Aim

The aim of the experiment is to investigate the variations of the coefficient drag of a cylinder with increasing velocity.

Theory
The drag of an object subjected to a flow can be calculated using the following equation:

Fw=½pCwAu²
Drag increases with the square of the velocity. A is the area of the model/ Where:
Fw: the force of drag, ρ: the density of the fluid u: the velocity of the object relative to the fluid A: reference area Cw: the drag coefficient , a dimensionless constant Furthermore, it is governed by the density p of the air, the projected area A of the object and the drag coefficient Cw, which reflects the influence of the object’s shape, but is independent of its size. If Cw is known, then drag can be calculated in advance for any body. The drag coefficient can be determined from the drag at a given velocity.

Cw = 2Fw/pAu2
A cylinder is installed in the measurement section at right angles to the direction of flow and the drag force measured at increasing velocities.

26 0.01 0.545 38181.273 For this experiment the velocity range is from 0 to 26 m/s.091 25454.32 0.01 1.193 0.0157 1. then we read the drag force at each velocity.184 0.11 0. Diameter and Length of the cylinder were 5cm and 10cm .19 1.043 0.238 0. 2) Measure length and diameter of the cylinder and calculate the projected area of the cylinder 3) Mount model on force transducer and close wind tunnel properly 4) Start wind tunnel at low onset velocity 5) Measure speed 6) Using both anemometer and data acquisition system record value of the drag force 7) Repeat 5 and 6 for onset velocities up to 25m/s (take at least 10 readings) 8) Calculate Cw values using equation (2). Temperature (K) = 23 + 273 = 296 K Pressure= 101488 Pa.223 0.000 0.091 63636.Procedure 1) Measure ambient pressure and temperature and deduce the local air density from the ideal gas law.87 0.818 50909. which we must convert to meter (m).209 0 15909. Specific heat Capacity= 287 ⁄ . 9) Plot graph of Cw vs Reynolds number (Re) Results Table Velocity (m/s) Drag Force(N) Area (m²) Density(ρ) Viscosity(μ) Drag Coefficient (Cw) Reynolds Number(Re) 0 5 8 12 16 20 22 26 0 0.52 0.217 0.89 1. Also deduce the ambient viscosity using the Sutherland correlation.364 70000 82727.

Area of the Cylinder: ( )( ( )( ) ) Density of Air: ( )( ) ( ⁄ ⁄ )( ) Viscosity of Air: ( ( )) kg/ms Drag Coefficient Cw: ( ( ( ⁄ )( ( )( ) ) ( ) ) ( ) ) . please check the table above.Calculations Sample used for the calculation section was done e using velocity 16 m/s.

100 0. Cw VS Re 0.000 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 Re 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 .200 0.150 Cw 0.250 0.818 Graphs The graph below shows Drag coefficient vs Reynolds number.050 0.Reynolds Number: ( ⁄ ) ( ) ( ) 38181.

if you look at the section for velocity 22 and 26 m/s. transient or turbulent. Conclusion Velocity is proportional to Fw. Turbulent flow is caused by high velocities which leads to flow with highly disordered motion. We assume that flow becomes turbulent when the velocity of the fluid increases. Maybe this is due to calculations or equipment problems. It is important to note that for our calculation for the 12 m/s the resultant Reynolds number was 38181. This assumption is correct which is shown by the calculation we did. Cw is a function of several factors including shape of the body. . Reynolds number increases as too. However this is not true for the last two readings in the table.818 which mean its less than 4000. Roughness of the Surface.Discussion We can see from the graph that as the Cw increases . the net force in the direction of flow due to pressure and shear stress forces on the surface of the body. Reynolds number Re is a dimensionless number used to determine if flow is laminar. Cw is a dimensionless number used to quantify the drag or resistance of a body in a fluid environment. we can see that even when Fw increases Cw decreases. the Cw increases too. when the velocity increases the drag force increases. Cw increases as the Fw increases therefore they are proportional. Reynolds Number for the flow. therefore its in the transient state. Velocity is proportional to Reynolds number. increasing the velocity will make the flow more turbulent. For our experiment Reynolds number for the cylinder is from 0 to 82727. Any type of body traveling through a fluid will experience drag or resistance. therefore Cw is proportional to Re.

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