A.P. European History Mr. Wonders Industrialization Notes: The Industrial Revolution & Social Change I.

Overview The population of Europe doubled between 1870 and 1914. Every fourth person in the world was European. By the late 19th century most Europeans lived in cities and while population overall increased, urban mortality increased. Municipal (city) governments were unable to provide the necessary services, housing and sanitation, which contributed to the high urban mortality. People moved to cities in search of economic opportunities. Job growth occurred in two areas: white collar jobs (clerks, salespersons, lower level management) and blue collar (factory work). The increasing population altered the physical layout of the city. There was greater social segregation as working class suburbs grew on the outskirts of the city and the wealthy were concentrated in pockets around the city’s center. The dramatic economic and social changes of the late 19th century created winners and losers. The Middle Classes or Bourgeoisie benefited from the inventions and increasing profits, while the poor suffered under long hours, low wages and poor working conditions. The lower classes began to organize and lobby for change pressuring government to take action to improve the quality of their lives. This pressure created class conflict as governments were dominated by the wealthy and generally refused to take action. They believed strongly in a laissez-faire approach to governance. II. Demographics (the study of population change) The most important demographic change during the late 19th century was that birthrates fell while death rates also fell, which meant that there was an overall increase in population even though fewer Europeans were born. A decrease in infant mortality was the primary reason for the dramatic population growth. Improvements in medicine and diet helped to decrease deaths from Dysentery and Diarrhea. Technological and medical improvements prompted many changes in European society. The Middle Class • The decrease in infant mortality encouraged many middle class couples to have fewer children. This allowed them to devote more time and attention to their children. The Victorian Era saw the rise of the modern view of childhood. Migration and Social Change • The migration of more people to the cities led to an increase in the number of births outside of wedlock as traditional controls on behavior were relaxed. • Migration became a way of life for many Europeans – many moved across boundaries for work and those living in cities continued to connect with their communities in the rural regions and worked on the harvest when their day job

III. The factory promised the same limited future. IV. Many Jews as well as other immigrants sought to escape religious and political persecution. and his son could only hope for the life of his father. They also consumed more sugar and other extras. many never saw their families again and formed new identities in their homelands. economic. Once working class always working class even if on took on a management position within the factory. The population shift greatly impacted European political. however. the average European laborer was shorter than the average middle class citizen. Zionists sought the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Immigration Immigration from Europe was an important theme during the Industrial Age. As a result. The problem for the average working class person was that they still suffered without enough food for survival. While some promised to return. Between 1 and 1. They were drawn by the promise of wealth in nations like the United States. • The average European middle class person consumed much more meat than they had during the middle of the 19th century. This peasant traffic brought new ways of thinking about politics and social customs back to the rural regions of countries – revolutionary seeds. For example. which allowed more money for consumer goods. Reasons for Immigration Economic Opportunity Single men were the ones who moved most frequently leaving wives and families behind them. Most of the working class spent half of their income on food and required goods. Vienna was the capital of anti-Semitism in Europe. The Changing World of Work a. Persecution One and a half million Jews left Russia during this period. Changes in Income/Wealth • The standard of living increased because wages steadily climbed while the price of food and other necessities declined during the period. In most cases. New Types of Workers The age old tradition of passing one’s trade to one’s son carried over to industry and many peasants gave up all hope of moving beyond a proletarian lifestyle. . This was made possible by the refrigerated steam ship.allowed. Technology allowed for Birds of Passage across the Atlantic to raise money. and social systems. one-seventh of the Greek population left permanently. a. Theodor Herzel was a gifted journalist and who moved from Budapest to Vienna during the late 19th century. The craftsman had trained his son to assume his trade. they found no relief from discrimination. which led to the creation of the Zionist Movement.4 million people left Europe for the Americas during this time.

who accounted for more than half of the female workers in Britain. Skilled workers were more valuable as it took longer to train and prepare them for work. and saving money were presented as a cure for the problem. The increasing wealth of the Bourgeoisie increased the demand for servants. Older women were employed in factories and related service industries. as a step up from the discrimination and limitations they faced on the farm and in the domestic service. They believed a lack of morals pervaded the working class providing its promiscuity as an example. The mechanization of production process eliminated many traditional trades and transformed artisans like glass workers into unskilled laborers. Women saw these jobs. Women generally stayed home with their children until they were old enough to work and then they went back to work in the factory. Women’s jobs were tied to their age: • Young girls were usually hired as domestics.There were two key differences among workers in 19th century factories: skilled and unskilled. • • V. Engineers provided an example of skilled workers. and paid half of what a man was paid for the same job. Long hours in the factory eroded the urban parent’s authority. The Victorian ideals of education. b. The idea was to have enough children that once they reached working age women would not . Working women were viewed critically by reformers because it was believed that the evils of factory work corrupted them. Child labor was largely outlawed in Western Europe by 1870s but children were treated as adults once they reached the age of 14. They were unskilled. Factory work removed them from their family and related responsibilities and thus weakened the family structure. marriage. first fired and last hired. The urban family lacked the support structure of relatives like grandparents. despite the discrimination. The extended families of rural communities had helped to raise and discipline children. The Family Many middle class reformers argued that working class family life had declined greatly with the advent of factory work. The unskilled could be replaced quickly and therefore had very little influence. A New Role for Women Women entered the workforce in great numbers all across Europe. Some professions gained greatly from industrialization – engineers were required for all factories and most by 1900 were achieving university training. It deskilled the workforce and led to a greater class conscientiousness and trade militancy. Industrialization and the working class family a.

Germany and France. The late 19th century saw the rise of penthouses and . women continued to work the traditional professions like prostitution. This program failed. London was the largest city in Europe with 4. There were ten thousand prostitutes in Paris during the late 19th century and were generally supervised by a madam.have to work. Overcrowding and a demand for better housing started a movement to redesign cities. Jack the Ripper and other violent felons would attack them within these districts. These plans also incorporated wider streets to allow the cavalry to put down any revolts. The East end of the city became an infamous slum where all of Europe’s poor moved to gain economically.2 million people by 1890. Urbanization: The Teeming Cities The cities grew rapidly during the late 19th century in Britain. b. The wealthy moved into new apartments built in high rise buildings in the center of the city or out to the edges of the city. Middle class men were the primary customers and thus Bourgeois women’s organizations were the primary opponents. production. New water and sewer systems were added to improve public sanitation. Beginning with Paris many European cities were redesigned and altered during this period. Socialists blamed middle class men for the problem and not the women. Once in a city. Bourgeois reformers saw prostitution as dangerous and a health hazard. The Cottage Industry died off slowly during this period as more and more workers were forced into the cities. City planners created more space for housing that was built according to established codes. Most were working class women who had been fired from factories or injured and domestic servants who became pregnant during their service. An Example of Reform Measures The Contagious Disease Act was passed in England requiring a health exam and certification to improve public health. It was the center of world trade. finance. however because it turned women into permanent street workers. Working class families needed all members to work in order to have enough income. Once identified publicly as a prostitute made it very difficult to obtain a different job. Many of these families crowded into one room or tiny tenements. The enclosure of farms and falling agricultural prices were the main reasons people moved to the cities as they could not find work in the countryside. Not all reformers supported efforts to regulate prostitution. and finishing shops. most were forced to live in overcrowded slums. VI. as well as others in central Europe. This act would be repealed and Parliament would limit them to the Red Light District. Prostitution In addition to factory work and domestic service. It is important to note that it was viewed as a public health issue and not a moral one. Crime was always a complaint but in reality it was not as bad as many people settled with people they knew in Urban Villages.

The gap between educated and uneducated was great as it was between skilled and unskilled. Individuals who took these jobs were called the petty bourgeoisie. The city was crowded on the outside and the inside. This group also included school teachers. They looked for an opportunity to enter the ranks of the middle class. Many socialist reformers would use this to rally their working class supporters especially when wages declined during the 1890s. These suburbs were limited by the fact that most factories were on the outer edges of the city and many poor from the country moved into shanties on the edge. Social Mobility The growth of professional businesses and the expansion of city governments led to an increased demand for clerical and administrative workers. The working class was condemned to a life of renting. It was next to impossible to move from the working class to the Bourgeoisie but easier to move from the middle class to the rich. and women holding positions as secretaries and in the many restaurants and cafes. . VII. The division between rich and poor was very apparent in late 19th century European society. The working class was also limited in marriage as it was only accepted between equals. These workers did not see themselves as working class and wished to been seen as holding a respectable position. Homeownership was next to impossible for the working classes because wages were so low and unreliable to save to purchase a home.suburbs. bank tellers.

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