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GEOGRAPHY X CHAPTER -7 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY Q.

1 Why are the means of transportation and communication called the lifelines of a national and its economy? Ans. The means of transportation and communication are called the lifelines of a nation and its economy due to the reasons given below: a) The means of transportation and communication help in the production and movement of goods and services. b) Transport helps in the development of communication . Various means of communication help us in interacting with other in all the parts of the world It has brought the world closer. c) Transport like railways help us in conducting various activities like business, sight seeing, pilgrimage and transportation of goods over longer distances. d) Pipelines are used for transporting crude oil and natural gas to refineries and factories. e) Water provide the cheapest means of transport and is useful for international trade. f) Air transport provides the fastest, most comfortable mode of transport? Thus, it is clear that there are many advantages of transportation and communication. These means help in the development of the country. So they are rightly called the lifelines of a nation and its economy. Q.2 Roadways have an edge over railways. How? Ans. Roadways have an edge over railways due to following reasons:(a) The construction cost of roadway is much lower than that of the railways. Its maintenance is also cheap and easy. (b) Roads can be built in mountainous areas. The roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography. Roads can negotiable higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas. (c) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances. (d) It provides door to door services, which results in lower cost of loading and unloading. (e) It is used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports. (f) Road transport connects fields with markets and factories. (g) Road transport is useful for transport of perishable commodities. Q.3 What is the significance of border roads? Ans. Significance of Border roads: Border Roads are very significant for the security of the country. These roads are constructed and maintained by the Border Roads Organization which is a Government of India undertaking. The reasons for its significance are as given below: (a) Its helps in the security of the country because in case of necessity, army can be deployed in the sensitive border areas easily and quickly e.g., northern and north-eastern border areas of strategic importance. (b) It has provided access in the areas of difficult terrain.

(c) It helps in the economic development of the area. Q.4 Do you agree with the view that efficient means of transport are perquisites for fast development? Ans. It is correct to say that efficient means of transport are pre-requisites for fast development because there is need of efficient and good transport for speedy movement of goods and services to different parts of the country to fulfil the needs of the people. Traders can send their goods only by means of transport. If no transport facility is available, they may not be able to send their goods and products to different places. Their trade will, thus, be concentrated to one place only. The pace of development of a country, thus , depends upon the production and movement of goods and services to all the parts. Therefore, efficient means are necessary for the fast development because that enables the quick and fast movement of goods and services. Q.5 Describe Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways with special reference to its objects and the North-South and East-West corridors. Ans. (i) Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways is a major and road development project liking Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai- Mumbai and Delhi by six lane Super Highways. (ii) The object of these Super Highways is to meet the requirements of fast movement of traffic in the country and to reduce the time and distance between the mega cities of India. (iii) North-South corridor connects Srinagar to Kanniyakumari. (iv) East-West Corridor connects Silchar to Porbandar. (v) These highway projects are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI). Q.6. Give a brief description of National Highways in India. Ans. (i) National Highways link extreme parts of the country including one state with another. (ii) These are primary road systems of national importance. Therefore, these are constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD) of the central government. (iii) A number of major National Highways run in North-South and East West directions. (iv) The historical Sher Shah Suri Marg, between Delhi and Amritsar is called National Highway No.1 (v) National Highway-7 is the longest and Traversers 2,369 km between Varanasi and Kanniyakumari via Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hydrabad, Bangalore and Madurai. (vi) National Highway-8 connects Delhi and Mumbai and National Highway15 covers most of Rajasthan. Q.7 Give a brief description of the following: (i) STATE HIGHWAYS (ii) DISTRICT ROADS (iii) RURAL ROADS (iv) BORDER ROADS. Ans. (i) STATE HIGHWAYS: These roads link a state capital with different district headquarters. These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department in State and Union Territories.

(ii) DISTRICT ROADS: These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district. These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad. (iii) RURAL ROADS : Rural roads or village roads link rural areas and villages with towns. Under Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana provision have been made to link every village in the country to a major town by an all season motorable road. Thus, it is hoped that the condition of rural roads will improve in future. (iv) BORDER ROADS: These roads are in the border areas of the country. Border Roads Organisation which is a Government of India undertaking constructs and maintains these roads. These roads are of strategic importance in the northern and north-eastern border areas for improving accessibility in areas in difficult terrain and helping in the economic development of these areas. Q.8 Describe the classification of roads on the basis of type of material used for contraction. Ans. Roads may classified into two as given below: (i) METALLED ROADS: These are made of cement, concrete or even bitumen of coal. These are all weather roads. (ii) UNMETALLED ROADS: These are roads where no bitumen, concrete or cement is used. These roads go out of use in rainy season because they become muddy. Q.9 What is road density? Describe the density of road in India? Ans. (a) Road density: The length of road per 100 sq km of area is known as density of roads. (b) Road density of India: Distribution of road is not uniform in India due to different types of geographical features. The density of all roads varies from only 10 km in Jammu and Kashmir to 375 km in kerala. The national average is 75 km (1996-97). Q.10 Describe the problems that are being faced in road transportation in India. Ans. The problems that are being faced in road transportation in Indian are as given below: (i) Inadequate network in view of the volume of traffic and passengers. (ii) Half of the roads are unmetalled that cannot be used using rainy season. (iii) National Highways are inadequate to meet the rush of traffic. (iv) Roads in the cities are highly congested. (v) Most of the bridges and culvets are old and narrow. (vi) Roadside amenties like emergency health services, police protection on the highways are not adequate. The above problems need immediate attention of the government to make road transport more popular and useful in the country. Q.11 Railways are the principal mode of transportation in India Explain. Ans. The railways are the main artery of inland transport in India. It is the lifeline of the country as mentioned below: (i) Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers.

(ii) The Indian Railways have a network of 7,031 stations, 7,817 locomotives, 5,321 passenger service vehicles, 4,904 other coach vehicles and 228,170 wagons as on 31 st March, 2004. (iii) The total length of railways is 63,221 km. (iv) Railways are useful in conducting business, sightseeing, pilgrimage along with transportation of goods over longer distances. (v) It is the largest public undertaking in the country. Thus, it is clear that the railways are playing an important role in our economy than all other means of transport put together. Q.12. Physical and economic factors influenced the distribution pattern of the Indian Railways Network How? Explains with examples. Ans. Physical and economic factors have influenced the distribution pattern of the Indian Railways network in the following ways: (i) Northern Plain: Level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources has favoured development of railways in these plains. However, a large number of river requiring construction of bridges across their wide river beds posed some obstacles. (ii) Peninsular region and the Himalayan region: it is a hilly terrain. The railway tracks are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels. So, it is very difficult to lay the railway lines. The Himalayan moutainours regions too are not favourable for the construction of railway line due to high relief, sparse population an lack of economic opportunities. (iii) Desert of Rajasthan: on the sandy plain of western Rajasthan too, it is very difficult to lay railway lines which has hindered the development of railways. (iv) Swamps of Gujarat, forested tracts of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orrissa and Jharkhand; these are also not suitable for the development of railways. (v) The contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed only through gaps or passes (ghats).a although the Konkan railway along the west coast has been developed but it has also faced a number of problems such as sinking of track in some stretches and landslides. Q.13. What are the problems being faced by the Indian railways. Ans. The following problems are being faced by the railways: (i) TRAVELLING WITHOUT TICKET : Many people travel without ticket that leads to financial loss. (ii) THEFTS AND DAMAGING RAILWAY PROPERTY: People steal different fittings of the wagons, passenger coaches etc. some people cause damage to railway property. (iii) STOPPING OF TRAINS WITHOUT ANY EMERGENCY OR NECESSITY: Just to catch the train or for some other minor reason, people pull the chain unnecessarily. Such actions delay the train in reaching its destination in time. Q.14. Write a short note on the pipeline transport and its network in India. Ans. (i) Uses: Earlier pipelines were used to transport water to cities and industries. Now, pipelines are being used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to oil refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants.

(ii) Advantages: (a) Crude oil and other petroleum products can be transported to far away inland locations like Baruani and Panipat. (b) Pipelines have proved beneficial for gas based fertilser plants. (c) Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry. (d) Running cost of pipelines in minimal. (e) There are no transshipment losses or delays. (iii) Networks of pipelines: There are three networks of pipeline transportation as given below: (a) From oil fields in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) (b) From Salaya in Gujarat to jalandhar in Punjab. (c) Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh. Q.15. Describe the major sea ports of India. Ans. India has long coastline of 7516.6 km there are 12 major and 181 medium and minor ports. These major parts handle 95% of Indias foreign trade. (i) Kandla in Kuchchh (Gujarat) It was the first part developed soon after Independence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after partition. It is a tidal port. It caters to the needs of handling of exports and imports of highly productive granarg and industrial belt stretching across the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat. (ii) Mumbai (Maharastra) It is the biggest port with a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbor. (iii) Jawahar Lal Nehru Port (Maharastra) It was planned with a view to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port of this region. (iv) Marmagao Port (Goa) It is the premier iron-or exporting port of the country. This port accounts for about fifty percent of Indias iron ore export. (v) New Mangalore Port (Karnataka) It exports iron-ore from Kudremukh mines. (vi) Kochi Port (Kerala) it is the extreme south western port, located at the entrance of lagoon with a natural harbor. (vii) Tuticorin Port (Tamilnadu) it is the extreme south-eastern port. It has a natural harbor and rich hinterland. It handles cargoes to Srilanka and Maldives too. (viii) Chennai Port ( Tamilnadu) It is one of the oldest artificial ports of India. It is ranked next to Mumbai in terms of the volume of trade and cargo. (ix) Vishakhapatanam Port ( Andhra Pradesh) It is deepest land locked and well protected port. It was originally conceived as an outlet for iron are exports. (x) Paradip port (Orrissa) It specializes in the export of iron ore. (xi) Kolkata Port (W. Bengal) it is an inland riverine port. It serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga-Brahmaputra basin. It is a tidal port an requires constant dredging of Hoogly. Haldia Port (West Bengal) It was developed as a subsidiary port, in order to relieve growing pressure on the Kolkata port. Q.16. Explain the inland navigation water ways in India. Also mention its advantages. Ans. India has inland navigation waterway of 14,500 km in length. Out of these only 3,700 km are navigable by mechanized boats.

(1) The Ganga river between Allahbad and Haldia (1,620km) N.W. No. 1 (2) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km)- N.W. No. 2. (3) The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapuma-Komman, Udyognmandal and Champakkara canals -205 km) N.W. No. 3. (iii) The other inland waterway include the Godavari, Krishna, Barak, Sunderbans, Buckingham Canal, Brahmani. East West canal and Damodar Valley Corporation Canal. Advantages: (i) Waterways are the cheapest means of transport. (ii) They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. (iii) It is a fuel-efficient transport. (iv) It is environment friendly mode of transport. Q.17. Explain the important features of air transport of India. Also mention the advantages of airways. Ans. (i) In India, air transport was nationalized in 1953. (ii) Domestic air services: These services are provided by Indian Airlines, Alliance Air, private scheduled airlines and non-scheduled air operators. (iii) International air services: These are provided by Air India. (iv) Helicopter services: These services are provided by Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd. to Oil and Natural Gas commission in its off-shore operations to inaccessible areas and difficult areas like north-eater states and the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. (v) Neighbouring countries: Indian Airlines provides services to the neighbouring countries of south and South east Asia and Middle east. Advantages: (i) It is the fastest and most comfortable mode of transport. One can reach his destination at far away places within a short period. (ii) It can cover very difficult areas like high mountains, dreary deserts, dense forests and long oceanic and earthquakes. Q.18. Explain why is air transport preferred in north-eastern states of India? Ans. The north eastern states are full of big river, dissected relief, dense forests, frequent floods. It has international frontiers with Myanmar, Bangladesh and China. Under these conditions, air transport is preferred in these hilly areas of north-eastern states because air transport can cover very difficult areas like high mountains and dense forests. It is also useful in hostile areas and natural and human made calamities like floods. It is only in the north eastern states that special provision are made to extend the air services to the common people. As such air travel is within their reach and preferred. Q.19. Describe the main features of the Indian postal network. Ans. Main features of the Indian postal network are as given below: (i) The Indian Postal network is the largest network in the world. (ii) type of mail: These are two types of mail. (a) First Class Mail: cards and envelops fall in this category.

(b) Second class Mail: It includes book packets, registered newspaper and periodicals. (iii) Mail Channels: For quick delivery of mails, six channels have been introduced. These are-Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel. Q. 20. Which are the main means of mass communications? Explain the importance of Radio and Television as an effective means of mass communication in India. Ans. Radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films are the main means of mass communications. The importance of Radio and Television as an effective means of communication in India is due to the factors as mentioned below: (i) Radio and television entertainment to the people. (ii) These create awareness among people about various national programmes and policies as debates are conducted on television and radio. (iii) Programmes are broadcast in different languages for all types of people. (iv) Doordarshan, the national television channel of India and one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world,, broadcasts various types of programmes from entertainment, educational to sports. Q.21. Why is International trade considered the economic barometer for a country? Ans. The progress in international trade leads to economic prosperity. If the value of exports exceeds the value of imports, the country is considered to have made advancement in international trade. It is called favourable balance of trade. Developed countries come in this category. On the other hand, if the value of imports exceeds the value of exports, it is termed as unfavourable balance of trade. This, advancement of international trade is an index to its economic prosperity and considered the economic barometer for a country. Q.22 Write difference between international and local trade? (a) Difference between international and local trade is as given below: International Trade Local Trade (i) Trade between two countries is called (i) Local trade is carried in cities, towns and international trade. villages. ii) It takes place through see, air or land routes. iii) Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity. It is therefore, considered the economic barotmeter for a country . iv) The international trade leads to earning of foreign exchange and benefits for the traders and exporters in the country. (ii) It takes place in the local markets. (iii) Advancement of local trade is a sign of economic prosperity of the local people.

iv) It does not earn foreign exchange but helps in the fulfillment of needs of the people.

Q. 23. Explain the changing nature of international trade in the last fifteen years. Ans. The nature of the international trade in the last fifteen years has changed due to globalization. Earlier bilateral agreements were made to conduct trade

between two countries. But through globalization, an effort has been make to integrate national economy. Now producers from outside country can sell their goods and services in other counties. Globalization includes movement of capital as well as workers from one country to other country. The restrictions on the import of goods have been removed. Under World Trade Organization, efforts are being made to have multi-lateral agreements for international trade. WTO is regulating the international trade of goods as well as services. Thus, the nature of the international trade has changed and it is hoped that in future all the barriers and restrictions on trade among countries will go and it will flourish in the world. Q.24. How tourism as a trade has flourished in India? Explain? Ans. The Tourism as a trade has flourished in India as mentioned below: (i) There has been increase of 23.5 percent during the year 2004 as against the year 2003 and contributed Rs. 21,828 crore of foreign exchange. (ii) Over 2.6 Million foreign tourists visit India every year. (iii) Over 15 million people are directly employed in the tourism industry in the country. (iv) It promotes national integration because people from India also go from one place to another place. (v) It helps in the development of international understanding. Foreign tourists are attracted by Indian culture and traditions. (vi) It supports local handicrafts and cultural pursuits because tourists purchase many products during their visits. (vii) Foreign tourist visit India for visiting places of heritage or to have adventures in hilly region or to have business with India. (viii) Rajasthan, Goa, Jammu and Kashmir and temple town of south India have attracted many tourists from all over the world.

CHAPTER 6 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES X GEOGRAPHY Q. 1. What is manufacturing? Ans. Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials tomore valuable products to called manufacturing. Q.2. Explain the importance of manufacturing industries in the process of economic growth. Ans. The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries, manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular because Manufacturing industries are a productive source of employment. They create not only more jobs, but also better paying jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors. They also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income. Manufacturing industries help in the promotion of both agriculture and service sector in the economy. Industrialization is the key to eradication of poverty and unemployment. It also promotes balanced regional development. Exports of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange. Q.3. Agriculture and industry are complementary to each other. How? Ans. Agriculture and industry both depend on each other Agriculture supplies raw material for the manufacturing industries. Shortage of these raw materials can spell doom for the industry. Agriculture gets its basic inputs form the manufacturing industries. In this way agriculture offers a big market for industrial products, fertilizers, water pumps, tractors, farm equipment etc. In short agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other they more hand in hand. Q. 4. Explain the factors which are responsible for location of industries? Ans. The important factors that determine the location of industry in a country are as follow: PHYSICAL FACTORS Availability of raw materials : This factor is specially important in case of raw material based heavy industries like iron and steel and cement. Even in case of sugar mills it is essential that the raw material is available in close proximity. Availability of power resources: Power is basic necessity to run the machinery. Proximity to thermal power and hydro power always attracts more industries. Availability of water: Almost all industries require huge quantity of water. Water cannot be transported over long distances. Availability of water at the site will attract more industries. Favorable Climate : Hostile climatic condition generally deter the prospective entrepreneur while gentle climate invites them for example growing concentration of electronic industry in Bangalore. HUMAN FACTORS

Labour-Availability of skilled and unskilled labour induces more industries. For industries that require plenty of labour, densely populated areas are ideal location, as labour is cheap and abundant in such areas. Market Proximity to market is essential as transportation involves not only expenditure but also delays. Industries tend to cluster around the areas where a market for the manufactured product exists. Industries producing perishable or fragile goods are usually located near their respective markets so that the product can reach the market with minimum delays or damages. Government Policy Above all these physical and human factor, the most important factors is the government policy. The enthusiasm and zeal shown by the government in the southern states to attract software industry is a living testimony to the positive role that a government can play in the location of any industry. Transport Facility An efficient transport network help raw material to reach factories and finished goods to reach markets. Thus, regions that are well connected by transport routes are ideal sites for industries. Coastal location with shipping facilities is particularly suitable for industries using imported raw material or producing goods for export. Capital - Every industry need capital for purchasing machines, power and raw materials, and also for paying wages and meeting transportation costs. Areas where money is locally available and people are willing to invest in industries are, therefore, ideal locations for industries. Q.5. Why in the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in Maharastra and Gujarat? Ans. The major reasons are as follows: Availability of raw material- Due to suitable climate and rich black cotton soil, cotton is produced in abundance over here. There is a regular supply of raw material to the industries. Labour- Metropolitan cities of Mumbai and Ahmedabad have large population and therefore large labour supply. Means of Transport- Well developed means of Transport enables the area of cotton production to the industries and further to the market. Mumbai port enables quick exports to every part of the world. Humid Climate- Originally the local humid climate was found to be asset for spinning thread. Now steam can be infected artificially in any spinning mill located in any region. Q.6. Why are cotton textiles mills spread all over India? Ans. This is due to the following factors: Cloth is the basic requirement and hence its market is spread throughout the country. Both raw materials and finished products can be easily transported over long distances since they are light in weight. Easy availability of all factors inputs like labour capital etc. in different parts of the country. Humid conditions needed for the industry are created artificially inside the mill. Land costs are rising: hence, new mills are set up at new distant locations. Q. 7. Why is it important for our country to keep the mill sector loomage lower than powerloom and handloom.

Ans. Powerlooms and handlooms are labour intensive by nature, whereas mills are capital intensive India is a labour surplus and capital deficient economy. Therefore, it is important for us to promote labour-intensive industries. Q.8 Why is there a growing concern for shifting industries from urban areas to rural areas? Ans. Important reasons for shifting industry from urban areas are as follows:(i) To avoid problem of congestion and industrial pollution in urban areas. (ii) To create employment opportunities in rural areas and thereby, discourage migration to urban areas. (iii) To strike a balanced regional development. Q.9 Why is Jute industry concentrated in Hoogly region? Ans. Most of the Jute mills are located on the banks of the Hoogly, the busiest distributor of the river Ganga in India as The Hoogly offers as the cheapest and the most convenient means of transport to collect raw jute from West Bengal and even beyond. The river provides abundant water for retting, washing and dyeing purposes. The river also helps to carry manufactured jute goods to Kolkata city for inland distribution and to Kolkata for exporting them to various parts of the world. The region also provides abundant labour and raw material. Q.10 Why is the jute industry declining in India? What measures should be taken to improve it? Ans. The major reasons for the decline of jute industry are as follows: Emergence of synthetic substitutes- these synthetic fibres can be easily maintained. Jute manufactured goods are costlier. There is stiff competition in the export markets. Some of the suggested measures for improvement are as follows. Introducing variety of jute products such as jute mats, carpets and mixing jute fibres with cotton. Developing consumer awareness about the good qualities of jute goods. Research and development efforts to promote more efficient techniques. Q.11 Why is sugar industry migrating towards south in the recent years? Ans. The following reasons account for the migration of the sugar industry towards south: Sugarcane produced in south Indian states has a high sugar content because of warm tropical climate. Co-operative sector is more developed and successful in southern states. These is long crushing reason due to humid climate. Q.12. Why has the cholanagpur plateau region maximum concentration of iron and steel industries? Ans. The major factors are:Availability of raw material : Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in the ratio of approximately 4:2:1 all these minerals are available in the chollanagpura region. Cheap labour: High density of population provides large labour force.

Means of transport: Well developed means of transport helps raw material to reach factories and finished goods to reach markets. Port Facilities : Situated near Kolkata port, therefore, convenient for trade in international market and domestic market. Power Supply : Regular supply of Thermal power due to presence of cool and hydel power because of number of river valley protects makes it possible to set up iron steel industries in this area. Q.13. Why the Iron and steel industries are mainly in the public sector? Ans. The factors that account for iron and steel industry being mainly in the public sector are: Huge Capital Investment: It requires huge capital investment that is beyond the reach of private enterprises at the time the independence. Basic Industry : It is basic industry that lays foundation for several subsidiary industries and so help industrial development. Therefore, the government policy decided to have all new plants in the public sector. It came forwards with the needed. Capital, arranged financial and technical support from esst while USSR and other countries like the U.K. and Germany. Latest R & D programme : It requires latest research and development programme continuous updating of techniques. Is essential it can be better handled by public sector. Long Term Profits: It involves a long gestation period, private enterprises normally avoids such industries. Q.14 Why is iron and steel industry called a basic and heavy industry? Ans. Iron and steel industry is called a basic industry for the following reason:The industry forms a base for all other industries in the country. It is difficult to imagine an industry that does not make use of iron and steel in one form or another. The industry lays the foundation for rapid development of all other sectors in the economy, like agriculture, forestry, construction etc. It is heavy industry because : It requires huge sum of investment. All raw materials used by the industry and its finished products are bulky and heavy. Q.15. Compare and contrast cotton textile and iron steel industries in India. Ans. Cotton Textile industry Iron and steel industry Cotton textile industry is an agro based Iron and steel industry is mineral based industry. Cotton is the major raw material, industry. Iron limestone and other raw material comes from agriculture. are obtained form mines. It is the oldest industry with its start on modern The first iron steel plant was set up in 1907 on lines and with purely Indian capital in 1854. modern lines. Cotton textile industry is a consumer industry Iron and steel industry is a basic industry as it as it supplies cloth to the consumer directly or supplies raw in the form of iron and steel for indirectly. manufacturing machines etc. It has recently been facing several problems No such problems exist in case of iron and like industrial sickness, out dated technology steel industry in India as advanced technology and obsolete machinery in mills. has been imported to set up steel plants in the country.

Q.16. What change has occurred in the raw material used by the fertilizer industry? What is the mode of its transportation? What problems are being faced in its transportation? Ans. Traditional fertilizer industry is concentrated in locations nearer to reserves of raw materials i.e. coal and petroleum and big power plants that have enough electricity to produce nitrogenous fertilizers from nitrogen in the air. Now, natural gas provides valuable raw material. Natural gas can be easily transported to desired markets and distribution centre through pipelines. Problems Leakage in pipelines Capacity of pipelines cannot be increased Huge initial investment Q.17. Where was the first cement plant setup in India? What is the reason for the fast expansion of cement industry in India? Ans. The first cement plant was setup in 1904 at Chennai. Cement industry has expanded very fast during the last five decades due to the following factors: It is a raw material-oriented industry. India possesses large stocks of limestone, silica, aluminia and gypsum. Technologies breakthroughs in cement production have become easily accessible. Demand for cement has been continuously increasing. Q.18. Why does the textile industry occupy unique position in economy? Ans. The textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy because It contributes significantly to industrial production (14%). It generates employment approximately 35 million persons directly get employed which is the second largest after agricultural. About 24.6% of foreign exchange earnings are form textile industry. It contributes 40% towards GDP. It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain be from raw material to the highest value added products. Q.19 How many workers and farmers are supported by the Jute industry? What are the challenges before the industry and what are the steps being taken to face them? Ans. The jute industry supports 2.61 lakh workers directly and another 40 lakhs small and marginal farmers who are engaged in cultivation of jute and mesta. Many more people are associated indirectly Challenges faced by the industry include stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes and from other competitor like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand Step in 2005, National Jute policy was formulated with the objective of increasing productivity, improving quality, ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per hectare. The growing global concern for environment friendly, bio-degradable materials, has once again opened the opportunity for jute products.

Q.20 What are the advantages of the automobiles? What are the factors required for the healthy growth of the automobile industry? Which are the main centre of automobile industry? Ans. Automobiles provide vehicles for quick transport of goods, services and passengers. After the liberalization, the coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated and demand for vehicles in the market, which led to the healthy growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three wheelers. Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global development. The main centre of automobile industry are located around Delhi, Gurgoan, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jameshedpur and Bangalore. Q. 21. How do industries pollute the environment? Ans. Industries are responsible for four types of pollution 1. Air pollution It is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. 2. Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick, kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burring of fossils fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms. 3. Water pollution it is caused by organic and inorganic industrial waste and effluents discharged into rivers. The main culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dying, petroleum refineries that let out dyes, detergants, acids salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury into the water bodies. 4. Noise Pollution Unwater sound is an irritant and a source of stress. Industrial and constructional activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills. Q.22. Discuss the steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industries. Ans. Steps to be taken to minimize environmental degradation by industries are following:i) Minimising use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages. ii) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements. iii) Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds. Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases. a) Primary treatment b) Secondary Treatment c) Tertiary Treatment iv) Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic preceptors, fabric fitters, scrubbers and inertial separators smoke can be reduced by sing oil or gas instead of coal in factories (v) Machinery and equipment can be sued and generators should be fitted with silencers. Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduced noise. Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones. Q.23. Distinguish between agro based and mineral based industries. Agrobased industries Mineral based Industries These derive their raw material from These derive their raw material from minerals

agriculture These industries are labour intensive These provide employment mostly in rural areas Egs- cotton textile, Jute textiles, sugar mills

These industries are capital intensive. These provide employment both in urban and rural areas Egs. Iron and steel industry, cement industry, fertilizer industry.