to prevent each of these problems from occurring 3) Have you ever had a bad journey? What happened? 2. Vocabulary a. Match the following words meaning trip with their definitions:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)
a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

journey voyage travels flight drive tour

7) crossing 8) ride 9) expedition 10) outing 11) excursion

a long trip, either by sea or in space a trip that involves travelling by plane a trip to a place to see specific things of interest a short trip in a car or bus, or on a bicycle or motorbike a short trip made by a group of people, usually lasting less than a day an organized trip for a group of people a trip to a very distant place for a long period of time, often with a specific aim such as scientific research h. a trip from one piece of land to another, across water i. a trip that involves travelling by car j. a series of trips made over a period of time, especially to a place that is far away k. a trip from one place to another, often one that is long or difficult b. Fill in the blanks with the words from II.a.: 1. How long is the ___ to New York? 2. Did you have a tiring ___ 3. Their ___ across the Atlantic was full of problems. 4. His essays are based on his ___ in South Africa. 5. They went on a two-week ___ to Italy last month. 6. My ___ to work usually only takes 15 minutes. 7. Come on, Ill give you a ___ to the museum. 8. An overnight ferry ___ is quite dangerous in this area. 9. The school ___ to the science museum was boring for the kids. 10. Their ___ to the South Pole was very adventurous. 11. The travel agency organised a(n) ___ to local places of interest. 3. English in use a. Read the first part of a text about travel tips and fill in each gap with one suitable word:

e.g. 0 - a 1. Business travel can become 0___ rut. Challenge yourself and your corporate travel agent to come up 1___ alternatives to save money or time. It is surprisingly easy to get into a familiar pattern when 2___ travel to the same destination repeatedly. 2. Assess where you stay. Are you staying in the 3___ effective place when you visit your customers? Are you being lulled into complacency 4___ frequent traveller programs? Check out the business alternatives. There are several newer chains of budget hotels for the business traveller. Use 5___ Internet to see which other hotels have last minute deals in your area. 3. Organize your office - at work and 6___ the road. This is the time to evaluate your electronic gadgets and consolidate your important information. Clean out your address book 7___ organize your computer files. If you have an assistant or colleagues, 8___ together to brainstorm ways to improve communication and coordination while you are out 9___ the office. What new technologies 10___ help you? Fax boxes? Picture messaging? Fast mobile data connections? Don't forget the batteries! b. Read the second part of the text. Some of the underlined parts are correct; some have a mistake in them (a grammar mistake, a vocabulary mistake, a missing word, an unnecessary word, and inappropriateness in the context). If the part is correct, write CORRECT in its corresponding numbered space; if the part is incorrect, write the correct version in its corresponding numbered space: 4. Review your car rental company choice. As car rental fleets shrink and prices rise, (1) you may find it is more cheaper to use a taxi. These sites can help you budget for the taxi fares. Can you get a better corporate deal from a car hire company (2) if everyone uses them for their business travel? 5. Review your travel safety skills. Do you know (3) how to avoid from getting robbed? Escape a hotel fire? (4) Choose one safe taxi? Business travellers are prime targets. (5) Take old labels off your luggage - they shout business traveller to the crooked. Have a map of (6) where are you going. 6. Improve your stress management skills. Accept it, (7) business travel is stressing. Current issues with airport security make it inevitable that your next business trip will include (8) a significant amounts of stress. There are many coping techniques (9) to effectively reduce stress. Practice deep breathing or muscle stretches. They will come in handy the next time you're stuck in the system. 7. Review your business travel programme and frequent fliers schemes. Have you access to lounges, now and next year? (10) Use these to ease those business travel journeys. (adapted and abridged from 4. Reading comprehension a. Read the following article about how airlines have changed their offers since September 11, 2001. Some sentences have been removed from the extract. Choose from sentences A- I the one which fits each gap (1- 9).

A. It could be anything from a sole trader running a news agency to a firm employing several hundred people with an annual travel budget of about 100,000. B. The scheme runs until June, but SAS plans to continue to operate some kind of SME programme. C. But the points are awarded on any airline as part of an itinerary that includes a segment flown on Swiss. D. Under the scheme, cash credits are offered against any KLM flight of any class or fare type and redeemed as free flights. E. We decided on a web-based corporate loyalty programme to make it cost effective. F. Unable to qualify for corporate deals because they do not generate enough travel, SMEs have been ignored by travel providers. G. However, the market exists and we have been working hard to find ways to develop a relationship with this sector H. We are looking at extending On Business to include semi-restricted tickets, says Stuart Beamish, BAs senior manager, loyalty marketing. I. It would be a huge benefit for our customers to get our partner airlines on board, says Thomas Brandt, Deltas general manager, distribution planning. Will small businesses fill the airlines large gaps? Airlines discover, post-9/11, that small can be profitable Airlines striving to hold on to their share of a tough corporate market are increasingly looking to nurture business travellers they have previously ignored. Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are companies which have a fraction of the travel budgets of the 1m-plus spend of large firms. 1___ Not any more. Pressures to fill aircraft and the competitive threat of low-cost airlines have seen airlines launch rafts of incentives, including cash rewards, free flights and upgrades, to show SMEs that they really are wanted. Airlines use different criteria, such as number of trips, value of travel spend or size of company, to define an SME. 2___ Typically, a PA (Personal Assisstant), financial director or company boss will be responsible for administering the schemes in-house. Over the past 12 months, airlines including KLM, Swiss, and SAS have all introduced initiatives to try and win such managers on board. KLM estimates that the 3.8 million or so UK-based SMEs can save up to 10 per cent of their travel costs through its cashback loyalty programme, BlueBiz. 3___ As with most airline schemes, not only does the company benefit, but the individual can also collect frequent flier mileage points on flights taken. KLMs e-commerce manager Glyn Duggan explains: Due to their volume levels, SMEs had fallen off our radar. But after the US terror attacks of 9/11, we began looking at various options to get this market back on track. 4___ SASs new PayBack Programme offers cash rewards of up to 15 per cent of the annual travel spend or a maximum of 20 return tickets between the UK and Scandinavia depending on the level of expenditure. Bmis Company Returns scheme has similarly gone down the cash reward and points route.

SAS spokesman Jeff Rebello says the incentive is a two-pronged attack to increase the loyalty of existing customers and to switch passengers from other airlines. 5___ British Airways is planning to relax some of the restrictions of the On Business scheme that it introduced for SMEs four years ago. More discounted fares will be included in the programme across all cabins to appeal to cost-conscious SMEs, a move partially driven by the impact of low-cost carriers. 6___ About 10,000 companies have enrolled with On Business, with half actively redeeming points for travel rewards, he says. Eligible BA fares earn companies points that can be exchanged for travel rewards, including free flights, hotel accommodation and limo transfers. Swiss has gone a step further by offering credit points, each worth 1 euro, towards free flights. 7___ The development of airline alliances has prompted Delta Air Lines to try to extend its SkyBonus scheme to cover partner SkyTeam carriers, including Air France and Korean Air. 8___ The US-based airline ventured into the SME market three years ago, courting companies with an annual travel spend of between 8,000 and 80,000. The SME is notoriously hard to pinpoint, quite a complex group of companies. 9___ adds Brandt. (adapted and abridged from,,5466,00.html) b. Read an article about the impact of terrorism on business travel. For questions 1-10, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text. The cut and thrust of survival War, terrorism and Sars have changed the nature of business travel. Security and cost-cutting are the main issues and the corporates are calling the tune. On Virgin Atlantic flight VS022, which arrived at Heathrow from Washington DC at 7am on Monday, passengers travelling Upper Class could have no 1___ about service. Of 50 business-class seats in the new Airbus A340-600, only eight were taken. There were more 2___ members in the front cabin than passengers. One senior business travel agency executive commented: They say things are getting better. I say, Emperors new clothes. Transatlantic business 3___ are a crucial barometer to airline health and although British Airways said last week that there has been some improvement in premium traffic, it has not been as fast as predicted. If it is bad for BA, it is even worse for its transatlantic 4___ Until next Friday, United Airlines is offering a return business-class fare to New York for 999. The standard BA return costs just over 4,000. War, terrorism and Sars have 5___ British business travel badly. From a peak of 8.87 million travellers in 2000, numbers fell by 10 per cent to eight million in 2002. Government figures for the nine months to September 2003 show a further slump of 170,000 business passengers over the same period in 2002.

Yesterday, BA announced a fresh round of job cuts, knowing that the only way to compete with the no-frills airlines and its traditional rivals is on cost. Unfortunately for BA, cost-cutting is also top of the 6___ for its passengers. A London-based economic think tank, the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR), says in a new report that it expects business 7___ in Europe to grow by 2.7 per cent this year. But Douglas McWilliams, coauthor of the report, added: The business travel sector is increasingly exposed in a world where a blowtorch is being applied to every conceivable kind of corporate expense. Business travel is typically 2-3 per cent of corporate cost and is generally regarded as the largest single controllable 8___. The report says surveys of American corporate travel purchasers indicate that they believe that, since 2000, they have managed to negotiate down their prices for business travel by 20 per cent. 1. A. complaints 2. A. team 3. A. trips 4. A. rivals 5. A. kicked 6. A. tree 7. A. trip 8. A. expense B. complainings B. crew B. crossings B. enemies B. punched B. head B. voyage B. tax C. demands C. pilot C. travels C. partners C. hit C. world C. excursion C. fine D. misgivings D. flying D. routes D. foes D. damaged D. agenda D. travel D. fare

5. English in use Read the second part of the article. Use the words below to form a word that fits in the same numbered space in the text. 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. busy emphasize provide increase large power 6. improve 7. place 8. global 9. supply 10. address 11. stable 12. stringent 13. agent 14. profit 15. warn

e.g. 0 - business The decline in passenger numbers is now levelling off, but the nature of 0___ travel has changed irrevocably: events since September 11 have made that inevitable. There is a new 1___ on briefing travellers and staying in touch. Information 2___ such as Control Risks and Country Briefings provide assessments, while technology 3___ allows employees to stay in touch while on the road. Executive jet travel, 4___ because of concerns over security, is also now extremely buoyant according to Christian Rooney, marketing and sales director of Bookajet, one specialist operator. The company has just opened a new base at Southampton airport and now uses five jets. Technology, while helping corporates track and control expenditure, has also 5___ employees to book flights and hotels themselves while still following company travel policy. According to Delta Airlines, only 29 per cent of UK business travellers now prefer to book with a travel agent, with two-thirds choosing to book using the internet.

British Airways will, in April, no longer issue paper tickets on the 75 per cent of its routes where electronic tickets can be used. Fast 6___ technology on board aircraft is also now delivering live TV news and e-mail, while wireless-free use of laptops in hotels and airports is rolling out at a frenetic pace. The idea that videoconferencing will one day 7___ travel has largely been disproved, however. While it does have a role, the underlying need for face-to-face contact is growing due to the ratcheting up of 8___, according to the CEBR report. McWilliams said: Maintaining and enhancing business relations, both in-house and with customers and 9___, needs a regular dose of direct contact. It is a point being echoed by all sectors of the industry, not least those hotel, airline and credit card suppliers desperate to see a return to regular corporate flying. But they also argue that companies, having 10___ the issue of cost cutting, will be leaner and more positive about travelling. A report out this week from Company Barclaycard concludes: Overall, the figures indicate that business travellers are on the move more, thanks to confirmed new business rather than trying to secure it, an indication of greater 11___. This positive view relies, naturally, on the continued stability of world events. Corporates may be starting to travel again, but the increasing 12___ of US immigration is one striking example of how fragile confidence remains in travel. John Melchior, executive vice-president of global corporate travel 13___ Radius, summed up the mood: Companies have adjusted and are becoming more 14___. Those who have survived know that there wont be such a big dip in world events again. There are certain dangers out there, but we still have to travel. Now we have to know where travellers are, and to give them 15___ of potential problems. We all have to accommodate that. (adapted and abridged from,5466,00.html) 6. Writing In no more than 200 words, write an argumentative essay about the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by plane. Use at least 5 words from the box. air hostess connecting point airline office departure lounge air turbulence airport hotel direct flight airport terminal arrival airport economy class business class excess baggage baggage reclaim ground transportation boarding pass booking procedures check-in landing security check take off unclaimed luggage weight limit

UNIT EIGHT CULTURE AND CIVILISATION 1. What is cultural diversity? 1.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: How would you define cultural diversity? What separates members of multinational teams? What unites members of multinational teams? What are the disadvantages of diversity? What are the advantages of diversity? 1.2. Reading A diverse organisation is one which values difference. It is one which recognises that people with different backgrounds, skills, attitudes and experiences bring fresh ideas and perceptions. Diverse organisations encourage and harness these differences to make their services relevant and approachable. A diverse organisation draws upon the widest possible range of views and experiences, so it can listen to, and meet, the changing needs of its users, staff, volunteers, partners and supporters. The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Developments (CIPD) describes managing diversity as: "Managing diversity is based on the concept that people should be valued as individuals for reasons related to business interests, as well as for moral and social reasons. It recognises that people from different backgrounds can bring fresh ideas and perceptions which can make the way work is done more efficient and products and services better. Managing diversity successfully will help organisations to nurture creativity and innovation and thereby to tap hidden capacity for growth and improved competitiveness". (Managing diversity - a CIPD position paper, 1996) The CIPD explains that the effective management of diversity can help "counteract prejudice against a wide range of personal differences, for example: academic or vocational qualification, accent, age, caring responsibilities, ethnic origin, gender, learning difficulties, marital status, physical and mental abilities, political affiliation, previous mental illness, religion, sexual orientation, spent or irrelevant convictions and trade union or non-trade union membership". (http://www. 1.3. Vocabulary development 1.3.1. Match the following words and phrases from the text with their right definitions:

1. trade union
2. vocational 3. affiliation

a. origin, set of values defining a person b. guide, set in order, curb, stop c. available, easily accessible

4. prejudice 5. counteract
6. nurture 7. supporter 8. approachable 9. harness 10. background

d. champion, advocate, one who stands by somebody or something e. nourish, support, foster, sustain f. retort, retaliate, strike back g. preconceived idea h. sense of belonging i. occupational j. organisation for the defence of labour rights

1.3.2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. A knowledge of cultural difference is ... to any definition of cultural interaction. 2. Sometimes cultural traits may suffer changes beyond ... . 3. A(n) ... traveller will fail to do justice to cultural difference. 4. A visitor to your country should be offered plenty of ... in exploring local culture. 5. You might find a lot of ... locals while travelling in foreign countries. 6. Nationalists would like their countrys traditions to be ... . 7. Sometimes its difficult to choose when you are faced with a huge ... of tourist attractions. 8. I wouldnt like to sound ..., but you should get more involved in the mores of your host country. 9. I am neither moral, nor immoral. My ... is often a mystery to my friends. 10. Her ... at Heathrow airport made her miss her connecting flight. VALUE RECOGNISE EXPERIENCE COURAGE APPROACH CHANGE DIVERSE REASON MORAL ORIENTATION

1.3.3. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition. 1. I am sorry to say that you are a candidate___ a suitable background for his job involving talking ___ foreigners. 2. My approach ___ dealing ___ cultural difference is a most successful one. 3. My experience draws ___ my travels ___ the world. 4. What is prejudice based ___ and how could you steer clear ___ it? 5. My job is related ___ handling a wide range ___ tourist services. 6. He is ___ a background not entirely suited ___ his job description. 7. He finally succeeded ___ setting things straight. 8. Her capacity ___ hard work in PR is overwhelming. 9. His prejudice ___ other nationals boils down ___ xenophobia. 10. My affiliation ___ this political party will be ___ an extremely short duration. 1.4. Language focus: The tense system: Past Perfect 1.4.1. The tense system: Past Perfect Form: had + Past Participle: I went to work after I had finished my lunch. Had I finished? Yes, I had. No, I hadnt. It indicates:

a past, completed action that takes place before another past action: He gave me the book when he had finished reading it. An action finished before a certain moment in the past: I had written the paper by ten o clock. The Past Perfect is not compulsory when after and before establish the sequence of the actions. 1.4.2. Use the Past Perfect where necessary. 1. The two parties (reach) an agreement when the member of our group made the suggestion, so he had to accept it. 2. The Parliament (pass) this law a very long time ago. 3. By the time I called the office the secretary (leave). 4. When we wanted to complain about the PR officer being rude, the manager (fire) him. 5. Discrimination (be) a current practice in the company long before she brought up the issue. 6. They changed their policy after a group of unsatisfied clients (sue) the company. 7. When they arrived the conference (begin) and they did not want to disturb the participants, so they left. 8. The chairman opened the session after everybody (consult) the agenda. 9. We wanted to help them but by the time we got there they (finish) writing the recommendations. 10. When she decided to accept the offer it was too late. Someone else (hire) as an assistant manager. Writing. Comment on the following statement: Cultural diversity makes teamwork almost impossible because of culture clashes. 2. How does diversity differ from equal opportunities? 2.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: What do you mean by equal opportunities? How can you account for the fact that discrimination still persists in our world? What types of discrimination do you know? Have you ever been discriminated? If yes, under what circumstances? To what extent does gender influence recruitment decisions? 2.2. Reading While diversity and equal opportunities are both about making the idea of equality real in your organisation, diversity and equal opportunities are not exactly the same thing. Equal opportunities has a history dating back to the 1970s, while diversity is quite a recent idea, starting to become influential in the UK in the 1990s. In the International Journal of Public Sector Management, Wilson and Iles (1) identify five main areas of difference between equal opportunities and diversity. While the article was written primarily with the public sector in mind, there are a number of points that translate well into the voluntary sector and to volunteer management.

Wilson and Iles five main areas of difference between equal opportunities and managing diversity are: 1. The reasons for adopting equal opportunities or managing diversity (summary: Equal opportunities is often seen as a legal requirement, which is imposed by external forces. Managing diversity is internally driven) 2. Operational or strategic focus (summary: Organisations effectively managing diversity look at outcomes as well as processes and procedures, and shift equal opportunities to be more strategic rather than operational). 3. The perception of difference (summary: The equal opportunities approach is trying to right a wrong for certain groups, whereas by managing diversity organisations are trying to get it right for everyone) 4. The focus of initiatives (summary: Organisations which work within the equal opportunities framework adopt a group approach, whereas the focus in the diversity model is on developing individuals). 5. Different theoretical bases (summary: The equal opportunities style of management assumes there is a single best way of doing things, whereas diversity accepts that one perspective is no more correct than any other. (http://www. 2.3. Vocabulary development 2.3.1. Fill in the blanks in the following text with the words given in bold: requirements diversity pressures sense arguments Many companies and organisations adopt equal opportunities policies because of external ___ Wilson and Iles suggest that this response "varies between a narrow minimalist response to legislative ___, and a wider concern that people should be treated equally, based on ethical and human rights or moral ___ Managing ___ on the other hand is internally driven, from a ___ of commitment by the organisation and its key players". opportunities force staff The driving ___ behind introducing diversity management policies is seen as the business case - that a diverse workforce will result in more focused marketing, greater creativity and decision making and happier ___ who stay longer and benefit from organisational ___ public range profile volunteers organisation Looking at the marketing example - the voluntary sector supports and works with a diverse ___ of service users, supporters and partners. If the public face of an ___ reflects that diverse public, then individuals will more easily identify with it, thinking "this is an organisation for me". Volunteers are the ___ face of many organisations, and if diverse, will be more welcoming to users and members. Also, if ___ are drawn from a wide sector of the community, then they each tell their friends and family, raising the ___ of your service. (adapted from http://www. 2.3.2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence:

1. ... at the working place is a topical issue in both the western and eastern world. 2. Women usually contend that they have ... work opportunities as compared with men. 3. Bill Clintons visit to Romania was a ... moment. 4. Exploring the ... sites of London could be a quite rewarding experience. 5. He is a government official extremely ... with different people in very high circles. 6. After months of strenuous research, the main causes of their failure to meet international standards remained ... . 7. This question ... addresses those prone to xenophobia. 8. ... tourists flock to the big cities of the world every day in search of yet unimagined sensations. 9. Because your application is incomplete, it will rest ... until a further date. 10. After accumulating lots of practice in organising package tours, the travel agency decided to ... their findings in a report published in a local journal.


2.3. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition. 1. My methods differ a lot ___ the more conventional ones. 2. The history of this project dates back ___ 1985. 3. What did you have ___ mind when you called that company? 4. The reasons ___ establishing a new basis ___ cooperation are ___my depth. 5. Lets focus ___ this issue now and we will look ___ the other one ___ a later date. 6. ___ the present framework of rules, we have to abide ___ each one of them. 7. Equality ___ job opportunities is essential. 8. Her influence ___ the whole project is undeniable. 9. Theres no visible difference ___ the way they are treating immigrants ___ their country. 10. There has been no shift ___ our regulations since they came ___ force. 2.4. Language focus: The tense system: Past Perfect Continuous 2.4.1. The tense system: Past Perfect Continuous Form: to be (in the past perfect) + verb + ing: I had been writing. Had I been writing? Yes, I had. No, I hadnt. It indicates: a past action in development before another past action and also continuing that moment: When he came she had been reading for two hours. !!!!!!!!!!!! often used in past perfect and past perfect progressive sentences: when, after, as soon as, before, by the time e.g. After they had been quarrelling for minutes, I asked them to stop. We had been waiting for weeks before we got the money. They had been negotiating for hours by the time I got there.

2.4.2. Choose the correct form of the verb in the following sentences: 1. The staff complained that they had asked/had been asking for better working conditions for two months. 2. We had hoped/had been hoping to solve our problem easily and were very disappointed when we couldnt. 3. Our partners had looked forward/had been looking forward to the contract to be signed and became quite angry when it had been cancelled/had been being cancelled. 4. The whole staff had worked/had been working until the last minute and they had no time left to decorate the room for the meeting. 5. The newspapers had been publishing/had published a lot of articles on the accident for weeks when they found out about it. 6. We had been discussing/had discussed all day with our partners and by 10 oclock the agreement wasnt signed. 7. Our competition had done/had been doing everything they could to attack us and we had to take steps towards fighting back. 8. When the PR assistant arrived, the customers had waited/had been waiting for her for hours. 9. He asked us why we had written/had been writing such a long preamble to our report. 10. After the President had looked/had been looking through our papers for a while, he decided to speak. Writing. Comment on the following statement: People are born equal and therefore they should benefit from equal opportunities in society. 3. National stereotypes 3.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: What do you understand by stereotype? To what extent are national stereotypes fair? What sources do people use when establishing national stereotypes? What are the main characteristics of the Romanian people? How can you fight prejudices related to national stereotypes? 3.2. Reading What is "Britishness"? The survey conducted by MORI on behalf of the British Council among the successor generation in thirteen countries reveals what foreigners think about all aspects of British society and culture. The United Kingdom is both loved and loathed for its traditions. The images most often quoted of the Great Britain in the survey are the Queen and the Royal Family, kilts, castles and rugby. This has implications for public diplomacy. What can be done to close the gap between perceptions overseas and the reality of contemporary Britain without ignoring the strengths of our traditions for which we are respected? Arts "British arts represent their culture - very reserved and grey" - Malaysia "Avant-garde, eccentric, mad" - France

"They don't have any famous artists. They like soccer." - Saudi Arabia Sixty-six percent of those polled believe that Britains reputation in the arts is based more in the past than in the present. There is a clear lack of knowledge about British contemporary arts. When asked to identify one or two contemporary artists Elton John and Hugh Grant topped the list with 5% each. A worrying 60% were unable to name a single artist. The area of British culture where people had the most knowledge was pop music and film. Business and finance "The British are managers by nature." - Egypt "They manufacture things carefully. You buy a British garment and you know it will last forever." - Mexico Whilst 81% of people rated British goods and services as "good" overall and 74% think British managers are good, the country comes behind the United States, Japan and Germany when it comes to having world-beating companies. British business is seen as too risk averse. "This permanent up-and-down risk which the Americans take is much too exhausting for the Britons." - Germany. However Britain is recognised as a b financial centre, though still behind the USA and Japan. Education "They are well educated, well brought up people, able to keep up conversation." Russia "There is a high educational standard which the English are associated with, and if I wanted to go abroad to study, this would be the only place." - Poland Seventy-six percent of people questioned regard the British as well educated. British higher education is particularly well respected with 88% of people rating it as "good". However the United States still emerged as the market leader in higher education. Fifty-eight percent of respondents believe that qualifications from the United States have the most credibility with potential employers. Media "Even the more cultured people read the tabloids to be informed. Most of the scandals coming from the Royal Family are found there." - Mexico A significant minority (28%) believe that the British media cannot be relied on to tell the truth. In Germany only 5% of people trust the truthfulness of the British media. However the British media were regarded as being more truthful than their counterparts in most of the countries surveyed. Science and Technology "The British are exploring more...cloning sheep and genetics and scary stuff." South Africa Whilst 62% of respondents agree that Britain has a b reputation for scientific and technological innovation, the UK was ranked well behind the United States, Japan and Germany. Society "They are well brought up people. Even if they don't like you too much, they try to be nice." - Russia

"The UK are one of the first democracies in Europe" - France Sixty-five percent of people questioned agree that the UK is a good model of democratic government. A grudging 58% agree that the British legal system ensures that everyone gets a fair trial. Sixty-five percent also believe that the country has a good health care service. British institutions may be respected but a significant 41% believe that British people are not very welcoming towards foreigners. (http://www. 3.3. Vocabulary development 3.3.1. Match the words and phrases with their corresponding definitions:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

tabloid grudging emerge averse counterpart 6. avant-garde 7. gap 8. loathe 9. pop 10. survey

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

hate, detest poll, research of public opinion pause, break, distance aesthetically new and experimental popular, relating to the tastes of common people opposed, objecting to, unfavourable to exit, appear as newspaper publishing scandalous material equivalent, analogue hesitant, ill-disposed towards

3.3.2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using a suitable word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. He sometimes uses ... language. 2. Please give me a ... of prices for oil. 3. The tabloids made much ado about the fact that she was ... in the royal scandal. 4. Your ... behaviour could irremediably harm the relationship between the two countries. 5. These are just a few of the ... underscoring our excellent policies regarding cooperation among states. 6. My ... has often been reviled in tabloids. 7. I hereby wish to ... your contribution to our success. 8. Their ... efforts led to fruition. 9. Her ... skills are impeccable at all social gatherings. 10. Im sorry to say that the degree of your intelligence is ... in this case. LOATHE QUOTE IMPLICATE DIPLOMATIC STRONG ECCENTRIC KNOW EXHAUST CONVERSATION SIGNIFY

3.3.3. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the required preposition. 1. I am speaking ___ behalf ___ all those who feel wronged by the Romanian Constitution. 2. IN the survey appear the figures ___ this years rate ___ diplomatic blunders ___ the part ___ Romania. 3. Your behaviour will have consequential implications ___ public diplomacy. 4. The gap ___ my abilities as a diplomat and yours is enormous. 5. I respect this small country ___ its great traditions. 6. His fame ___ successfully handling conflict situations is one ___ his advantages.

7. Teenagers are prone ___ identifying themselves ___ pop stars. 8. How do rate ___ a diplomat? 9. The English are associated ___ a proverbial reserve ___ definition. 10. Our country is the market leader ___ button manufacturing.
3.4. Language focus: Modal Verbs 3.4.1. Modal Verbs Read the following examples from the text: Later on you may be able (par. 4) You must enter as an immigrant (par. 5) The job seekershould be prepared (par. 4) A college in foreign commerce would definitely help (par. 1) Modals May Form: may// May he?// may not It indicates: Possibility: He may come today. (to be possible) Probability: We may get that contract. (to be probable) Permission: You may leave. (to be allowed/ to be permitted) Might Form: might/ might he// might not It indicates: - NOT the past of may BUT a stronger possibility/ probability/ uncertainty: You might be right (but I strongly doubt). Must Form: must// Must he..?// must not = mustnt It indicates: necessity/ obligation imposed by the speaker: I must be punctual. invitation, emphatic affirmation: You must see the exhibition. Probability, logical necessity: He must be at home. An unexpected/ contrary action: They must annoy us with their problems! It is replaced by: to have to, to be obliged/ forced/ compelled to. Should Form: should// Should you?// should not = shouldnt It indicates: obligation: You should be present at the meeting. Instructions/ advice: He should welcome them at the airport. Expectation: The business should be profitable. Past, unfulfilled expectation: They should have discussed the matter in detail. Ought to Form: ought to/ ought not to It indicates: Moral obligation: You ought to visit him at the hospital Duty: You ought to write that report. Not a very strong obligation in the past, present or future: He ought to play chess that day/ now/ to morrow.

Advisability: You ought to organise that meeting as soon as possible. Necessity: He ought to be present at the conference. Desirable, not performed action: You ought to have helped them. They ought not to have gone there alone. Supposition, probability: You ought to communicate them the decision by now. Would Form: would/ would you?/ would not = wouldnt It indicates: Polite request: Would you listen more carefully? Opposition/ resistance/ unwillingness: They would not meet us. Past habit = used to: I would stay in that chair, drink my tea and read a book. Invitation: Would you have some more cake? Refusal (in the negative): I wouldnt accept that. Criticism of somebodys behaviour: She would keep talking without listening to her friends. 3.4.2. Rephrase the following sentences so that they contain one of the modals above: 1. If you cannot find a job in your country, you emigrate to a foreign job-rich place. 2. Dont consider heading overseas to seek work without money in your pocket. 3. Dont go unless you are prepared to accept any job. 4. Sometimes you are forced to accept a monotonous job. 5. There are jobs you didnt accept in your native country. 6. Later on, of course, you will have the opportunity to apply for creative work. 7. The job seeker heading overseas has to take on jobs that have been turned down flat by natives. 8. To work overseas you need to obtain a work permit. 9. It is advisable you find a job for which no work permit is needed. 10. Women will be able to work au pair. Under this arrangement, any girl is supposed to get bed and board. 11. Their duty is to act as baby sitters. Their daily activity is to give general household help. 12. Their employers are also obliged to pay them a sum of money. 3.5. Functions Cause, effect and purpose Cause Effect Result in. Lead to Since As Due to Owing to the fact that Because of This means that. As a result of.

Purpose So that In order to

The tense system: Revision Simple tenses Continuous tenses

Present Simple Present Continuous/Progressive

used for actions in the present, for things that are always true or that happen regularly, and for opinions and beliefs I/we/you/they enjoy (do not enjoy) he/she/it enjoys (does not enjoy) Past Simple used for completed actions and events in the past I/we/you/they enjoyed (did not enjoy) he/she/it enjoyed (did not enjoy) Future Simple used for actions and events in the future I/we/you/they will enjoy (will not enjoy) he/she/it will enjoy (will not enjoy)

used for actions or events that are happening or developing now, for future plans, or to show that an event is repeated I am enjoying (am not enjoying) we/you/they are enjoying (are not enjoying) he/she/it is enjoying (is not enjoying) Past Continuous/Progressive used for actions or events in the past that were not yet finished or that were interrupted I was enjoying (was not enjoying) we/you/they were enjoying (were not enjoying) he/she/it was enjoying (was not enjoying) Future Continuous/Progressive used for actions or events in the future that will continue into the future I/we/you/they will be enjoying (will not be enjoying) he/she/it will be enjoying (will not be enjoying)

Perfect tenses Continuous tenses

Present Perfect used to show that an event happened or an action was completed at some time before the present I/we/you/they have enjoyed (have not enjoyed) he/she/it has enjoyed (has not enjoyed) Past Perfect usually used to show that an event happened or an action was completed before a particular time in the past I/we/you/they had enjoyed (had not enjoyed) he/she/it had enjoyed (had not enjoyed) Future Perfect used to show that something will be completed before a particular time in the Present Perfect Continuous/ Progressive used for actions or events that started in the past but are still happening now, or for past actions which only recently finished and whose effects are seen now I/we/you/they have been enjoying (have not been enjoying) he/she/it has been enjoying (has not been enjoying) Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive used for actions or events that happened for a period of time but were completed before a particular time in the past I/we/you/they had been enjoying (had not been enjoying) he/she/it had been enjoying (had not been enjoying) Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive used for actions or events that will already be happening at a particular time in the future

future I/we/you/they will have enjoyed (will not have enjoyed) he/she/it will have enjoyed (will not have enjoyed) I/we/you/they will have been enjoying (will not have been enjoying) he/she/it will have been enjoying (will not have been enjoying)

Writing. Try to define the stereotype for your nationality.