Rotary Drilling Rig
The most common drilling rigs in use today are rotary drilling rigs. Their main tasks are to create rotation of the drill string and facilities to advance and lift the drill string as well as casings and special equipment into and out of the hole drilled. The main components of a rotary drilling rig can be seen in following picture

Rotary Drilling Rig

rotary rigs can be distinguished into: Land rigs: Conventional rigs: Small land rigs. . Jacknife.In general. Medium land rigs. Large land rigs. Mobile rigs: Portable mast.

Jack up. . factors like water depth.. Semi-submersible. Submersible. rotary rigs can be distinguished into: Offshore rigs: Bottom anchored rigs: Artificial Island. TLP.In general. Barge For offshore rigs. Concrete-structured. expected sea states. winds and currents as well as location (supply time) have to be considered as well. etc. Floating rigs: Drillship.

Rig Power System The power system of a rotary drilling rig has to supply the following main components: (1) Rotary system. water pumps. (2) Hoisting system and (3) Drilling fluid circulation system. In addition. have to be powered. auxiliaries like the blowout preventer. rig lighting system. etc. .

casings. At ordinary drilling operations. Therefore the same engines can be engaged to perform both functions. . the hoisting (lifting and lowering of the drill string. etc. these components determine mainly the total power requirements.Rig Power System Since the largest power consumers on a rotary drilling rig are the hoisting and the circulation system.) and the circulation system are not operated at the same time.

(2) Direct current (DC) or (3) Alternating current (AC) applying a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR). . The raw power is then transmitted to the operating equipment via: (1) Mechanical drives.000 to 3. As guideline.000 [hp]. power requirements for most rigs are between 1. or taken as electric power supply from existing power lines. Most of the newer rigs using the AC SCR systems.Rig Power System The power itself is either generated at the rig site using internal-combustion diesel engines.

(6) Deal line anchor. . (5) Dead line. The hoisting equipment itself consists of: (1) Draw works. see following sketch. and other subsurface equipment into or out of the well. (4) Travelling block. casings. (8) Hook and (9) Derrick.Hoisting System The main task of the hoisting system is to lower and raise the drill string. (7) Storage reel. (2) Fast line. (3) Crown block.

Hoisting System .

Hoisting System .

Hoisting System .

Hoisting System .

supplied by the drum. . The breaking torque. The draw works itself consists of: (1) Drum. (3) Transmission and (4) Catheads The drum provides the movement of the drilling line which in turn lifts and lowers the travelling block and consequently lifts or lowers the loads on the hook.Draw works The purpose of the draw works is to provide the hoisting and breaking power to lift and lower the heavy weights of drill string and casings. (2) Brakes. has to be strong enough to be able to stop and hold the heavy loads of the drilling line when lowered at high speed.

Draw works .

(5) mud pits and tanks (settling tank. (6) mud mixing equipment (mud mixing hopper) and (7)contaminant removal equipment (shale shaker.Circulation System The principle components of the mud circulation system are: (1) mud pumps. desilter. (4) nozzles. (2) flow lines. desander. (3) drill pipe. mixing tank. degasser) . suction tank).

via the swivel into the drill string. can be mixed into the mud. or the suction line to the mud pumps. where various additives like weighting material etc.Circulation System The flow of circulated drilling mud can be described as from the mud pit (storage of mud) via the mud mixing hopper. the rotary hose (flexible connection that allows the fed of the mud into the vertically moving drill string). At the mud pumps the mud is pressured up to the required mud pressure value. . From the mud pumps the mud is pushed through the stand pipe (a pipe fixed mounted at the derrick).

After cleaning the mud. . drill pipe) and the mud line (mud return line) which is located above the BOP. drill collar) the mud flows down to the bit where it is forced through the nozzles to act against the bottom of the hole. drill pipe. de-sander and de-silter. settlement tank. From the mud line the mud is fed to the mud cleaning system consisting of shale shakers.Circulation System Inside the drill string (Kelly. From the bottom of the well the mud rises up the annuli (drill collar. the circulation circle is closed when the mud returns to the mud pit.

Circulation System .

Circulation System .

Circulation System .

triplex pump). The amount of mud and the pressure the mud pumps release the mud to the circulation system are controlled via changing of pump liners and pistons as well as control of the speed [stroke/minute] the pump is moving. both equipped with reciprocating positive-displacement pistons. .Mud Pumps Nowadays there are two types of mud pumps in use (duplex pump.

This means that drilling mud is pumped with the forward and backward movement of the barrel.Mud Pumps Duplex Mud Pump The duplex mud pump consists of two cylinders and is double-acting. .

Mud Pumps .

Mud Pumps .

Mud Pumps Triplex Mud Pump The triplex mud pump consists of three cylinders and is single-acting. .

Mud Pumps .

Mud Pumps .

Rotary table and Drill string . During drilling operation. this rotation is to the right. Rotary drive (master bushing.The rotary System The function of the rotary system is to transmit rotation to the drill string and consequently rotate the bit. Kelly pushing). The main parts of the rotary system are: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Swivel. Rotary hose. Kelly.

The rotary System .

. non-rotating rotary hose and the rotation Kelly). provide a high pressure seal (connection between flexible.The rotary System Swivel The swivel which established a connection between hook and Kelly has to be constructed extremely robust since it has to carry the total drill string weight and at the same time.

Thus to prevent the kelly from excessive wear caused by making and breaking connections. a kelly cock providing a backflow restriction valve is often mounted between kelly and swivel. treated steel. . To prevent possible backward flow of the mud in case of an kick. Since the kelly is made of high quality. it is an expensive part of the drill string. a kelly sub is mounted at the bottom end of it.The rotary System Kelly The Kelly has a square or hexagonal cross-section and provides the rotation of the drill string.

The rotary System Rotary Drive The rotary drive consists of master pushing and kelly pushing. The master pushing receives its rotational momentum from the compound and drives the kelly pushing which in turn transfers the rotation to the kelly .

The rotary System .

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