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SYSTEM INFORMATION BSS EQUIPMENT PLANNING

GSM SOFTWARE RELEASE 9

GSR9

68P02900W21-S

SYSTEM INFORMATION BSS EQUIPMENT PLANNING
GSM SOFTWARE RELEASE 9

68P02900W21-S

GSR9

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning

© 2004 - 2007 Motorola, Inc. All Rights Reserved

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007

Copyrights
The Motorola products described in this document may include copyrighted Motorola computer programs stored in semiconductor memories or other media. Laws in the United States and other countries preserve for Motorola certain exclusive rights for copyright computer programs, including the exclusive right to copy or reproduce in any form the copyright computer program. Accordingly, any copyright Motorola computer programs contained in the Motorola products described in this document may not be copied or reproduced in any manner without the express written permission of Motorola. Furthermore, the purchase of Motorola products shall not be deemed to grant either directly or by implication, estoppel or otherwise, any license under the copyrights, patents or patent applications of Motorola, except for the rights that arise by operation of law in the sale of a product. Restrictions The software described in this document is the property of Motorola. It is furnished under a license agreement and may be used and/or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of the agreement. Software and documentation are copyright materials. Making unauthorized copies is prohibited by law. No part of the software or documentation may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means, without prior written permission of Motorola. Accuracy While reasonable efforts have been made to assure the accuracy of this document, Motorola assumes no liability resulting from any inaccuracies or omissions in this document, or from the use of the information obtained herein. Motorola reserves the right to make changes to any products described herein to improve reliability, function, or design, and reserves the right to revise this document and to make changes from time to time in content hereof with no obligation to notify any person of revisions or changes. Motorola does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit described herein; neither does it convey license under its patent rights of others. Trademarks Motorola and the Motorola logo are registered trademarks of Motorola Inc. Intelligence Everywhere, M-Cell and Taskfinder are trademarks of Motorola Inc. All other brands and corporate names are trademarks of their respective owners. CE Compliance The CE mark confirms Motorola Ltd’s statement of compliance with EU directives applicable to this product. Copies of the Declaration of Compliance and installation information in accordance with the requirements of EN50385 can be obtained from the local Motorola representative or the CNRC helpdesk, contact details : Email: mailto:csc.emea@motorola.com Tel: +44 (0) 1793 565 444

01 Feb 2007

Table of Contents

Contents
System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Issue status of this manual ............................................................................................................................................ 2 Version information ................................................................................................................................................ 2 Resolution of Service Requests ............................................................................................................................. 2 Incorporation of CDCNs......................................................................................................................................... 3 General information ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................................. 4 Feature references................................................................................................................................................. 4 Cross references.................................................................................................................................................... 5 Data encryption...................................................................................................................................................... 5 Text conventions.................................................................................................................................................... 6 Reporting safety issues ................................................................................................................................................. 7 Procedure .............................................................................................................................................................. 7 Warnings and cautions .................................................................................................................................................. 8 Warnings................................................................................................................................................................ 8 Failure to comply with warnings ............................................................................................................................. 8 Cautions................................................................................................................................................................. 8 General warnings .......................................................................................................................................................... 9 Warning labels ....................................................................................................................................................... 9 Specific warnings ................................................................................................................................................... 9 General cautions ......................................................................................................................................................... 12 Caution labels ...................................................................................................................................................... 12 Specific cautions .................................................................................................................................................. 12 Devices sensitive to static ........................................................................................................................................... 13 Special handling techniques ................................................................................................................................ 13 Caring for the environment .......................................................................................................................................... 14 Disposal of Motorola Networks equipment in EU countries ................................................................................. 14 Disposal of Motorola Networks equipment in non-EU countries .......................................................................... 14 Motorola manual set .................................................................................................................................................... 15 Ordering manuals and CD-ROMs ........................................................................................................................ 15 Manual amendment..................................................................................................................................................... 16 GMR availability ................................................................................................................................................... 16

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Contents

CDCN availability ................................................................................................................................................. 16 CDCN instructions ............................................................................................................................................... 16 CDCN amendment record ........................................................................................................................................... 17

Chapter 1 Introduction to planning.............................................................................................................. 1-1
Manual overview......................................................................................................................................................... 1-2 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 1-2 Contents.............................................................................................................................................................. 1-2 BSS equipment overview ........................................................................................................................................... 1-4 System architecture ............................................................................................................................................ 1-4 System components ........................................................................................................................................... 1-5 BSS features .............................................................................................................................................................. 1-8 Planning impacts................................................................................................................................................. 1-8 Diversity .............................................................................................................................................................. 1-8 Frequency hopping ............................................................................................................................................. 1-9 Short Message Service, Cell Broadcast (SMS CB)............................................................................................. 1-9 Code Storage Facility Processor (CSFP).......................................................................................................... 1-10 PCU for GPRS upgrade .................................................................................................................................... 1-10 Enhanced-GPRS (EGPRS)............................................................................................................................... 1-10 Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) ............................................................................................................................... 1-11 GSM half rate.................................................................................................................................................... 1-12 LoCation Services (LCS)................................................................................................................................... 1-13 BSC Reset Management (BRM) ....................................................................................................................... 1-13 Advanced Speech Call Item (ASCI) .................................................................................................................. 1-14 VersaTRAU backhaul for EGPRS..................................................................................................................... 1-14 Quality of Service (QoS) ................................................................................................................................... 1-15 QoS2................................................................................................................................................................. 1-16 Increased Network Capacity (Huge BSC) ......................................................................................................... 1-17 Improved Timeslot Sharing (ITS) ...................................................................................................................... 1-17 Enhanced BSC capacity using DSW2............................................................................................................... 1-18 High Speed MTL ............................................................................................................................................... 1-18 Addition of new BSC/PCU software (PXP) and hardware (PSI2) to increase GPRS capacity (ePCU) ............. 1-18 High bandwidth interconnect between BSC and PCU (PSI2) ........................................................................... 1-18 Dual Transfer Mode .......................................................................................................................................... 1-19 CTU2-D............................................................................................................................................................. 1-19 96 MSIs............................................................................................................................................................. 1-21 BSS planning overview............................................................................................................................................. 1-22 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 1-22 Background information .................................................................................................................................... 1-22 Planning methodology....................................................................................................................................... 1-23

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Contents

Acronyms ................................................................................................................................................................. 1-25 Acronym list ...................................................................................................................................................... 1-25

Chapter 2 Transmission systems ................................................................................................................ 2-1
BSS interfaces............................................................................................................................................................ 2-2 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 2-2 Interconnecting the BSC and BTSs ............................................................................................................................ 2-4 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 2-4 Interconnection rules........................................................................................................................................... 2-4 Network topology........................................................................................................................................................ 2-6 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 2-6 Star connection ................................................................................................................................................... 2-7 Daisy chain connection ....................................................................................................................................... 2-8 Daisy chain planning........................................................................................................................................... 2-8 Aggregate Abis ................................................................................................................................................. 2-10 RTF path fault containment............................................................................................................................... 2-14 16 kbit/s RSL .................................................................................................................................................... 2-16 16 kbit/s XBL..................................................................................................................................................... 2-19 Dynamic allocation of RXCDR to BSC circuits (DARBC).................................................................................. 2-20 Managed HDSL on micro BTSs ............................................................................................................................... 2-22 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 2-22 Integrated HDSL interface ................................................................................................................................ 2-22 General HDSL guidelines ................................................................................................................................. 2-24 Microcell system planning................................................................................................................................. 2-24

Chapter 3 BSS cell planning......................................................................................................................... 3-1
Planning tools ............................................................................................................................................................. 3-3 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 3-3 GSM frequency spectrum........................................................................................................................................... 3-4 GSM900 frequency spectrum ............................................................................................................................. 3-4 DCS1800 frequency spectrum ............................................................................................................................ 3-5 Absolute radio frequency channel capacity......................................................................................................... 3-5 Modulation techniques and channel spacing ...................................................................................................... 3-6 Traffic capacity ........................................................................................................................................................... 3-8 Dimensioning ...................................................................................................................................................... 3-8 Channel blocking ................................................................................................................................................ 3-8 Traffic flow .......................................................................................................................................................... 3-9 Grade of service.................................................................................................................................................. 3-9 Adaptive multi-rate (AMR) ........................................................................................................................................ 3-10 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 3-10 Capacity and coverage ..................................................................................................................................... 3-10

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Quality of service .............................................................................................................................................. 3-11 Applications....................................................................................................................................................... 3-12 Migration to AMR half rate ................................................................................................................................ 3-13 Interoperability with GSM half rate .................................................................................................................... 3-13 Interoperability with EGPRS.............................................................................................................................. 3-13 GSM half rate ........................................................................................................................................................... 3-14 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 3-14 Capacity and coverage ..................................................................................................................................... 3-14 Quality of service .............................................................................................................................................. 3-14 Applications....................................................................................................................................................... 3-15 Migration to half rate ......................................................................................................................................... 3-16 Interoperability with AMR half rate .................................................................................................................... 3-16 Interoperability with EGPRS.............................................................................................................................. 3-16 Propagation effects on GSM frequencies ................................................................................................................. 3-17 Propagation production ..................................................................................................................................... 3-17 Decibels ............................................................................................................................................................ 3-17 Fresnel zone ..................................................................................................................................................... 3-19 Radio refractive index (RRI).............................................................................................................................. 3-20 Environmental effects on propagation............................................................................................................... 3-23 Attenuation........................................................................................................................................................ 3-23 Multipath propagation........................................................................................................................................ 3-26 GSM900 path loss ............................................................................................................................................ 3-38 Path loss GSM900 against DCS1800 ............................................................................................................... 3-39 Frequency re-use ..................................................................................................................................................... 3-41 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 3-41 Re-use pattern .................................................................................................................................................. 3-42 Carrier/Interference (C/I) ratio ........................................................................................................................... 3-44 Sources of interference ..................................................................................................................................... 3-45 Sectorization of sites ......................................................................................................................................... 3-46 Overcoming adverse propagation effects ................................................................................................................. 3-47 Hardware techniques ........................................................................................................................................ 3-47 Error protection and detection........................................................................................................................... 3-48 GSM speech channel encoding for full rate ...................................................................................................... 3-53 GSM speech channel encoding for enhanced full rate...................................................................................... 3-55 GSM speech channel encoding for half rate ..................................................................................................... 3-56 GSM speech channel encoding for AMR full rate ............................................................................................. 3-57 GSM speech channel encoding for AMR half rate ............................................................................................ 3-58 Link adaptation for AMR channels .................................................................................................................... 3-60 GSM control channel encoding ......................................................................................................................... 3-61

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GSM circuit-switched data channel encoding ................................................................................................... 3-62 Mapping logical channels in the TDMA frame structure.................................................................................... 3-64 GPRS channel coding schemes ....................................................................................................................... 3-70 EGPRS channel coding schemes ..................................................................................................................... 3-76 64 kbit/s TRAU for EGPRS ............................................................................................................................... 3-86 Link adaptation (LA) in GPRS/EGPRS ............................................................................................................. 3-87 Voice activity detection (VAD)........................................................................................................................... 3-87 Discontinuous transmission (DTX).................................................................................................................... 3-88 Receive diversity............................................................................................................................................... 3-90 Subscriber environment............................................................................................................................................ 3-93 Subscriber hardware......................................................................................................................................... 3-93 Environment...................................................................................................................................................... 3-93 Distribution ........................................................................................................................................................ 3-94 Hand portable subscribers ................................................................................................................................ 3-95 Future planning ................................................................................................................................................. 3-96 Microcellular solution ................................................................................................................................................ 3-97 Layered architecture ......................................................................................................................................... 3-97 Combined cell architecture ............................................................................................................................... 3-97 Combined cell architecture structure................................................................................................................. 3-98 Expansion solution............................................................................................................................................ 3-99 Frequency planning ................................................................................................................................................ 3-100 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 3-100 Rules for Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SFH) ........................................................................................... 3-100 Rules for BaseBand Hopping (BBH) ............................................................................................................... 3-103 Inter-radio access technology (2G-3G) cell reselection and handovers ................................................................. 3-105 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 3-105 2G-3G handover description ........................................................................................................................... 3-105 Impact of 2G-3G handovers on GSM system architecture.............................................................................. 3-106 System consideration...................................................................................................................................... 3-106 Dual Transfer Mode................................................................................................................................................ 3-107 DTM Timeslots planning considerations ......................................................................................................... 3-107 System considerations.................................................................................................................................... 3-109 QoS2............................................................................................................................................................... 3-109 Call model parameters for capacity calculations .................................................................................................... 3-111 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 3-111 Typical call parameters ................................................................................................................................... 3-111 Control channel calculations................................................................................................................................... 3-116 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 3-116 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................. 3-117

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Number of CCCHs and PCCCHs per BTS cell ............................................................................................... 3-118 User data capacity on the PCCCH timeslot .................................................................................................... 3-129 Number of SDCCHs per BTS cell ................................................................................................................... 3-130 Control channel configurations........................................................................................................................ 3-133 GPRS/EGPRS traffic planning................................................................................................................................ 3-137 Determination of expected load ...................................................................................................................... 3-137 Network planning flow ..................................................................................................................................... 3-137 GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts................................................................................... 3-138 Introduction to the GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation .......................................................................... 3-138 Dynamic timeslot allocation............................................................................................................................. 3-140 Carrier timeslot allocation examples ............................................................................................................... 3-146 BSS timeslot allocation methods..................................................................................................................... 3-152 Provisioning the network with switchable timeslots......................................................................................... 3-154 Recommendation for switchable timeslot usage ............................................................................................. 3-159 Timeslot allocation process on carriers with GPRS traffic............................................................................... 3-160 GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process ........................................................................................................ 3-161 Influential factors in GPRS/EGPRS cell planning and deployment ................................................................. 3-161 Estimating the air interface traffic throughput.................................................................................................. 3-171 Select a cell plan............................................................................................................................................. 3-172 Estimating timeslot provisioning requirements ................................................................................................ 3-173 Optimum file size calculation........................................................................................................................... 3-181 File transit times calculations .......................................................................................................................... 3-182 Configurable initial coding scheme ................................................................................................................. 3-185 GPRS/EGPRS data rates ............................................................................................................................... 3-186

Chapter 4 AMR and GSM planning .............................................................................................................. 4-1
Introduction to AMR and GSM planning ...................................................................................................................4-2 AMR basic operation........................................................................................................................................... 4-2 GSM half rate basic operation............................................................................................................................. 4-2 New hardware..................................................................................................................................................... 4-3 Influencing factors ............................................................................................................................................... 4-3 Planning .............................................................................................................................................................. 4-4 Quality and capacity ................................................................................................................................................... 4-5 Benefits of AMR .................................................................................................................................................. 4-5 AMR Full Rate and AMR Half Rate speech quality ............................................................................................. 4-5 AMR voice quality improvement and coverage ................................................................................................. 4-10 Benefits of GSM half rate .................................................................................................................................. 4-11 GSM Half Rate speech quality .......................................................................................................................... 4-11 Capacity increase due to half rate usage .......................................................................................................... 4-11 Timeslot usage.................................................................................................................................................. 4-15

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Rate adaptation ........................................................................................................................................................ 4-16 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 4-16 Codec modes.................................................................................................................................................... 4-16 Thresholds and hystereses ............................................................................................................................... 4-17 Downlink adaptation MS monitor ...................................................................................................................... 4-17 Handover and power control .................................................................................................................................... 4-19 Introduction to handover and power control...................................................................................................... 4-19 Handover and power control thresholds ........................................................................................................... 4-19 Miscellaneous information ........................................................................................................................................ 4-22 Emergency call handling................................................................................................................................... 4-22 Circuit pooling ................................................................................................................................................... 4-22 Half rate utilization .................................................................................................................................................... 4-23 Description ........................................................................................................................................................ 4-23 Parameter descriptions ..................................................................................................................................... 4-23 Operational aspects .......................................................................................................................................... 4-27 Hardware.................................................................................................................................................................. 4-29 Equipment descriptions..................................................................................................................................... 4-29 Backhaul ........................................................................................................................................................... 4-31 Summary .................................................................................................................................................................. 4-35

Chapter 5 BTS planning steps and rules .................................................................................................... 5-1
BTS planning overview............................................................................................................................................... 5-2 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 5-2 Outline of planning steps .................................................................................................................................... 5-2 Macrocell cabinets...................................................................................................................................................... 5-4 Horizon II macro.................................................................................................................................................. 5-4 Horizonmacro ..................................................................................................................................................... 5-4 Horizoncompact and Horizoncompact2 .............................................................................................................. 5-5 M-Cell6 ............................................................................................................................................................... 5-5 M-Cell2 ............................................................................................................................................................... 5-5 Microcell enclosures ................................................................................................................................................... 5-6 Horizon II mini ..................................................................................................................................................... 5-6 Horizonmicro and Horizonmicro2 ........................................................................................................................ 5-7 Horizon II micro ................................................................................................................................................... 5-7 Receive configurations ............................................................................................................................................... 5-8 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 5-8 Planning considerations...................................................................................................................................... 5-8 Receiver planning actions................................................................................................................................... 5-9 Transmit configurations ............................................................................................................................................ 5-11 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-11

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Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 5-11 Transmit planning actions ................................................................................................................................. 5-12 EGPRS enabled CTU2/CTU2D configuration........................................................................................................... 5-13 EGPRS enabled CTU2/CTU2D configuration limitations .................................................................................. 5-13 EGPRS general configuration ........................................................................................................................... 5-13 BaseBand Hopping (BBH) ................................................................................................................................ 5-14 Broadcast Control CHannel (BCCH) RTF configuration.................................................................................... 5-15 Antenna configurations ............................................................................................................................................. 5-16 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 5-16 Antenna planning actions.................................................................................................................................. 5-16 Carrier equipment (transceiver unit) ......................................................................................................................... 5-17 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-17 Restrictions in CTU2s usage in Horizonmacro BTSs........................................................................................ 5-17 CTU/CTU2 power supply considerations .......................................................................................................... 5-18 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 5-20 Transceiver planning actions ............................................................................................................................ 5-20 Micro base control unit (microBCU).......................................................................................................................... 5-21 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-21 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 5-21 MicroBCU planning actions............................................................................................................................... 5-21 Network interface unit (NIU) and site connection...................................................................................................... 5-22 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-22 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 5-22 NIU planning actions ......................................................................................................................................... 5-24 BTS main control unit ............................................................................................................................................... 5-25 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-25 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 5-25 Planning considerations – Horizon II macro/Horizon II mini as expansion cabinet ........................................... 5-26 Planning actions................................................................................................................................................ 5-27 Cabinet interconnection ............................................................................................................................................ 5-28 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-28 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 5-28 Planning considerations - Horizon II macro as master cabinet ......................................................................... 5-31 Planning considerations - Horizon II mini as master cabinet............................................................................. 5-31 XMUX/FMUX/FOX planning actions ................................................................................................................. 5-31 Site expansion board planning actions (Horizon II macro only) ........................................................................ 5-32 Battery back-up provisioning .................................................................................................................................... 5-33 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-33 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 5-33

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External power requirements.................................................................................................................................... 5-34 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-34 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................... 5-34 Power planning actions..................................................................................................................................... 5-35 Network expansion using macro/microcell BTSs...................................................................................................... 5-36 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-36 Expansion considerations ................................................................................................................................. 5-36 Mixed site utilization.......................................................................................................................................... 5-36 Line interface modules (HIM-75, HIM-120)............................................................................................................... 5-37 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-37 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................... 5-37 HIM-75/HIM-120 planning actions..................................................................................................................... 5-37 DRI/Combiner operability components ..................................................................................................................... 5-38 Overview........................................................................................................................................................... 5-38 DRI and combiner relationship.......................................................................................................................... 5-38

Chapter 6 BSC planning steps and rules .................................................................................................... 6-1
BSC planning overview .............................................................................................................................................. 6-2 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 6-2 Mixing of equipment types .................................................................................................................................. 6-2 Outline of planning .............................................................................................................................................. 6-3 Capacity calculations.................................................................................................................................................. 6-4 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 6-4 Remote transcoding............................................................................................................................................ 6-4 BSC system capacity.................................................................................................................................................. 6-5 System capacity summary .................................................................................................................................. 6-5 Scaleable BSC.................................................................................................................................................... 6-6 Enhanced BSC capacity option .......................................................................................................................... 6-7 Huge BSC capacity option .................................................................................................................................. 6-7 LCS option .......................................................................................................................................................... 6-7 Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities.............................................................................................. 6-8 BSC signaling traffic model................................................................................................................................. 6-8 Typical parameter values.................................................................................................................................. 6-10 Assumptions used in capacity calculations ....................................................................................................... 6-15 Link capacities .................................................................................................................................................. 6-17 Determining the number of RSLs required ............................................................................................................... 6-18 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-18 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................... 6-18 Determining the number of RSLs...................................................................................................................... 6-19 One phase access and enhanced one phase................................................................................................... 6-19

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Standard traffic model ....................................................................................................................................... 6-20 Non-standard traffic model................................................................................................................................ 6-22 BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning actions .................................................................................................. 6-27 Determining the number of LCF GPROCs for RSL and GSL processing BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning actions............................................................................................................................................................... 6-29 Determining the number of MTLs required ............................................................................................................... 6-32 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-32 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 6-32 Standard traffic model ....................................................................................................................................... 6-33 Non-standard traffic model for 64k MTL............................................................................................................ 6-35 Non-standard traffic model for HSP MTL .......................................................................................................... 6-36 Calculate the number of LCFs for MTL processing........................................................................................... 6-38 LCFs for 64k MTL links ..................................................................................................................................... 6-38 LCFs for HSP MTL links.................................................................................................................................... 6-38 MSC to BSC signaling over a satellite link ........................................................................................................ 6-39 Determining the number of LMTLs required ............................................................................................................. 6-40 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-40 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 6-40 Determining the number of LMTLs.................................................................................................................... 6-40 BSC to SMLC interconnection planning actions................................................................................................ 6-41 Calculate the number of LCFs for LMTL processing......................................................................................... 6-41 Determining the number of XBLs required................................................................................................................ 6-42 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-42 Determining the number of XBLs ...................................................................................................................... 6-42 Standard traffic model ....................................................................................................................................... 6-43 Non standard traffic model ................................................................................................................................ 6-43 Determining the number of GSLs required ............................................................................................................... 6-45 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 6-45 Load balancing.................................................................................................................................................. 6-48 Generic processor (GPROC).................................................................................................................................... 6-49 GPROC nomenclature ...................................................................................................................................... 6-49 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-49 GPROC functions and types ............................................................................................................................. 6-49 GPROC3/GPROC3-2 planning assumptions .................................................................................................... 6-51 BSC types ......................................................................................................................................................... 6-51 Planning considerations .................................................................................................................................... 6-52 Cell broadcast link............................................................................................................................................. 6-54 OMF GPROC required...................................................................................................................................... 6-54 Code storage facility processor......................................................................................................................... 6-54 GPROC redundancy ......................................................................................................................................... 6-54

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GPROC planning actions.................................................................................................................................. 6-56 Transcoding.............................................................................................................................................................. 6-58 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-58 GDP/XCDR/EGDP/GDP2 planning considerations........................................................................................... 6-59 EGDP provisioning............................................................................................................................................ 6-60 Planning actions for transcoding at the BSC..................................................................................................... 6-61 Multiple serial interface (MSI) ................................................................................................................................... 6-63 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-63 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................... 6-63 MSI planning actions......................................................................................................................................... 6-63 Packet Subrate Interface (PSI2)............................................................................................................................... 6-65 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-65 Planning consideration...................................................................................................................................... 6-65 PSI2 planning actions ....................................................................................................................................... 6-65 Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2) ....................................................................................... 6-66 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-66 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................... 6-66 KSW/DSW2 planning actions ........................................................................................................................... 6-68 BSU shelves............................................................................................................................................................. 6-69 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-69 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................... 6-69 BSU shelf planning actions ............................................................................................................................... 6-70 Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and double kiloport switch extender (DSWX) ...................................................... 6-72 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-72 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................... 6-72 KSWX/DSWX planning actions......................................................................................................................... 6-73 Generic clock (GCLK)............................................................................................................................................... 6-75 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-75 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................... 6-75 GCLK planning actions ..................................................................................................................................... 6-75 Clock extender (CLKX)............................................................................................................................................. 6-76 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-76 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................... 6-76 CLKX planning actions...................................................................................................................................... 6-76 Local area network extender (LANX) ....................................................................................................................... 6-77 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6-77 Planning considerations.................................................................................................................................... 6-77 LANX planning actions...................................................................................................................................... 6-77 Parallel interface extender (PIX)............................................................................................................................... 6-78

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............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-9 Transcoding..................................................................................................................................................... 7-5 RXCDR to BSC links .. 6-78 PIX planning actions .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-9 GPROC nomenclature ........................................... 7-6 E1 interconnect planning actions ............ 7-2 Outline of planning steps..................... 6-82 NVM planning actions .............................. 6-81 Power supply planning actions............ 6-81 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-10 Introduction ................................................... 7-10 XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2 planning considerations........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-79 (P)BIB/(P)T43 planning actions......... 6-81 Planning considerations ..................................................................... 6-83 Chapter 7 RXCDR planning steps and rules......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... T43/PT43) ............................................................................................................................................. 6-82 Planning considerations ............................. 7-8 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-79 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 7-9 Planning considerations ......................................................................................................... 7-4 RXCDR to BSC connectivity..................................................................... 7-8 Generic processor (GPROC)......................................................................................................................................................... 6-83 Verification ......... 7-6 Introduction ....................................................................................... 7-5 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 6-78 Line interface boards (BIB/PBIB............ 7-9 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-82 Introduction .............................. 7-2 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 7-1 Overview of remote transcoder planning ....................................................................................................... 7-7 RXCDR to MSC links......................................................................................... 7-4 System capacity summary .................................. 7-12 68P02900W21-S xii 01 Feb 2007 ............................................................................................................................................ 6-81 Non Volatile Memory (NVM) board............................................................. 7-2 RXCDR system capacity .................Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-78 Planning considerations ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6-82 Verifying the number of BSU shelves and BSSC cabinets ................ 7-8 E1 interconnect planning actions .................................................................................................................... 6-80 Digital shelf power supply ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-5 Capacity ....................................................................................................................................... 6-79 Planning considerations ........................................

............................... 7-27 Planning considerations............................ 7-29 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-25 Generic clock (GCLK).......................................................................................................................................... 7-19 RXU shelves................... 7-22 Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and double kiloport switch extender (DSWX) .............................................. 7-16 MSI planning actions............................................................................................................................. 7-31 Digital shelf power supply.............................................................................................................. 7-29 Line interfaces (BIB.......... 7-27 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-30 Planning considerations.................................................... 7-18 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 7-26 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-18 Planning considerations................................................ 7-29 Planning considerations............................. 7-26 GCLK planning actions ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-28 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-28 Parallel interface extender (PIX)................... T43)............................................................................................................................................... 7-24 KSWX/DSWX planning actions.................................................................................. 7-26 Planning considerations............ 7-24 Planning considerations......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents EGDP provisioning.................... 7-29 PIX planning actions ................................................................................................................ 7-27 CLKX planning actions.......................................................................................... 7-21 Introduction ................................... 7-30 BIB/T43 planning actions ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-26 Clock extender (CLKX).......................... 7-21 RXU shelf planning actions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-17 Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-18 KSW/DSW2 planning actions .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-32 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xiii ................................................................................................................................................................. 7-16 Planning considerations................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-24 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-28 LANX planning actions............................................................................................................... 7-21 Planning considerations............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7-28 Planning considerations......................... 7-13 Planning actions for transcoding at the RXCDR .......... 7-16 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 7-27 LAN extender (LANX)........ 7-14 Multiple serial interface (MSI) ................................................................................. 7-30 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................ 8-25 Introduction ...................................... 8-31 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7-33 Planning considerations ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-33 Introduction ................................................................................. 7-33 NVM planning actions ........ 8-22 MPROC board ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-32 PRP/PICP configure ............................................................ 8-30 Planning considerations ............................................................ 7-34 Chapter 8 PCU upgrade for BSS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8-31 PCU equipment redundancy and provisioning goals ...... 8-4 BSS upgrade provisioning rules...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-13 Maximum BSS configuration.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-31 Planning considerations .......................................... 8-24 PSP planning considerations ........................................................................................................ 8-2 Feature compatibility ................................................................................................ 8-32 Support for equipment redundancy........... 8-43 68P02900W21-S xiv 01 Feb 2007 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-37 Upgrading the PCU ............................................... 7-32 Power supply planning actions................................................................................................................................................... 7-34 Verification ........................................................................................................ 8-32 PXP configuration ........................................................................... 8-2 Introduction to BSS planning for GPRS/EGPRS.................................................................. 8-2 PCU to SGSN interface planning ........................... 8-24 Introduction ..................... 8-25 PICP or PRP planning considerations ................ 8-28 PMC module...................................................................................................................................... 7-32 Non volatile memory (NVM) board ........... 8-1 BSS planning for GPRS/EGPRS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8-30 (Packet) Rear Transition Module .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-32 PCU equipment redundancy planning .............................................................................................................Contents Introduction .................................................................................................... 8-14 PCU hardware layout ... 7-33 Verify the number of RXU shelves and BSSC cabinets................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-24 DPROC board ..................................................... 7-32 Planning considerations ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8-25 PXP planning considerations .......... 8-22 Planning considerations ....................................... 8-30 Introduction .................................. 8-40 E1 link/ETH link provisioning for GPRS and EGPRS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-20 PCU shelf (cPCI) .......................................

..................................... 8-63 BSS ...................... 9-2 Network topology ................................................................................................................................................................. 8-57 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-57 General planning guidelines ........................................... 8-49 CTU2D impact .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-8 Transmitter combining requirements............................................ 8-63 BSS-PCU hardware planning example for EGPRS ........................................................................................PCU planning example for EGPRS with QoS enabled.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8-60 Frame relay parameter values ........................... 9-8 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-69 Introduction ..................................................................... 9-3 Exercises.......................................................... 9-5 Cabinet ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9-5 Summary ............... 9-4 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 8-57 Gb entities.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. QoS2 not enabled .............................................................................................. 8-47 PRP-PDTCH QoS planning ................................................................................................................................. 8-58 Determining net Gb load ..................................................................Contents E1 interface provisioning................... 9-1 Pre-requisites ........... 8-56 PCU-SGSN: traffic and signal planning ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8-63 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-75 BSS .................. 8-44 QoS capacity and QoS2 impact ..... 8-82 Chapter 9 Planning exercises .......... 8-43 E1 Planning considerations ... 8-45 MTBR allocation............................................................ 8-58 Specific planning guidelines........................................................................................................................................ 8-59 Gb link timeslots.................................................................... 9-8 Summary .......................................................................................................... 8-43 Ethernet interface provisioning ............................................................... 9-8 Receiver requirements.... 9-8 Cabinet .................................................. 8-69 BSS ............................................................. 9-5 Determine the hardware requirements for BTS K....PCU planning example for EGPRS with QoS and QoS2 enabled .............................................................................................................PCU planning example for GPRS.............................................................................. 9-9 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xv ......................................................................... 9-2 Requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8-60 BSS-PCU hardware planning example for GPRS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-4 Determine the hardware requirements for BTS B.......................................................................................................... 8-69 BSS ................................................................................................................... 8-58 Gb signaling ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................PCU planning example for EGPRS ...........................................................

...............................................Contents Determine the hardware requirements for the BSC.......................................... 9-15 KSW/DSW2 requirement ...................................................... 9-15 PIX requirement ..................................... 10-2 Location area planning calculations.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-36 Planning example 4 (using AMR)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9-17 Planning example 1 ......................................................................... 9-27 Planning example 3 ............................................................................................................................................................... 9-14 Link interface............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9-14 MSI requirements...................................... 9-13 Determine the hardware requirements for the RXCDR .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9-86 Planning example for DTM Feature....................................................................................................................................... 10-3 Chapter 11 Call model parameters .......................................................... 9-14 Transcoder requirement.......................................................................................................................................... 9-86 LCS planning example calculations .................................................. 9-11 Summary............................................ 10-1 Location area planning considerations ............................................................................................... 9-17 Planning example 2 ............................................................................................................................................................. 9-16 Summary............... 9-75 Planning example of BSS support for LCS provisioning............................................................................. 9-47 Planning example 4 (using AMR)..................................................................... 11-1 Deriving call model parameters from network statistics............................................................................................................................................................................ 10-3 Example procedure .............. 9-11 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................. 9-17 Introduction ........................ 9-16 Calculations using alternative call models ...... 11-9 68P02900W21-S xvi 01 Feb 2007 .. 11-6 Ratio of SMSs per call (S)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-15 GPROC requirement............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9-15 LANX requirement ................................................................ 9-15 CLKX requirement .............................................................................................................................................................. 9-15 GCLK requirement ............... 11-2 Standard call model parameters ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11-8 Ratio of intra BSS handovers to all handovers (i) ............................................. 9-15 KSWX/DSWX requirement.................................................................................................................................................... 9-16 Power supply ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11-2 Call duration (T) ...................................................................................................... 9-86 Typical parameter values ............................................................................................................. 11-7 Ratio of handovers per call (H) ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-61 Planning example 5 .................................................................... 9-89 Chapter 10 Location area planning....................................................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................. 11-36 EGPRS MCS9 downlink usage (MCS9_usage_DL) ........................... 11-18 GPRS CS4 uplink usage (CS4_usage_UL) ........................... 11-13 GPRS CS1 uplink usage (CS1_usage_UL) ................................................................................. 11-27 EGPRS MCS4 downlink usage (MCS4_usage_DL) ............................................................................................................................ 11-29 EGPRS MCS5 downlink usage (MCS5_usage_DL) ...................................................................................................................Contents Ratio of location updates per call (I)......................................................... 11-9 Ratio of IMSI detaches per call (I)............... 11-12 Percent link utilization BSC to BTS [U(BSC – BTS)].............................................................. 11-26 EGPRS MCS4 uplink usage (MCS4_usage_UL)...................................................... 11-25 EGPRS MCS3 downlink usage (MCS3_usage_DL) ................................... 11-19 GPRS CS4 downlink usage (CS4_usage_DL) ............................ 11-39 Ratio of intra-BSS handovers to all handovers (i) .............. 11-11 Pages per call (PPC) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11-28 EGPRS MCS5 uplink usage (MCS5_usage_UL)................................................................................................................................................................ 11-35 EGPRS MCS9 uplink usage (MCS9_usage_UL)................................................................................................................................................ 11-31 EGPRS MCS6 downlink usage (MCS6_usage_DL) ........................................................................................ 11-39 Ratio of handovers per call (H) ............................................... 11-23 EGPRS MCS2 downlink usage (MCS2_usage_DL) ....................................................................................................................................... 11-33 EGPRS MCS8 uplink usage (MCS8_usage_UL)..................................................................................... 11-40 IMSI detaches per call (I) .. 11-20 EGPRS MCS1 uplink usage (MCS1_usage_UL)............................................................................................................................................................................. 11-39 Number of location updates per call (l) ................ 11-32 EGPRS MCS7 downlink usage (MCS7_usage_DL) ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11-37 Sample statistic calculations .............................. 11-16 GPRS CS2 downlink usage (CS2_usage_DL) .................................. 11-13 Blocking for TCHs (PB – TCHs) ....... 11-17 GPRS CS3 uplink usage (CS3_usage_UL) ..................................................... 11-24 EGPRS MCS3 uplink usage (MCS3_usage_UL)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11-40 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xvii ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 11-34 EGPRS MCS8 downlink usage (MCS8_usage_DL) .......................... 11-11 Percent link utilization MSC to BSS [U(MSC – BSS)] .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 11-38 Call duration (T) ..................................................................... 11-30 EGPRS MCS6 uplink usage (MCS6_usage_UL)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11-14 GPRS CS1 downlink usage (CS1_usage_DL) ... 11-10 Location update factor (L) ................................................. 11-22 EGPRS MCS2 uplink usage (MCS2_usage_UL)........................................................... 11-38 Number of SMSs per call (S) ............................................................................. 11-10 Paging rate (PGSM) ............................................................................................................................. 11-21 EGPRS MCS1 downlink usage (MCS1_usage_DL) ..... 11-15 GPRS CS2 uplink usage (CS2_usage_UL) ...........................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11-40 Chapter 12 Standard BSS and Horizon BTS configurations............................................................................... 12-3 BSC with 24 BTSs .............................................................................................................................. 12-6 Single cabinet Horizon II mini BTS......................................................................................... 12-20 Horizon II macro cabinets ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-1 Standard configurations.... 12-63 Compatibility issues ..................................................................................................................... 12-17 Four cabinet Horizon II macro BTS......................................................... 12-63 Connection overview.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-6 Single cabinet Horizon II macro BTS .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-13 Three cabinet Horizon II mini BTS ................................................. 12-10 Two cabinet Horizon II macro BTS ............ 12-16 Four cabinet BTS configurations ........................................ 12-9 Two cabinet BTS configurations .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12-15 Three cabinet Horizonmacro BTS................................. 12-10 Two cabinet Horizon II mini BTS............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-56 Microcell RF configurations ............................................................. 12-60 Connecting Horizon II macro cabinets to Horizonmacro cabinets ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12-2 Typical BSS configurations. 12-7 Single cabinet Horizon II micro BTS ............................................................................................................................................................................ 12-60 Horizonmicro2 ................................... 12-63 68P02900W21-S xviii 01 Feb 2007 .............................................................................................Contents Location update factor (L) ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-36 Horizon II micro cabinets................................ 12-20 Horizon II macro cabinets with PGSM Duplexer ..................................................................... 11-40 Paging Rate (PGSM) for a BSC........................................................................ 12-44 Horizonmacro cabinets ............................. 12-11 Two cabinet Horizonmacro BTS ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-18 Four cabinet Horizonmacro BTS................ 12-5 Single cabinet BTS configurations...................................... 12-14 Three cabinet Horizon II micro BTS ....................................................................................................................................................... 12-3 BSC with full redundancy ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12-17 Four cabinet Horizon II mini BTS ................................ 12-30 Horizon II mini cabinets......................................................................................................... 12-8 Single cabinet Horizonmacro BTS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-47 Horizoncompact2 ....................12-19 Horizon macrocell RF configurations ......................................................................... 12-13 Three cabinet Horizon II macro BTS................................................................................12-12 Three cabinet BTS configurations ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-4 Transcoder............... 12-20 Overview of configuration diagrams .................................................................................................................

............ 13-9 M-Cell RF configurations .................................................................................................................... 13-10 Overview...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13-8 Four cabinet BTS configuration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13-6 Two cabinet M-Cell6 BTS .............................. 12-71 Chapter 13 M-Cell BTS configurations ..................................................... 13-9 Four cabinet M-Cell6 BTS........... 12-71 Connection overview.............................................................. 13-6 Two cabinet M-Cell6 BTS with CTU2 Adapter ............................................................................................................................................................................... 13-10 M-Cell6 cabinets ................................................................................................................................ 13-4 Single cabinet M-Cell6 BTS .............................................................................. 12-63 Connecting Horizon II macro cabinets to M-Cell6 cabinets ............................................................................................................I 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xix .................................................................................................................... 12-71 Compatibility issues .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents Examples of mixed cabinet configurations........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13-7 Three cabinet BTS configuration ...................................................................... 13-5 Two cabinet BTS configuration............................................ 13-10 M-Cell2 cabinets M-Cell6 cabinets........... 13-4 Single cabinet M-Cell2 BTS ................................................................... 13-8 Three cabinet M-Cell2 BTS................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13-2 Standard M-Cell configurations ......................................................................................................................................................... 13-3 Single cabinet BTS configurations................................................................... 13-45 Index......................................................................... 13-1 M-Cell BTS configurations..........................

Contents 68P02900W21-S xx 01 Feb 2007 .

...................................................................... 2-15 Figure 2-13 Fully equipped RTF........................................................... 2-15 Figure 2-12 A configuration with a BTS equipped with two non-redundant RTFs ..................................................... 2-18 Figure 2-15 XBL utilization ............................................................... 3-7 Figure 3-4 AMR half rate capacity increase .................................................................................................................................................. 3-20 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xxi ....................................................................................................................... 2-10 Figure 2-7 Typical low capacity BSC/BTS configuration ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2-19 Figure 2-16 Conversion of E1 to HDSL links by modem and microsite........... 2-8 Figure 2-5 Simple daisy chain ...................................................List of Figures List of Figures Figure 1-1 BSS block diagram ..................................................................................... 3-5 Figure 3-2 Eight TDMA timeslots per RF carrier .............................................................. 2-6 Figure 2-3 Star connection ................................... 2-11 Figure 2-8 Example using a switching network .................................................... 2-7 Figure 2-4 Closed loop and open ended daisy chains ...................................................................... 2-11 Figure 2-9 Timeslot allocation using new and old algorithms .................................................... 3-19 Figure 3-9 Refraction ........................... 1-20 Figure 1-4 CTU2D ASYM......................................... 3-14 Figure 3-7 GSM half rate codec comparison.............................................................................................................................................. 2-2 Figure 2-2 Possible network topology .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2-17 Figure 2-14 Sub-equipped RTF..................... 2-25 Figure 2-18 Microcell star network configuration...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-15 Figure 3-8 First Fresnel zone radius calculation................................................................................................................................ 2-25 Figure 3-1 UK network users.............................................................................................................................................. 3-11 Figure 3-5 AMR full rate call quality improvements ........................................... 3-12 Figure 3-6 GSM half rate capacity increase .................................................................................................................................................................................. 1-20 Figure 2-1 BSS interfaces ........ 1-20 Figure 1-3 CTU2D CAP..................................................................................................................................... 2-13 Figure 2-11 A configuration with a BTS equipped with two redundant RTFs ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-6 Figure 3-3 Modulation techniques and channel spacing ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2-24 Figure 2-17 Microcell daisy chain network configuration ................................................................................. 2-9 Figure 2-6 Daisy chain with branch ............................................................................. 1-4 Figure 1-2 CTU2D PWR................... 2-12 Figure 2-10 Alternative network configuration with E1 switching network ........................................................................................ 2-25 Figure 2-19 Microcell configuration using E1/HDSL links................................................

............5 m (GSM900 ....................................................................................... 3-21 Figure 3-11 Refraction effects on a microwave system.................................................. 3-39 Figure 3-27 BTS antenna height of 100 m........................................................................... 3-25 Figure 3-16 Polarization ........................5 m (GSM900) ......................................................................... 3-54 Figure 3-39 Preliminary coding for enhanced full rate speech ........................................6 cell re-use pattern.......................... 3-36 Figure 3-26 BTS antenna height of 50 m................................................................................................................ 3-58 Figure 3-42 Speech channel encoding for AMR half rate............................................................... 3-43 Figure 3-32 2 site ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-52 Figure 3-38 Speech channel encoding................................ 3-24 Figure 3-15 Diffraction............................. 3-33 Figure 3-24 Building propagation ......................................List of Figures Figure 3-10 Measurement of the RRI ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-70 68P02900W21-S xxii 01 Feb 2007 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-27 Figure 3-20 Rician distribution............................................. 3-62 Figure 3-44 Data channel encoding ........................................................................... 3-51 Figure 3-37 Coding process illustration (GSM HR speech.......................... 3-31 Figure 3-22 Focusing of power.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-33 Figure 3-23 Measurement of gain .................. 3-42 Figure 3-31 3 cell re-use pattern .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-65 Figure 3-46 Diagonal interleaving ............................................................................................ 3-25 Figure 3-17 Propagation effect ................ 3-23 Figure 3-13 Reflection .... 3-45 Figure 3-34 coding process ........................... MS height of 1......... 3-55 Figure 3-40 Speech channel encoding for GSM half rate speech ................................................................................................................................... 3-22 Figure 3-12 Attenuation....................................................................................................... 3-40 Figure 3-29 Adjacent cell interference..................................................................................................................... 3-50 Figure 3-36 Coding process illustration (AMR full rate and AMR half rate speech)................................................... 3-35 Figure 3-25 Okumura propagation graphs ............................................................... 3-42 Figure 3-30 7 cell re-use pattern ................half rate speech .......................................................................... 3-44 Figure 3-33 Carrier interference measurements........................................... 3-60 Figure 3-43 Control channel coding ............... 3-39 Figure 3-28 Path loss against cell radius for small cells .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................full rate speech ............................................................................CS data ....................................... 3-56 Figure 3-41 Speech channel encoding for AMR full rate ........................................................................................................................ 3-63 Figure 3-45 Diagonal interleaving ................................Rayleigh fading environment ............................................................................................................................................... 3-26 Figure 3-18 Rayleigh distribution............... 3-24 Figure 3-14 Scattering............................................................................................................ MS height of 1...................................................................................................................................................................................Rician environment ......................................................................................................... 3-28 Figure 3-21 Plane earth loss ....................................................................................................................... 3-66 Figure 3-47 Rectangular interleaving – control......... 3-68 Figure 3-48 Diagonal interleaving ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ control and data) .................................................. 3-27 Figure 3-19 Propagation effect ................................................................................ 3-49 Figure 3-35 Coding process illustration (full rate and enhanced full rate speech) ...........................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................ 3-98 Figure 3-70 Combined cell architecture structure................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-71 Figure 3-50 GPRS channel coding scheme 2 (CS2)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-158 Figure 3-84 1 carrier.................. 3-83 Figure 3-60 EGPRS channel coding scheme 8 (MCS-8) .................... 3-99 Figure 3-71 Separating BCCH and TCH bands ....... 3-80 Figure 3-57 EGPRS channel coding scheme 5 (MCS-5) ............................................. 1 BCCH/CCCH + 1 SDCCH + 6 TCH timeslots......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-165 Figure 3-87 LLC_PDU frame layout ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-131 Figure 3-80 MM state models for MS and SGSN ........................................................................................................... 3-140 Figure 3-81 Carrier with reserved and switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots .......................................................................... 3-95 Figure 3-68 Layered architecture ............................... 3-91 Figure 3-65 Training sequence code.. 3-73 Figure 3-52 GPRS channel coding scheme 4 (CS4)...................................................... 3-72 Figure 3-51 GPRS channel coding scheme 3 (CS3).............................................. 3-154 Figure 3-82 Carrier with reserved.................................. 3-118 Figure 3-79 Location area diagram ............................................................................................. all timeslots (8 TCHs) designated as switchable. 3-100 Figure 3-73 Frequency split for TCH re-use planning example .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-78 Figure 3-55 EGPRS channel coding scheme 3 (MCS-3) ...................................... 3-79 Figure 3-56 EGPRS channel coding scheme 4 (MCS-4) ......................................................... 3-94 Figure 3-67 Subscriber distribution .................................................................................................................................. 3-106 Figure 3-77 DTM MS states .............................................................................. switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots and DTM PDCHs....................................... 3-77 Figure 3-54 EGPRS channel coding scheme 2 (MCS-2) ...................................................................................................................... 3-103 Figure 3-76 GSM and UMTS system nodes and interfaces .........................................................................................................................................List of Figures Figure 3-49 GPRS channel coding scheme 1 (CS1)............................ 3-97 Figure 3-69 Combined cell architecture .......... 3-74 Figure 3-53 EGPRS channel coding scheme 1 (MCS-1) ............................................................................................................................................................. 3-82 Figure 3-59 EGPRS channel coding scheme 7 (MCS-7) ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3-158 Figure 3-85 Generic planning and dimensioning process ..................................................................................... 3-81 Figure 3-58 EGPRS channel coding scheme 6 (MCS-6) ........................................... 3-84 Figure 3-61 EGPRS channel coding scheme 9 (MCS-9) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-181 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xxiii .............................................................................. 3-89 Figure 3-64 Receive diversity. 3-103 Figure 3-75 BBH frequency spectrum allocation ................................................................................................. 3-154 Figure 3-83 Circuit-switched carrier.......... 3-102 Figure 3-74 Avoiding co-channel and adjacent channel interference..... 3-88 Figure 3-63 SACCH multiframe (480 ms) for DTX and half rate ................................................................................................ 3-100 Figure 3-72 Band usage for macrocells with microcells ........................................ 3-92 Figure 3-66 Subscriber environment ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-85 Figure 3-62 SACCH multiframe (480 ms) for DTX and full rate............................... 3-107 Figure 3-78 CCCH and PCCCH decision tree.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-161 Figure 3-86 Multiplexing 4 TBFs on an air timeslot .....................................

....................................................................... only one hr-capable carrier.............................................................................................................................................................................. 4-9 Figure 4-5 3 carriers............................................................................................................................................................ 8-61 Figure 8-11 PCU equipment and link planning for GPRS........................ 8-56 Figure 8-10 Frame relay parameters.......... 7-11 Figure 7-2 EGDP configuration with the additional E1 termination in use ..................................................................................................................................................... 4-12 Figure 4-6 3 carriers............................................................................................................ 4-7 Figure 4-3 AMR HR/clean speech versus EFR versus GSM FR versus GSM HR versus performance requirements................................................... 12-4 68P02900W21-S xxiv 01 Feb 2007 ............................................................................................................................ 8-63 Figure 8-12 PCU Equipment and link planning for EGPRS............................................................................................................ 8-39 Figure 8-9 BER versus Number of mobiles .......................List of Figures Figure 3-88 LLC PDU to TDMA bursts ................................................................................................................................................ 6-9 Figure 6-2 EGDP configuration with the additional E1 termination in use ...................... 10-5 Figure 12-1 BSC controlling 24 BTSs......................................................................................... 6-61 Figure 7-1 Sub-multiplexing and speech transcoding at the RXCDR ........................ 5-38 Figure 6-1 BSS planning diagram ............................................................................... all hr-capable.... 12-3 Figure 12-2 Fully redundant BSC controlling 34 BTSs ................................................................................................................................................... 10-4 Figure 10-2 Four BSCs divided into two LACs ......................................................... 8-11 Figure 8-3 PCU shelf layout ....... 9-3 Figure 10-1 Four BSCs in one LAC.............................................................................................................................................. 7-14 Figure 8-1 PCU to SGSN interface planning ........... 4-14 Figure 4-9 5 carriers..................................... 4-17 Figure 4-11 Congestion threshold settings for AMR half rate... 4-14 Figure 4-10 Rate adaptations: codec modes....................................................................................... 8-35 Figure 8-7 Provisioning goals (full redundancy) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-34 Figure 5-1 DRI and combiner relationship.................................................................................................................................................................. full redundancy not required ...................... 8-69 Figure 9-1 Network topology ............................ 6-60 Figure 6-3 EGDP configuration without the additional E1 termination in use ....................................................................................... 4-31 Figure 4-13 AMR backhaul paths .......................................................................................................................................................................................... all hr-capable carriers....................................... 4-13 Figure 4-7 5 carriers............................ 8-20 Figure 8-4 Provisioning goals (full redundancy) ................................................. 4-13 Figure 4-8 5 carriers........ 4-8 Figure 4-4 AMR HR/clean speech codec modes.... 7-13 Figure 7-3 EGDP configuration without the additional E1 termination in use .... 8-33 Figure 8-5 Provisioning goals (Maximum coverage) .................................................................................................................... only 3 hr-capable carriers........................................... thresholds and hystereses ............ 8-3 Figure 8-2 Mixed Deployment ........... 8-38 Figure 8-8 Provisioning goals (maximum coverage) ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-187 Figure 4-1 AMR FR/clean speech versus EFR versus performance requirements .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-6 Figure 4-2 AMR FR/clean speech codec modes .............................................................................................................................ESS mode enabled................. only one hr-capable carrier.................................................................................... 8-34 Figure 8-6 EGPRS maximum throughput and coverage................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4-33 Figure 4-14 hr backhaul paths .................................... 4-28 Figure 4-12 Alternative configurations for the BSSC3 cabinet ...................

.........................................................................................................................................................................List of Figures Figure 12-3 BSSC cabinet equipped to provide transcoding.......................... 12-5 Figure 12-4 Macrocell BTS with one Horizon II macro cabinet............................................................................................................................................................................ 12-35 Figure 12-32 DCS1800/EGSM900 HP Omni-1/SP Omni-2..................................................... 12-8 Figure 12-7 Macrocell BTS with one Horizonmacro cabinet.............. 12-9 Figure 12-8 Macrocell BTS with two Horizon II macro cabinets ............ 12-37 Figure 12-33 DCS1800/EGSM900 HP Omni-2/SP Omni-4................................................................. 12-38 Figure 12-34 DCS1800/EGSM900 HP Bowtie-2/SP Bowtie-4 ........................................ 12-21 Figure 12-19 [DCS1800] 6 or 12 carrier omni with DHUs .... 12-10 Figure 12-9 Macrocell BTS with two Horizon II mini cabinets.. 2 sector 4/4 or 8/8 with HCUs and air combining ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 12-25 Figure 12-23 [DCS1800] 2 cab.......... 12-22 Figure 12-20 [DCS1800] 2 sector 3/3 or 6/6 with DHUs..... 12-17 Figure 12-16 Macrocell BTS with four Horizon II mini cabinets ..................................................................................................................... 12-46 Figure 12-41 4 carrier omni................................ duplexed hybrid and air combining.................................... 12-11 Figure 12-10 Macrocell BTS with two Horizonmacro cabinets ....................................................................................................................................................... 12-43 Figure 12-39 [DCS1800/EGSM900] Horizon II micro one cabinet configuration ..... 3 sector 4/4/4 or 8/8/8 with HCUs and air combining4................................................. 12-14 Figure 12-13 Macrocell BTS with three Horizon II micro cabinets....... 12-42 Figure 12-38 DCS1800/EGSM900 HP 3 sector 2/2/2/SP 3 sector 4/4/4 .............. 2 sector 4/4 or 8/8 with HCUs and air combining............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3 sector 4/4/4 or 8/8/8 with HCUs and air combining.............................................................................................................................................................................. 12-6 Figure 12-5 Macrocell BTS with one Horizon II mini cabinet ......................................................... 12-12 Figure 12-11 Macrocell BTS with three Horizon II macro cabinets... 12-40 Figure 12-36 DCS1800/EGSM900 HP 2 sector 2/2/SP 2 sector 4/4................. 12-32 Figure 12-29 [PGSM900] 2 cab............... 12-48 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xxv ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-18 Figure 12-17 Macrocell BTS with four Horizonmacro cabinets... 12-41 Figure 12-37 DCS1800/EGSM900 HP 3 sector 1/1/1/SP 3 sector 2/2/2 ..................................................... 12-13 Figure 12-12 Macrocell BTS with three Horizon II mini cabinets ............................... 12-19 Figure 12-18 [DCS1800] 4 or 8 carrier omni with HCUs and air combining .................................. 12-16 Figure 12-15 Macrocell BTS with four Horizon II macro cabinets........................... 12-24 Figure 12-22 [DCS1800] 3 sector 2/2/2 or 4/4/4 with HCUs......................... 12-33 Figure 12-30 [PGSM900] 3 sector 2/2/2 or 4/4/4... 12-7 Figure 12-6 Macrocell BTS with one Horizon II micro cabinet......... 12-23 Figure 12-21 [DCS1800] 2 cabinet.............................. 12-34 Figure 12-31 [PGSM900] 2 cab................. 12-28 Figure 12-26 [PGSM900] 4 or 8 carrier omni with HCUs and air combining ............................................ 12-15 Figure 12-14 Macrocell BTS with three Horizonmacro cabinets....... 12-26 Figure 12-24 [DCS1800] 3 sector 2/2/2 or 4/4/4 with air combining and 4 branch Rx diversity..... 12-31 Figure 12-28 [PGSM900] 2 sector 3/3 or 6/6 with HCUs.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12-27 Figure 12-25 [DCS1800/GSM900] 3 sector 2/2/2 and 2/2/2 with air combining ....................................................................................................................................... 12-30 Figure 12-27 [PGSM900] 6 or 12 carrier omni with DHUs .............................................................................................. 12-39 Figure 12-35 DCS1800/EGSM900 HP 2 sector 1/1/SP 2 sector 2/2................................................................................................ 12-45 Figure 12-40 [DCS1800/EGSM900] Horizon II micro three cabinet configuration...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.. 12-61 Figure 12-53 Horizonmicro2 two BTS system ............................................................................... 13-9 Figure 13-7 3 carrier omni............................................................... 12-70 Figure 12-62 900 MHz Horizon II macro and 900 MHz M-Cell6 interconnections ....... 12-67 Figure 12-59 Sector 4/4/4 configuration with Horizon II macro and Horizonmacro cabinets .............. 13-8 Figure 13-6 Four cabinet M-Cell6 BTS.................... hybrid combining ............................................................... 12-50 Figure 12-44 2 sector (6/6)....................................................... hybrid combining........................................................... medium power duplexer ................................................ 13-7 Figure 13-5 Three cabinet M-Cell2 BTS......................................................... medium power duplexers........................................... duplexed dual-stage hybrid and air combining ................................................. 12-64 Figure 12-56 Sector 6/6 configuration with Horizon II macro and Horizonmacro cabinets ........... 13-4 Figure 13-2 Single cabinet M-Cell2 BTS ................................ 13-11 Figure 13-8 3 carrier omni.......................................................................................................................................... 13-21 68P02900W21-S xxvi 01 Feb 2007 ...................................................................................................................... 12-49 Figure 12-43 2 sector (3/3)....................................................... combining................................................................................ 12-62 Figure 12-55 Sector 4/4 configuration with Horizon II macro and Horizonmacro cabinets ............................................................................................................................................ hybrid combining ................................................. 13-12 Figure 13-9 4 carrier omni.................................. 13-15 Figure 13-12 6 carrier omni.................................................................................. cavity combining. 12-52 Figure 12-46 3 sector (4/4/4). 12-57 Figure 12-50 Horizoncompact2 two BTS system ... hybrid combining ................................................................... 12-65 Figure 12-57 Sector 2/2/2 configuration (Horizon II macro as master cabinet) .......................................................................................................... 13-14 Figure 13-11 6 carrier omni.............. 12-69 Figure 12-61 Horizonmacro cabinet configuration using CTUs and CTU2s .............................................. duplexed dual-stage hybrid and air combining (Part 2) ................................................... 12-54 Figure 12-48 3 sector (8/8/8).............................................................................................. 12-61 Figure 12-54 Horizonmicro2 three BTS system.................................................................................................... hybrid combining.......... duplexed dual-stage hybrid and air combining....................................................................................................................................................................... duplexed dual-stage hybrid combining.................................... 12-53 Figure 12-47 3 sector (8/8/8)................................................................. 12-59 Figure 12-52 Horizonmicro2 single BTS system ... cavity combining................. 12-73 Figure 13-1 Single cabinet M-Cell6 BTS ............................................. 13-5 Figure 13-3 Two cabinet M-Cell6 BTS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13-19 Figure 13-16 3 sector (2/2/2)................ 12-68 Figure 12-60 Sector 6/6/6 configuration with Horizon II macro and Horizonmacro cabinets . 12-51 Figure 12-45 3 sector (2/2/2)................. 12-55 Figure 12-49 Horizoncompact2 single BTS system.............................................................................................................................................................................. 13-18 Figure 13-15 2 sector (3/3)......................... 13-13 Figure 13-10 4 carrier omni...................................................... combining........................................................................................... 13-17 Figure 13-14 2 sector (3/3)... medium power duplexer ......... high power duplexer....... 12-66 Figure 12-58 Sector 2/2/2 configuration (Horizonmacro as master cabinet) ....................................................................... duplexed dual-stage hybrid and air combining (Part 1) ................................................................ duplexed hybrid and air combining ....................................................................... medium power duplexers .......... 13-20 Figure 13-17 3 sector (2/2/2)............................................................................................................................................................ hybrid combining......... 12-58 Figure 12-51 Horizoncompact2 three BTS system............................................................................................. 13-16 Figure 13-13 8 carrier omni...................................... duplexed hybrid combining ...List of Figures Figure 12-42 6 carrier omni........ 13-6 Figure 13-4 Two cabinet M-Cell6 BTS with CTU2 Adapters ............... 12-72 Figure 12-63 1800 MHz Horizon II macro and 1800 MHz M-Cell6 interconnections ..... combining.............................................................................................

........ air combining.... high and medium power duplexers (Part 1) ... cavity combining... cavity combining.......... 13-34 Figure 13-29 3 sector (8/8/8)... hybrid combining.... 13-30 Figure 13-25 3 sector (6/6/6)............................................ combining..................................... 13-41 Figure 13-35 3 sector (8/8/8)............... 13-37 Figure 13-32 3 sector (4/4/4)........... medium power duplexers........ single sector........... air combining........................................... medium power duplexers..................... 13-47 Figure 13-41 2 carrier........... 13-25 Figure 13-22 3 sector (4/4/4)............ medium power duplexers (Part 1)................................................................ medium power duplexers..... 13-49 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xxvii .... medium power duplexers................... 3-input CBF.... single sector...................................................... 13-45 Figure 13-39 2 carrier................................................ cavity combining. medium power duplexers (Part 2)............. 3-input CBF........ medium power duplexers (Part 2)................. 13-35 Figure 13-30 3 sector (8/8/8)......................................................................... combining................ medium power duplexers (Part 1)................................................... 3-input CBF...................... 13-24 Figure 13-21 3 sector (4/4/4)............................................ cavity combining........ cavity combining........... hybrid combining...... 13-42 Figure 13-36 3 sector (2/2/2)....... high and medium power duplexers (Part 2) ...................... 3-input CBF.............................. 13-22 Figure 13-19 3 sector (4/4/4)................... 13-43 Figure 13-37 3 sector (2/2/2)... 13-29 Figure 13-24 3 sector (5/5/5)........................ air combining................................... 3-input CBF.......... 13-40 Figure 13-34 3 sector (8/8/8). air combining..... 3-input CBF........................ air combining.... medium power duplexers............................. combining............... 13-44 Figure 13-38 2 carrier.... 13-39 Figure 13-33 3 sector (8/8/8).. 3-input CBF.......................................... medium power duplexers................................................................................................................ medium power duplexers......................................... hybrid combining.................... hybrid combining.........List of Figures Figure 13-18 3 sector (4/4/4).............. 3-input CBF......................... combining............... air combining................... 13-27 Figure 13-23 3 sector (5/5/5)............... medium power duplexer............ high power duplexers ................. 13-32 Figure 13-27 3 sector (6/6/6). medium power duplexers ........... 13-46 Figure 13-40 2 sectors (1 carrier per sector) ................... air combining.............................. hybrid combining............................ 13-48 Figure 13-42 2 sectors ......................................... 3-input CBF............. single sector....................................................... 13-23 Figure 13-20 3 sector (4/4/4)......................................... air combining ....................... 13-36 Figure 13-31 3 sector (8/8/8)......................................................... cavity combining .................. 3-input CBF........... 13-33 Figure 13-28 3 sector (8/8/8).. medium power duplexers (Part 1).............................. medium power duplexers (Part 2)................................................... 13-31 Figure 13-26 3 sector (6/6/6)..............................................

List of Figures 68P02900W21-S xxviii 01 Feb 2007 .

........................................................................................................................... 3-102 Table 3-12 Typical parameters for BTS call planning............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-111 Table 3-13 Control channel configurations........... Y.............. 3-148 Table 3-24 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 4 .................................................... 3-133 Table 3-15 Control channel configurations for non-border location area..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-135 Table 3-17 MM state model of MS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2 Table 1-3 Incorporation of CDCNs .................................. 3-57 Table 3-5 X....................................................... 3-143 Table 3-21 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 1 .........................................................List of Tables List of Tables Table 1-1 Version information ..................................................................................................................................................................... 3-86 Table 3-11 Frequency and parameter setting plan............... 2-3 Table 2-2 RTF types .................................... 3-59 Table 3-6 Interleaving ............................... Z and W bit values for AMR HR speech channel encoding .......................... 3-133 Table 3-16 Control channel configurations for border location area.............................. 3-53 Table 3-4 X................................................... 3-142 Table 3-20 DRI-RTF Mapping functionality ............................................ 3-67 Table 3-8 Distribution of 228 bits from one 20 ms half rate speech sample ................................................ 3-139 Table 3-18 Capping settings ......... 3-75 Table 3-10 Coding parameters for EGPRS coding schemes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3-67 Table 3-9 Coding parameters for GPRS coding schemes .................................................................................. 3-18 Table 3-2 Speech channel coding.. 3-49 Table 3-3 AMR codecs............................................................................................................ 2-16 Table 3-1 dBm and dBW to power conversion .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3-150 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xxix .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3-64 Table 3-7 Distribution of 456 bits from one 20 ms full rate speech sample .......... 3-147 Table 3-23 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 3 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1-5 Table 1-2 Acronym list ........................................................................... 2 Table 1-2 Resolution of Service Requests ................................................................................................................................................. 3-147 Table 3-22 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 2 ................................. convolutional output bits and punctured bits .......................................................................... 1-25 Table 2-1 BSS interface .......... 3-142 Table 3-19 CTU2D output power ........... 3-149 Table 3-25 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 5 ......................................................................................................................... Y and Z bit values for AMR FR speech channel encoding............................................................................................................ 3-123 Table 3-14 Example Configurations ..... 3 Table 1-1 Transceiver unit usage..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................. DL Throughput per MS: 0.................................................... 3-151 Table 3-29 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 9 ................................................................................................................. 3-193 Table 3-63 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS1) ............................................................................................................. 3-179 Table 3-46 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (CS1)........................ 3-176 Table 3-43 QoS Configuration Examples ............................... 3-191 Table 3-57 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS4) ............................................................ 3-168 Table 3-35 ρ for transfer delay = 250 ms at GBR greater than 15 kbit/s ......................................................... 3-190 Table 3-54 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS1) ...................................................................................................................................... 3-177 Table 3-44 QoS Disabled................................................................................................... 3-193 Table 3-64 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS2) ................................................................................................................................................................. 3-171 Table 3-38 Percentage of code utilization in a 4x3 non-hopping re-use pattern at 20% BLER .... 3-190 Table 3-55 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS2) ............................................. 3-189 Table 3-51 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (CS2) ............................................................................................................................................. 3-187 Table 3-47 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (CS2)................................................................... 3-191 Table 3-59 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS6) .............................................................................. 3-170 Table 3-37 BSS ARP configuration Parameters......................................................................................... 3-192 Table 3-61 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS8) .... 3-191 Table 3-58 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS5) .................................................................................................................................................... 3-192 Table 3-60 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS7) ............................................................................................................................ 3-176 Table 3-41 THP Weight Mix ......................................................................... 3-150 Table 3-27 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 7 ............................. 3-151 Table 3-28 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 8 ......................................................................... 3-166 Table 3-33 ρ for various transfer delays at GBR 15 kbit/s or less ...... 3-189 Table 3-53 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (CS4) ................................................ DL Throughput per MS: 0........................................................ 3-176 Table 3-40 MTBR Constant................................ 3-189 Table 3-52 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (CS3) ..... 3-192 Table 3-62 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS9) .................................................. 3-190 Table 3-56 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS3) ...........List of Tables Table 3-26 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 6 ............................. 3-172 Table 3-39 MTBR Mix .................................................................................................................................................................... 3-152 Table 3-30 Switchable timeslot utilization (Part A) ........... 3-176 Table 3-42 THP Weight Constant........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3-178 Table 3-45 QoS Enabled........................................................................................................................................................... 3-193 68P02900W21-S xxx 01 Feb 2007 ..................................... 3-158 Table 3-32 Typical TCP throughput against RLC/MAC throughput at zero block error rate ........................................................... Capacity: 11 users.................................................................................. 3-188 Table 3-48 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (CS3)........................................ 3-188 Table 3-50 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (CS1) .........................................................................................................................................................................33 (6/18) TS ....................... 3-167 Table 3-34 ρ for transfer delay = 500 ms at GBR greater than 15 kbit/s ................. 3-188 Table 3-49 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (CS4)......................... Capacity: 18 users... 3-169 Table 3-36 ARP mobile selection (ARP Rank) order....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................54 (6/11) TS ........................ 3-156 Table 3-31 Switchable timeslot utilization (Part B) ...

.................................................................................... 6-19 Table 6-6 Number of BSC to BTS signaling links (without LCS) ............................................................................................ 4-10 Table 4-2 Supported AMR codecs . 6-28 Table 6-8 Number of MSC and BSC signaling links without LCS (20% utilization) ..................................................................................................................................................................................................Horizon II mini as expansion XMUX requirements ............................................................................................... 5-23 Table 5-7 Horizon II macro XMUX expansion requirements .................................. 5-29 Table 5-10 Horizon II macro as master .......................................................................... 6-15 Table 6-5 BTS support for 16 kbit/s RSLs ........................................................................................................................ 3-194 Table 3-67 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS5)........................................................................... 6-10 Table 6-3 Other parameters used in determining GPROC and link requirements.................................................................................................. 5-18 Table 5-5 CTU/CTU2 power requirements for M-Cell cabinets ................. 6-42 Table 6-12 Typical call parameters relating to XBLs .......................................... 6-56 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xxxi .............................................................. 5-30 Table 6-1 BSC maximum capacities ...................... 3-194 Table 3-66 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS4)........................................List of Tables Table 3-65 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS3)................................................... 4-31 Table 4-6 Call placement on terrestrial backhaul ................................................................................................................ 3-195 Table 3-71 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS9)........................................................... 6-14 Table 6-4 Signaling message procedures .................................................................................................... 6-50 Table 6-14 BSS configurations and their availability ................................................................ 5-29 Table 5-9 Horizon II macro as master ....................................................................... 4-20 Table 4-5 Backhaul configuration based on parameter settings................................................................. 6-34 Table 6-10 Number of MSC and BSC signaling links without LCS (20% utilization) ....... 3-194 Table 3-68 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS6)........................................................ 6-34 Table 6-9 Number of MSC and BSC signaling links without LCS (40% utilization) .................... 5-14 Table 5-3 BBH capability for Horizonmacro Site Controller.......................................................................................................................................................... 3-196 Table 4-1 AMR potential coverage gains ......................... 6-35 Table 6-11 Number of BSC to RXCDR signaling links ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Horizon II mini as expansion XMUX requirements .......... 6-5 Table 6-2 Typical call parameters ......................................................... 4-16 Table 4-3 BSS parameters used to determine MS threshold and hysteresis ......... 4-32 Table 4-7 Voice call mapping on the backhaul for a 64K RTF ....................... 5-11 Table 5-2 BBH capability for Horizon II macro Site Controller......................................................................................................................................................... 5-19 Table 5-6 Site connection requirements for M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 ...................................................... 3-195 Table 3-69 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS7).............................................................................. 3-195 Table 3-70 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS8)..... 6-43 Table 6-13 GPROC type/function................Full and Half Rate default values .............................................. 4-18 Table 4-4 Handover and power control ............................................................................ 5-14 Table 5-4 CTU/CTU2 power requirements................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5-30 Table 5-11 Horizonmacro FMUX expansion requirements...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-32 Table 5-1 Transmit configurations.... 5-29 Table 5-8 Horizon II mini only network XMUX expansion requirements................................................................................. 6-20 Table 6-7 Backhaul requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.......................................... 9-6 Table 9-4 Customer ordering guide 1800 MHz (Horizon II macro indoor) .................................................................... 8-70 Table 8-24 EGPRS with QoS enabled call model ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-18 Table 8-9 Maximum number of timeslots that can be processed ............................................................................ 9-11 Table 9-7 BSC timeslot requirements......................................................... 9-16 68P02900W21-S xxxii 01 Feb 2007 ................................ 8-76 Table 8-25 EGPRS with QoS and QoS2 enabled call model ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8-23 Table 8-11 Provisioning goals (per PCU) .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9-9 Table 9-5 Customer ordering guide 1800 MHz (Horizon II macro indoor) ............................................... 9-10 Table 9-6 GPROCs required at the BSC...................................................................................................................... 8-51 Table 8-19 ρ for Transfer delay = 500 ms at GBR greater than 15 kbit/s .............. 8-83 Table 9-1 Busy hour demand and number of carriers ...................................................................................................... 8-46 Table 8-17 Maximum MTBR in UL/DL per multislot capability ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-12 Table 9-8 Equipment required for the BSC .......................................................... 8-52 Table 8-20 ρ for Transfer delay = 250 ms at GBR greater than 15 kbit/s .................................................................................................................................................................. 8-22 Table 8-10 Maximum number of timeslots that can be provisioned................................................. 8-57 Table 8-22 GPRS call model ................................................................... 9-6 Table 9-3 Customer ordering guide 900 MHz (M-Cell6 indoor) .............................................................................. 7-25 Table 8-1 VersaTRAU backhaul recommendations for a given number of PDTCHs.............................................................................................. 8-46 Table 8-16 PRP Board Service Level Capacity 4MS/PDTCH ................................................................................ 7-25 Table 7-3 KSWX/DSWX (redundant) ........................................ 6-74 Table 7-1 RXCDR maximum capacities .................................................................... 9-2 Table 9-2 Customer ordering guide 900 MHz (M-Cell6 indoor) ............................................................. 8-63 Table 8-23 EGPRS call model................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8-36 Table 8-12 Provisioning goals (per PCU) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8-42 Table 8-15 Local Timeslot Zone Level capacity 4MS/PDTCH.................................................................................. 8-48 Table 8-18 ρ for various transfer delays at GBR 15kbit/s or less .................. 8-12 Table 8-5 BSS upgrade in support of GPRS/EGPRS............................................ 6-73 Table 6-16 KSWX/DSWX (redundant) .......................................................................................................................................... 8-53 Table 8-21 Gb entities and identifiers.... 7-4 Table 7-2 KSWX/DSWX (non-redundant) .......................................................................................................................... 8-16 Table 8-8 Recommended maximum BSS network parameter (part C) ......... 8-9 Table 8-4 Erlang table ............................................................................................ 8-7 Table 8-2 Expected throughput/TS and coding schemes (conservative) .................... 8-41 Table 8-14 Upgrade scenarios for PXP configuration ....................................................................................................... 8-15 Table 8-7 Recommended maximum BSS parameter values (part B)........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8-8 Table 8-3 Expected throughput/TS and coding schemes (aggressive) . 9-13 Table 9-9 Equipment required for the RXCDR ........................................................................ 8-13 Table 8-6 Recommended maximum BSS network parameter values (part A) ........................................... 8-40 Table 8-13 Upgrade scenarios for PRP configuration ....List of Tables Table 6-15 KSWX/DSWX (non-redundant) ......................................................

....................... 9-59 Table 9-15 Control channel calculation .................................................................................................................... 2 sector 4/4 or 8/8 with HCUs and air combining ............................................... 9-42 Table 9-11 RXU shelves ............... 12-37 Table 12-16 Equipment required for HP Omni-1/SP Omni-2........ 12-32 Table 12-11 Equipment required for 2 sector 3/3 or 6/6 with HCUs ............................................ 12-24 Table 12-5 Equipment required for 3 sector 2/2/2 or 4/4/4 with HCUs ......... 12-35 Table 12-14 Equipment required for 2 cabinet..... 12-47 Table 12-24 Equipment required for 1 cabinet.................................................................. 12-42 Table 12-21 Equipment required for HP 3 sector 1/1/1/SP 3 sector 2/2/2....................................................................................... 11-38 Table 12-1 Equipment required for 4 or 8 carrier omni with HCUs and air combining................................................................................................................. 9-49 Table 9-13 GPROCs and MSI cards ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... duplexed hybrid and air combining ...................................................................................... 12-29 Table 12-9 Equipment required for 4 or 8 carrier omni with HCUs and air combining...................................................................................................................................................................................... 12-45 Table 12-23 Equipment required for Horizon II micro three cabinet configuration............ 9-63 Table 9-16 BSU shelves ......List of Tables Table 9-10 BSU Shelves .................................................................................................. 12-48 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xxxiii ................................................................................................................. 12-21 Table 12-2 Equipment required for 6 or 12 carrier omni with DHUs............................ 12-31 Table 12-10 Equipment required for 6 or 12 carrier omni with DHUs..................................................................................... 12-41 Table 12-20 Equipment required for HP 3 sector 1/1/1/SP 3 sector 2/2/2......................................................... 12-33 Table 12-12 Equipment required for 2 cabinet........................ 2 sector 4/4 or 8/8 with HCUs and air combining ..... 9-72 Table 9-18 RXU3 shelves ...................... 12-39 Table 12-18 Equipment required for HP 2 sector 1/1/SP 2 sector 2/2........................ 9-86 Table 9-21 BSU shelves .......................................... 12-34 Table 12-13 Equipment required for 3 sector 2/2/2 or 4/4/4 ...control channel calculations (based on Erlang B models) ......... 9-69 Table 9-17 Determining the number of XCDR/GDP/GDP2 cards ................. 12-26 Table 12-7 Equipment required for 3 sector 2/2/2 or 4/4/4...................................................... 3 sector 4/4/4 or 8/8/8 with HCUs and air combining ................................................................................................... 9-84 Table 9-20 Typical LCS call model parameter ............................................................ 12-36 Table 12-15 Equipment required for HP Omni-1/SP Omni-2............ 12-23 Table 12-4 Equipment required for 2 cabinet................................... 9-98 Table 10-1 Example of values for the parameters for location area planning .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4 CTU configuration........................ 4 branch Rx diversity................................................................................................................. 12-38 Table 12-17 Equipment required for HP Omni-1/SP Omni-2................................................................................................. 12-25 Table 12-6 Equipment required for 2 cabinet...... 9-73 Table 9-19 KSW/DSW2 requirements ............................. 11-2 Table 11-2 Sample Statistics........................................................................ 9-56 Table 9-14 RXU shelves ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 sector 4/4/4 or 8/8/8 with HCUs and air combining ......................... 12-40 Table 12-19 Equipment required for HP 2 sector 2/2/SP 2 sector 4/4............. 12-44 Table 12-22 Equipment required for Horizon II micro one cabinet configuration................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12-27 Table 12-8 Equipment required for 3 sector 2/2/2 and 2/2/2 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9-46 Table 9-12 Cell planning ...................................................................................................... 12-22 Table 12-3 Equipment required for 2 sector 3/3 or 6/6 with DHUs ....... 10-3 Table 11-1 Typical parameters for BTS call planning........................................

............................... 13-16 Table 13-7 Equipment required for multiple cabinet. 4 TCU configuration with hybrid combining and diversity............................... 12-55 Table 13-1 Equipment required for single cabinet. diversity and medium power duplexer ............................................. 6 TCU configuration with cavity combining and diversity ................................ 13-17 Table 13-8 Equipment required for single cabinet..................................................... 6 TCU configuration with cavity combining..............List of Tables Table 12-25 Equipment required for 1 cabinet............................. 12-50 Table 12-27 Equipment required for dual cabinet............ diversity and medium power duplexers (3 antenna per sector) .................. 13-20 Table 13-11 Equipment required for single cabinet........................................ 12 TCU configuration with air combining..................... diversity and medium power duplexer... 6 TCU configuration with combining..................................................................................................... 6 CTU configuration... 6 TCU configuration with combining and diversity............. 13-32 Table 13-21 Equipment required for 3 cabinets... diversity and medium power duplexers.......................................................... 13-22 Table 13-13 Equipment required for multiple cabinet............................. 24 TCU configuration with cavity combining............ diversity and medium power duplexer.......................... diversity and high power duplexers. diversity and medium power duplexers (3 antennas/sector) ............ 13-29 Table 13-18 Equipment required for 3 cabinets..................... 13-11 Table 13-2 Equipment required for single cabinet....................... duplex dual-stage hybrid and air combining .................... diversity and medium power duplexers (2 antennas/sector) ................... 6 TCU configuration with combining............... 13-13 Table 13-4 Equipment required for single cabinet...... 8 TCU configuration with combining and diversity.................. duplex dual-stage hybrid and air combining ......................................... diversity and medium power duplexers ... 13-33 Table 13-22 Equipment required for 4 RF cabinets........... duplexed hybrid combining .. 18 TCU configuration with 3-input CBF............... 13-12 Table 13-3 Equipment required for single cabinet.................................................................. 12 TCU configuration with 3-input CBF................................................................................ diversity and medium power duplexers................................................................... duplexed dual-stage hybrid combining ................................................................... combining............................... 12-52 Table 12-29 Equipment required for dual cabinet..................... 12 CTU configuration duplexed hybrid and air combining ...................... 18 TCU configuration with cavity combining........................................................ 13-14 Table 13-5 Equipment required for single cabinet........... 12 TCU configuration with hybrid combining and diversity........................................................... 13-26 Table 13-16 Equipment required for multiple cabinet.......... 4 TCU configuration with hybrid combining.................................... 13-28 Table 13-17 Equipment required for 3 cabinets................................ diversity and both high and medium power duplexers ........... 12 TCU configuration with air combining.................................... 24 CTU configuration.......................... 18 TCU configuration with 3-input CBF. 12 CTU configuration..... hybrid combining and diversity ...................................................................... duplexed dual-stage hybrid and air combining 1251 Table 12-28 Equipment required for 1 cabinet.. diversity and high power duplexer ........................ 12-53 Table 12-30 Equipment required for 4 cabinet.......................................................................... 15 TCU configuration with 3-input CBF........... 13-15 Table 13-6 Equipment required for single cabinet.................................................... 13-35 Table 13-23 Equipment required for 4 RF cabinets.................. 6 CTU configuration.................... air combining...................................................................... 4 TCU configuration with hybrid combining..... 13-30 Table 13-19 Equipment required for 3 RF cabinets............................................. diversity and medium power duplexers (2 antenna per sector)............. combining......................... 13-24 Table 13-15 Equipment required for dual cabinet..... 13-19 Table 13-10 Equipment required for single cabinet........................... 13-18 Table 13-9 Equipment required for single cabinet.......... diversity and medium power duplexers (2 antennas/sector) ..... 15 TCU configuration with 3-input CBF............................................................................................................................................................... 4 TCU configuration with hybrid combining and diversity......................... 6 TCU configuration with hybrid combining and diversity..... diversity and medium power duplexers (3 antennas/sector) ................................ 6 CTU configuration... air combining................. 12-49 Table 12-26 Equipment required for 1 cabinet......................... 24 TCU configuration with cavity combining. air combining......................................................... 13-21 Table 13-12 Equipment required for dual cabinet.................................................... 13-23 Table 13-14 Equipment required for multiple cabinet..................................................................................................................................... 13-38 68P02900W21-S xxxiv 01 Feb 2007 ............................. 13-31 Table 13-20 Equipment required for 3 cabinets.......... 12 TCU configuration with 3-input CBF....

... diversity and medium power duplexers............. 13-45 Table 13-29 Equipment required for single cabinet..... 2 TCU configuration with hybrid combining and diversity............................... 13-49 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 xxxv .......................... air combining............................................................... combining...................................................................... 24 TCU configuration with 3-input CBF........................................................ diversity and medium power duplexers (3 antennas/sector) ............................... 13-47 Table 13-31 Equipment required for single cabinet......................... 13-42 Table 13-26 Equipment required for single cabinet.......... 2 TCU configuration with diversity................................ 13-46 Table 13-30 Equipment required for single cabinet.................................... 2 TCU configuration with air combining and diversity . 24 TCU configuration with 3-input CBF.......... 2 TCU configuration with diversity.. 13-44 Table 13-28 Equipment required for single cabinet.......................................... 13-40 Table 13-25 Equipment required for 4 cabinets...................................................................... 6 TCU configuration with hybrid combining.............................. 6 TCU configuration with hybrid combining and diversity........ 13-43 Table 13-27 Equipment required for single cabinet......List of Tables Table 13-24 Equipment required for 4 cabinets...................................... diversity and medium power duplexer ................ 13-48 Table 13-32 Equipment required for single cabinet............. diversity and medium power duplexers (2 antennas/sector) ................... 2 TCU configuration with hybrid combining...................

List of Tables 68P02900W21-S xxxvi 01 Feb 2007 .

It describes the requirements and procedures for planning a BSS cell site. It provides an overview of AMR and its usage in the Motorola system. This manual also deals with standard BSS. an RXCDR and location area. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1 . a BTS including Horizon and M-cell range of equipments. Horizon BTS and M-Cell BTS configurations.About This Manual System Information: BSS Equipment Planning This manual provides an overview of the various BSS elements and BSS planning methodology. It describes about obtaining the call model parameters from network statistics collected at the OMC-R. a BSC including the scenario when a LCS is used.

includes GSM Software Release 3 Issue F .x Issue C .3.(also supersedes 68P02900W31-B) Issue E .includes GSM Software Release 4.includes GSM Software Release 5 Issue J .x Issue B .includes GSM Software Release 7 and EGPRS Issue Q .2.Software Release GSR 1.4. Version information The following lists the versions of this manual in order of manual issue: Table 1-1 Version information Manual issue O A B C D E F G H J K L M N P Q R S Date of issue 03 Oct 1994 30 Dec 1994 01 Sep 1995 31 May 1995 28 Mar 1997 29 Aug 1997 27 Apr 1998 15 Apr 2000 27 Feb 2001 15 Aug 2001 15 Apr 2002 Not issued 13 Mar 2003 Not issued 11 Sep 2003 15 Mar 2004 11 Jan 2005 01 Feb 2007 Issue P .Software release GSR9 Issue M .1 Issue K .Software Release 1.6.includes GSM Software Release 3 Issue G .0.3.includes GSM Software Release 5.x Issue A .includes GSM Software Release 6 (Horizon II) Remarks Original issue .0.1.includes GSM Software Release 6 Resolution of Service Requests The following Service Requests are now resolved in this manual: Table 1-2 Resolution of Service Requests Service Request N/A GMR Number N/A Remarks 68P02900W21-S 2 01 Feb 2007 .includes GSM Half Rate Issue R .2.includes GSM Software Release 8 Issue S .1 (1.Software Release 1.3) Issue H .2.x Issue D .Software Release 1.Issue status of this manual Issue status of this manual The following shows the issue status of this manual since it was first released.

Issue status of this manual Incorporation of CDCNs The following CDCNs are now incorporated in this manual: Table 1-3 Incorporation of CDCNs CDCN N/A GMR Number N/A Remarks 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3 .

The tags include index references which are listed in the manual Index. implied or expressed. It is recommended that all personnel engaged in such activities be properly trained by Motorola. The tags have the format: {nnnn} or {nnnnn}. In these manuals. installation and maintenance instructions may. although they can be used to supplement and enhance the knowledge gained through such training. It is intended for TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY. installation and maintenance of the Motorola cellular infrastructure equipment and ancillary devices. GPRS Support Node (GSNn) releases or UMTS System Releases (USRn). or any one acting on behalf of the customer. then corrections will be supplied automatically by Motorola in the form of General Manual Revisions (GMRs) or Customer Documentation Change Notices (CDCNs). to abide by the instructions. in exceptional circumstances. of which this manual is part. are revised to accommodate features released at Motorola General System Releases (GSRn). Purpose Motorola cellular communications manuals are intended to instruct and assist personnel in the operation. system parameters or recommendations made in this manual. for any risk of damage. it will not be updated or amended by Motorola. with page references and hot links in electronic copy. The tags are the appropriate Motorola Roadmap DataBase (RDB) numbers or Research and Development Prioritization (RDP) numbers. Failure to comply with Motorola’s operation. lead to serious injury or death. The Index includes the entry feature which is followed by a list of the RDB or RDP numbers for the released features. If this manual was obtained when you attended a Motorola training course. new and amended features are tagged to help users to assess the impact on installed networks. Where {nnnn} {nnnnn} Is the RDB number The RDP number 68P02900W21-S 4 01 Feb 2007 . If it was supplied under normal operational circumstances. loss or reduction in system performance arising directly or indirectly out of the failure of the customer. These manuals are not intended to replace the system and equipment training offered by Motorola.General information General information Motorola disclaims all liability whatsoever. to support a major software release. Feature references Most of the manuals in the set.

Data encryption In order to avoid electronic eavesdropping. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5 . this encryption occurs at different levels as individually standardized. Immediately before the affected text in the Warning. Sections are not numbered. refer to the manual System Information: GSM Overview (68P02901W01). New or amended complete Figures and Tables Warnings. and are listed in the table of contents. On a separate line immediately the affected item or immediately before the affected item. The manual set. data passing between certain elements in the GSM. chapter and section name cross references are emphasized blue in text. Caution or NOTE. in turn. or may not be present at all in some parts of the network in which it is normally implemented. references are made to external publications. chapter numbers and section names. to the manual System Information: GPRS Overview (68P02903W01). Because the rules differ in individual countries.General information The tags are positioned in text as follows: New and amended feature information Complete new sections of content as follows: • • All sections under a main heading All paragraphs under subheadings Tag position in text In the heading immediately after the heading content as follows: • • Main heading {nnnn} Subheading {nnnn} Single paragraphs of new or amended text. Computer output displays (in special fonts). limitations on the encryption included in the particular software being delivered. are covered in the Release NOTEs that accompany the individual software release. are divided into sections. user input or displays (in special fonts). For a list of Roadmap numbers and the RDB or RDP numbers of the features included in this software release. but are individually named at the top of each page. In order to comply with the export and import requirements of particular countries. On a separate line immediately the affected item or immediately before the affected item. General command syntax. After the Figure or Table number and before the title text. of which this manual is a part. covers encryption as if fully implemented. or to the manual System Information: UMTS Overview (68P02905W21). Cautions and NOTEs. Immediately before the affected paragraph. Cross references Throughout this manual. This manual is divided into uniquely identified and numbered chapters that. The references to external publications are shown in italics. GPRS or UMTS network is encrypted.

Press the Return key. directories. screen output text and special key sequences. Press the Alt and f keys at the same time. utilities. Output Messages. Input Characters typed in at the keyboard are shown like this.General information Text conventions The following conventions are used in the Motorola cellular infrastructure manuals to represent keyboard input text. and environmental variables that appear on the screen are shown like this. 68P02900W21-S 6 01 Feb 2007 . Press the pipe symbol key. Special key sequences Special key sequences are represented as follows: CRTL-c ALT-f | CR or RETURN Press the Control and c keys at the same time. prompts. file listings.

Reporting safety issues Reporting safety issues Whenever a safety issue arises. 4 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 7 . Ensure that all site personnel are familiar with this procedure. Procedure Whenever a safety issue arises: Procedure 1 Reporting safety issues 1 2 3 Make the equipment concerned safe. Make no further attempt to adjust or rectify the equipment. by removing power. carry out the following procedure in all instances. Collect evidence from the equipment under the guidance of the Customer Network Resolution Centre. Report the problem directly to the Customer Network Resolution Centre. Swindon +44 (0)1793 565444 or China +86 10 88417733 (telephone) and follow up with a written report by fax. for example. Swindon +44 (0)1793 430987 or China +86 10 68423633 (fax).

arrange for calibration to be carried out. violates safety standards of design. Warnings A definition and example follow: Definition of Warning A warning is used to alert the reader to possible hazards that could cause loss of life. However. Example and format Do not look directly into fiber optic cables or data in/out connectors. or with specific warnings elsewhere in the Motorola manuals. manufacture and intended use of the equipment. the use of adhesives and solvents. Motorola assumes no liability for the customer's failure to comply with these requirements. this presents no danger to personnel. Failure to comply with these warnings. as well as those inherent in the equipment. Laser radiation can come from either the data in/out connectors or unterminated fiber optic cables connected to data in/out connectors. Failure to comply with warnings Observe all warnings during all phases of operation. or ill health.Warnings and cautions Warnings and cautions The following describes how warnings and cautions are used in this manual and in all manuals of this Motorola manual set. or individual items of equipment within a system. 68P02900W21-S 8 01 Feb 2007 . Example and format Do not use test equipment that is beyond its due calibration date. for example. or on the equipment itself. Cautions A definition and example follow: Definition of Caution A caution means that there is a possibility of damage to systems. physical injury. This includes hazards introduced during maintenance. installation and maintenance of the equipment described in the Motorola manuals.

Motorola assumes no liability for the customer's failure to comply with these requirements. in the illustrations and on the equipment. as must any other warnings given in text. Personnel working with or operating Motorola equipment must comply with any warning labels fitted to the equipment. and will be incorporated into procedures as applicable. or to the relevant electricity at work legislation for the country in which the equipment is used. Specific warnings Specific warnings used throughout the manual sets are shown. Warning labels must not be removed. These must be observed by all personnel at all times when working with the equipment. To achieve isolation of the equipment from the ac supply.General warnings General warnings Observe the following specific warnings during all phases of operation. or with specific warnings elsewhere in the Motorola manuals. the ac input isolator must be set to off and locked. Warning labels Warnings particularly applicable to the equipment are positioned on the equipment. Potentially hazardous voltage This equipment operates from a hazardous voltage of 230 V ac single phase or 415 V ac three phase supply. installation and maintenance of the equipment described in the Motorola manuals: • • • • • • • • Potentially hazardous voltage Electric shock RF radiation Laser radiation Heavy equipment Parts substitution Battery supplies Lithium batteries Failure to comply with these warnings. painted over or obscured in any way. reference must be made to the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (UK). When working with electrical equipment. manufacture and intended use of the equipment. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 9 . violates safety standards of design.

GPRS or UMTS equipment. 68P02900W21-S 10 01 Feb 2007 . may result. In the event of an electric shock it may be necessary to carry out artificial respiration. serious injuries and even death. Laser radiation can come from either the data in/out connectors or unterminated fiber optic cables connected to data in/out connectors. until trained first aid or medical assistance arrives. flood the affected area with cold water to cool. ALWAYS send for trained first aid or medical assistance IMMEDIATELY.General warnings High voltages are not utilized in Motorola GSM. Do not key transmitters connected to unterminated cavities or feeders. CENELEC 95 ENV 50166-2.1-1991. RF radiation High RF potentials and electromagnetic fields are present in this equipment when in operation. Relevant standards (USA and EC). to which regard should be paid when working with RF equipment are: • • ANSI IEEE C95. Direct electrical contact can stun a casualty causing breathing. Ensure that all transmitters are switched off when any antenna connections have to be changed. protect yourself with dry insulating material and pull or push the victim clear of the conductor. It can also cause skin burns at the points of entry and exit of the current. Laser radiation Do not look directly into fiber optic cables or optical data in/out connectors. IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. If this is not possible. Switch off. and even the heart. 3 kHz to 300 GHz. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields High Frequency (10 kHz to 300 GHz). If the casualty is also suffering from burns. Electric shock Do not touch the victim with your bare hands until the electric circuit is broken. In cases of low voltage electric shock (including public supply voltages). to stop.

may burst and ignite. Battery supplies Do not wear earth straps when working with standby battery supplies. or removing or replacing equipment. reference must be made to the Manual Handling of Loads Regulations 1992 (UK) or to the relevant manual handling of loads legislation for the country in which the equipment is used. Contact your local Motorola office for how to return defective lithium batteries. Contact Motorola if in doubt to ensure that safety features are maintained. Any boards containing defective lithium batteries must be returned to Motorola for repair. because of the danger of introducing additional hazards. Parts substitution Do not install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modification of equipment. lifting frames must be used for these operations. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 11 .General warnings Lifting equipment When dismantling heavy assemblies. a competent responsible person must ensure that adequate lifting facilities are available. Defective lithium batteries must not be removed or replaced. if subjected to mistreatment. When equipments have to be manhandled. Where provided. Lithium batteries Lithium batteries.

Failure to comply with these cautions or with specific cautions elsewhere in the Motorola manuals may result in damage to the equipment. Specific cautions Cautions particularly applicable to the equipment are positioned within the text of this manual. on the illustrations and on the equipment. See the section Devices sensitive to static in the preface of this manual for further information. These metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are susceptible to damage from electrostatic charge. Caution labels must not be removed. as must any other cautions given in text. Caution labels Personnel working with or operating Motorola equipment must comply with any caution labels fitted to the equipment.General cautions General cautions Observe the following cautions during operation. Static discharge Motorola equipment contains CMOS devices. Fiber optics Fiber optic cables must not be bent in a radius of less than 30 mm. 68P02900W21-S 12 01 Feb 2007 . These must be observed by all personnel at all times when working with the equipment. installation and maintenance of the equipment described in the Motorola manuals. Motorola assumes no liability for the customer’s failure to comply with these requirements. painted over or obscured in any way.

MOS devices are normally dispatched from the manufacturers with the leads shorted together. they should be transferred directly from their packing to the equipment (or the other way around) and never left exposed on the workbench. All metal tools should be used and when not in use they should be placed on an earthed surface. It may be necessary to replace the conductive foam by a piece of wire to enable the device to be fitted. by pushing the hands into high insulation packing material or by use of unearthed soldering irons. observe the following precautions when handling the replacement: • • • • • • Always wear an earth strap which must be connected to the electrostatic point (ESP) on the equipment. If possible. These charges can be built up on nylon overalls. Wipe insulated plastic work surfaces with an anti–static cloth before starting the operation. When mounted onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). Special handling techniques In the event of one of these devices having to be replaced. by friction. Leave the short circuit on the leads until the last moment. wire strapping. for example. work on an earthed metal surface. Do not wear outer clothing made of nylon or similar man made material. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 13 . Such a charge applied to the leads of the device could cause irreparable damage. preferably by their edges and not by their tracks and pins. However PCBs should be handled with care. A cotton overall is preferable. Take care when removing components connected to electrostatic sensitive devices. These components may be providing protection to the device.Devices sensitive to static Devices sensitive to static Certain metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices embody in their design a thin layer of insulation that is susceptible to damage from electrostatic charge. or by inserting the leads into conductive plastic foam. Provided the leads are shorted it is safe to handle the device. by metal foil eyelets. MOS devices are normally less susceptible to electrostatic damage.

European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC Packaging and Packaging waste. Disposal of Motorola Networks equipment in non-EU countries In non-EU countries. Select Customer Network Resolution Center contact information. 68P02900W21-S 14 01 Feb 2007 .com/. Motorola Networks in conjunction with a recycling partner will ensure that equipment and any surplus packaging materials are collected and recycled according to the requirements of EU environmental law. In the EU.Caring for the environment Caring for the environment The following information is provided to enable regulatory compliance when using Motorola Networks equipment in EU countries with the following directives (and any subsequent amendments thereto): • • European Union (EU) Directive 2002/96/EC Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Disposal of Motorola Networks equipment in EU countries Please do not dispose of Motorola Networks equipment or packaging materials in landfill sites. The 24 hour telephone numbers are listed at https://mynetworksupport. Please contact the Customer Network Resolution Center (CNRC) for assistance. contact the Local Motorola Office.motorola. dispose of Motorola Networks equipment in accordance with national and regional regulations. Alternatively if you do not have access to CNRC or the internet.

com/index. install and maintain the Motorola equipment.asp). Manuals for the GSM. Each CD-ROM includes all manuals related to a specified main GSM. though it will not be updated in line with subsequent point releases. A snapshot copy of on-line documentation is also included. Ordering manuals and CD-ROMs Use the Motorola 68Pxxxxxxxx order (catalogue) number to order hard copy manuals or CD-ROMs. GPRS and UMTS products are available on the following media: • • Printed hard copy Electronic. The CD-ROM does not include Release NOTEs or documentation supporting specialist products such as MARS or COP. together with current versions of appropriate hardware manuals.motorola. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 15 .Motorola manual set Motorola manual set The Motorola manual sets provide the information needed to operate. GPRS or UMTS software release. and has additional navigation facilities. as fully navigable PDF files on: o o The Motorola customer support web site at: (https://mynetworksupport. All orders must be placed with your Motorola Local Office or Representative. CD-ROM produced in support of a major system software release.

A GMR has the same identity as the target manual. Motorola service web . GMRs are issued to correct Motorola manuals as and when required. CDCNs are numbered in sequence using the format: o o o • Shortened manual order number Issue identifier CDCN number For example: 01W23-M-CDCN01 would be the first CDCN produced for 68P2901W23-M. These describe the changes rather than replacing large sections of the manual. CDCN availability CDCNs are published as follows: • • PDF distributed electronically . Each GMR is identified by a number in a sequence that starts at 01 for each manual at each issue. as detailed on the GMR instruction sheet. occasionally with replacement loose leaf pages. 68P02900W21-S 16 01 Feb 2007 . They are sent directly to customers and Motorola Local Offices and are accessible on the Motorola Extranet. the CDCNs numbers are listed in the GMR amendment record. GMRs are also produced in order to incorporate CDCNs when the numbers applying to a particular manual become significant. the record is completed to record the amendment.Updated at the same time as hard copies. In this case.Complete replacement content or loose leaf pages with amendment list. o Remove and replace pages in this manual.Description of changes.Manual amendment Manual amendment Changes to a manual that occur after the printing date are incorporated into the manual using either Customer Documentation Change Notices (CDCNs) or General Manual Revisions (GMRs): • Small changes are published in CDCNs. Major changes are effected by publishing a GMR. Motorola service web . Retain the instruction sheet that accompanies each CDCN and insert it in a suitable place in this manual for future reference. GMR availability GMRs are published as follows: • • • Printed hard copy .Updated at the same time as hard copies. CD-ROM . CDCN instructions When a CDCN is incorporated in this manual.Updated periodically as required.

CDCN amendment record CDCN amendment record Record the insertion of CDCNs in this manual in the following table: CDCN number Incorporated by (signature) Date 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 17 .

CDCN amendment record 68P02900W21-S 18 01 Feb 2007 .

refer to 68P02901W47. refer to 68P02901W74. Installation and Configuration: OMC-R Clean Install. The following topics are described: • • • • Manual overview BSS equipment overview BSS features BSS planning overview • • OMC-R planning is beyond the scope of this manual. For information on upgrading an existing OMCR for this software release. Software Release NOTEs: OMC-R System. and features that can affect the planning stage together with information required before planning can begin. components. For information on installing a new OMC-R.Chapter 1 Introduction to planning An overview of this manual and the various elements of a BSS and the BSS planning methodology are provided here. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-1 . Included is information about BSS system architecture.

Manual overview Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Manual overview Introduction The manual contains information about planning a GSM network. Chapter 11: Call model parameters Provides the planning steps and rules for deriving call model parameters from network statistics collected at the OMC-R. 4. 6. Contents The manual contains the following chapters: • • • • • Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Provides an overview of the various elements of a BSS and the BSS planning methodology. Chapter 9: Planning exercises Provides planning exercises designed to illustrate the use of the rules and formulae provided in Chapters 3. Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Provides the planning steps and rules for the BTS. 68P02900W21-S 1-2 01 Feb 2007 . Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Provides an overview of the AMR and usage in the Motorola system. Chapter 8: PCU upgrade for BSS Provides information for the PCU upgrade to the BSS. • • • • Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Provides the planning steps and rules for the BSC. 7 and 8. • • Chapter 10: Location area planning Provides the planning steps and rules for location area planning. Chapter 7: RXCDR planning steps and rules Provides the planning steps and rules for the RXCDR. 5. including the Horizon and M-Cell range of equipments. Chapter 3: BSS cell planning States the requirements and procedures used in producing a BSS cell site plan. and utilizing a combination of Horizon and M-Cell BTS equipment. including when LCS is used. Chapter 2: Transmission systems This chapter provides an overview of the transmission systems used in GSM.

• Chapter 13: M-Cell BTS configurations Provides diagrams of the logical interconnections of the components in various M-Cell BTS site configurations. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-3 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Manual overview • Chapter 12: Standard BSS and Horizon BTS configurations Provides diagrams of the logical interconnections of the components in various standard BSS and Horizon BTS site configurations.

Figure 1-1 BSS block diagram MSC LRs A INTERFACE OMC-R SGSN RXCDR O&M BSS PCU ABIS INTERFACE BSC BSS BTS 1 BTS 5 BTS 8 ..BSS equipment overview Chapter 1: Introduction to planning BSS equipment overview System architecture The architecture of the Motorola Base Station System (BSS) is versatile... MS MS . and the Mobile Stations (MS) as shown in Figure 1-1. 68P02900W21-S 1-4 01 Feb 2007 .. BTS n BTS 2 BTS 6 BTS 3 BTS 7 BTS 4 AIR INTERFACE MS MS .. the Operations and Maintenance Centre Radio (OMC-R). The BSS is a combination of digital and RF equipment that communicates with the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). and allows several possible configurations for a given system..

and Horizon II Extension off H2 master. M-Cellmicro. The RXCDR is part of the BSS but can serve more than one BSS. or GDP2) provides 4:1 multiplexing of the traffic. M-Cell6 and MCell2 with CTU2 Adapter. is assumed to be connected to all the other BTSs as shown in Figure 1-1. The Transcoder (XCDR) or Generic Digital Processor (GDP. the XCDR is referred to as a remote transcoder (RXCDR). M-Cellcity and M-Cellcity+. Horizoncompact and Horizoncompact2. M-Cell2 and BTS6.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS equipment overview • • The OMC-R can be linked through the RXCDR and/or to the BSS/BSC direct. EGDP. Packet Control Unit (PCU) and one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs). When the XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2 is located at the MSC. or M-Cell BTS cabinets or enclosures. When half rate is in use. Horizonmacro (with limitations see CTU2 on page 1-5 on next page). Horizonmicro. In the Motorola BTS product line. Remote Transcoder (RXCDR). Horizon II macro. When transcoding is not performed at the BSC. it reduces the number of communication links to the BSC. Horizon II Mini. The example of multiple MSs connected to BTS 4 and BTS 7. it is possible to achieve a greater reduction (refer to the transcoding sections of Chapter 6 and Chapter 7 for a detailed description). M-Cell6 and M-Cell2. Horizon II micro. Horizonmacro. These can be in-built or externally located Horizon II macro. Horizonmacro. M-Cell6. Compact Transceiver Unit (CTU) Dual Transceiver Module (DTRX) Transceiver Control Unit (TCU) Transceiver Control Unit (TCU-B) Transceiver Control Unit. the radio transmit and receive functions are provided as listed in Table 1-1: Table 1-1 Transceiver unit usage Transceiver unit Compact Transceiver Unit 2 –D (CTU2-D) Compact Transceiver Unit 2 (CTU2) Where used Horizon II macro. Horizonmicro2. and can be located at the BSC or between the BSC and MSC. micro (TCU-m) 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-5 . System components The BSS is divided into a Base Station Controller (BSC).

The receivers can support receive diversity. the transceiver functions are provided by the CTU2D. Configuration diagrams are shown in Chapter 12. The main reason for CTU2D not supporting unrestricted EDGE on both carriers is MIPS constraints of the host processor. all other transceiver units are only compatible with the equipment listed. TS blanking is not required. The maximum output power of carrier B in GMSK mode is 20 W*. For all other frequencies. carrier A is fully EDGE-capable. CTU2D double density power mode: This mode is also known as ITS Mode whereby the CTU2 and CTU2D operations are identical. The maximum output power carrier B (GMSK only) is always 20 W*. which is backwards compatible by switching from TCU to SCU on the front panel. • The output powers listed are for 900 MHz frequency. carrier A is fully EDGEcapable. CTU2D retains the behavior of CTU2 and extends to support two simultaneous carriers for EGPRS (Carrier B UL GMSK limited). The maximum output power of carrier A in 8PSK mode is 10 W* and GMSK mode is 20 W*. and Horizon II Extension off H2 master. The hybrid of CTU2 and CTU2D can be configured in different operational modes within one cell. The maximum output power of carrier A in 8PSK mode is 10 W* and GMSK mode is 20 W*. In Horizon II family which includes Horizon II macro. CTU2D radio can support the following working modes: • • • CTU2D single density mode: This mode is identical in operation to the existing CTU2 single density mode. while carrier B supports EDGE on the DL and GMSK (EDGE) on the UL. and will be delivered in a separate software load. CTU2D double density asymmetric mode: Of the two carriers. while carrier B supports GPRS/TCH. Horizon II Mini. Horizon II micro.BSS equipment overview Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Except for the TCU. CTU2D The CTU2-D is not currently part of GSR9. It can be configured to operate in single or double density mode. Description and planning rules for the CTU2 are provided in Chapter 5 of this manual. the output power varies. CTU2D double density capacity mode: Of the two carriers. 68P02900W21-S 1-6 01 Feb 2007 .

the transceiver functions are provided by the TCU or TCU-B (not BTS6). CTU In Horizonmacro. the transceiver functions are provided by the CTU2. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-7 . Contact the Motorola Local Office for details. The CTU2 only acts as a CTU replacement in the non-controller or standby controller mode. and Horizoncompact2. M-Cell2. Description and planning rules for the CTU2 are provided in Chapter 5 of this manual. and an external battery backup unit added. The receivers do not support receive diversity. Configuration diagrams are shown in Chapter 13. A CTU2 cannot be CCB equipped and does not act as a full replacement or swap for the CTU. The M-Cell6 cabinet requires up to three power supplies when used with CTU2s. the transceiver functions are provided by the dual transceiver module (DTRX). This CTU2 can also be used by Horizonmacro as a CTU replacement with restrictions (see NOTE on page 1-7). there are output power restrictions that needs a mandatory third power supply installed in the Horizonmacro cabinet. Description and planning rules for the CTU are provided in Chapter 5 of this manual. Configuration diagrams are shown in Chapter 12. TCU/TCU-B In M-Cell6. Configuration diagrams are shown in Chapter 12.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS equipment overview CTU2 In Horizon II macro. and BTS6. The receivers can support receive diversity. the transceiver functions are provided by the CTU. the CTU2 only supports baseband hopping in single density mode. which can be configured to operate in single or double density mode. M-Cellcity and M-Cellcity+ the transceiver functions are provided by a pair of TCU-ms. Description and planning rules for the TCU/TCU-B are provided in Chapter 5 of this manual. System planning is described in Chapter 2 and configuration diagrams are shown in Chapter 12. When installed in Horizonmacro. as the location for the third power supply means that the battery hold-up module has to be removed. Horizonmicro2. Depending on the number of CTU/CTU2s in the Horizonmacro cabinet. DTRX In Horizonmicro. CTU2s do not support the use of CCBs. The receivers do not support receive diversity. There are no available slots for the redundant power supply if three power supplies are required. This can affect the battery hold-up module in ac-powered cabinets. The receivers can support receive diversity. TCU-m In M-Cellmicro. The M-Cell2 cabinet requires up to two power supplies when used with CTU2s. The receivers can support receive diversity. The CTU2 can also be used by M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 with a CTU2 Adapter. Horizoncompact.

Cell Broadcast Code Storage Facility Processor Packet Control Unit (PCU) for General Packet Data Service (GPRS) upgrade Enhanced-GPRS (EGPRS) Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) GSM half rate Location services (LCS) BSC Reset Management (BRM) Advanced Speech Call Item VersaTRAU backhaul for EGPRS Quality of Service (QoS) {27703} QoS2 {28398} Increased Network Capacity (Huge BSC) Improved Timeslot Sharing (ITS) {22168}Enhanced BSC capacity using DSW2 {28337} High Speed MTL {28351} Add New BSC/PCU Software (PXP)/Hardware (PSI2) to increase GPRS capacity (ePCU) {26740} High Bandwidth interconnect between BSC and PCU (PSI2) {23291}Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) {30828} CTU2-D 96 MSIs Diversity Diversity reception (spatial diversity) at the BTS is obtained by supplying two uncorrelated receive signals to the transceiver.BSS features Chapter 1: Introduction to planning BSS features Planning impacts This section provides a description of the software features that might affect the required equipment before planning the actual equipment. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Diversity Frequency hopping Short Message. This results in improved receiver performance when multipath propagation is significant and in improved interference protection. Each transceiver unit includes two receivers. which independently process the two received signals and combine the results to produce an output. 68P02900W21-S 1-8 01 Feb 2007 . Check with the appropriate Motorola sales office regarding software availability with respect to these features.

Each method has different hardware requirements. if a single transceiver fails. due to the inability to inform the MSs. Baseband signals for a particular call are switched to a different transceiver at each TDM frame to achieve frequency hopping. Baseband hopping needs the use of one transceiver for each allocated frequency. Synthesizer hopping Synthesizer hopping uses the frequency agility of the transceiver to change frequencies on a timeslot basis for both receive and transmit. Calls could be dropped. There are three important points to NOTE when using this method of providing frequency hopping: • • • Use Hybrid combining. The transceiver calculates the next frequency and re-programs its synthesizer to move to the new frequency. The data originates from either a Cell Broadcast Centre (CBC) or OMC-R (user-defined messages are entered using the appropriate MMI command). There are three important points to NOTE when using this method of providing frequency hopping: • • • The number of transceivers must be equal to the number of transmit (or receive) frequencies required. Use of either remote tuning combiners or hybrid combiners is acceptable. The CBC or OMC-R downloads cell broadcast messages to the BSC. Cell Broadcast (SMS CB) The Short Message Service. Short Message Service. It is only necessary to provide as many transceivers as required by the traffic. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-9 . Cell Broadcast (SMS CB) feature. The BSC transmits these updates to the appropriate BTSs. The main differences are: • • Synthesizer hopping needs the use of wideband (hybrid) combiners for transmit combining. One transceiver in each sector must be on a fixed frequency to provide the BCCH carrier. is a means of unilaterally transmitting data to MSs on a per cell basis. while synthesizer hopping does not. together with indications of the repetition rate. Baseband hopping For baseband hopping. A Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH) provides this feature. each transceiver operates on preset frequencies in the transmit direction.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS features Two Rx antennas are required for each sector. Cavity combining is not allowed when using synthesizer hopping. Frequency hopping There are two methods of providing frequency hopping synthesizer hopping and baseband hopping. Equivalent overlapping antenna patterns and sufficient physical separation between the two antennas are required to obtain the necessary de-correlation. while baseband hopping does not. and the number of broadcasts required per message. which ensures that the message is transmitted as requested. The output power available with the use of the hybrid combiners must be consistent with coverage requirements.

the BSS software is focused on the air interface. Enhanced-GPRS (EGPRS) The Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) enhances the data throughput of the GPRS to enable the Enhanced-GPRS (EGPRS) system. and the Coding Scheme 3/Coding Scheme 4 feature.BSS features Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Code Storage Facility Processor (CSFP) The BSS supports a GPROC acting as the Code Storage Facility Processor (CSFP). When BTSs are connected to the BSC.2 kbit/s in GPRS. the EDMAC feature allows the support of mobiles classes 11 and 12 to enable 3 or 4 timeslot assignment in the UL. The planning guide takes into account the larger data capacity of the system dependent on the expected EGPRS usage. The maximum data throughput for a multi-slot mobile utilizing all eight air timeslots with EGPRS is 473. In GSR9.2 kbit/s per air timeslot with EGPRS. The CSFP allows preloading of a new software release while the BSS is operational. One of the reasons for the difference is that a GPRS network allows the queuing of data traffic instead of blocking a call when a circuit is unavailable. GPRS introduced packet data services and GPRS planning are fundamentally different from the planning of circuit-switched networks. Support for the mobile classes. The data rates used here are theoretical values.6 kbit/s compared to 171. The EGPRS feature is an extension to the software architecture introduced by the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) feature. The following are some of the features included with EGPRS: • EGPRS employs a new set of GSM modulation and channel coding techniques that increase a user’s packet data throughput from a maximum of 21. The initial release of EGPRS provides support for a multi-slot mobile using four downlink and two uplink air timeslots. Consequently. which dictate the multi-slot capabilities of a mobile and is the same for EGPRS as in GPRS (classes 1-12). • • • Although a large portion of the EGPRS impact. a CSFP is required at the BSC and a second CSFP is equipped for redundancy as required. 68P02900W21-S 1-10 01 Feb 2007 .4 kbit/s per air timeslot with GPRS to a maximum of 59. the use of Erlang B tables for estimating the number of trunks or timeslots required is not a valid planning approach for the GPRS packet data provisioning process. This means that a network supporting EGPRS also provides support for the GSM voice and GPRS data. PCU for GPRS upgrade The PCU hardware provides GPRS functionality and is part of the BSS equipment. Impacts also exist on the terrestrial interfaces to carry the large volume of data traffic produced by these new data rates.

rather than the 16 kbit/s subchannel required with KSWs. Therefore. This results in an overall reduction in transcoding shelf (or cage) capacity . or it can utilize new hardware that further enhances the benefits of AMR. as well as subrate switching capability down to 8 kbit/s (extended subrate switching mode). The existing hardware also supports 16 kbit/s switching on the backhaul between the BSC and RXCDR. with the assumption that some calls are utilizing half rate backhaul. This codec mode needs 16 kbit/s backhaul. each half rate equipped RTF must have an additional two 64 kbit/s timeslots equipped to fully utilize all 16 half rate channels. With 8 kbit/s switching between the BSC and BTS. all channels between the BSC and RXCDR (referred to as the Ater interface) required 16 kbit/s Ater channels. With AMR. The GDP2 can be used to full capacity in the existing BSU shelf. This allows the operator to equip fewer channels than previously possible. when a half rate traffic channel is assigned. based upon the backhaul in use across the BSC-BTS interface. which were assigned during initialization/reconfiguration. the existing GDP (which currently supports 30 voice channels and data services) only supports 15 AMR voice channels. enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1. a half rate voice stream can be carried in an 8 kbit/s subchannel. Dynamic assignment of BSC to RXCDR channels is employed to maximize Ater channel usage. The AMR program introduces new transcoder equipment (the GDP2).95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the half rate Active Codec Set. mandating the extra backhaul resources. However. This eliminates the need for the two additional 64 kbit/s timeslots required per half rate capable RTF. The half rate Active Codec Set is provisioned on a per cell basis. AMR is introduced using current hardware components. when using existing switching hardware. when the 7. The existing RXU shelf has only one E1 connection per transcoder slot. which has no associated E1 limitation. A new RXU shelf (RXU3) and BSSC cabinet (BSSC3) have been introduced to utilize the added capacity. capable of supporting 60 voice (AMR or non-AMR) channels. the voice stream utilizes an 8 kbit/s channel (depending upon the codec modes employed). The Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2) has been introduced to address the problem. thus reducing footprint. AMR selects the optimum channel rate as full rate (fr) or half rate (hr) and codec mode (speech and channel bit rates) to provide the best combination of speech quality and system capacity. The feature is tuned by the network user on a cell-by-cell basis to obtain the best balance between quality and capacity. Due to the increased processing requirements of AMR. The DSW2 benefit of 8 kbit/s subrate switching allows this capability to be realized. • • When using the GDP2 within the new RXU3 shelf in a non-MSI slot. The existing hardware supports 16 kbit/s switching on the backhaul between the BSC and BTS.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS features Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) The AMR feature provides enhanced speech quality by adapting the speech and channel coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel. It provides increased capacity by allocating half rate channels to some or all mobiles. hence the GDP2 only supports 30 channels when used in this configuration. two GDPs are paired to support a full E1’s worth of channels (30). Before AMR (and the use of half rate). requiring 16 kbit/s per voice channel. There is one exception. The BSC assigns an 8 or 16 kbit/s channel as required. that is. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-11 . The DSW2 supports double the number of ports (enhanced capacity mode) when used in the RXCDR.30 channels per GDP pair.

The Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2) supports subrate switching capability down to 8 kbit/s (extended subrate switching mode). Handovers in the opposite direction can handover to AMR. 8 kbit/s needs that the subrate (8K) switching is present at the BSC. each containing a half rate channel. or utilizing new hardware that further enhances the benefits of this feature. Intra-cell handovers are supported between the two types of timeslots with the restriction that an AMR call on a normal timeslot has to handover to EFR/FR on the extended range timeslot. Extended range cells GSM half rate is only supported on the normal range timeslots and not on extended range timeslots (it is envisaged that the C/I ratio in the extended range portion of an extended range cell does not support a half rate call). Enhanced Auto Connect is applicable to both AMR and GSM half rate. The GDP and GDP2 boards are enhanced to support GSM HR. thus providing 30 and 60 channels of transcoding capability. The new hardware is described in detail in Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) on page 1-11. based upon the backhaul in use across the BSC–BTS interface. referred to as Enhanced Auto Connect mode. respectively. If a percentage of the active calls are assumed to be half rate. As the current RXU shelf has only one E1 connection per transcoder slot. Speech quality is considered inferior to other speech codecs but has a high penetration level (of GSM HR capable mobiles) due to its early introduction into the standards and is considered a viable option for high-density areas. The new RXU shelf (RXU3) and BSSC cabinet (BSSC3) are used to utilize the full capacity. GSM half rate is introduced using current hardware components. With 8 kbit/s switching between the BSC and BTS. then efficiency can be gained by reducing the number of terrestrial resources between the BSC and RXCDR. The BSC can assign an 8 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s channel as required. with the assumption that some calls are utilizing half rate backhaul. the GDP2 supports 30 channels when used in this configuration. The backhaul between the BTS and BSC is 8 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s. when using existing switching hardware. The existing hardware only supports 16 kbit/s switching on the backhaul between the BSC and BTS. a GSM half rate call can fit within an 8 kbit/s timeslot (an Ater channel) on the terrestrial resource from the BSC to the RXCDR. each half rate equipped RTF must have an additional two 64 kbit/s timeslots equipped to fully utilize all 16 half rate channels. The DSW2 benefit of 8 kbit/s subrate switching allows this capability to be realized. Therefore. 68P02900W21-S 1-12 01 Feb 2007 . This dynamic allocation is an enhancement to the existing Auto Connect mode feature. rather than the 16 kbit/s timeslot required for full rate calls.BSS features Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Extended range cells AMR is only supported on the normal range timeslots and not on extended range timeslots. GSM half rate GSM half rate offers enhanced capacity over the air interface. This eliminates the need for the two additional 64 kbit/s timeslots required per half rate capable RTF. This allows the user to equip fewer channels than previously possible. rather than the 16 kbit/s subchannel required with KSWs. as well as double the number of ports (enhanced capacity mode) when used in the RXCDR. Dynamic assignment of BSC to RXCDR channels is employed to maximize Ater channel usage. The existing hardware also supports only 16 kbit/s switching on the backhaul between the BSC and RXCDR. An air timeslot is split into two subchannels. a half rate voice stream is carried in an 8 kbit/s subchannel. requiring 16 kbit/s per voice channel (as it does currently). As with AMR half rate. corresponding to the proportion of mobiles within a coverage area that supports half rate.

LCS is not classified as a supplementary service and can be subscribed to without subscribing to a basic telecommunication service. its primary purpose is to obtain an estimate of the location of the client MS. for certain types of equipment failure. or external to the PLMN. the LCS client is also within the LCS server. there are restrictions on choice of positioning method or notification of a location request to the MS user when the LCS or individual positioning methods respectively are not supported by the MS. • Network induced location request (NI-LR) Any location request for a target MS from a client considered to be within any of the PLMN entities currently serving the target MS. • Mobile terminating location request (MT-LR) Any location request from an LCS client where the client is treated as external to the PLMN to which the location request is made. either for the client MS itself or for another LCS client designated by the MS. LCS utilizes one or more positioning mechanisms to determine the location of a mobile station. The LCS signaling between the SMLC and BSC goes directly between the two entities. This minimizes the BSS outage. reducing the downtime from 10 minutes to 20 minutes to less than two minutes for most occurrences.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS features LoCation Services (LCS) LCS provides a set of capabilities that determine location estimates of mobile stations and makes that information available to location applications. Location service requests are divided into three categories: LCS architecture The LCS architecture can be one of the following: • NSS-based The Serving Mobile Location Centre (SMLC) is connected to an MSC instead of a BSC. The MSC acts as a relay point for LCS signaling between the SMLC and BSC. for emergency call origination and by O&M in a visited PLMN. However. Mobile originating location request (MO-LR) Any location request from a client MS to the LCS server made over the GSM air interface. LCS is applicable to any target MS. Location estimate computation based on the measured signals. Applications requesting location estimates from LCS can be located in the MS. whether the MS supports LCS. the network. Examples of a NI-LR include a location request needed for supplementary services. Positioning an MS involves two main steps: • • • Signal measurements. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-13 . While an MO-LR could be used to request the location of another MS. In this case. BSC Reset Management (BRM) BSC Reset Management (BRM) provides the option for fast failover of the BSC. • BSS-based The SMLC is connected to a BSC instead of an MSC.

New call set-up. The following are some of the key features included with VersaTRAU: • VersaTRAU allows the backhaul for an EGPRS capable carrier to be dynamically provisioned in terms of 64 kbit/s terrestrial timeslots (DS0s). reach MCS9).BSS features Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Equip the BSC with a redundant secondary BSP GPROC3/GPROC3-2 to utilize this feature.Call switchover where calls do not necessarily require to be terminated due to a single failure on the linkset between an RXCDR–BSC or due to MSC indicated CIC changes.Internal imperative handovers. Analysis of the RF conditions of current GPRS networks and predictions for EGPRS indicate that the average maximum throughput per EGPRS TS does not use the entire DS0 (that is. . . Enhanced Multi-level Precedence and Pre-emption With the enhanced Multi-level Precedence and Pre-emption (eMLPP) feature. The following types of resource pre-emption are supported: o o o • • TCH Ater channel Queue block Priority Protection of switchable PDTCH Resources.External handovers. operators can provide preferential services to special users with higher priority such as police and medical personnel during emergency situations and high priority subscribers. Advanced Speech Call Item (ASCI) The Advanced Speech Call Item (ASCI) feature includes the enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Preemption (eMLPP) feature. eMLPP priority support .BSS supports eMLPP priority between the MSC and MS. Resources of lower priority calls can be pre-empted to allow higher priority calls to go through. . This is achieved when packing variable size radio blocks to be sent over PDTCHs on a carrier. With the eMLPP feature. Enhancements based on priority are also provided. 68P02900W21-S 1-14 01 Feb 2007 . the following functions are supported: • Pre-emption: The Motorola BSS supports resource pre-emption based on a full set of Ainterface priority levels and procedures as defined in 3GPP TS 48. VersaTRAU backhaul for EGPRS VersaTRAU reduces EGPRS backhaul costs by taking advantage of statistical multiplexing. Pre-emption is supported in the following procedures: o CS point-to-point call: .008. into one large TRAU frame associated with the carrier.

QoS for conversational and streaming traffic classes is not supported. conversational and streaming traffic is allowed into the GPRS network and downgraded to Interactive class and is not subject to further downgrade or preemption. in order to maximize the backhaul utilization. QoS dimensioning The two most significant factors that influence quality of a service are: • • Delay Throughput In R99 and beyond. New TRAU frame formats are introduced to carry the multiplexed data blocks over the Versachannel. All EGPRS capable carriers use VersaTRAU frame formats on the backhaul after introduction of VersaTRAU. If half rate (GSM/AMR) is enabled on an EGPRS carrier. four traffic classes are defined to accommodate the need for different levels of these factors for different applications. Versachannel is defined as the portion of the backhaul associated with an RTF that is used to carry TRAU frames associated with the air timeslots configured as a PDTCH. The provision of focused QoS classes ensures that the subscribers receive the best possible service specific to the types of applications used and specific to the type of tariff selected. The QoS feature allows operators to charge premium rates for the highest quality of service classes and thus to focus the resources of their network to their revenue generating customers. Admission and retention control based Allocation/Retention priority (ARP). is provided for Interactive and Background traffic classes. These are: • • • • Conversational Streaming Interactive Background The BSS has internally defined additional traffic classes created by grouping similar PFC characteristics. Traffic from all PDTCHs on a carrier is packed efficiently into a Versachannel of one or more terrestrial timeslots associated with this carrier. however. The internally defined traffic classes are: • • • Short-Term Non-Negotiated Traffic (STNNT) Pre-Admission PFC (PAP) QoS disabled 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-15 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS features • • Statistics are provided to the operator to measure the backhaul utilization for an EGPRS capable carrier to detect whether the backhaul is under or over provisioned. the 16 kbit/s switching format for the half rate calls is not supported on the backhaul and 8 kbit/s switching (requiring DSWs) has to be used. Quality of Service (QoS) With the Quality of Service (QoS) feature. operators are able to enter into varying levels of Service Level agreements with end users that guarantee both different probabilities of access to the network and different throughputs once the network is accessed.

DOWNLOAD_BSS_PFC. 68P02900W21-S 1-16 01 Feb 2007 . However.018 as CREATE_BSS_PFC. QoS impacts on BSS The QoS feature influence the following BSS entities: • Gb interface PFM procedures over the Gb interface are defined in 48. The Guaranteed Bit Rate for each PFC is an extension of this concept except that the GBR must be enforced as a true guarantee and not just a commitment. Support for PFCs requesting streaming traffic class can be enabled/disabled using the streaming_enabled BSS parameter. • PDTCH planning The PDTCH formula in Chapter 3. Support for Streaming Traffic Class allows the operator to specify a service requiring constraints on delay and jitter as well as minimum bit rate. The updated equations provide the cell with appropriate amount of throughput for QoS subscribers based on the input to the formulas. the guaranteed bit rate is defined as the bit rate at the LLC layer. the BSS is implementing differentiation of service among interactive and background traffic classes. that is. The key components of QoS2 implementation are as follows: • • • Add support for Streaming Traffic class. MODIFY_BSS_PFC. QoS introduced the internal BSS concept of an MTBR (Minimum Throughput Budget Requirement) associated with each PFC. The formulas use the user configurable parameters for MTBR for each Traffic Class and Coding Scheme usage to determine the maximum number of PDTCHs to assign to a PRP. QoS2 {27703} The QoS2 builds on top of QoS.BSS features Chapter 1: Introduction to planning As the specification for conversational and streaming is still evolving. divided by the duration of the period. Capacity is based on a less conservative budget to start (using user configurable initial coding scheme). Requests to create packet flows for streaming or conversational mode are treated as interactive traffic flows. BSS tries to admit the streaming traffic classes as one of the matching interactive traffic classes (determined based on the MTBR settings. Support for streaming or conversational traffic class at the BSS is limited in its scope. details defined in the GSR8 QoS implementation). In addition. the BSS does not make any guarantees regarding sustaining applications using the streaming and conversational traffic classes. Maximum bit-rate enforcement as per the QoS profile. the support for optional PFI IE in UL_UNITDATA and DL_UNITDATA PDUs is also dictated by the support for PFM procedures. Guaranteed Bit Rate as per the 3GPP specification is defined as the guaranteed number of bits delivered at an SAP within a period of time (if there is data to deliver). Dual Transfer Mode has been updated to reflect the QoS design to allow QoS to reserve the appropriate amount of throughput per cell. streaming and conversational traffic classes get QoS of interactive traffic class when admitted. DELETE_BSS_PFC and their corresponding ACKs and NACKs. The MTBR is measured as the raw air throughput at the RLC/MAC layer whereas the GBR measurements exclude any RLC retransmissions. • PDTCH assignment to PRP The formula for assigning PDTCHs to a PRP has been updated to allow subscribers with QoS to have the necessary throughput reserved at the PRP. If support for streaming traffic class is disabled. For the GPRS RAN.

Transfer delay of an arbitrary SDU is not meaningful for a bursty source (applicable only to real-time traffic classes – streaming/conversational). Thus. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-17 . Although the feature of ITS does not double the voice capacity per CTU2.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS features Transfer Delay (definition as per 23. In addition. at the RLC layer. some other parameters influence user experience although there is no impact to capacity. Improved Timeslot Sharing (ITS) The Improved Timeslot Sharing feature supports EGPRS on DD CTU2 and retains no HW changes of CTU2. All the PFCs for a given operator share the same TBF over the air interface to transfer data for the PFCs. The maximum number of BSC-XCDR connectivity that a BSC supports increases from 27 to 42. all PFCs for the mobile still share the same pipe. compared with EGPRS on single Density Mode CTU2. The upload and collection of statistics to the OMC takes place at 30 minute or 60 minute intervals. QoS2 is based on the GSR8 implementation of QoS. as transport through the core network uses a part of the acceptable delay. the transfer delay for Radio Access Bearer can be smaller than the overall requested transfer delay.107) indicates maximum delay for 95th percentile of the distribution of delay for all delivered SDUs during the lifetime of a bearer service. it offers more channels to service voice users with EGPRS service in parallel. the EGPRS PDTCH can only be configured on Carrier A of DD CTU2 while the corresponding timeslots on the paired Carrier B have to be blanked out. The Maximum number of sites that a BSC supports increases from 100 to 140. Increased Network Capacity enhances the network capacity and supports database capacity up to 8 MB. The power output is not affected for GMSK and 8PSK. which include stream_downgrade_enabled and mtbr_downgrade_enabled. The real-time service is prioritized appropriately over the non real-time services where necessary. Streaming_enabled and qos_mbr_enabled parameters affect cell capacity. The maximum bitrate applies to all traffic classes. The Maximum number of circuits that a BSC supports increases from 3200 to 4800. However. if stream_downgrade_enabled is disabled and the idle resource is not enough. RT service is rejected. GSR9 enhances the LLC scheduling within the TBF. This feature has an impact on the collection and dispatch of the additional statistics due to the increased number of managed objects. For example. where delay for an SDU is defined as the time from a request to transfer an SDU at one SAP to its delivery at the other SAP. Maximum Bit Rate enforcement allows the BSS to throttle the throughput of the user to the maximum bit rate stated in the QoS parameters (ABQP) even if there is capacity to provide the user a higher throughput. GSR9 streaming support is limited to at most one active real-time PFC per user at any given time. Increased Network Capacity (Huge BSC) {28398} The optional feature. and lasts for 20 minutes. and HII FW allow each CTU2 to be able to switch rapidly between Double Density modulation (GMSK) and Single Density modulation (8PSK). The main purpose of the maximum bit rate enforcement from an user’s perspective are to limit the delivered bitrate to the applications or external networks and to allow maximum required or permitted bitrate to be defined for applications able to operate with different rates. The network capacity is as follows: • • • • The Maximum number of carriers that a BSC supports increases from 512 to 750. In addition. Transfer delay as all other attributes in the Aggregate BSS QoS profile is negotiable. BSS SW.

It connects the BSC to the PCU with Ethernet connectivity. High bandwidth interconnect between BSC and PCU (PSI2) {26740} The PSI2 card is introduced in GSR9. This feature utilizes and needs the GPROC3-2 (FR25739) hardware to increase the MTL capacity. This allows the customer to equip more devices.BSS features Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Enhanced BSC capacity using DSW2 {22168} This feature expands (double) the TDM timeslots in the BSC from 1024 TSs to 2048 TSs in one switch cage using bank 0/1 extension mode. MSI. with a PBIB or PT43 board replacing the BIB or T43 board. U-DPROC2 hardware board is configured as a new PXP function that combines the functionality of the PICP and PRP into one board. in multiple cages. When up to 4 switch cages are configured. the maximum capacity is 8192 x 64 kbit/s TSs. The physical interface from the card is a 1000BASE-T over four pairs of copper wire. Addition of new BSC/PCU software (PXP) and hardware (PSI2) to increase GPRS capacity (ePCU) {28351} The evolved PCU feature provides a migration path for operators wanting to expand existing GPRS capabilities. When this switch cage has one or more extension cages. This connection can also be operated in 100BASE-TX mode of operation. U-DPROC2 is a new hardware type that takes over all the functions of a legacy DPROC board and has a new mode for high-capacity operations. PXP combines the functionality of PICP and PRP into one board. For example. utilizing two pairs of copper wire. This link is referred as the Ethernet Link unless it is required to specify 100BASE-TX or 1000BASE-T modes of operation. High Speed MTL {28337} HSP MTL feature offers enhanced capacity and flexibility of MTL to support huge BSC configurations by increasing the capacity of MTL from 64k to 2M. PXP is connected with the PSI2 board in BSC through Ethernet link. PSI. and the other extension cages share the rest of the 1024 TSs (BANK1). the switch cage uses 1024 TSs (BANK0). The standard backplane connections is used. 68P02900W21-S 1-18 01 Feb 2007 . at the top of the cabinet. and so on. A new DPROC type called PXP is introduced. respectively. The new interconnect board (PBIB or PT43) at the top of the BSC cabinet allows a single RJ45 Ethernet connection instead of two span lines for one of the supported MSI positions. The BSC supports High Speed MTL (HSP MTL) link utilization to a maximum of 20%.

DTM impacts on BSS The DTM feature influences the following BSS entities: • Radio resource management The DTM PS timeslots are converted from TCH. With the introduction of CTU2D feature. in addition to the various modes supported by the legacy CTU2 radios. some TCHs in the cell are converted into DTM PDCHs. in that event. When a DTM MS in dedicated mode requests the timeslots for the PS session. The following are the different Edge modes that the CTU2D radio supports: • CTU2D SD This mode is identical in operation to the existing CTU2 SD and is only included for reference. The DTM MS in a CS connection can add a PS session to it by making a DTM request. the new CTU2D radios can support both SD and DD EDGE architectures. The Max_DTM_TS planning impacts the provisions of circuit switched timeslots and switchable GPRS/EGPS timeslots. • PDTCH planning Some timeslots per PRP are reserved for the PS sessions of DTM subscribers. the PS session is aborted by the MS. If the CS connection is established then the MS can add a PS session to the CS session to perform DTM. the additional load on GSL is taken into consideration. Carrier A/B definitions and nomenclature also apply to CTU2D. and will be delivered in a separate software load. According to the CTU2. The DTM MS that is in a PS session can get a CS page or the operator can choose to make a CS call. CTU2-D {30828} The CTU2-D is not currently part of GSR9. which impact the PDTCH planning in PCU.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS features Dual Transfer Mode {23291} This optional feature supports the DTM mobiles (subset of class A) and can access packet and circuit services simultaneously. • CTU2D PWR 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-19 . The database parameter Max_DTM_TS defines the maximum of CS timeslots that can be converted to DTM PDCHs. • GSL link planning Due to the impact of paging coordination and DTM signaling messages.

carrier A is fully EDGE-capable. then the corresponding TS on carrier B is blanked. Figure 1-3 CTU2D CAP A No E E E E E E E E E or T or G T/G T/G T/G T/G T/G T/G T/G T/G B DD 10W CTU2D CAP • CTU2D ASYM Of the two carriers. The maximum output power of carrier A in 8PSK mode is 10W* and GMSK mode is 20W*. not supporting anything. if the TS on carrier A is supporting an EDGE TS. the output power varies. The maximum output power of carrier B in GMSK mode is 20W* Figure 1-4.BSS features Chapter 1: Introduction to planning This mode is also known as ITS Mode whereby the CTU2 and CTU2D operations are identical. 68P02900W21-S 1-20 01 Feb 2007 . The maximum output power of both carriers whether in GMSK or 8PSK mode is 20W* as shown in Figure 1-2. while carrier B supports GPRS/TCH. that is. TS blanking is not required. The maximum output power carrier B (GMSK only) is always 20W* as shown in Figure 1-3. Of the two carriers. The maximum output power of carrier A in 8PSK mode is 10W* and GMSK mode is 20W*. Figure 1-2 CTU2D PWR A B • CTU2D CAP E E E E T T T T X X X X T/G T/G T/G T/G DD 20W CTU2D PWR / CTU2 ITS Of the two carriers. Figure 1-4 CTU2D ASYM The output powers listed are for 900 MHz frequency. carrier A is fully EDGE-capable. while carrier B supports EDGE on the DL and GMSK (EDGE) on the UL. For all other frequencies. Carrier B TS is capable of supporting only TCH or GPRS PDs while the corresponding TS on carrier A does not have an EDGE TS.

some devices can be out of service until the fullenhanced capacity mode is re-enabled. This feature expands the number of MSIs supported from 56 to 96 and allows for additional E1s between the BSC and the BTSs. The current algorithm configures the MSI with the OML with priority in the database to ensure the availability of MSI in either single rate or enhanced capacity mode. RXCDR(s). only one PCU can be deployed to the BSC to keep the total number of MMS/MSIs in the entire BSS system limit. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-21 . and will be delivered in a separate software load. The impact on BSS is as follows: If 96 MSIs are equipped at a BSC (12 MSIs in each of 8 cages). When the system is operating in single rate mode. The OML is important for the customer to control the BSC in OMC side. and PCU.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS features 96 MSIs The 96 MSI feature is not currently part of GSR9.

BSS planning focuses on providing planning steps and rules under normal traffic load without congestion. 68P02900W21-S 1-22 01 Feb 2007 . the required information is categorized into three main areas: • • • Traffic model and capacity calculations Category of service Site planning Traffic model and capacity calculations The following information is required to calculate the capacity required: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Traffic information (Erlangs/BTS) over desired service area Average traffic per site Call duration Number of handovers per call Ratio of location updates to calls Ratio of total pages sent to time in seconds (pages per second) Ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers LCS usage Number of TCHs half rate (AMR or GSM) usage Ratio of SDCCHs to TCHs Link utilization (for C7 MSC to BSS links) SMS utilization (both cell broadcast and point to point) Expected (applied and effective) GPRS load eMLPP impact on BSS equipment and capacity calculations With eMLPP feature. When planning radio and terrestrial resources. Background information Before planning. the adequate resources require to be planned by treating all calls equal without considering preemption. preferential service is provided for higher priority calls by pre-empting the resource from lower priority calls when the system is under congestion.BSS planning overview Chapter 1: Introduction to planning BSS planning overview Introduction A brief overview of the planning process is provided in this section. or processor provisioning based on 70% utilization. with certain capacity margin planned for traffic surge or congestion. That is. such as link provisioning based on 25% or 35% or 40% signaling link utilization.

that is. Site planning The following information is required to plan each site. Typical cell radio link budget. equipment shelters. Erlang B at 1%. followed by the BTS(s). Plan all the BTS sites as follows: o Use an appropriate RF planning tool to determine the geographical location of sites and the RF parameters of the selected terrain. or rural: o o o • • • Cell configuration in each category. a function of the following: o o o Desired grade of service or acceptable level of blockage. Grade of service of the trunks between the MSC/BSC. and the RXCDR(s). BSS equipment planning disregards the eMLPP feature. (frequency planning) omni or sector: o o o • • • Spectrum availability. Local restrictions affecting antenna heights. omni or sectored and the frequency re-use scheme that satisfies traffic. Category of service • Category of service area urban. BSC(s). interference and growth requirements. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-23 . Number of RF carriers in cell/sector to support traffic. that is. Number of RF carrier frequencies available. Planning methodology A GSM digital cellular system consists of several BSSs. and capacity or equipment calculation formula is not updated for this feature. Antenna type(s) and gain specification. and so on. Planning a BSS involves the following: • • Select the configuration. Number of sites required (RF planning issues). sector against omni. Results of field tests. Redundancy level requirements (determined for each item). Grade of service of the traffic channels (TCH) between the MS and BTS. • • • • Location of the BSC and BTSs. Supply voltage. Erlang B at 2%. Re-use plan. suburban. Frequency re-use scheme to meet traffic and C/I requirements. Cell grid plan. Diversity doubles the number of Rx antennas and associated equipment. The planning cycle begins with defining the BSS cell. Diversity requirement.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS planning overview Therefore.

68P02900W21-S 1-24 01 Feb 2007 . Traffic requirements for the BSCs. the subsequent hardware implementation. if required. Which BTSs are connected to which BSC How the BTSs are connected to the BSCs. Plan the digital equipment portion for each BTS site. and power requirements for each BSC. Shelf. Sites for each BSC. Plan the RF equipment portion and cabinets for each BTS site.BSS planning overview Chapter 1: Introduction to planning o o o • Determine which equipment affecting features are required at each site. Plan the BSCs after the BTS sites are configured and determine the following: o o o o o o • • Plan the remote transcoder (RXCDR) requirements and. diversity or frequency hopping. For example. Plan the Packet Control Unit (PCU) for the desired packet data capacity for the system. cabinets. Digital equipment for each BSC site.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Acronyms Acronyms Acronym list Table 1-2 contains a list of acronyms as used in this manual. Table 1-2 Acronym list Acronym AGCH A-GPS ALM AMR ARFCN ARP ARQ ASCI ATB BBH BCCH BCS BCU BE BER BG BHCA BIB BLER BRM BSC BSP BSS BSSC(n) BSU BTC Meaning Access grant channel Assisted GPS Advanced load management Adaptive multi-rate Absolute radio frequency channel number Allocation / retention priority Automatic repeat request Advanced speech call item All trunks busy Baseband hopping Broadcast control channel Block check sequence Base controller unit Best effort Bit error rate Back ground Busy hour call attempts Balanced line interface board Block error rate BSC reset management Base station controller Base station processor Base station system Base station system control (n = 2 or 3) Base station unit Bus termination card Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-25 .

Acronyms Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Table 1-2 Acronym list (Continued) Acronym BTF BTP BTS BVC(I) C/I CBC CBF CBL CCB CCCH CDMA CIC CIR CLKX CN CP cPCI CPU CRC CS(n) CSFP CTU CTU2 CTU2D PWR CTU2D CAP CTU2D ASYM DARBC dB DCF DDF DCS DECT Meaning Base transceiver function Base transceiver processor Base transceiver station BSSGP virtual circuit (identifier) Carrier to interference ratio Cell broadcast centre Combining bandpass filter Cell broadcast centre link Cavity combining block Common control channel Code division multiple access Circuit identity code Committed information rate Clock extender Core network Call processing Compact PCI Central processing unit Cyclic redundancy check Channel coding scheme (number) Code storage facility processor Compact transceiver unit Compact transceiver unit 2 CTU2D double density power mode CTU2D double density capacity mode CTU2D double density asymmetric mode Dynamic allocation of RXCDR to BSC circuits Decibel Duplexed combining bandpass filter Dual stage duplexed combining filter Digital cellular system Digital enhanced cordless telephony Continued 68P02900W21-S 1-26 01 Feb 2007 .

048 Mbps span line Enhanced auto-connect Enhanced data rates for global evolution Enhanced Dynamic Allocation Medium Access Mode Enhanced full rate Enhanced generic digital processor Enhanced-GPRS Enhanced global system for mobile communication EGSM layer management Enhanced observed time difference Evolved PCU (Enhanced PCU) Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-27 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Acronyms Table 1-2 Acronym list (Continued) Acronym DD DDM DHU DL DLCI DLNB DPROC (D)RAM DRCU DRI DRIM DRX DSP DSW2 DSWX DTE DTRX DTX DUP DYNET e E1 EAC EDGE EDMAC EFR EGDP EGPRS EGSM ELM E-OTD ePCU Meaning Double Density Dual density mode Dual hybrid combiner unit Downlink Data link connection identifier Dual low noise block Data processor (Dynamic) random access memory Diversity radio control unit Digital radio interface Digital radio interface module Discontinuous reception Digital signal processor Double kiloport switch Double kiloport switch (extender) Data terminal equipment Dual transceiver module Discontinuous transmission Duplexer Dynamic network Erlang 32 channel 2.

Acronyms Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Table 1-2 Acronym list (Continued) Acronym eMLPP FACCH FEC FHI FM FMUX FN FOX fr FR FTD FTP GBL (or GbL) GCLK GDP(2) GDS GGSN GMLC GMM GMSK GOS GPROC(n) GPRS GPS GSM GSM half rate GSN GSR HCOMB HCU HDLC HDSL Meaning Enhanced multi-level precedence and pre-emption Fast access control channel Forward error correction Frequency hopping index Fault management Fiber optic multiplexer (Horizonmacro) Frame number Fiber optic multiplexer (M-Cell) Full rate referring to the channel rate Frame relay. or full rate referring to the speech codec File transit delay File transfer protocol Gb link Generic clock Generic digital processor (2) GPRS data stream Gateway GPRS support node Gateway mobile location centre GPRS mobility management Gaussian minimum shift keying Grade of service Generic processor (n = 1. 2 or 3) General packet radio system Global positioning by satellite Global system for mobile communication GSM half rate (GSM half rate speech version 1) feature GPRS support node GSM software release Hybrid combiner Hybrid combining unit High level data link control High bit rate digital subscriber line Continued 68P02900W21-S 1-28 01 Feb 2007 .

referring to the speech codec Hot swap controller Hopping sequence number interactive Integrated antenna distribution unit Intelligent multi-layer resource management International mobile subscriber identity In service Internet protocol Initial program load Incremental redundancy Improved Timeslot Sharing Integrated services digital network Inter symbol interference Internet service provider Kiloport switch (extender) Link adaptation Location area code Local area network (extender) Link access protocol balanced Link access protocol data Link control function Location services Logical link control Location service MTL Location measurement unit Low noise amplifier Mobile allocation (index offset) Medium access control Mobile application part Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-29 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Acronyms Table 1-2 Acronym list (Continued) Acronym HIISC HPM hr HR HSC HSNI IADU IMRM IMSI INS IP IPL IR ITS ISDN ISI ISP KSW(X) LA LAC LAN(X) LAPB LAPD LCF LCS LLC LMTL LMU LNA MA(IO) MAC MAP Meaning Horizon II macro site controller High power mode Half rate (AMR or GSM). referring to the channel rate Half rate (AMR or GSM).

Acronyms Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Table 1-2 Acronym list (Continued) Acronym MBR MCAP MCU MCUF MIB MLC MMI MPROC MS MSC MSI (-2) MTBR MTL MTP NCH NE NIU NPM NSE (I) NSP NSS NSVC (I) NTP NVM O&M OLM OMC-R OMF OML OOS OPL PACCH Meaning Maximum bit rate Motorola cellular advanced processor bus Main control unit Main control unit with dual FMUX Management information base Mobile location centre Man machine interface Master processor Mobile station Mobile switching centre Multiple serial interface (2) Minimum throughput budget requirement MTP transport layer link Message transfer part Notification channel Network element Network interface unit Normal power mode Network service entity (identifier) Network support program Network subsystem Network service layer virtual circuit (identifier) Network time protocol Non volatile memory Operations and maintenance Off line MIB Operations and maintenance centre – radio Operations and maintenance function Operations and maintenance link Out of service Optimization link Packet associated control channel Continued 68P02900W21-S 1-30 01 Feb 2007 .

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Acronyms Table 1-2 Acronym list (Continued) Acronym PAGCH PAP PAR PBCCH PBIB PCCCH PCH PCI PCM PCMCIA PCR PCS PCU PDCCH PDN PDP PDTCH PDU PFC PFM PICP PIX PLMN PMC PNCH PPCH PPP PRACH PSK PSM PSTN PSU Meaning Packet access grant channel Pre-admission PFC Peak to average ratio Packet broadcast control channel Packet BIB Packet common control channel Paging channel Peripheral component interconnect Pulse code modulation Personal computer memory card international association Preventive cyclic retransmission Personal communication system Packet control unit Packet dedicated control channel Packet data network Packet data protocol Packet data traffic channel Protocol data unit Packet flow context Packet flow management Packet interface control processor Parallel interface extender Public land mobile network PCI mezzanine card Packet notification channel Packet paging channel Point to point protocol Packet random access channel Phase shift keying Power supply module Public switched telephone network Power supply unit Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-31 .

Acronyms Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Table 1-2 Acronym list (Continued) Acronym PT43 PTCCH/D PTCCH/U PTP PVC PXP QOS (or QoS) RACH RAM RAN RAT RAU RDB RF RLC ROM RRI RSL RTD RTF RX (or Rx) RXCDR RXU SACCH SB SCC SCCP SCH SCM SCU SD SDCCH Meaning Packet T43 Packet timing advance control channel / downlink Packet timing advance control channel / uplink Point to point Permanent virtual circuit Processor with PRP and PICP function Quality of service Random access channel Random access memory Radio access network Radio access technology Routing area update Requirements database Radio frequency Radio link control Read only memory Radio refractive index Radio signaling link RLC transit delay Radio transceiver function Receive Remote transcoder Remote transcoder unit Slow access control channel Stealing bit Serial channel controller SS7 signaling connection control part Synchronization channel Status control manager Slim channel unit Single Density Stand alone dedicated control channel Continued 68P02900W21-S 1-32 01 Feb 2007 .

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Acronyms Table 1-2 Acronym list (Continued) Acronym SDM SFH SGSN SID SLS SM SMLC SMS SNDCP SS7 STNNT STP SURF SURF2 TBF TCCH TCH TCP TCU TDM TDMA TMSI TOA TRAU TS TSW TX (or Tx) U-DPROC2 UE UL UMTS USF Meaning Single density mode Synthesizer frequency hopping Serving GPRS support node Silence descriptor Signaling link selection Session management Serving mobile location centre Short message service Sub network dependent convergence protocol CCITT signaling system number 7 Short-term non-negotiated traffic Shielded twisted pair Sectorized universal receiver front end (Horizonmacro) Sectorized universal receiver front end 2 (Horizon II macro) Temporary block flow Timing access control channel Traffic channel Transmission control protocol Transceiver control unit Time division multiplexing Time division multiple access Temporary mobile subscriber identity Time of arrival Transcoder rate adaptation unit Timeslot Timeslot switch Transmit Universal DPROC2 User equipment Uplink Universal mobile telecommunication system Uplink state flag Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 1-33 .

Acronyms Chapter 1: Introduction to planning Table 1-2 Acronym list (Continued) Acronym UTP UTRAN VersaTRAU VGC VGCS WAN WAP XBL XCDR XMUX Meaning Unshielded twisted pair UMTS radio access network Versatile transcoder rate adaptation unit Voice group call Voice group call service Wide area network Wireless access protocol Transcoder to BSS link Transcoder board Expansion multiplexer (Horizon II macro) 68P02900W21-S 1-34 01 Feb 2007 .

Chapter 2 Transmission systems This chapter contains possible logical interconnections and descriptions of BSS interconnections. The following topics are described: • • • • BSS interfaces Interconnecting the BSC and BTSs Network topology Managed HDSL on micro BTSs 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-1 .

and transmission systems used to convey information around the various parts of the BSS system.25 (LAPB) CBC 68P02900W21-S 2-2 01 Feb 2007 .25) RXCDR SGSN GDS Gb OPTION A Gb OPTION C PCU CBL X.BSS interfaces Chapter 2: Transmission systems BSS interfaces Introduction Figure 2-1 and Table 2-1 indicate the type of interface. Figure 2-1 BSS interfaces OMC-R OML X. rates.25 (LAPB) Gb OPTION B MSC Air interface Abis interface MS (LAPDm) BTS RSL (LAPD) BSC A interface MTL (C7). XBL (LAPD) OML (X.

CBL) XBL OML (X. a whole span of E1 is one signaling link.MSC RXCDR BSC MSC .25) GBL GSL 16/64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s or 2048 kbit/s* 16/64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s E1 64 kbit/s LAPD C7 LAPD LAPB LAPB Frame Relay LAPD Rate Using LAPDm * In GSR9.BSC RSL MTL (OML. FACCH E1links Abis (Mobis) A A BTS .OMCR MSC .BSC BSS . Motorola BSS supports 2048 kbit/s high speed signaling link (HSP MTL). SDCCH. SACCH.SGSN PCU .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSS interfaces Table 2-1 BSS interface Interface Air From/To MS-BTS Signaling by RACH. that is.CBC Gb GDS PCU .25) CBL (X. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-3 .

An RTF is configured as half rate capable. port A. 16 kbit/s is used for the backhaul). or shelf 15. and possible intervening BTS sites are used to provide the connection. or (for AMR) the 7. port A. and 8 kbit/s subrate switching is not available (for example. • 68P02900W21-S 2-4 01 Feb 2007 . A path is determined by E1 circuits. slot 14. at least two MSIs are recommended for redundancy. Four 64 kbit/s timeslots are required if the half rate exception case applies. The Half Rate Active Codec Set is AMR specific and is configured on a per cell basis. The secondary RSL at each BTS site is equipped on the MMS equipped in either shelf 15. port A. The maximum number of active carrier units is determined by available E1 circuit capacity. two E1 circuits are required. • At the BSC. if 16kbit/s is used for the backhaul.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set or (for either AMR half rate or GSM half rate) 8 kbit/s subrate switching is not available. The primary RSL at each BTS site in the daisy chain is always equipped on the multiple serial interface link (MMS) equipped in CAGE 15. In a closed loop daisy chain. Interconnection rules The following rules must be observed while interconnecting a BSC and BTSs: • • • The BSC shares MSI boards between BTSs. and if AMR half rate is enabled. When there are two or more E1 circuits. In a redundant connection. the primary RSLs for all BTS sites are routed in the same direction with the secondary RSLs routed in the opposite direction.A carrier which is assigned an RTF configured as (AMR or GSM) half rate capable. the two E1 circuits must be terminated on different MSIs. a carrier unit needs two 64 kbit/s timeslots on an E1 circuit. the 7. then the carrier unit assigned to that RTF needs four 64 kbit/s timeslots on the E1 circuit (Refer to the NOTE). A minimum of one MSI is required at each BTS. Transcoding is performed at the BSC or RXCDR. slot 16. For example. slot 16. or shelf 14. The AMR half rate exception case is defined as. slot 16. port B. Once an RTF is configured as AMR half rate capable. each carrier unit needs two 64 kbit/s timeslots on two different E1 circuits. To provide redundancy.Interconnecting the BSC and BTSs Chapter 2: Transmission systems Interconnecting the BSC and BTSs Introduction Network topology is specified in terms of the path(s) between the BSC and the BTS sites. one E1 circuit is required to connect to a daisy chain.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set. which means it can support AMR half rate and/or GSM half rate. Typically. If the connection is a closed loop daisy chain.

Install M-Cell cabinets to serve the remaining sectors. Versachannel is defined as the portion of the RTF backhaul that is used to carry the data for the air timeslots configured as PDTCHs. Each timeslot. on a CS3/CS4 capable carrier. irrespective of the speech coding. Backhaul is provisioned based on expected EGPRS usage and recommendation in Table 8-1 of Chapter 8. Daisy chain the M-Cell E1 links to the BSC.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Interconnecting the BSC and BTSs When discussing the BSC or RXCDR. Additional backhaul bandwidth is required to support EGPRS traffic using MCS1-MCS9 coding schemes. cage and shelf mean the same thing. at any given time. needs 32 kbit/s for a total of four 64 kbit/s timeslots on the E1 circuit. Reconfigure the InCell BTS to have integral sectors in the cabinet. That is. cage is a legacy term used in BSS commands that has been replaced by shelf in this manual. shares the Versachannel backhaul associated with the particular carrier. Each non-signaling timeslot. • The following rules must be observed while interconnecting InCell and M-Cell equipment: • • • 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-5 . • Additional backhaul bandwidth is required to support GPRS traffic using CS3/CS4 coding schemes.

When redundant paths exist. that is. and is used to provide voice/data redundancy. This is known as a redundant path. Six serial interfaces supported at a Horizonmacro BTS. Figure 2-2 shows a possible network topology. the traffic can be rerouted. Ten BTS(s) in a path. In case of a path failure. Two serial interfaces supported at an M-Cellcity / M-Cellcity+ BTS. Four serial interfaces supported at an M-Cell2 BTS. and the load is carried on the redundant links. Two serial interfaces supported at a Horizonmicro2 / Horizoncompact2 BTS. but the signaling links go out of service. including the terminating BTS for E1 circuit. Six RSL signaling links per Horizon II macro BTS site (maximum of four per path). loop redundancy. redundant signal links are required. A direct route between any two adjacent sites in a network can consist of one or more E1 circuits. Six serial interfaces supported at an M-Cell6 BTS.Network topology Chapter 2: Transmission systems Network topology Introduction The operator can specify the traffic that is to use a specific path. An alternative path is reserved for voice/data traffic in the case of path failure. Each signaling link has a single path. 68P02900W21-S 2-6 01 Feb 2007 . and the signaling is load shared over these links. Six RSL signaling links per Horizonmacro or M-Cell BTS site (maximum of two per path). Figure 2-2 Possible network topology BSC BTS 10 BTS 1 BTS 5 BTS 2 BTS 6 BTS 11 BTS 3 BTS 7 BTS 9 BTS 4 BTS 8 Each BTS site in the network must obey the following maximum restrictions: • • • • • • • • • Six serial interfaces supported at a Horizon II macro BTS. The presence of multiple paths does not imply redundancy.

along with either: • • • • • Fifteen GSM voice carriers Fifteen CS1/CS2 GPRS carriers Seven CS3/CS4 carriers Three or more EGPRS carriers (depending on the backhaul configured for each of these carriers if VersaTRAU is enabled) or Some proportionate mix of GSM. The star connection allows for a greater number of carrier units per BTS site. GPRS and EGPRS • • The number of carriers on an E1 circuit is reduced by 1 for each carrier to which the half rate exception case applies.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Network topology Star connection A star connection is defined by installing E1 circuits between each BTS site and the BSC. Figure 2-3 Star connection BTS 3 BTS 2 BTS 4 BTS 1 BSC BTS 5 MSC BTS 7 BTS 9 BTS 8 A star connection requires more MSI cards at the BSC than daisy chaining. as shown in Figure 2-3. The half rate exception case is defined in the section Interconnecting the BSC and BTSs. for the same number of BTS sites. An E1 circuit provides for one signaling link. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-7 .

Network topology Chapter 2: Transmission systems Daisy chain connection Daisy chaining multiple BTS sites together can better utilize the 64 kbit/s timeslots of one E1 circuit from the BSC. Daisy chain planning The introduction of multiple E1 circuits and branches increases the complexity of the network topology. branches. A STAR BTS 9 BTS 8 The closed loop version provides for redundancy while the open ended version does not. Daisy chaining the sites together provides for the efficient utilization of the E1 circuit and interconnects smaller sites back to the BSC. 68P02900W21-S 2-8 01 Feb 2007 . multiple paths over the same E1 circuit. each E1 circuit is planned individually. Since the network can contain multiple E1 circuits. The daisy chain can be open ended or closed looped back to the BSC as shown in Figure 2-4. Longer daisy chains (five or more sites) cannot meet the suggested round-trip delay. A simple daisy chain is shown in Figure 2-5. Figure 2-4 Closed loop and open ended daisy chains BTS 3 BTS 2 DAISY CHAIN CLOSED LOOP BTS 4 BTS 10 BRANCH OF THE DAISY CHAIN BTS 1 BTS 6 BSC BTS 5 MSC DAISY CHAIN CLOSED LOOP BTS 11 BTS 7 SINGLE MEMBER DAISY CHAIN. Simple daisy chain A daisy chain without branches and with a single E1 circuit between each of the BTSs is referred to as a simple daisy chain. The maximum capacity supported in this connection is limited by the capacity of the connection between the BSC and the first BTS in the chain. and closed loop interconnections.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Network topology Figure 2-5 Simple daisy chain Tx Rx Tx Rx BSC Rx Tx BTS 1 Rx Tx Rx BTS 2 Tx Tx Rx Tx Rx Tx Rx USED IN CLOSED LOOP CONNECTION ONLY BTS 3 Rx Tx BTS 4 Rx Tx BTS X The capacity of a closed loop single E1 circuit daisy chain is the same as that of a daisy chain. The number of E1s required (assuming VersaTRAU is restricted .RTF_DS0_COUNT = 8 for each EGPRS RTF and all EGPRS RTFs are non-BCCH) is shown: [(3 ∗ 8) + (3 ∗ 4) + (3 ∗ 2) + (0 ∗ 4) + 3]= 1. Number of BTS sites in the chain. Where Example Consider a daisy chain with 3 BTSs. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-9 . The following equation determines the number of E1s required for a daisy chain: N BSC − BTS ⎡⎛ nE GPRS ⎤ ⎞ ⎢⎜ ⎜ ∑ RTF_DS0_COUNTi ⎟ ⎟ + (nC GPRS ∗ 4 ) + (nTGPRS ∗ 2 ) + TAHRE ∗ 4⎥ + b ⎝ i =0 ⎠ ⎦ =⎣ 31 Is NBSC . each with 1 GSM voice carrier. Total number of carriers in the daisy chain with EGPRS enabled.BTS nEGPRS nCGPRS RTF_DS0_ COUNTi nTAHRE b Minimum number of E1 links required (rounded up to an integer).45E1s 31 Two E1s are required to support daisy chaining between the BTSs and the BSC. The closed loop daisy chain has redundant signaling links for each BTS. Value of rtf_ds0_count for the RTF. although they transverse the chain in opposite directions back to the BSC. 1 CS3/4 enabled carrier and 1 EGPRS enabled carrier for which the half rate exception case does not apply. Total number of GSM voice only carriers in the daisy chain where the half rate exception applies. Total number of carriers in the daisy chain with GPRS CS3 and CS4 enabled.

it is possible to initially send all the traffic channels for every site over one E1 link to the third party multiplexer and then distribute them over much shorter distances to the required sites.Network topology Chapter 2: Transmission systems Daisy chain with branch BTS site The addition of a branch BTS site (BTS Y). Therefore. affects the capacity of the links between the BSC and the site from which the branch originates. Aggregate Abis This is an option designed to allow greater flexibility while planning the network. the E1 circuit to the branch needs to carry redundant signaling links. this greatly under utilizes each link capacity. which needs redundant signaling links for each BTS site. There are two diagrams illustrating the previous (Figure 2-7) and subsequent (Figure 2-8) scenarios. as these are used for the path to the branched site. as shown in Figure 2-6. Figure 2-6 Daisy chain with branch Tx Rx Tx Rx BSC Rx Tx BTS 1 Rx Tx Rx BTS 2 Tx Tx Rx Tx Rx Tx Rx BTS 3 Rx Tx BTS 4 Rx Tx BTS X USED IN CLOSED LOOP CONNECTION ONLY Rx BTS Y Tx A branch can have multiple BTS sites on it. This is achieved by the introduction of third party multiplexer equipment enabled by Motorola software. This equipment allows timeslots on one E1 link to be multiplexed to more than one BTS. in which case there are redundant signaling links on different E1 circuits. this results in significant leasing cost savings compared to the original configuration. If the distance between the BSC and the multiplexer site is sufficiently large. A branch can be closed. if the situation arises where several single carrier BTSs each need their own dedicated E1 link. If the geographical locations of the sites and the distances of the E1 links are advantageous. It can also help reduce leasing costs of E1 links by optimizing link usage over the greatest distance between a BSC and a BTS. In a closed loop. 68P02900W21-S 2-10 01 Feb 2007 . with an open branch.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Network topology Figure 2-7 Typical low capacity BSC/BTS configuration BSC 5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED 5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED BTS TWO CARRIER ONE RSL 5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED BTS TWO CARRIER ONE RSL BTS TWO CARRIER ONE RSL Figure 2-8 Example using a switching network BSC MORE EFFICIENT USE OF LONGEST E1 LINK 20x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 11x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED TWO CARRIER ONE RSL 5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED E1 MULTIPLEXER 10x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 21x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED BTS TWO CARRIER ONE RSL BTS 5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED 5x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS USED 26x64 kbit/s TIMESLOTS UNUSED BTS TWO CARRIER ONE RSL BTS TWO CARRIER ONE RSL Another advantage of introducing the multiplexer is the improvement in the timeslot mapping onto the Abis interface. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-11 .

there are no gaps between timeslots). Also. Figure 2-9 is an example of timeslot allocation in a network using an aggregate service. To avoid this situation. so there is no way of reserving the default download RSL timeslot. If the site needs to be expanded in the future to preserve blocks of contiguous timeslots on the links. the primary and redundant RSLs can be equipped first (in an order that results in the correct allocation of default RSL timeslots). RSLs must be equipped first on a per site basis to coincide with the default timeslots for software downloads to the BTSs. with links to the aggregate service and links bypassing it. with each site being equipped consecutively. for example RTF.Network topology Chapter 2: Transmission systems Currently they are allocated from timeslot 1 upwards for RSLs and timeslot 31 downwards for RTF traffic channels. The RSLs are allocated first and the RTF timeslots next. Most link providers lease timeslots in contiguous blocks (that is. There is a new algorithm for allocating timeslots on the Abis interface. It is important that the sites are equipped in the order that they are presented. Figure 2-9 Timeslot allocation using new and old algorithms NEW ALGORITHM 1 2 3 4 5 RSL1 RTF1 RTF1 RTF2 RTF2 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 RSL2 RTF3 RTF3 RTF4 RTF4 RSL3 RTF5 RTF5 RTF6 RTF6 16 17 18 19 20 RSL4 RTF7 RTF7 RTF8 RTF8 ORIGINAL ALGORITHM 13 13 02 92 8 RSL3 RTF5 RTF5 RTF6 RTF6 BSC ALLOCATION UNAFFECTED ALLOCATION AFFECTED NEW ALGORITHM 1 2 3 4 5 RSL3 RTF5 RTF5 RTF6 RTF6 6 7 8 9 10 RSL4 RTF7 RTF7 RTF8 RTF8 ALLOCATION AFFECTED BTS 1 TWO CARRIER ONE RSL 1 2 3 4 5 RSL1 RTF1 RTF1 RTF2 RTF2 E1 MULTIPLEXER ALLOCATION AFFECTED BTS 3 ORIGINAL ALGORITHM NEW ALGORITHM 1 2 3 4 5 RSL2 RTF3 RTF3 RTF4 RTF4 ALLOCATION AFFECTED NEW ALGORITHM 13 13 02 92 8 RSL4 RTF7 RTF7 RTF8 RTF8 ALLOCATION UNAFFECTED BTS 2 BTS 4 Similar problems are encountered while equipping redundant RSL devices onto paths containing aggregate services. This is only used on the links that are directly connected to the new aggregate service. thus allowing contiguous blocks of timeslots to be leased. This gives rise to a situation where the default RSL timeslot is already allocated to another device. the existing algorithm for allocating timeslots is used on the other links. The new method of allocating timeslots when connecting to an aggregate service is from timeslot 1 upwards. Under the existing timeslot allocation scheme this often means leasing a whole E1 link for a few timeslots. The new software allocates timeslots from timeslot 1 upwards. it is possible to reserve the timeslots needed for the expansion so that they can be made free in the future. 68P02900W21-S 2-12 01 Feb 2007 . or reserve the default download RSL timeslot so that it is correctly allocated when the primary or redundant RSL is equipped.

BSC). BSC). Hence. nail. GCLK synchronization functions. but the remote alarm only goes to the third party aggregate service supporting the E1 link. and free timeslots. the BTS reports the local alarm. the aggregate service is counted as a site in the path. In these cases. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-13 . Even though it is a pseudo site. The only indication of failure is the RSL state change to out of service. The maximum number of sites within a path is ten for E1 networks. A situation may arise where the internal links within the E1 switching network fail. If the link is connected to a third party switching network and is taken out of service.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Network topology Alarm reporting This feature has an impact on the alarm reporting for the E1 links. it is the responsibility of the third party aggregate service provider to inform the users of the link outage. causing the RSL to go out of service with no link alarms generated by GSM network entities (BTS. the number of BTSs that can be present in a path is reduced from ten to nine. but any BTS sites connected downlink from a switching network synchronizes to it and not to the uplink GSM network entity (BTS. Figure 2-10 Alternative network configuration with E1 switching network BSC E1 MULTIPLEXER E1 MULTIPLEXER BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS E1 MULTIPLEXER E1 MULTIPLEXER BTS BTS BTS BTS Restrictions/limitations The ability to nail path timeslots along a link containing an E1 switching network is supported. Figure 2-10 shows a possible network configuration using several switching networks. The operator is able to reserve.

and the carrier remains in call processing. the RTF selects the secondary path. In the event of primary path failure. then the cell is barred from traffic. take to get to and from the BTS/BSC. although with reduced capacity. where if one RTF path fails. as required for Figure 2-11. These include the ARFCN. assigned to the transceiver from the E1 link. If all the paths to one RTF fail. Each RTF can be assigned a different path for its two (or four) timeslots. Figure 2-12 shows the alternative configuration. Any call in progress on the failed path is handed over to the remaining RTFs in the same cell. but any SDCCHs on the carrier remain active. the timeslots on the transceiver of the failed path are barred from traffic until the path is re-established. as described in the previous paragraphs. Double the number of timeslots required for RTFs to which the half rate exception case applies.Network topology Chapter 2: Transmission systems RTF path fault containment Each transceiver at a BTS needs a receive/transmit function to be enabled which notifies the transceiver about various operating parameters which can be used. If all paths to all RTFs in an active cell have failed and there is still an active RSL. In addition. regardless of whether there are other transceivers/RTFs with serviceable paths in the same cell. which needs four extra timeslots to provide for redundant paths. and removing any redundant paths that are normally equipped to manage path failure. type of carrier. This configuration only needs four timeslots instead of eight. An RTF can be assigned different paths. One path is designated as the primary. the entire cell is taken out of call processing. if there are available timeslots. 68P02900W21-S 2-14 01 Feb 2007 . the call is released. The path is the route which the two (or four for the half rate exception case) 64 kbit/s timeslots. Figure 2-11 shows the conventional redundant set-up. This allows the cell to remain in call processing if all paths to one RTF fail. Advantages The customer can save on timeslot usage by using this feature. the other as the secondary. If timeslots are unavailable. The customer has to weigh up the cost saving advantages of the alternative configuration against the reduced capacity in the event of failure of an RTF path. among others. and primary/secondary path. including RTFs that are in the same cell. The path is of utmost importance. call processing continues through the other path.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Network topology Figure 2-11 A configuration with a BTS equipped with two redundant RTFs BSC RTF1 EQUIPPED ON PATH 1 (2 TIMESLOTS) RTF1 EQUIPPED ON PATH 2 (2 TIMESLOTS) BTS 3 BTS 1 RTF2 EQUIPPED ON PATH 1 (2 TIMESLOTS) RTF2 EQUIPPED ON PATH 2 (2 TIMESLOTS) BTS 2 Figure 2-12 A configuration with a BTS equipped with two non-redundant RTFs BSC RTF2 EQUIPPED ON PATH 1 (2 TIMESLOTS) RTF1 EQUIPPED ON PATH 2 (2 TIMESLOTS) BTS 3 BTS 1 BTS 2 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-15 .

With the introduction of the 16 kbit/s RSL. reducing the requirement to serve a single carrier system to only two 64 kbit/s timeslots. This information is generated at the BTS. this feature reduces the number of required E1 64 kbit/s timeslots from five to four. 68P02900W21-S 2-16 01 Feb 2007 . A sub-equipped non-BCCH RTF with no associated 16 kbit/s RSL. The two 64 kbit/s timeslots dedicated to the traffic channels can normally accommodate eight traffic channels. They are listed in Table 2-2.95 codec rate for AMR is included in the half rate active codec set for that cell). it is possible to place it on this unused sub-channel because the RSL is not transmitting on the air interface. A sub-equipped non-BCCH RTF with an associated 16 kbit/s RSL. a single carrier BTS required three E1 64 kbit/s timeslots.) Figure 2-13 (fully-equipped RTF) and Figure 2-14 (sub-equipped RTF) show the eight types of RTF which are possible using the previously described options. The TSW at the BTS routes the traffic channels from the two specified timeslots on the Abis interface to the dedicated transceiver for transmission. A fully equipped BCCH RTF with no associated 16 kbit/s RSL. it is not possible to use all eight traffic channels of the two 64 kbit/s timeslots. The traffic channel on the Abis interface corresponding to the timeslot 0 on the air interface is unused and is available to carry the signaling traffic. Table 2-2 RTF types Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Options A fully equipped BCCH RTF with an associated 16 kbit/s RSL. one for the 64 kbit/s RSL and two for the 16 kbit/s traffic channels. which is a waste of resources. the carrier is the BCCH carrier and the air interface timeslot 0 of the BCCH carrier is reserved for BCCH information. A sub-equipped BCCH RTF with no associated 16 kbit/s RSL. (This is not shown in the table and figures. when the single carrier is half rate capable and 16 kbit/s backhaul is used (8 kbit/s switching is unavailable or the 7. In the case of a single carrier site. A sub-equipped BCCH RTF with an associated 16 kbit/s RSL. A fully equipped non-BCCH RTF with no associated 16 kbit/s RSL. Therefore one 16 kbit/s sub-channel remains unused on the Abis interface. in the case of a single carrier site.Network topology Chapter 2: Transmission systems 16 kbit/s RSL The 16 kbit/s RSL reduces the transmission costs between the BSC and BTS (Abis interface) for single carrier sites in particular. Before the introduction of the 16 kbit/s RSL. In a similar manner. The advantage is that it frees up one 64 kbit/s timeslot on the Abis interface. A fully equipped non-BCCH RTF with an associated 16 kbit/s RSL. This operates with Horizon BTSs using KSW switching. The reason being that.

16 kbit/s sub-channel used for 16 kbit/s RSL.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Network topology Fully equipped RTF Figure 2-13 Fully equipped RTF FULLY EQUIPPED RTF BCCH NON-BCCH 16 kbit/s BTS only ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL NO ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL 16 kbit/s BTS only ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL NO ASSOCIATED 16 kbit/s RSL Configuration Timeslot X Timeslot Y 1 2 3 4 KEY 16 kbit/s sub-channel unavailable for use. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-17 . 16 kbit/s sub-channel available for voice traffic.

not both. A BSC supports both 16 kbit/s and 64 kbit/s RSLs. 68P02900W21-S 2-18 01 Feb 2007 . Up to two 16 kbit/s RSLs are supported by M-Cellmicro and M-Cellcity. A BSU based BTS supports up to six 16 kbit/s RSLs. Up to four 16 kbit/s RSLs are supported by M-Cell2. Up to six 16 kbit/s RSLs are supported by M-Cell6. Up to six 16 kbit/s RSLs are supported by Horizon II macro and Horizonmacro. A ROM download is carried out over a 64 kbit/s RSL. even at a site designated as a 16 kbit/s RSL. The BTS and BSC support a mix of both fully equipped and sub-equipped RTFs.Network topology Chapter 2: Transmission systems Sub-equipped RTF Figure 2-14 Sub-equipped RTF Planning constraints The following RSL planning constraints apply: • • • • • • • • • • A BTS supports either 16 kbit/s RSLs or 64 kbit/s RSLs. Up to two 16 kbit/s RSLs are supported by Horizonmicro2 / Horizoncompact2.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Network topology • • • A CSFP download utilizes a 16 kbit/s RSL at a 16 kbit/s designated site. As a result of the introduction of the 16 kbit/s RSL. 16 kbit/s XBL The 16 kbit/s XBL provides a lower cost solution to the customer by reducing the interconnect costs between an RXCDR and BSC. It is possible to select a rate of 16 kbit/s or 64 kbit/s on a XBL basis. An XBL can be configured without restriction in any timeslot. An associated 16 kbit/s RSL is supported on redundant RTF paths where one exists on the primary path. there is no reduction in the processing capacity of the BSC or the RXCDR. MAXIMUM OF TEN BSCs CONNECTED TO AN RXCDR OR VICE VERSA. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-19 . although this is not considered a typical configuration. A BSC can interconnect up to ten RXCDRs and vice-versa. This is achieved by reducing the XBL data rate from the current 64 kbit/s to 16 kbit/s. This frees three 16 kbit/s subchannels on the E1 64 kbit/s timeslot and enables them to be used as TCHs. Figure 2-15 demonstrates XBL utilization. A total of 20 XBL links are deployed in any configuration. Therefore. The 16 kbit/s RSL can only be configured on CCITT sub-channel 3 of a 64 kbit/s E1 timeslot for BSU based sites. there can be two different rates at the same BSC to RXCDR. Figure 2-15 XBL utilization BSC 1 XBL XBL BSC 2 XBL XBL BSC 3 XBL XBL RXCDR BSC 9 XBL XBL BSC 10 XBL XBL MAXIMUM OF TWO XBLs BETWEEN THE BSC AND XCDR OF EITHER 64 kbit/s OR 16 kbit/s ON THE E1 LINK.

all CICs at the BSC associated with that AXCDR are blocked and call traffic does not go to that AXCDR. unprovisioned. Currently. 68P02900W21-S 2-20 01 Feb 2007 .Network topology Chapter 2: Transmission systems Dynamic allocation of RXCDR to BSC circuits (DARBC) The DARBC feature introduces fault management for call traffic on the BSC to RXCDR interface (referred to as the Ater interface). Backwards compatibility mode Backwards compatibility mode cannot be used in conjunction with the AMR or GSM half rate features. Without this feature in place. If XBLs are not equipped. by managing the individual 16 kbit/s channels (called Ater channels) on this interface. This is the recommended mode of operation for the BSC. This is a user selectable mode which refers to a BSC and/or RXCDR in which Ater channels and CICs are statically switch connected. backwards compatibility mode must be used for the corresponding AXCDR. fault management of the Ater channels is not possible. These modes are managed on a per AXCDR basis. While upgrading the network. There are some issues that the operator must consider when planning and provisioning the BSC/RXCDR network. this feature provides for validation of the CIC and Ater channel provisioning between the BSC and RXCDR to ensure that calls are placed on the correct circuit between the BSC and the MSC. This mode does not provide any fault tolerance and CIC validations. and the BSC and RXCDR are populated exclusively with DSW2s (no KSWs). EAC mode is user enabled across a BSC . It takes advantage of the use of half rate traffic channels where only 8 kbit/s backhaul to the RXCDR is required. EAC mode is introduced with the AMR feature and also applies to the GSM half rate feature. and the AXCDR is operating in the auto-connect mode. In addition. if an operator decides to use the auto-connect. Auto-connect mode provides fault tolerance along with the call processing efficiency of the backwards compatibility mode. All Ater and CIC information must be manually verified by the operator. resulting in a higher O&M cost for the Motorola BSS. all Ater channels were statically assigned and use of XBL links was not mandatory. it is necessary to equip XBL links on the RXCDR and BSC. if the BSC is upgraded before the RXCDR. the use of autoconnect mode is recommended. or while handling a fault condition. Auto-connect mode This is a mode which can be selected by the operator. This mode refers to a BSC in which Ater channels are allocated and released dynamically as resources are provisioned. Before the introduction of this feature. Enhanced auto-connect (EAC) mode EAC mode allows for per call allocation of RXCDR to BSC circuits (Ater channels). Auto-connect or enhanced auto-connect mode must be specified. Once both the BSC and RXCDR are upgraded. It is intended only to provide an upgrade path. An operator has the option to operate either in the auto-connect mode or in the backwards compatibility mode.RXCDR interface and only provides benefits when the RXCDR is equipped with any number of EGDPs or GDP/GDP2s.

The operator controls such thresholds through the cic_block_thresh and cic_unblock_thresh values. the BSC allocates an Ater channel that goes to the same RXCDR as the assigned CIC. If that assumption proves to be false. XBL links are required between the BSC and RXCDR as in the auto-connect mode. a CIC no longer has a fixed position on the Ater interface. EAC mode is not required and the system automatically reverts to auto-connect mode even if EAC is enabled). all idle CICs that go through a particular RXCDR when the number of available Ater channels to RXCDR reaches a configurable threshold. Equipping less than 16 kbit/s in Ater capacity per equipped CIC relies upon a percentage of the calls to be utilizing half rate backhaul. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-21 . there is a possibility that a call assignment may fail because Ater channels are unavailable. EAC mode also needs XBL bandwidth. When a call is assigned to a CIC.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Network topology When in EAC mode. Rather. This is provisioned on a per cell basis and should be taken into consideration when provisioning Ater resources. Use of EAC mode (specifically the provisioning of fewer Ater channels than CICs) is best considered when BSC .95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set. One implication of such a pooling is that the number of CICs equipped that go through the RXCDR may not be the same as the number of Ater channels from the BSC to the RXCDR. These thresholds are used to maintain Ater resources. 16 kbit/s backhaul is required. If the operator chooses to equip a higher number of CICs than can be handled by the Ater channels. the BSC provides a facility that automatically blocks at the MSC. to ensure that resources are available when a fault occurs and also to balance the call load. some capacity is lost as CICs are unusable due to a lack of Ater resources [if CIC .RXCDR backhaul costs are a concern. a CIC can be considered as belonging to a pool of CICs where a separate pool is maintained for each RXCDR connected to the BSC.Ater provisioning is equal (16 kbit/s Ater capacity per CIC]. For AMR. To prevent such assignments from failing. when the 7.

and quality of service information to be handled by the OMC-R.5 dB/km. Cable runs should be limited to a length depending on the product. A suitable external HDSL modem must be used if a HDSL link to the BSC is required for these BTSs. Certain types of cables are known to perform suitably in HDSL applications.4 mm and 0. Specifically. Integrated HDSL interface HDSL cable selection The cabling needs to comply with the following selection guidelines: • • • • • • • Correct number of pairs for an application. The tip and ring must not be mixed between the pairs. Attenuation at 260 kHz should be less than 10. that is. provided they are correctly installed. The cable gauge should be between 0. External HDSL modems configured as slave devices can also be managed by the same mechanism as long as they are connected to an integrated master HDSL port. and the guidelines for selection and installation are observed. Either unshielded twisted pair (UTP) or shielded twisted pair (STP) can be used. status. The local Motorola office can provide assistance before purchasing a HDSL modem for this purpose. Following the introduction of this feature. tip1 must not be used as a pair with ring 2. Each tip and ring pair must be of a twisted construction. it allows remote configuration.Managed HDSL on micro BTSs Chapter 2: Transmission systems Managed HDSL on micro BTSs Introduction Managed HDSL brings the benefits of full OMC-R management to those products that support integrated HDSL technology. control.91 mm (AWG 26 to AWG 19). This enables such an HDSL link to be managed entirely from the OMC-R. Recommendations for the types of cables are as follows: • Unshielded twisted pair o o o o BT CW1308 and equivalents Category 3 UTP Category 4 UTP Category 5 UTP 68P02900W21-S 2-22 01 Feb 2007 . the initial basic version of the product is no longer supported. Horizonmicro2 microcell BTSs (and Horizoncompact2 macrocell BTSs) shipped after 31st December 2001 are not fitted with an internal HDSL modem.

and is therefore not recommended. it provides little immunity from noise. which should be taken into account when planning the system. Bridge taps in the cable run should be avoided.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Managed HDSL on micro BTSs • Shielded twisted pair o o o Category 3 STP Category 4 STP Category 5 STP The following kinds of cables should be avoided for HDSL applications: • • Twisted quad cable is unsuitable for use in HDSL applications. is not recommended. for example. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-23 . because of their different link error requirements. However. The isolation between the tip and the ring should be greater than 1 Mohm (at SELV voltage levels). The isolation between the ring and earth should be greater than 1 Mohm (at SELV voltage levels). multicore construction. • HDSL cable installation If cabling does not exist between two end sites. The isolation between the tip and earth should be greater than 1 Mohm (at SELV voltage levels). The use of different gauges of cable in one link should be avoided. A drop wire that consists of two parallel conductors with supporting steel cable works with HDSL but since it is not twisted. HDSL range HDSL range is affected by many factors. • • Microcell systems can have longer distances. An information cable which is typically made of non-twisted. Loading coils in the cable run must be removed. not point to multipoint. the guidelines to be followed for the installation of cables are given: • • • • • • • The conductor pairs should be connected point-to-point only. if unshielded from each other. standard E1 traffic affects (and is affected by) HDSL systems running in the same cable binder. ribbon cable. typically 2 km or so. The following factors reduce the available distances: o o o o Bridge gaps add unwanted loads onto the cables Gauge changes add unwanted signal reflections Small gauge cables increase the signal attenuations Other noise sources HDSL is specified not to affect other digital subscriber link systems and voice traffic.

If the HDSL equipped version is purchased (not available for Horizonmicro2 after December 2001). The setting of master/slave defaults can be changed by database settings for those scenarios. such as a closed loop daisy chain.048 Mbit/s links. Daisy chain Figure 2-17 shows a BSC connected to an external modem which then connects from its slave port to the master port of the Horizonmicro2. and can be mixed as appropriate within the network. The slave port of the Horizonmicro2 connects to the next Horizonmicro2 master port. Links can be either E1 or HDSL. and so on. It is better to utilize the microsite to carry out this conversion (Refer to Figure 2-16). until the last Horizonmicro2 port is connected. the links are automatically configured as either E1 or HDSL through a combination of database settings and auto-detection mechanisms. Figure 2-16 Conversion of E1 to HDSL links by modem and microsite E1 LINK HDSL SLAVE EXTERNAL MODEM M Horizonmicro2 BSC E1 LINK E1 LINK SLAVE HDSL M S HDSL M S E1 LINK Horizonmicro2 BTS EXTERNAL MODEM Horizonmicro2 Horizonmicro2 HDSL E1 LINK S HDSL M S HDSL M M Horizonmacro Horizonmicro2 M = MASTER Horizonmicro2 S = SLAVE Horizonmicro2 Microcell BTSs have a maximum of two 2. where the defaults are not appropriate.Managed HDSL on micro BTSs Chapter 2: Transmission systems General HDSL guidelines Conversion of E1 to HDSL at a site away from the BSC needs either an external modem or a microsite. Microcell system planning Network configurations from the BSC can be a combination of daisy chain and star. 68P02900W21-S 2-24 01 Feb 2007 .

hence the star formation. From there onwards. HDSL links are used. or conversion can be at any BTS. Figure 2-18 Microcell star network configuration E1 LINK SLAVE EXTERNAL MODEM HDSL M Horizonmicro2 BSC E1 LINK SLAVE EXTERNAL MODEM HDSL M Horizonmicro2 E1 LINK SLAVE EXTERNAL MODEM HDSL M Horizonmicro2 M = MASTER E1 link In Figure 2-19. an external modem is used every time a link to a Horizonmicro2 is used. In this configuration. which then connects from its slave port to the master port of a Horizonmicro2. an E1 link is used from the BSC to the first Horizonmicro2.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Managed HDSL on micro BTSs Figure 2-17 Microcell daisy chain network configuration BSC E1 LINK SLAVE HDSL M S HDSL M S HDSL M EXTERNAL MODEM Horizonmicro2 Horizonmicro2 Horizonmicro2 M = MASTER S = SLAVE Star configuration Figure 2-18 shows a BSC which is connected to an external modem. running from master to slave in each Horizonmicro2. in either direction. Figure 2-19 Microcell configuration using E1/HDSL links E1 LINK S HDSL M S HDSL M Horizonmicro2 BSC M = MASTER Horizonmicro2 Horizonmicro2 S = SLAVE 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 2-25 .

Managed HDSL on micro BTSs Chapter 2: Transmission systems 68P02900W21-S 2-26 01 Feb 2007 .

actually conflict with one another. economical planning is a condition for giving the best possible service from the onset. These are described in the following topics: • • • • • • • • • • • • Planning tools GSM frequency spectrum Traffic capacity Adaptive multi-rate (AMR) GSM half rate Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Frequency re-use Overcoming adverse propagation effects Subscriber environment Microcellular solution Frequency planning Inter-radio access technology (2G-3G) cell reselection and handovers 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-1 . design challenges and impairments arise. Therefore. The effect of limited funds is particularly obvious during the first stage of the network. it would be worthwhile to use efficient solutions despite high costs. and terrain variations is essential.Chapter 3 BSS cell planning When planning a mobile telephone system. From an engineering point of view. EGSM900. the operating network is always a solution achieved through compromise. As the channel characteristics are not fixed. when analyzed. It is important to predict the RF path loss between the BTS and the MS within the coverage area in different types of environment. Consequently. a mobile telephone network is so huge an investment that the financial factors are always going to limit the possibilities. nature of the environment. The use of the GSM900. When planning a network. there are several major factors to be considered. The cost of different network configurations can vary considerably. Knowledge of the transmitter and receiver antenna heights. These impediments must be dealt with to protect MS telephone users from experiencing excessively varying signal levels and lack of voice quality. However. and DCS1800 frequency bands create many propagation-based problems. the aim is to create a communications network that fulfils the following requirements: • • • • Provides the desired capacity Offers good frequency efficiency Implemented at low cost High grade service These requirements.

Managed HDSL on micro BTSs Chapter 3: BSS cell planning • • • • • • Dual Transfer Mode Call model parameters for capacity calculations Control channel calculations GPRS/EGPRS traffic planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process 68P02900W21-S 3-2 01 Feb 2007 .

the more accurate is the propagation model. with all the variable factors in propagation modeling. The planning tool can be fed with all the details of the cell. Several planning tools are available in the market. such as: • • • Type of terrain Environment Heights of antennas It can perform the necessary number of calculations required to provide an accurate picture of the propagation paths of the cell. to map the signal strength as a function of distance from the BTS. In addition. but for the intervention of the software-planning tool. such as Netplan or Planet. The result is the necessity to perform hundreds of calculations for each cell. calculations should be performed at regular distances along each radial arm from the BTS. an accuracy of 80% is considered excellent.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Planning tools Planning tools Introduction It is essential to make many calculations at regular intervals from the BTS to predict the signal strength in a cell area. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-3 . which is time consuming. and it is up to the operators to select the tool(s) that suit them best. Check the figures by practical measurements after the calculation and implementation of the cell. This is because. The smaller the interval.

This consisted of two subbands 25 MHz wide. The frequency range is as follows: Uplink range: 890 MHz to 915 MHz Downlink range: 935 MHz to 960 MHz The uplink frequencies (mobiles transmitting to the BTS) are on the lowest frequency band. Each subband is divided into 124 channels. a channel from each band is then paired.GSM frequency spectrum Chapter 3: BSS cell planning GSM frequency spectrum GSM900 frequency spectrum The original GSM frequency spectrum was allocated in 1979. 68P02900W21-S 3-4 01 Feb 2007 . these are then given a number known as the Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN). The two bands are divided into channels. This is because there is a lower free space path loss for lower frequencies. 124 ARFCNs are allocated to the various network users. More frequencies were allocated to the GSM as they became available to provide for future network expansion. The spacing between individual channels is 200 kHz and at the beginning of each range is a guard band. This is more advantageous to the mobile as it has a reduced transmit output power capability compared to the BTS. So a mobile allocated an ARFCN has one frequency to transmit and one to receive on. These ARFCNs are 1-124 inclusive. The operator cannot guarantee that the network has a significant number of Phase 2 MSs. One of the pair is allocated for uplink and one for the downlink. An extra 10 MHz was added on to the two GSM bands and this is known as Extended GSM (EGSM). bringing the total to 174. Care should be taken when using EGSM frequencies not to make holes in the network for Phase 1 MSs. The frequency spacing between the pair is always 45 MHz for GSM. These additional ARFCNs are 975 1023 inclusive. The EGSM frequency range is as follows: Uplink range: 880 MHz to 915 MHz Downlink range: 925 MHz to 960 MHz This allows another 50 ARFCNs to be used. • • The original Phase 1 MSs can only work with the original GSM frequency range and it needs a Phase 2 MS to take advantage of the extra ARFCNs.

capable of supporting speech.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GSM frequency spectrum DCS1800 frequency spectrum As GSM evolved. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-5 . The modified frequency range is as follows: Uplink range Downlink range 1710 MHz to 1785 MHz 1805 MHz to 1880 MHz This provides 374 ARFCNs with a frequency separation of 95 MHz between the uplink and downlink frequencies. each timeslot is divided into 2 subchannels. This required changes to the air interface to modify the frequency range over which it operates. Figure 3-1 UK network users Uplink 1785MHz DECT 1781. When AMR half rate or GSM half rate are enabled. In the UK.5MHz 1880MHz Downlink DECT Orange Orange T-mobile T-mobile 1721. Orange and T-mobile operate exclusively in the DCS1800 range while the other two.5MHz 1816. it was decided to apply the technology to the Personal Communications Networks. these ARFCNs are shared between the four network users (refer to Figure 3-1).5MHz 1876.5MHz Vodafone/O2 1710MHz 1805MHz Vodafone/O2 Absolute radio frequency channel capacity Each RF carrier supports 8 time division multiplexed physical channels and each of these is capable of supporting speech or signaling information (refer to Figure 3-2). Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephony (DECT) uses the part at the top of the band. Two of these network users. ARFCNs are numbered from 512 to 885 inclusive. Vodafone and O2 have been allocated DCS1800 channels on top of their GSM900 networks.

The actual bandwidth occupied by a transmitted GSM carrier is far greater than 200 kHz. The bandwidth allocated to each carrier frequency in GSM is 200 kHz. GMSK is used for voice. This filter is a linearized GMSK pulse. When AMR or GSM half rate is used. more efficient use can be made of the available overall bandwidth. circuit switched data and GPRS. The signal therefore overlaps into surrounding frequencies. the result is a modified envelope shape at the output of the modulator. 8-PSK is a multi-level modulation in which 3 bits are mapped onto a symbol.4.GSM frequency spectrum Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The maximum number of RF carriers at any one BTS site is 24 for Horizon II macro. The filter removes some of the harmonics from the data square wave producing a more rounded shape. Figure 3-2 Eight TDMA timeslots per RF carrier 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BTS Maximum 24 carriers for Horizonmacro and M-Cell6 Maximum 25 carriers for BTS6 Modulation techniques and channel spacing The modulation techniques used in GSM are Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) and 8-Phase Shift Keying (PSK). With each modulating carrier occupying a narrower bandwidth. Therefore. The modulations used in EGPRS are GMSK and 8-PSK. as illustrated in Figure 3-3. that is. The 8-PSK signal is then filtered to ensure that GSM spectrum mask is preserved. the maximum number of physical channels available at a BTS site is 24 x 8 = 192. The symbols are grey coded for reducing the number of bits in error between adjacent symbols.04 V8. When this is applied to a phase modulator. and M-Cell6. The bandwidth of this envelope is narrower than that of a comparable one produced from non-filtered data. the main component in a Laurant decomposition of the GMSK modulation (refer to 3GPP TS 05.0). This works by shaping the data to be modulated with a Gaussian filter. Horizonmacro. 68P02900W21-S 3-6 01 Feb 2007 . even with Gaussian filtering. each half rate enabled carrier supports a maximum of 16 physical channels.

possibly in adjacent cells. it is significant and must be planned around so that allocation of adjacent frequencies in adjacent cells never occurs. they interfere with each other because of the described overlapping. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-7 . For this reason. While this falls within the minimum carrier to interference ratio of 9 dB. the frequencies for combining should be separated by at least three ARFCNs else it could cause intermodulation products and spurious frequency generation. The source of interference becomes more difficult to locate as they would not necessarily be a problem to the home cell. These could interfere with other carriers further away in the radio spectrum. All noise is cumulative. so starting with a large amount by using adjacent channels our wanted signal soon deteriorates the required quality standard. Figure 3-3 illustrates the fact that the actual bandwidth of a GMSK modulated signal (8-PSK possesses approximately the same spectrum mask) is considerably wider than the 200 kHz channel spacing specified by GSM. One other consideration about channel spacing is when using combiners.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GSM frequency spectrum Figure 3-3 Modulation techniques and channel spacing -10 dB POINT CHANNEL 1 dB 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 CHANNEL 2 CHANNEL 3 200 kHz If two carriers from the same or adjacent cells are allocated adjacent frequencies or channel numbers. This interference is an unwanted signal noise. If a cavity-combining block is used. the signal strength of the adjacent channel is only -10 dB the wanted signal. adjacent frequencies should never be allocated to carriers in the same or adjacent cells. At the channel overlap point.

it is not usually the same over some days. There are a set of common definitions to describe this busy hour traffic loading. a channel carrying traffic is busy for t (seconds). The traffic flow is defined as the average number of concurrent calls carried in the cell. for the Average Busy Season Busy Hour load. if the blocking probability is small. the weather. There are two peaks during weekdays. The total traffic carried by the cell is the sum of the traffic carried by each channel. If blocking occurs. Average Busy Season Busy Hour: The average busy season busy hour is used for trunk groups and always has a grade of service criteria applied. However. The maximum carried traffic in a cell is N Erlangs. in Erlangs. The unit of traffic intensity is the Erlang. natural disasters. Consider a cell with N voice channels. a call requiring a circuit in a trunk group should not encounter All Trunks Busy (ATB) no more than 1% of the time. The traffic defined in this way can be thought of as a measure of the voice load carried by the cell.Traffic capacity Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Traffic capacity Dimensioning One of the most important steps in cellular planning is system dimensioning. Peak loads are of more concern than average loads when engineering traffic routes and switching equipment. the number of people wishing to use the system simultaneously) to dimension a system correctly. The number of calls handled during a 24-hour period varies considerably with time. Peak Busy Hour: The busy hour each day. repeated call attempts increase the offered traffic the level. which occurs when there is a call on each voice channel all the time. If during a time period T (seconds). the variation is such that a one-hour period shows greater usage than any other does. Across the typical day. sports events). In addition to this. The mean call holding time is the average time a channel is serving a call. The probability of this happening is the grade of service of the cell. Channel blocking The standard model used to dimension a system is the Erlang B model. the cell is therefore capable of carrying N individual simultaneous calls. Busy Hour: The busy hour is a continuous period during which traffic volume or number of call attempts is the greatest. There are times when a call request is made and all the channels or trunks are in use. 68P02900W21-S 3-8 01 Feb 2007 . then the carried traffic is less than the offered traffic. then the average carried traffic. ignore the effect of repeated call attempts and assume that the blocked calls are abandoned. the caller can try again within a short interval. is t/T. If a call is blocked. From the hour with the least traffic to the hour with the greatest traffic. which models the number of traffic channels or trunks required or a given grade of service and given offered traffic. There can also be unpredictable peaks caused by a wide variety of events (for example. system growth should be taken into account. If there is an absence of blocking. Some idea of the projected usage of the system must be obtained (for example. the variation can exceed 100:1. Time Constant Busy Hour: The one-hour period starting at the same time each day for which the average traffic volume or call attempts count is greatest over the days under consideration. This means traffic engineering. although the pattern can change from day to day. this call is then blocked. Because of this effect. For example. Busy Season Busy Hour: The engineering period where the grade of service criteria is applied for the busiest clock hour of the busiest weeks of the year. the notion of offered traffic is somewhat confusing. conventions.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Traffic capacity Traffic flow If mobile traffic is defined as the aggregate number of MS calls (C) in a cell with regard to the duration of the calls (T) as well as their number. Grade of service One measure of the quality of service is how many times a subscriber is unsuccessful in setting up a call (blocking). One Erlang of traffic intensity on one traffic channel means a continuous occupancy of that particular traffic channel. then traffic flow (A) can be defined as: Traffic Flow (A) = C x T Where C T Is the calling rate per hour. then the traffic flow would be 120 x 1. Blocking data states what grade of service is required.5 = 180 call minutes or 3 call hours. Considering a group of traffic channels. Suppose an average hold time of 1. The customers’ desired grade of service has a direct effect on the number of channels needed in the network. It is given as a percentage of the time that the subscriber is unable to make a call.5 minutes is assumed and the calling rate in the busy hour is 120. which had a call intensity of 5 Erlangs. the traffic intensity in Erlangs is the number of call-seconds per second or the number of call-hours per hour. if there are a group of 10 traffic channels. There is a direct relationship between the grade of service required and the number of channels. For example. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-9 . the average holding time per call. Typical blocking for the MS-BSC link is 2% with 1% being acceptable on the BSC-MSC link. then half of the circuits would be busy at the time of measurement.

thus allowing up to double the number of subscribers that are supported by a base station. Initially the AMR capable MS penetration rate may be low. a capacity gain can be realized as a result of being able to operate at a lower C/I threshold. it is possible to support 8 voice calls per E1 timeslot instead of 4 when 8 kbit/s backhaul is used (refer to Figure 3-4). or in a mix of full rate and half rate where handovers between the modes are permitted. The ability of the AMR codec to change the allocation of source and channel coding bits provide a high level of speech quality. the benefits of AMR do not extend to the signaling channels. thus providing optimum performance. However. Capacity and coverage AMR half rate doubles the number of voice calls that can be supported over the air interface. On the backhaul. For details about GSM half rate. The overall improvements are dependant upon channel quality (C/I). is a summary of a report on AMR which contains additional information regarding the technical aspects and benefits. A codec with a higher level of error protection (and a corresponding decrease in speech quality) is selected as channel quality deteriorates. or to the use of non-AMR codecs and data services. The half rate (hr) ability of AMR.076. 68P02900W21-S 3-10 01 Feb 2007 . see GSM half rate on page 3-14. Capacity gains of this type are dependent upon other factors (for example. which allows for two calls per timeslot. Expands the area of high call quality coverage through AMR full rate. Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) speech codec. This can result in higher traffic loading. With AMR operating in full rate mode. provides the largest increase in capacity. but at a cost of a decrease in voice quality.Adaptive multi-rate (AMR) Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Adaptive multi-rate (AMR) Introduction AMR offers two strong benefits: • • Expands air interface capacity through AMR half rate. TR 46. leading to an increase in the sensitivity of the transceivers. propagation conditions) and any improvement gained by a replanning of existing systems should be considered with care. suggesting that in circumstances where capacity is paramount and voice quality is secondary then GSM half rate is employed as an alternative. Study Phase Report. The 3GPP document. This is achieved by halving the air interface necessary to support a single voice call using AMR half rate.

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-11 . AMR full rate expands the area of high quality voice coverage within a cell by intelligently selecting the best from a selection of codecs in various radio environments. AMR full rate improves voice quality across the entire network. providing high quality in poorer signaling conditions: • • AMR full rate offers higher quality voice communications in poor radio environments such as corporate and urban buildings where no dedicated in-building coverage has been provided. Figure 3-5 shows the different profiles of these codecs.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Adaptive multi-rate (AMR) Figure 3-4 AMR half rate capacity increase Quality of service AMR full rate delivers improved voice quality in poorer radio environments. by supporting high quality voice codecs in radio environments that cannot support Enhanced Full Rate (EFR).

Suitable for operators who do not require to increase capacity through half rate operation. and so on). coverage holes. Some capacity advantage is also derived from the improved resilience under low C/I conditions. improved resilience to errors compared to GSM EFR is provided. ability of AMR. the speech quality varies little with channel errors. which usually have a C/I between 11dB and 13 dB. Some of the potential application scenarios are identified together with the advantages offered and the types of networks to which they suit. This enables operators to offer high voice quality in radio environments that does not support EFR. 68P02900W21-S 3-12 01 Feb 2007 . This improvement is paramount in urban environments. it is possible to customize the application of AMR to meet specific network and service needs. Half rate only . but wish to offer the best speech quality possible to all users. Applications With the flexibility of the AMR system. It also provides significantly improved quality under marginal coverage conditions (for example. AMR full rate offers a significantly higher quality codec solution in marginal radio environments (C/I = 13 to 4 dB). Potential service applications . It supports tighter frequency re-use. Full rate only .Suitable for operators who need the greatest capacity enhancement from half rate operation. at cell edge.High quality over full range of channel errors Due to the robust error correction. Potential service applications .Improved quality over current HR codec The AMR codec can be operated in half rate channel mode to gain maximum capacity advantage. So that when in call.Adaptive multi-rate (AMR) Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-5 AMR full rate call quality improvements In comparison to the EFR curve. Some loss of quality at high channel error rates and in background noise can be expected.

Suitable for operators who want to combine speech quality and capacity improvements. the other as GSM half rate. Interoperability with GSM half rate AMR half rate and GSM half rate can coexist within a system. care should be taken to ensure that the call capacity rating of the various components of the system are not exceeded. full rate is used until cell congestion triggers a switch to use of half rate channels. One subrate operates as AMR half rate. Interoperability with EGPRS When AMR half rate is enabled on an EGPRS capable carrier (pkt_radio_type = 3) in order to maximize the VersaTRAU backhaul utilization. down to the RTF level. only 8 kbit/s switching on the backhaul is supported. Use of AMR HR improves the spectral efficiency over the air interface (and potentially the backhaul). The operator also specifies a handover of half rate capable mobiles from a full rate channel to a half rate channel to help ease the congestion. Potential service applications . Migration to AMR half rate When migrating. This provides a tuneable trade-off between call quality and capacity. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-13 . but from a load perspective a half rate call has the same impact as a full rate call.HR tied to cell congestion In this case.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Adaptive multi-rate (AMR) Full and half rate operation .

corresponding to the proportion of mobiles within a coverage area that supports GSM half rate. On the backhaul. Although the speech quality is considered inferior to other speech codecs.GSM half rate Chapter 3: BSS cell planning GSM half rate Introduction GSM half rate offers enhanced capacity over the air interface. Capacity and coverage GSM half rate doubles the number of voice calls that can be supported over the air interface as with AMR half rate. 68P02900W21-S 3-14 01 Feb 2007 . Figure 3-6 GSM half rate capacity increase Quality of service The GSM half rate codec does not perform as well as the AMR half rate codec. An air timeslot is split into two subchannels. This provides a relative comparison of voice quality against the other codecs. This is achieved by halving the air interface capacity necessary to support a single voice call using GSM half rate. each containing a half rate channel. thus allowing up to double the number of subscribers that are supported by a base station.75 <-> 7. GSM half rate capable mobiles have a high penetration level due to its early introduction into the standards and hence it is considered a viable option for high-density areas. Figure 3-7 shows the Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) for the various coding schemes versus C/I (the 4.95 values are for AMR half rate). it is possible to support 8 voice calls per E1 timeslot instead of 4 when 8 kbit/s backhaul is used (refer to Figure 3-6).

Half rate The GSM half rate codec can be operated in half rate channel mode to gain maximum capacity advantage.Suitable for operators who want to combine speech quality and capacity improvements. This provides a tuneable trade-off between call quality and capacity. All qualifying calls are placed on a half rate channel. The operator also specifies a handover of half rate capable mobiles from a full rate channel to a half rate channel to help ease the congestion. Potential service applications . Potential service applications .HR tied to cell congestion In this case full rate is used until cell congestion triggers a switch to use GSM half rate channels. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-15 .Suitable for operators who need the greatest capacity enhancement from half rate operation. Full and Half rate operation .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GSM half rate Figure 3-7 GSM half rate codec comparison Applications GSM half rate is best suited for use when spectral efficiency is required. A reduction in speech quality is expected. Two useful application scenarios are identified together with the advantages offered and the types of networks to which they are suited. GSM half rate can be controlled at the cell level and is suitable to deal with high user density clusters.

Use of GSM half rate improves the spectral efficiency over the air interface (and potentially the backhaul). the other as AMR half rate. Interoperability with AMR half rate GSM half rate and AMR half rate can coexist within a system. Interoperability with EGPRS When GSM half rate is enabled on an EGPRS capable carrier (pkt_radio_type = 3) in order to maximize the VersaTRAU backhaul utilization. care should be taken to ensure that the call capacity rating of the various components of the system are not exceeded. One subrate is operating as GSM half rate. 68P02900W21-S 3-16 01 Feb 2007 . only 8 kbit/s switching on the backhaul is supported.GSM half rate Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Migration to half rate When migrating. down to the RTF level. but from a load perspective a half rate call has the same impact as a full rate call.

and enables calculations used when planning radio systems to be simplified.000000001 W is -60 dBm. since they are designed to compute the diffraction loss and free space loss based upon the path profile between the transmitter and the receiver. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-17 . For example. For a power of 1 W. For example. take a power of 20 watts transmitted from a BTS. this method fails to take buildings into account when performing its calculation. Although the use of topographical based calculations are useful when designing mobile communication systems. The path loss can now be expressed as 103 dBm. for a given power of 1 mW that is expressed as 0 dBm. which was . providing some 800. The free space and plane earth propagation losses are calculated. By converting both figures to decibels referenced to 1 mW. the equivalent in dB is 0 dBW. Decibels The decibel (dB) is used to express power output levels.000000001 W at the receiver. Table 3-1 gives examples of dB conversions. The decibel scale is logarithmic and this allows large or small numbers to be more easily expressed and calculated. the increase is 3 dB and for every halving of power the decrease is 3 dB. The calculations are based upon the terrain features. most mobile systems are centered around urban environments. Any number is expressed as a decibel. or converting decibels. The computer then tests the path profile for a line of sight path and tests whether the Fresnel zone clearance is obtained over the path. If the line of sight and Fresnel-zone clearance test fails. A widely used technique in the United Kingdom is the prediction method used by the Joint Radio Committee (JRC) of the Nationalized Power Industries. In the urban environments.000-height reference points at 0. receiver input levels and path losses. and the higher value is selected. indicating a value. However. then the program evaluates the loss caused by any obstructions and grades them into single or multiple diffraction edges.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Propagation production Most of the methods used to predict propagation over irregular terrain are actually terrain based. The computer predicts the received signal level by constructing the ground path profile between the transmitter and receiver using the database. the m refers to the fact that the original scale of measurement was in thousandths of a watt (milliwatts). which can be used when adding. It is difficult to express accurately the total power loss in a simple way. it is necessary to resort to approximate methods of calculating diffraction losses since exact calculations for each obstacle becomes difficult. 20 W becomes 43 dBm and . This method utilizes a computerized topographical map in a database. while division needs subtracting one dB figure from the other. Multiplication simply needs adding the dB figures together. subtracting. The only requirement is that the original description and unit scale is appended to the dB.5 km intervals covering the whole of the UK. the path between the transmitter and receiver can be blocked by some obstacles (buildings for example). Therefore. Another example is for every doubling of power figures. Multiplication and division also become easier when using decibels.

125 mW 0.1 nW 0.1 µ W 0. the power level being converted.5 mW 0.5 mW 10 mW 5 mW 2.001 pW 1W reference value.01 nW 1 pW 0. Table 3-1 dBm and dBW to power conversion dBm +59 +56 +53 +50 +49 +46 +43 +40 +39 +36 +33 +30 +27 * dBW 29 26 23 20 19 16 13 10 9 6 3 0* -3 Power 800 W 400 W 200 W 100 W 80 W 40 W 20 W 10 W 8W 4W 2W 1W 500 mW dBm + 24 + 21 + 20 +17 +14 +11 +10 +7 +4 +1 0 ** -3 -6 dBW -6 -9 -10 -13 -16 -19 -20 -23 -26 -29 -30 -33 -36 Power 250 mW 125 mW 100 mW 50 mW 25 mW 12.01 µ W 1 nW 0.1 mW 0. the reference power level.5 mW 1. 68P02900W21-S 3-18 01 Feb 2007 .01 pW 0. ** 1 mW reference value.25 mW dBm -9 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 -120 dBW -39 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 -120 -130 -140 -150 Power 0.Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The basic equation used to derive power (dB) from power (W) is: N dB = 10 x log10 (PL/RPL) Where N PL RPL Is the required power level in dB.1 pW 0. The reference value is measured across a 50-ohm non-reactive load.01 mW 1µW 0.25 mW 1 mW 0.

If that is the case then the next best clearance for the first Fresnel zone is 0.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Fresnel zone The Fresnel zone actually consists of several different zones. To calculate whether this condition exists. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-19 . Ideally the link should be planned for no =intrusions but in some cases they are unavoidable. each one forming an ellipsoid around the major axis of the direct propagation path. If they exist. total path length. which protrudes into the zone. distance from Tx antenna to the obstacle. It is important when planning a cell to consider all the radio paths for obstacles.6 of the radius. it is like planning permanent areas of no coverage in certain parts of the cell. distance from Rx antenna to the obstacle. it means that a reflected signal as well as the direct path signal arrives at the receiver. If a signal from that zone is reflected on an obstacle. When siting a BTS on top of a building. wavelength of the carrier wave. Each zone describes a specific area depending on the wavelength of the signal frequency. Where Figure 3-8 First Fresnel zone radius calculation FREQUENCY = 900 MHz WAVELENGTH = 30 cm F1 d d1 d2 Once the cell coverage has been calculated. which can produce reflections from the first Fresnel zone. the radius of the first Fresnel zone at the point where the object is suspected of intruding into the zone must be calculated. F1 = d1 * d 2 * λ d Is F1 d1 d2 λ d the first Fresnel zone. the radio path can be checked for any objects intruding into the first Fresnel zone. Radio waves reflected in the first Fresnel zone arrives at the receiver out of phase with those taking the direct path and so combine destructively. care must be taken with the positioning and height of the antenna to ensure that the roof edge of the building does not intrude into the first Fresnel zone. Figure 3-8 illustrates the formula. This results in low received signal strength.

This figure is cumbersome to work with. even at higher altitudes. The quantity of water vapor in the atmosphere. and water vapor pressure have major effects on the RRI. and also what causes these changes. carbon dioxide. RRI measurements provide planners with information on how much a radio wave is refracted by the atmosphere at various heights above sea level. so convention has converted n to N. Refraction (see Figure 3-9) is the changing of direction of propagation of the radio wave as it passes from a denser layer of the atmosphere to a less dense layer. It also occurs when passing from a less dense layer to a denser layer. The following influence the value of N: • The proportion of principal gasses in the atmosphere such as nitrogen. Figure 3-9 Refraction REFRACTION OCCURS AS THE RADIO WAVE PASSES THROUGH LAYERS OF DIFFERENT ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY EARTH The main effect to cell planners is that changes in the RRI can increase or decrease the cell radius depending on conditions prevailing at the time. This can also occur under certain conditions. These maintain a near constant relationship as height is increased. Where N Is (n-1) x 106 The value of N now becomes 340 units for the UK. oxygen.00034. the mean value is 1. the affect does not vary. The value varies with seasons and location but for the UK.Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Radio refractive index (RRI) It is important when planning a cell or microwave radio link to have an understanding of the effects the RRI can have on microwave communications. The actual seasonal and global variations are only a few tens of units at sea level. This is a variable and has significant effects on the RRI. The RRI is referenced to a value n at sea level. • • 68P02900W21-S 3-20 01 Feb 2007 . and rare gasses. The temperature. pressure. Although they affect the RRI.

The measurements of pressure are made every 35 m. Under these conditions. This gives a finer measurement showing variations in the RRI over height differences of a little over one meter. which is released into the atmosphere. This occurs when the lapse rate is less than 40 N per km. Figure 3-10 Measurement of the RRI 1 HEIGHT (km) 0 RRI (N) 340 Effects of deviations The lapse rate of 40 N per km is based on clear sky readings with good atmosphere mixing. It measures the temperature. This is illustrated in the graph as shown in Figure 3-10. These are transmitted back to the ground station with a suitable reference value. and humidity as it rises. A radio system is calibrated during these conditions and the height alignment in the case of a microwave point-topoint link is determined. This is an instrument. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-21 . Figure 3-11B illustrates the condition known as super refraction. The second method is a more sophisticated means of measuring the RRI. where the radio waves are not diffracted enough. The first method is by use of Radio Sounds. Figure 3-11A shows an exaggerated curved radio path between two antennas under normal conditions. it could result in areas of no coverage. It is easier to see the effects on a microwave point-to-point system when examining the effects of uneven variations of the RRI. While this does not cause any interference (as with sub refraction). Although for a well-mixed atmosphere. Similar effects on a cell would increase the cell size. the RRI falls by 40 N units per 1 km increase in height sea level. Measurement of RRI There are two main ways of measuring the RRI at any moment in time. These are carried by a balloon. It uses fast response devices called refractometers. aircraft. or spaced apart on a high tower. further resulting in co-channel and adjacent channel interference. where the RRI increases greater than 40 N per km. resulting in more or less refraction of a radio wave. as the radio waves would be propagated. The aircraft mounted refractometer can give a detailed study over several paths and heights. This results in the path being refracted too much and not arriving at the receive antenna. humidity every 25 m. The atmosphere refracts the signal and the signal arrives at the receiving antenna. and temperature every 10 m. pressure. These together provide a relatively crude picture of what the value of the RRI is over a range of heights. These instruments are based upon the change in resonant frequency of a cavity with partially open ends caused by the change in RRI of air passing through the cavity. Figure 3-11C illustrates the condition known as sub refraction.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies All either increases or decreases the RRI depending on local conditions. normally attached to a balloon. the main signal path misses the receive antenna.

If this happens radio waves are propagated over far greater distances than normal and can produce interference in places not subjected to any. This condition causes a temperature inversion and the RRI profile no longer has a uniform lapse rate. 68P02900W21-S 3-22 01 Feb 2007 . When this combination is blown back over land. After sunset. • Advection effects This effect is caused by high-pressure weather fronts moving from land to the sea or other large expanses of water. Events modifying the clear sky lapse rate There are four main events that can modify the clear sky lapse rate and they are as follows: • Radiation nights This is the result of a sunny day followed by clear skies overnight. This effect only occurs over land and not water as water temperature variations are over a longer period of time. This heat loss is not replaced resulting in air closer to the surface cooling faster than air higher up. the Earth radiates heat into the atmosphere and its surface temperature drops. which matches the curvature of the Earth.Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-11 Refraction effects on a microwave system A EARTH NORMAL REFRACTION B EARTH SUPER REFRACTION C EARTH SUB-REFRACTION The last effect is known as ducting and occurs when the refraction of the radio wave produces a path. The result is warm air from the high-pressure front covering the relatively cool air of the water. The Earth absorbs heat during the day and the air temperature rises. It persists until the air mass strikes high ground where the increase in height mixes and dissipates the inversion. the trapped cool air causes a temperature inversion.

This time over land. when air descending from high altitude is heated by compression as it descends. trees. Most objects in the path have some effect on the signal as the wavelength is approximately 30 cm for GSM900 and 15 cm for DCSI1800. Environmental effects on propagation It is important to consider the effects that objects in the path of the radio wave have on it at the frequency range used for GSM. local pressure. These disturbances tend to be short lived as the cold front dissipates quickly. humidity and temperature conditions could well give rise to events that affect the RRI. and people cause the signal to be attenuated by varying degrees. buildings. Although those described are the four main causes of RRI deviations. Figure 3-12 Attenuation INCOMING WAVE OBJECT ABSORBS THE ENERGY IN THE RADIO WAVE OUTGOING WAVE ATTENUATED BY THE OBJECT 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-23 . The effects are quite significant at GSM frequencies but still depend on the type of materials and dimensions of the object in relation to the wavelength used. office fittings even people and animals affect the radio wave in one way or another.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies • Subsidence This occurs again in a high-pressure system. • Frontal systems This happens when a cold front approaching an area forces a wedge of cold air under the warmer air causing a temperature inversion. This type of temperature inversion occurs at an altitude of 1 km but can occasionally drop to 100 m where it causes severe disruption to radio signals. Such things as vehicles. The main effects can be summarized as follows: • • • • • Attenuation Reflection Scattering Diffraction Polarization changes Attenuation Any object obstructing the wave path causing absorption of the signal (refer to Figure 3-12) causes attenuation. This heated air then spreads over the cooler air. Buildings.

Figure 3-14 Scattering INCIDENT WAVE ENERGY IS SCATTERED ROUGH STONY GROUND Diffraction Diffraction occurs when a radio wave is bent off its normal path. the stronger is the reflected wave. Figure 3-13 Reflection INCIDENT WAVE REFLECTED WAVE EQUAL ANGLES SMOOTH SURFACE. SUCH AS WATER. This explains why seawater is a better reflector than sand. This happens when the radio wave passes over an edge. The rougher the surface and the relationship between the size of the objects and the wavelength determines the amount of scattering that occurs. such as the edge of a building roof or at street level (see Figure 3-15). The greater the conductivity. 68P02900W21-S 3-24 01 Feb 2007 .Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Reflection This is caused when the radio wave strikes a relatively smooth conducting surface. VERY REFLECTIVE AMOUNT OF REFLECTION DEPENDS ON CONDUCTIVITY OF THE SURFACE Scattering This occurs when a wave reflects off a rough surface (see Figure 3-14). Diffraction can be a good thing as it allows radio signals to reach areas where they would not be propagated. The amount of diffraction that takes place increases as the frequency used is increased. The wave is reflected at the same angle at which it arrived (see Figure 3-13). The strength of the reflected signal depends on how well the reflector conducts.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Figure 3-15 Diffraction SIDE VIEW EXPECTED PATH SHADOW AREA DIFFRACTED WAVE PLAN VIEW DIFFRACTED WAVE GIVING COVERAGE AROUND THE CORNER MICRO BTS AT STREET LEVEL DIFFRACTED WAVE GIVING COVERAGE AROUND THE CORNER Polarization changes This can happen with any of the effects due to atmospheric conditions and geomagnetic effects such as the solar wind striking the atmosphere of the earth. the antenna attenuates the received signal. Figure 3-16 shows the effects of polarization on a transmitted signal. These polarization changes mean that a signal can arrive at the receiver with a different polarization than that which the antenna has been designed to accept. If this occurs. Figure 3-16 Polarization ELECTRICAL PART OF WAVE VERTICALLY POLARIZED ELECTRICAL STORM ELECTRICAL PART OF WAVE HORIZONTALLY POLARIZED (CHANGED BY ELECTRICAL STORM) Tx Rx 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-25 .

It is experienced in urban areas where there are many buildings and the only signals received are from reflections and refractions of the original signal. a move of just 15 cm or half a wavelength can suffice to observe a change in signal strength.Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Multipath propagation Rayleigh and Rician fading The receiver picks up the same signal as a result of the propagation effects on the transmitted signal. the signals can or cannot be in phase with each other. Because of the reception time difference. The result is that some combine constructively resulting in a gain of signal strength while others combine destructively resulting in a loss of signal strength. Rayleigh environment Rayleigh has described this type of environment.Rayleigh fading environment Rx Tx 68P02900W21-S 3-26 01 Feb 2007 . The receiving antenna is not required to be moved far for the signal strength to vary by many tens of decibels. The signals arriving from the different paths have traveled different distances and therefore arrive at the receiver at different times with different signal strengths. The plot is specifically for non line of sight (refer to Figure 3-17) and is known as Rayleigh distribution (refer to Figure 3-18). For GSM900. Figure 3-17 Propagation effect . Rayleigh analyzed the signal strength along a path with a moving receiver and plotted a graph of the typical signal strength measured due to multipath fading. This effect is known as multipath fading. which has been reflected from many different objects resulting in what is known as multipath reception.

this is known as Rician distribution (see Figure 3-20). Figure 3-19 Propagation effect . There are still fades in signal strength but they rarely dip the threshold which the receiver cannot process them.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Figure 3-18 Rayleigh distribution SIGNAL STRENGTH THRESHOLD DEEP NULLS 1 2 / WAVELENGTH DISTANCE Rician environment When the signal path is predominantly in line of sight (see Figure 3-19) with insignificant reflections or diffractions arriving at the receiver.Rician environment Rx Tx 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-27 .

The following formula is used to find out what the power covering the sphere is: P= Pt 4π * d 2 68P02900W21-S 3-28 01 Feb 2007 . other structures. and angle of arrival of the waves are random and the short-term statistics of the resultant signal envelope a Rayleigh distribution.Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-20 Rician distribution SIGNAL STRENGTH THRESHOLD DISTANCE Comparison of DCS1800 and GSM900 From a pure frequency point of view. This is impossible to achieve in reality but it does give a good starting point for all propagation loss calculations. The propagation path contains many obstacles in the form of buildings. Rician distribution is exhibited if a microcell is employed where part of a cell coverage area is predominantly the line of sight. Receive signal strength A moving vehicle in an urban environment seldom has a direct line of sight path to the base station. Equally important in establishing path losses is the effect that the devices radiating the signal have on the signal itself. DCS1800 generally has more fades than GSM900. phase. The device is assumed as an isotropic radiator as a basis for the calculation. and even other vehicles. the instantaneous field strength at the MS and BTS exhibits a highly variable structure. If the device is placed in the middle of a sphere it would illuminate the entire inner surface with an equal field strength. Free space loss This is the loss of signal strength that occurs as the radio waves are propagated through free space. they are usually less pronounced. However. The received signal at the mobile is the net result of many waves that arrive through multiple paths formed by diffraction and scattering. This is a theoretical pinpoint antenna. Because there is no unique propagation path between the transmitter and receiver. Free space is defined as the condition where there are no sources of reflection in the signal path. which radiates equally in every direction. The amplitudes.

The formula is dependent on distance and frequency. The effective aperture (Ae) of the receiving antenna must be calculated to work out the power received at a normal antenna. Plane earth loss The free space loss as stated is based solely on a theoretical model and is of no use by itself when calculating the path loss in a multipath environment.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Where Pt d Is the input power to the isotropic antenna. This formula illustrates the inverse square law that the power decreases with the square of the distance. modify the formula to use kilometer and megahertz for the distance and frequency. For convenience. then the result is: 2 ⎛ Pt ⎞ λ Pr = ⎜ * ⎟ 2 ⎝ 4π * d ⎠ 4π Free space path loss This is the ratio of the actual received power to the transmitted power from an isotropic radiator and is calculated by the following formula: ⎛ 4π * d ⎞ Free space loss in dB = 20log ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ λ ⎠ Logs are used to make the figures more manageable. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-29 . It becomes: Free space loss = 32 + 20logd + 20logf dB Where d f Is the distance in km. the shorter is the wavelength. Together these are called the space wave. the distance from the radiator to the surface of the sphere. The higher the frequency. the model assumes that the signal arriving at the receiver consists of a direct path component and a reflective path component. the frequency in MHz. The earth in its role as a reflector of signals must be taken into account to provide a more realistic model. and therefore the greater the path loss. The formula is based on units measured in meters. Ae = λ2 4π The actual received power can be calculated as follows: Pr = P * Ae If P is substituted with the formula for the power received over the inner surface of a sphere and Ae with its formula. When calculating the plane earth loss.

When this formula is used it implies the inverse fourth law as opposed to the inverse square law. Poor earth: For example. so a lower path loss. moist loamy lowland. Figure 3-21 illustrates plane earth loss. Although this is still a simple representation of path loss. taking all factors into account. this provides the least attenuation. So. rich agricultural land. The earth’s characteristics can be divided into three groups: • • • Excellent earth: For example seawater. industrial or urban areas. as with the free space loss calculation. for every doubling of distance there is a 12 dB loss instead of 6 dB. These increase the path loss even further depending on the type of terrain (refer to Figure 3-21). These give the highest losses and are found when planning urban cells.Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The formula for calculating the plane earth loss is: ⎛ d2 ⎞ L = 20 log ⎜ ⎜ h1 * h 2 ⎟ ⎟dB ⎝ ⎠ This takes into account the different antenna heights at the transmitter and receiver. and forests. Good earth: For example. The final factors in path loss are the ground characteristics. 68P02900W21-S 3-30 01 Feb 2007 . and rocky land.

PATH LOSS INCREASES 12 dB FOR A DOUBLING OF d. Tx d Rx h1 3 h2 PLANE EARTH + CORRECTION FACTOR FOR TYPE OF TERRAIN. Tx d Rx h1 2 h2 PLANE EARTH LOSS INCLUDES ONE EARTH REFLECTOR. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-31 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Figure 3-21 Plane earth loss Tx FREE SPACE LOSS d Rx 1 PATH LOSS INCREASES 6 dB FOR A DOUBLING OF d. PATH LOSS INCREASES 12 dB FOR A DOUBLING OF d + A FACTOR FOR TYPE OF TERRAIN.

Any antenna has a gain over an isotropic radiator because in practice it is impossible to radiate the power equally in all directions. Antenna gain The additional gain provided by an antenna can be used to enhance the distance that the radio wave transmits. or focusing of power.the built up area and the suburban area.094U . A good base station site should be high enough to clear all the surrounding obstacles in the immediate vicinity. this can also have adverse effects on channel re-use distances because of the increased possibility of co-channel interference. Although employing high antennas increases the coverage area of the base station. ⎛ F⎞ B(dB) = 20 + ⎜ ⎟ + 0.9 the percentage of L occupied by buildings of four storeys. and high-rise residential tower blocks. Refer to Figure 3-22. is what enables the radio waves to travel further and if it was possible to be radiated from an isotropic radiator. so two parameters are utilized.5. The built up area contains tall buildings. This concentration.18L − 0. Antenna gain is measured against an isotropic radiator.Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Clutter factor The nature of the surrounding urban environment influences the propagation of the RF signal in an urban area. the frequency of RF signal. whilst a suburban area contains residential houses. the difference in height between the squares containing the transmitter and receiver. 68P02900W21-S 3-32 01 Feb 2007 . This means that in some directions the radiated power is concentrated. and parks as the main features. A land usage factor describing the percentage of the area covered by buildings and a degree of urbanization factor. Problems can arise in placing areas into one of these two categories. 0. describing the percentage of buildings of four storeys in the area. playing fields. office blocks. An urban area can then be placed into two sub categories. the percentage of land within 500 m square occupied by buildings.34H + K ⎝ 40 ⎠ Where B(dB) F L H K U Is the clutter factor in dB.

The difference is a measure of gain experienced by the directional antenna. Figure 3-23 Measurement of gain 10 W MEASUREMENT POINT MEASUREMENT POINT 1000 W TRANSMITTER In this example. First the power of the isotropic radiator is increased so that both receive levels are the same. as opposed to the directional antenna which only needs 10 W. The emitted powers required to achieve that are then compared for both antennas. The gain of the directional antenna is 100 dBi or 20 dBi. See example in Figure 3-23. to achieve a balanced receive level the isotropic radiator must have an input power of 1000 W.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Figure 3-22 Focusing of power ISOTROPIC RADIATOR (A SPHERICAL PATTERN) VERTICAL DIPOLE RADIATION PATTERN (SIDE VIEW) TRANSMITTER Measuring antenna gain The gain of a directional antenna is measured by comparing the signal strength of a carrier emitted from an isotropic antenna and the directional antenna. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-33 . It always has some gain when compared to an isotropic radiator.

This is apparent when sectorizing cells. When calculating the propagation loss inside a building (see Figure 3-24). Each sectored cell needs less transmit power than the equivalent range omni cell due to the gain of its directional antenna. the signal can suffer from spatial variations caused by the design of the interior of the building. so the internal distance through which the signal passes should be considered. but this does not happen. This building loss factor is included in the model to account for the increase in attenuation of the received signal when the mobile is moved from outside to inside a building. it has become essential to study RF propagation into and within buildings. 68P02900W21-S 3-34 01 Feb 2007 . The more directional the antenna is made than the more gain it experiences.Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Where i Is isotropic. a building loss factor is added to the RF path loss. Due to the internal construction of a building. Propagation in buildings With the increased use of hand portable equipment in mobile cellular systems. 14 dBi to 17 dBi. combined with the increased availability of cordless telephones. This is why the uplink mobile to BTS frequency is usually the lowest part of the frequency range. This is fine if all operators stand next to the walls of the building when making calls. This gives a slight gain advantage to the lower power mobile transmitter. though in all cases the gain decreases as the frequency increases. The gain is also present in the receive path.

for distances between the base station and the mobile stations of 1 km to 100 km. isolated mountain areas. 1310 MHz.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Figure 3-24 Building propagation TRANSMITTER W dBm X dBm X dBm = SIGNAL STRENGTH OUTSIDE BUILDING W dBm = SIGNAL STRENGTH INSIDE BUILDING BUILDING INSERTION LOSS (dBm) = X -W = B dBm GAIN TRANSMITTER REFERENCE POINT The building loss tends to be defined as the difference in the median field intensity at the adjacent area just outside the building and the field intensity at a location on the main floor of the building. and 1920 MHz in the UHF band. When considering coverage in tall buildings. Okumura defined the correction factors corresponding to various terrain parameters for irregular terrain. a path gain is experienced. suburban. location variabilities. The results were statistically analyzed and described for distance and frequency dependencies of median field strength. and open areas over quasi-smooth terrain. 1430 MHz. This produces a building median field intensity figure. Okumura method In the early 1960s. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-35 . general sloped terrain. and mixed land or sea path. which is then used for plotting cell coverage areas and grade of service. such as rolling hills. a Japanese engineer named Okumura carried out a series of detailed propagation tests for land mobile radio services at various different frequencies. and antenna height gain factors for the base and mobile stations in urban. 922 MHz. if any floors of that building are the height of the transmitting antenna. This location can be anywhere on the main floor. with base station effective antenna heights of 30m to 100m. A method for predicting field strength and service area for a given terrain of a land mobile radio system was defined as a result of these tests carried out primarily in the Tokyo area. The Okumura method is valid for the frequency range of 150 MHz to 2000 MHz. The frequencies were 200 MHz in the VHF band and 453 MHz.

Hata has taken Okumura’s graphical results and derived an equation to calculate the path loss in various environments. Figure 3-25 Okumura propagation graphs 110 922 MHz 100 h.Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The results of the median field strength at the stated frequencies were displayed graphically (see Figure 3-25).= 220 m 90 x x x Free Space h. The various antenna heights used at the test transmitter base stations are also shown on these graphs. urban.= 140 m h.6 1 2 3 5 LOG SCALE 7 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 LINEAR SCALE DISTANCE (km) PROPAGATION GRAPH FOR 922 MHz Hata’s propagation formula Hata used the information contained in Okumura’s propagation loss report of the early 1960s. It does not transfer easily into a computer environment as this is a graphical representation of results. However. 1 uV/m) FOR 1 kW ERP 80 70 60 50 40 x x x x x x x xx x xx x xxx xx x x x x 30 20 10 0 -10 0. which presented its results graphically. and hilly terrain). suburban. Another Japanese engineer named Hata has carried out the most important work. to define a series of empirical formulas to allow propagation prediction to be done on computers. These equations have been modified to take into account the differences between the Japanese terrain and the type of terrain experienced in Western Europe. the results provided by Okumura are the basis on which path loss prediction equations have been formulated. The graphs show the median field strength in relation to the distance in km from the site.= 3 m FIELD STRENGTH (dB rel.= 320 m h. The propagation loss in an urban area can be presented as a simple formula of: A + B log 10R 68P02900W21-S 3-36 01 Feb 2007 .= 45m h. Different graphs were drawn for each of the test frequencies in each of the terrain environments (for example.

0.33. Using this basic formula.9 . Urban Area: Lp = 69.82.4. [log10 (f/28)] 2 .hm .66.2 (log10 11.40.4.Small City: a(hm) = (1. Hata’s formula predicts the actual path loss. which must be observed when using this empirical calculation method to facilitate this actionWhere Frequency range (fc) Distance (R) Base station antenna height (hb) Vehicular antenna height (hm) Is 100 to 1500 MHz 1 to 20 km 30 to 200 m 1 to 10 m Hata defined three basic formulas based upon three defined types of coverage area: urban. log10fc .a(hm) # + (44.13.2.log10hb .(1.55 + 26.97 Where fc Suburban Area: Lps = Lp [Urban Area] . and not the final signal strength at the receiver. which is applicable to radio systems is the UHF and VHF frequency ranges.56.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Where A B R Is the frequency. (log10fc) 2 + 18. Hata has set a series of limitations.log10fc .0.16 log10fc . Medium .5.1 . the distance from the transmitter.78.7).4 dB Rural Area: Lpr = Lp [Urban Area] .log10fc .8) Large City: a(hm) = 3.75hm)2 . the antenna height function.6.94 dB Is > 400 MHz 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-37 . suburban.log10R dB Where # Is the correction factor for vehicular station antenna height. Hata added an error factor to the basic formula to produce a series of equations to predict path loss. and open. log10hb).

There is a statistic in the BTS that checks the path balance every 480 ms for each call in progress. The latest uplink and downlink figures reported along with the actual mobile and BTS transmit powers are used in a formula to give an indication of the path balance. Once the area of coverage for a site has been decided. the possibility of mast head amplifiers in the uplink path. Although this seems a simple way to increase coverage. the calculations for the power budget can be made. The output powers of the BTS and mobile are unlikely to be the same for any given distances due to the differences in uplink and downlink path losses and gains as described.Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Power budget and system balance In any two-way radio system. 68P02900W21-S 3-38 01 Feb 2007 . the radio path losses and equipment output powers must be taken into account for both directions. to increase the cell coverage. Therefore. The BTS power level must never be increased the calculated level for system balance. If the cell size is reduced. These include receive path diversity gain in the uplink only. where there are different characteristics for the uplink and downlink paths. the system balance is different and the mobile cannot make a call in the new coverage area. One where the power required of the mobile to achieve a given range is equitable to the range offered by the power transmitted by the BTS. the path losses and output powers in the uplink and downlink must be carefully calculated to achieve a system balance. This is especially true in a mobile network. This affects both the uplink and downlink therefore maintaining system balance. and the sensitivity of the BTS receiver is usually better than that of the mobile. Increase the gain of the antenna. it is possible that the BTS has a service area far greater than that which the mobile is able to use due to its limited output power. Separate antennas used for transmit and receive must be of similar gain. the output power capability of the mobile is a lot less than that of the BTS. If these differences are not considered. The system balance is then calculated which decides the output powers of the BTS and mobile to provide acceptable quality calls in the area of coverage of the BTS. GSM900 path loss Figure 3-26 and Table 3-27 compare the path losses at different heights for the BTS antenna and different locations of the mobile subscriber between 1 km and 100 km cell radius. the BTS power can be altered as the mobile’s output power is adaptive all the time.

2 km compared with 3 km is 40 dB. a resultant loss factor of 10.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Figure 3-26 BTS antenna height of 50 m.5 m (GSM900 220 210 200 190 URBAN INDOOR URBAN SUBURBAN PATH LOSS (dB) 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 1 RURAL (QUASI OPEN) RURAL (OPEN) 10 CELL RADIUS (km) 100 Figure 3-27 BTS antenna height of 100 m. MS height of 1. The cell size is typical of that found in urban or suburban locations.2 km.5 m (GSM900) 220 210 200 190 URBAN INDOOR URBAN SUBURBAN PATH LOSS (dB) 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 1 RURAL (QUASI OPEN) RURAL (OPEN) 10 CELL RADIUS (km) 100 Path loss GSM900 against DCS1800 Figure 3-28 illustrates the greater path loss experienced by the higher DCS1800 frequency range compared to the GSM900 band. The difference in path loss for the GSM900 band at 0. MS height of 1. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-39 .000 compared to the measurement at 0.

Propagation effects on GSM frequencies Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-28 Path loss against cell radius for small cells 170 160 DCS1800 (METROPOLITAN CENTRES) 150 PATH LOSS (dB) 140 130 GSM900 120 DCS1800 (MEDIUM SIZED CITIES AND SUBURBAN CENTRES) 110 100 0.3 CELL RADIUS (km) 1.0 68P02900W21-S 3-40 01 Feb 2007 .0 3.1 0.

Therefore to plan a balanced transmit and receive radio path. Installing a greater number of cells provides greater spectral efficiency with more frequency re-use of available frequencies. The effective range of a cell varies according to the location.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Frequency re-use Frequency re-use Introduction The network planner designs the cellular network around the available carriers or frequency channels.1880 MHz Rx Range 890 .960 MHz 925 . only a finite number of channels are allocated to the planner. However. a balance must be struck between the spectral efficiency and all the costs of the cell.960 MHz 1805 . and can be as much as 35 km in rural areas and as little as 1 km in a dense urban environment. The output power of the MS is limited in all frequency bands. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-41 . the planner must make use of the path loss and the link budget. The number of channels does not necessarily cover the full frequency spectrum and care should be taken when selecting or allocating the channels. The size of cells also indicates how the frequency spectrum is used.915 MHz 880 . Maximum cell radius is determined in part by the output power of the mobile subscriber (MS) and interference caused by adjacent cells (see Figure 3-29).1785 MHz RF Carriers 124 174 374 Within this range of frequencies. The frequency channels are allocated to the network provider from the GSM/EGSM900 and DCS1800 bands as shown Frequency Band GSM900 EGSM900 DCS1800 Tx Range 935 .915 MHz 1710 .

Thus. the distance between co-channel cells also increases. which repeats across all the cells.Frequency re-use Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-29 Adjacent cell interference CARRIER F 33 INTERFERING CARRIER F 33 RECEIVE SIGNAL LEVEL . 7-cell re-use pattern shown in Figure 3-30). as the number of channel sets increases. These channel groups are assigned on a per cell basis in a regular pattern. 68P02900W21-S 3-42 01 Feb 2007 . each channel set can be re-used several times throughout the coverage area. giving rise to a particular re-use pattern (for example. However. thus the interference reduces.100dBm SERVING BTS DISTANCE INTERFERING BTS MOBILE POSITION Re-use pattern The total number of radio frequencies allocated is split into some channel groups or sets. Therefore selecting the optimum number of channel sets is a compromise between quality and capacity.75dBm . Figure 3-30 7 cell re-use pattern EACH USING CHANNEL SETS 3 4 5 3 1 2 1 2 7 6 4 7 5 3 1 6 2 4 7 3 4 5 1 5 1 6 2 7 6 7 CELL RE-USE The number of available channels per cell reduces and therefore the system capacity falls as the number of channel sets increases.

c1-3. The re-use pattern.6 cell re-use.6 cell re-use pattern Another solution to network user capacity problems can be an even higher frequency re-use pattern. The re-use pattern is arranged so that the minimum re-use distance between cells is 2 to 1.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Frequency re-use 4 site. 2 site. different re-use frequency patterns can be adopted which gives an overall greater frequency efficiency.3 cell re-use pattern Due to the increase in frequency robustness within the GSM. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-43 . uses a 2 site . With the available frequency allocation divided into 12 channels sets numbered a1-3. and d1-3. then there is always a frequency channel set available which does not cause any adjacent channel interference. The most common re-use pattern is 4 site with 3 cells (see Figure 3-31). b1-3. shown in Figure 3-32. Figure 3-31 3 cell re-use pattern c1 c2 d1 d2 b1 b2 b3 a2 c1 c2 c3 d2 b1 b2 b3 a2 a3 NEW CELL CAN USE d1-3 FREQ ALLOCATION a1 d3 b2 b3 b1 d1 a3 c2 c3 d2 d3 d1 c1 a1 d3 b2 b3 a2 a3 a1 b1 c3 d2 d3 d1 EXAMPLE b1 b2 a1 a2 a3 c2 c3 c1 b3 a2 The other main advantage of this re-use pattern is if a new cell is inserted in the network.

with the expectation that the C/I measurements are better than that figure for 90% of the cases (C/I90). the criterion for the C/I ratio maybe set at 8 dB. they are still in a position to use 2 carriers per cell. For a given re-use pattern. As the number of channel sets increases. Carrier/Interference (C/I) ratio When a channel is re-used. It also cannot be possible due to the current network configuration. the number of available channels per cell reduces and therefore capacity reduces. there is a risk of co-channel interference. For instance. the predicted C/I ratio related to the D/R ratio can be determined (see Figure 3-33) to give the overall system comparison. Some other factors. this can be difficult and cannot be possible to implement. the interference level also reduces. where other base stations are transmitting on the same frequency.Frequency re-use Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-32 2 site . affect the interference level: • • • • • Power control (both BTS and MS) Hardware techniques Frequency hopping (if applied) Sectorization Discontinuous transmission (DTX) Carrier or interference measurements taken at different locations within the coverage of a cell can be compared to a previously defined acceptable criterion. If the operator has only 24 carriers allocated for their use. The capacity of any one cell is limited by the interference that can be tolerated for a given grade of service. apart from the capacity.6 cell re-use pattern a1 a6 b1 b6 b5 b4 a4 a5 a6 a1 a3 a2 b2 b3 b6 b1 b2 a5 a4 b5 b4 b3 a2 a3 60˚ SECTORS 2 sites repeated each with 6 cells = 2 x 6 = 12 groups. the subscribers per km ratio can be improved. increasing the quality of service. 68P02900W21-S 3-44 01 Feb 2007 . However. However. However.

However. • Environmental noise: This type of interference can also provide another source of potential interference. its effect can be reduced by increasing the frequency spacing of the channels.62 ⎝R⎠ Sources of interference • Adjacent channel interference: This type of interference is characterized by unwanted signals from other frequency channels spilling over or injecting energy into the channel of interest.94 ⎜ ⎟ 6 ⎝ ⎠ ⎛D⎞ Therefore ⎜ ⎟ = 47. this has the adverse effect of reducing the number of channels available for use within the system.94 ⎝I⎠ ⎛ (D / R ) 4 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = 7. The base station and the mobile stations receiver selectivity can also be designed to reduce the adjacent channel interference. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-45 .66 = 2.62 GSM system: 9dB⎜ ⎛C⎞ ⎟ = 7.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Frequency re-use Figure 3-33 Carrier interference measurements C (2 CELLS USING THE SAME BCCH FREQUENCY) /I CAN BE RELATED TO D/R BS R MS BS DISTANCE BETWEEN CELLS D ANALOGUE SYSTEM D/R = 4.4 GSM SYSTEM D/R = 2. With this type of interference influenced by the spacing of RF channels.66 ⎝R⎠ Thus 4 ⎛D⎞ 4 ⎜ ⎟ = 47. The intensity of this environmental noise is related to local conditions and can vary from insignificant to levels that can completely dominate all other sources of noise and interference.

if required. The use of sectorized antennas allows better control of any RF interference. co-channel interference is received from six surrounding cells. More importantly for the network designer. one way of significantly cutting the level of interference is to use several directional antennas at the base stations. This results in better network performance to the subscriber and greater spectrum efficiency. an improved sensitivity and increased interference immunity are experienced in a dense urban environment. Finally. an uneven distribution of traffic resources across the cells on a particular site. In an omni cell. there is a significant reduction in the overall implementation and operating costs experienced by the network user. with a separate channel set. by installing more capacity at the same site. sectorization extends and enhances the cells ability to provide the in-building coverage that is assumed by the hand portable subscriber. what type and how is implementation to be achieved? Sectorization of sites As cell sizes are reduced. 68P02900W21-S 3-46 01 Feb 2007 . which means more traffic channels available for subscribers to use. all using the same channel sets. In addition. not just one. By using sectorized antennas. the propagation laws indicate that the levels of carrier interference tend to increase. which results in a higher call quality and an improved call reliability. This allows a more efficient use of both the infrastructure hardware and the available channel resources. What effect do the directional antennas have when employed? If receiver diversity is to be used. Sectorization provides the flexibility to meet uneven subscriber distribution by allowing. with the addition of diversity techniques. with each antenna radiating a sector of the cell.Frequency re-use Chapter 3: BSS cell planning There are also several other factors which have to be taken into consideration. Sectorization increases the number of traffic channels available at a cell site. sectorization allows the use of geographically smaller cells and a tighter economic re-use of the available frequency spectrum. o o o The interfering co-channel signals in a given cell would normally arise from some surrounding cells. Therefore.

the radio path to the MS) to help overcome the effects of multipath fading. HCU. GSM recommends only one type of frequency hopping . The data flow is routed in the baseband to various transceivers. Within Horizon II macro equipment applications. each of which operates on a fixed frequency. called synthesizer hopping. Frequency hopping Frequency hopping is a feature that can be implemented on the air interface (for example. This leads to an overlapping situation where each signal path influences the other. the use of any type of Tx block (DUP.baseband hopping. There are important points to NOTE when using this method of providing frequency hopping: • • There is a requirement to provide as many transceivers as the number of allocated frequencies. it makes recovery of the original data that much harder. Baseband hopping Baseband hopping is used when a base station has several transceivers available. The use of remote tuning combiners. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-47 . Within M-Cell equipment applications. The different transceivers receive a specific individual timeslot in each TDMA frame containing information destined for different MSs. The multipath signals are all arriving at different times and the demodulator attempts to recover all the time-dispersed signals. Although this is a known distortion and can under normal conditions be filtered out. If Horizon II macro CTU2s are used in Horizonmacro equipment and are controlled by a MCUF. baseband hopping is only supported when the CTU2s are used in single density mode. DDF) or cavity combining blocks (CCBs) is acceptable. the use of any type of Tx block (TDF. The sharp edges are normally rounded off so that when time dispersed signals are combined it makes it difficult to distinguish the original signal state. DCF. • • • Within Horizonmacro equipment applications. making the original data hard to distinguish. DHU) is acceptable. or cavity combining blocks is acceptable. when it is added to the ISI distortion caused by the time delayed multipath signals.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Overcoming adverse propagation effects Hardware techniques Multipath fading is responsible for more than just deep fades in the signal strength. but the Motorola BSS supports an additional type of frequency hopping. Another factor that makes things even more difficult is that the modulation technique Gaussian minimum shift keying introduces a certain amount of ISI. in accordance with the assigned hopping sequence. cavity combining blocks or hybrid combiners is acceptable in BTS6 equipment applications. This problem is known as inter symbol interference (ISI) and is made worse by the fact that the output from the demodulator is rarely a square wave. CCBs cannot be used with Horizon II macro equipment. the use of either combining bandpass filter or hybrid.

There are important points to NOTE when using synthesizer hopping: • Instead of providing as many transceivers as the number of allocated frequencies. as one pair of synthesizers is used the other pair is retuning.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Synthesizer hopping Synthesizer hopping uses the frequency agility of the transceiver to change frequencies on a timeslot basis for both transmit and receive. The error encoding mechanisms should then enable the missing data to be reconstructed. but since protection needs are different. • • Therefore as a general rule. not a combination of the two. for example BCCH. The coding protection schemes. the code rates may also differ. and control board in the TCU. when the data is reconstructed at the receiver. and the SCB in the DRCU calculates the next frequency and programs one of the pair of Tx and Rx synthesizers to go to the calculated frequency. CCBs cannot be used for synthesizer hopping (mechanical tuning is too slow). shown in Figure 3-34. cells with a small number of carriers make good candidates for synthesizer hopping. The transceiver board in the CTU. • Common control channel encoding 20 ms of information over the air carries four bursts of control information. All logical channels need some form of convolutional encoding. only a small proportion of the 20 ms block of data is lost. there is only a requirement to provide as many transceivers as determined by traffic plus one for the BCCH carrier. This ensures that if bursts are lost due to interference over the air interface the speech can still be reproduced. Error protection and detection Many different coding schemes are used to protect the logical channels from transmission errors introduced by the radio path. the digital processing. Therefore. are as follows: • Speech channel encoding The speech information for one 20 ms full rate speech block is divided over eight GSM bursts. As the transceiver uses a pair of synthesizers for both transmit and receive. The speech information for one half-rate speech block is divided over four GSM bursts. This enables the bursts to be inserted into one TDMA multiframe. if a burst is lost. This is because every bit of data information is important. • Data channel encoding The data information is spread over 22 bursts. whilst cells with many carriers are good candidates for baseband hopping. The output power available with the use of hybrid combiners must be consistent with coverage requirements. The coding and interleaving schemes depend on the type of logical channel to be encoded. There is also another rule: there can only be one type of hopping at a BTS site. 68P02900W21-S 3-48 01 Feb 2007 .

2 TCH/AFS10.7 TCH/AHS5.4 TCH/AHS6.95 TCH/AFS7. Table 3-2 Speech channel coding Channel type Is channel type supported? Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Number of speech bits delivered per block (A) 244 204 159 148 134 118 103 95 159 148 134 118 103 95 260 244 112 Number of speech bursts delivered per block (B)r 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 4 TCH/AFS12.75 TCH/AHS7. OR A BITS AMR) ENCODING CONTROL (184 BITS) INTERLEAVING CONTROL (4 BURSTS) 0.577 ms INFORMATION BURSTS SPEECH (8 BURSTS FULL RATE OR ENHANCED FULL RATE.15 TCH/AFS4.9 TCH/AHS5. OR B BURSTS AMR) DATA (240 BITS) DATA (22 BURSTS) Refer to Table 3-2 for values of A bits and B bursts on a per channel type basis. The shaded areas indicate the channel types that are not supported.15 TCH/AHS4.95 TCH/AHS7.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Figure 3-34 coding process 20 ms INFORMATION BLOCK SPEECH (260 BITS FULL RATE OR ENHANCED FULL RATE.9 TCH/AFS5.75 TCH/FS TCH/EFS TCH/HS 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-49 .4 TCH/AFS6.2 TCH/AFS7.7 TCH/AFS5.

FACCH. CBCH 184 BITS DATA TRAFFIC 9. PCH. PCH. and data channels. SACCH 4 x CBCH (BURSTS) 1 x RACH 1 x SCH (BURST) 19 x TCH 9. control.8/2. SDCCH. Figure 3-35 Coding process illustration (full rate and enhanced full rate speech) EFR SPEECH FRAME 244 BITS FR SPEECH FRAME 260 BITS BCCH.4 RE-ORDERING & PARTITIONING + STEALING FLAG IN: 456 BITS OUT: 8 SUB-BLOCKS DIAGONAL INTERLEAVING + STEALING FLAG IN: BLOCKS OF 456 BITS OUT: 22 SUB-BLOCKS BLOCK DIAGONAL INTERLEAVING IN: 8 BLOCKS OUT: PAIRS OF BLOCKS BLOCK RECTANGULAR INTERLEAVING IN: 8 SUB-BLOCKS OUT: PAIRS OF SUB-BLOCKS 8 x TCH FR (BURSTS) 8 x TCH EFR (BURSTS) 8 x FACCH/TCH (BURSTS) 8 x TCH 2-4 kBIT/S (BURSTS) 4 x BCCH.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning • • • AFS = AFR = AMR full rate (speech) AHS = AHR = AMR half rate (speech) HS = HR = GSM half rate (speech) Figure 3-35 illustrates the coding process for full rate and enhanced full rate speech. the sequence is complex.6 kBIT/S (BURST) 68P02900W21-S 3-50 01 Feb 2007 . AGCH 4 x SDCCH.4 k N0 BITS RACH + SCH P0 BITS CYCLIC CODE + REPETITION IN: 244 OUT: 260 FIRECODE + TAIL IN: 184 OUT: 228 ADD IN TAIL IN: N0 BITS OUT: N1 BITS CYCLIC CODE + TAIL IN: P0 BITS OUT: P1 BITS CLASS 1a CYCLIC CODE + TAIL IN: 260 OUT: 267 CONVOLUTION CODE IN: 267 BITS OUT: 456 BITS CONVOLUTION CODE IN: 248 BITS OUT: 456 BITS CONVOLUTION CODE + PUNCTURE IN: N1 BITS OUT: 456 BITS CONVOLUTION CODE IN: P1 BITS OUT: 2 x P1 BITS TCH/2. SACCH. AGCH.6/4.

Figure 3-36 Coding process illustration (AMR full rate and AMR half rate speech) AMR SPEECH FRAME "A" BITS (see ) BCCH.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Figure 3-36 illustrates the coding process for AMR full rate and AMR half rate speech.4 RE-ORDERING & PARTITIONING + STEALING FLAG IN: 456 BITS OUT: 8 SUB-BLOCKS DIAGONAL INTERLEAVING + STEALING FLAG IN: BLOCKS OF 456 BITS OUT: 22 SUB-BLOCKS BLOCK DIAGONAL INTERLEAVING IN: 8 BLOCKS OUT: PAIRS OF BLOCKS BLOCK RECTANGULAR INTERLEAVING IN: 8 SUB-BLOCKS OUT: PAIRS OF SUB-BLOCKS 8 x TCH FR (BURSTS) 8 x TCH EFR (BURSTS) 8 x FACCH/TCH (BURSTS) 8 x TCH 2-4 kBIT/S (BURSTS) 4 x BCCH. SACCH 4 x CBCH (BURSTS) 1 x RACH 1 x SCH (BURST) 19 x TCH 9. SACCH. CBCH 184 BITS DATA TRAFFIC 9. FACCH. PCH. SDCCH. control and data channels. AGCH.6/4.6 KBIT/S (BURST) AFR = AMR Full Rate AHR = AMR Half Rate 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-51 .8/2. PCH. AGCH 4 x SDCCH.4 k N0 BITS RACH + SCH P0 BITS CLASS 1a CYCLIC CODE (6) + TAIL (4) IN: "A" OUT: "A" + 10 BITS FIRECODE + TAIL IN: 184 OUT: 228 ADD IN TAIL IN: N0 BITS OUT: N1 BITS CYCLIC CODE + TAIL IN: P0 BITS OUT: P1 BITS CONVOLUTION CODE IN: A" + 10 BITS OUT: see CODE PUNCTURING IN: see OUT (AFR): 448 BITS OUT (AHR): 224 BITS CONVOLUTION CODE IN: 248 BITS OUT: 456 BITS CONVOLUTION CODE + PUNCTURE IN: N1 BITS OUT: 456 BITS CONVOLUTION CODE IN: P1 BITS OUT: 2 x P1 BITS INBAND SIGNALLING IN (AFR): 448 BITS IN (AHR): 224 BITS OUT (AFR): 456 BITS OUT (AHR): 228 BITS TCH/2.

Figure 3-37 illustrates the coding process for GSM half rate speech. for AMR half rate codecs. SACCH 4 X CBCH (bursts) 19 x TCH 9. control. Class 2 bits are added to the Class 1 bits. control and data) HR 112 bits EFR Speech Frame 244 bits FR Speech Frame 260 bits BCCH.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning • • Code puncturing is performed to remove some of the encoded bits.4K No Bits RACH + SCH PO Bits Cyclic code + Tail In: 112 bits Out: 121 bits Cyclic code + Repetition In: 244 bits Out: 260 bits Firecode + Tail In: 184 bits Out: 228 bits Class 1A Cyclic Code + Tail In: 160 bits Out: 267 bits Add In Tail In: No bits Out: N1 bits Cyclic code + Tail In: P0 bits Out: P1 bits Convolution Code In: 121 bits Out: 228 bits Convolution Code In: 267 bits Out: 456 bits Convolution Code In: 248 bits Out: 456 bits TCH/2. PCH. SDCCH. Figure 3-37 Coding process illustration (GSM HR speech. CBCH 184 bits Data Traffic 9. which indicates the AMR codec used for channel encoding in the forward channel and the AMR codec requested to be used for channel encoding in the reverse channel. FACCH. and data channels. PCH. In addition.4 Convolution Code + Puncture In: N1 bits Out: 456 bits Convolution Code In: P1 bits Out: 2 X P1 bits Re-ordering & Partitioning + Stealing Flag In: 228 bits Out: 4 sub-blocks Re-ordering & Partitioning + Stealing Flag In: 456 bits Out: 8 sub-blocks DIAGONAL INTERLEAVING STEALING FLAG In: Blocks of 456 bits Out: 22 Sub-blocks Block Diagonal Interleaving In: 4 blocks Out: Pairs of blocks Block Diagonal Interleaving In: 8 blocks Out: Pairs of blocks Block Rectangular Interleaving In: 8 sub-blocks Out: Pairs of sub-blocks 1 X RACH 1 X SCH (burst) 4 X TCH HR (bursts) 8 X TCH FR (bursts) 8 X TCH EFR (bursts) 8 X FACCH/TCH (bursts) 8 X TCH 2-4 kBits/S (bursts) 4 X BCCH. AGCH 4 X SDCCH.8/2.6 kBIT/S (BURST) 68P02900W21-S 3-52 01 Feb 2007 .6/4. SACCH. AGCH. The inband signaling bits (8 for AFR and 4 for AHR) are block-coded representations of the codec identifier.

75 TCH/AHS7. If there are Class 1a bit errors.95 TCH/AFS7. These logical channels of information are then channel coded before being transmitted over the air interface. Transmission errors within these bits are catastrophic to speech intelligibility. therefore.15 TCH/AHS4. The speech bits are grouped into three classes of sensitivity to errors. convolutional output bits and punctured bits Codec mode TCH/AFS12. the whole block is ignored.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Table 3-3 lists the output bits resulting from the convolutional coder and the number of punctured bits for the different AMR codecs (see Figure 3-36).4 TCH/AHS6. At this point.75 Is codec mode supported? Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Rate 1/2 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/4 1/4 1/5 1/5 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/3 1/3 Number of output bits from convolutional coder 508 642 513 474 576 520 565 535 266 260 240 224 303 285 Number of punctured bits 60 194 65 26 128 72 117 87 78 64 40 16 91 73 • • AFS = AFR = AMR full rate (speech) AHS = AHR = AMR half rate (speech) GSM speech channel encoding for full rate The BTS receives transcoded speech over the Abis interface from the BSC.2 TCH/AFS7.2 TCH/AFS10. the speech decoder is able to detect uncorrectable errors within the Class 1a bits. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-53 .9 TCH/AHS5. Table 3-3 AMR codecs. the speech is organized into its individual logical channels by the BTS. The transcoded speech information is received in frames. Class 1a Three parity bits are derived from the 50 Class 1a bits.7 TCH/AHS5.7 TCH/AFS5.4 TCH/AFS6. depending on their importance to the intelligibility of speech.95 TCH/AHS7.9 TCH/AFS5. each containing 260 bits.15 TCH/AFS4.

Figure 3-38 shows a diagrammatic representation of speech channel encoding. Four tail bits are added which set the registers in the receiver to a known state for decoding purposes. Figure 3-38 Speech channel encoding 260 BITS CLASS 1a 50 BITS CLASS 1b 132 BITS CLASS 2 78 BITS TAIL BITS 50 3 132 4 PARITY CHECK CONVOLUTIONAL CODE 378 78 456 BITS 68P02900W21-S 3-54 01 Feb 2007 .Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Class 1b The 132 Class 1b bits are not parity checked. If enhanced full rate is used then 244 bits are transmitted over the Abis link for each 20 ms sample. The EFR frame is treated to some preliminary coding to build up to 260 bits before being applied to the same channel coding as full rate. but is still transmitted in 20 ms thus raising the transmission rate to 22. when using full rate speech vocoding. but are fed together with the Class 1a and parity bits to a convolutional encoder. Class 2 The 78 least sensitive bits are not protected at all. 260 bits are transmitted in 20 ms equaling a transmission rate of 13 kbit/s. The resulting 456-bit block is then interleaved before being sent over the air interface.8 kbit/s. The encoded speech now occupies 456 bits. Over the Abis link.

Add 8 repetition bits to Class 2 bits. The additional 16 bits correspond to an 8-bit CRC. Preliminary channel coding for EFR • • EFR speech frame: o 50 Class 1a + 124 Class 1b + 70 Class 2 = 244 bits. Figure 3-39 shows a diagrammatic representation of preliminary coding for enhanced full rate speech. Preliminary coding: o o • Output from preliminary coding: o EFR frame of 260 bits passed on for similar channel coding as full rate. the EFR speech frame is treated to the same channel coding as full rate. 50 Class 1a + 132 Class 1b + 78 Class 2 = 260 bits. from the 50 Class 1a bits plus the 15 most important Class 1b bits and 8 repetition bits corresponding to 4 selected bits in the original EFR frame of 244 bits. After passing through a preliminary stage. Add 8 bits CRC generated from 50 Class 1a + 15 most important Class 1b bits to Class 1b bits. which adds 16 bits to make the frame up to 260 bits. Figure 3-39 Preliminary coding for enhanced full rate speech 244 BITS CLASS 1a 50 BITS CLASS 1b 124 BITS CLASS 2 70 BITS 8 BIT CRC ADDED TO CLASS 1b BITS 8 REPETITION BITS ADDED TO CLASS 2 BITS CLASS 1a 50 BITS CLASS 1b 132 BITS CLASS 2 78 BITS 260 BITS 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-55 . which is generated.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects GSM speech channel encoding for enhanced full rate The transcoding for enhanced full rate produces 20 ms speech frames of 244 bits for channel coding on the air interface.

The resulting 228-bit Block is then interleaved before being sent over the air interface. These are appended to the encoded Class 1 bits. the whole block is ignored. Class 1b The remaining of the Class 1 bits are not parity checked but are fed together with the Class 1a and parity bits to a convolutional encoder. Class 2 The remaining 17 bits (of the 112 total bits) are known as the Class 2 bits and are not protected. Figure 3-40 Speech channel encoding for GSM half rate speech CLASS 1a 22 BITS CLASS 1b 73 BITS CLASS 2 17 BITS TAI L BITS PAR ITY CHECK CLASS 1a 22 BITS 3 CLASS 1b 73 BITS 6 211 Con voluted Bits CLASS 2 17 BITS 228 BITS 68P02900W21-S 3-56 01 Feb 2007 . Six tail bits are added which sets the registers in the receiver to a known state for decoding purposes. each containing 112 bits. If there are errors in the Class 1a bits.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning GSM speech channel encoding for half rate The transcoded speech information is received in 20 ms speech frames. Class 1a The 22 most significant bits of the 95 Class 1 bits are crucial to the speech intelligibility and hence are protected by 3 parity bits used for error detection. Figure 3-40 shows a diagrammatic representation of preliminary coding for GSM HR speech. The speech bits are grouped depending on their importance to the intelligibility of speech.

However. but is still transmitted in 20 ms. each containing X bits.95 TCH/AFS7. Four tail bits are added which set the registers in the receiver to a known state for decoding purposes. Class 1a Six parity bits are derived from the Y Class 1a bits. The InBand signaling bits are the block-coded representation of the appropriate 2-bit codec identifier. but are fed together with the Class 1a and parity bits to a convolutional encoder. therefore. Y and Z bit values for AMR FR speech channel encoding Codec mode TCH/AFS12. The resulting 456-bit block is then interleaved before being sent over the air interface. The SR codes selected for AMR are more complex and expensive than the NSNR codecs for EFR and FR. Transmission errors within these Class 1a bits are catastrophic to speech intelligibility.8 kbit/s. depending on their importance to the intelligibility of speech. Eight InBand signaling bits are added to the encoded and punctured Class 1a. they provide better error protection. where X varies over the different AMR full rate codecs (see Table 3-4 for values of X). where Y varies over the different AMR full rate codecs (see Table 3-4 for values of Y).15 TCH/AFS4. and which codec the sender would like to receive in the opposite direction. the speech decoder is able to detect uncorrectable errors within the Class 1a bits. Z varies over the different AMR full rate codecs (see Table 3-4 for values of Z). The speech bits are grouped into two classes of sensitivity to errors. the whole block is ignored.2 TCH/AFS10.9 TCH/AFS5. These bits alternately indicate to the receiver which codec was used to channel encode the speech frame. The encoded speech now occupies 456 bits. thus raising the transmission rate to 22. 1b.7 TCH/AFS5.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects GSM speech channel encoding for AMR full rate The transcoded speech information is received in frames. and parity bits. AMR codecs use a set of Systematic Recursive (SR) convolutional codes instead of the Non-Systematic Non-Recursive (NSNR) convolutional codecs used by full rate and enhanced full rate.2 TCH/AFS7.4 TCH/AFS6. Class 1b The Z Class 1b bits are not parity checked. If there are Class 1a bit errors.75 Is codec mode supported? Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No X bits 244 204 159 148 134 118 103 95 Y bits 81 65 75 61 55 55 49 39 Z bits 163 139 84 87 79 63 54 56 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-57 . The convolutionally coded symbols are punctured to reduce the resulting data rate to that supported over the air interface. Table 3-4 X. InBand signaling InBand signaling bits are used to coordinate the codec usage between the BTS and MS because the utilized channel codec can vary dynamically from speech frame to speech frame (see Link Adaptation section).

Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning • • AFS = AFR = AMR full rate (speech) AHS = AHR = AMR half rate (speech) Figure 3-41 shows a diagrammatic representation of speech channel encoding for AMR full rate. depending on their importance to the intelligibility of speech. the speech decoder is able to detect uncorrectable errors within the Class 1a bits. If there are Class 1a bit errors. but are fed together with the Class 1a and parity bits to a convolutional encoder. Four tail bits are added which set the registers in the receiver to a known state for decoding purposes. 68P02900W21-S 3-58 01 Feb 2007 . The convolutionally coded symbols are punctured to reduce the resulting data rate to that supported over the air interface. where X varies over the different AMR half rate codecs (see Table 3-5 for values of X). each containing X bits. therefore. Class 1a Six parity bits are derived from the Y Class 1a bits. These logical channels of information are then channel coded before being transmitted over the air interface. the whole block is ignored. Class 1b The Z Class 1b bits are not parity checked. Figure 3-41 Speech channel encoding for AMR full rate CLASS 1a Y BITS CLASS 1b Z BITS TAIL BITS Y 6 Z 4 PARITY CHECK CONVOLUTIONAL CODE INBAND SIGNALLING BITS 8 CODE PUNCTURING 448 456 BITS GSM speech channel encoding for AMR half rate The BTS receives transcoded speech over the Abis interface from the BSC. The speech bits are grouped into three classes of sensitivity to errors. The transcoded speech information is received in frames. where Y varies over the different AMR half rate codecs (see Table 3-5 for values of Y). Transmission errors within these Class 1a bits are catastrophic to speech intelligibility. Z varies over the different AMR half rate codecs (see Table 3-5 for values of Z). The speech is organized into its individual logical channels by the BTS.

These bits alternately indicate to the receiver which codec was used to channel encode the speech frame. Table 3-5 X. 1b. thus raising the transmission rate to 11. The SR codes selected for AMR are more complex and expensive than the NSNR codecs for HR. and which codec the sender would like to receive in the opposite direction. The InBand signaling bits are the block-coded representation of the appropriate 2-bit codec identifier. Two half rate subchannels sharing the same timeslot have a total transmission rate of 22. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-59 . they provide better error protection. The encoded speech now occupies 228 bits. InBand signaling InBand signaling bits are used to coordinate the codec usage between the BTS and MS because the utilized channel codec can vary dynamically from speech frame to speech frame (see Link Adaptation section). Y. but is still transmitted in 20 ms. However. They are simply appended to the encoded and punctured class 1a. The resulting 228-bit block is then interleaved before being sent over the air interface.95 TCH/AHS7. Four InBand signaling bits are added to the encoded and punctured class 1a.8 kbit/s.7 TCH/AHS5.4 TCH/AHS6.4 kbit/s. Class 2 Any channel coding does not protect the W Class 2 bits. and Class 2 bits. Z and W bit values for AMR HR speech channel encoding Codec mode TCH/AHS7. W varies over the different AMR half rate codecs (see Table 3-5 for values of W). parity.9 TCH/AHS5.75 Is codec mode supported? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No X bits 159 148 134 118 103 95 Y bits 67 61 55 55 49 39 Z bits 56 59 55 47 42 44 W bits 36 28 24 16 12 12 • • AFS = AFR = AMR full rate (speech) AHS = AHR = AMR half rate (speech) Figure 3-42 shows a diagrammatic representation of speech channel encoding for AMR half rate. 1b.15 TCH/AHS4. and parity bits.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects AMR codecs use a set of Systematic Recursive (SR) convolutional codes instead of the Non-Systematic Non-Recursive (NSNR) convolutional codecs used by half rate.

the Bit Error Rate (BER) and Frame Erasure Rate (FER) increase. the increased channel coding is sufficient to correct bit errors and thus maintain the permitted FER level. Conversely. These erased frames and bit errors significantly degrade sound quality. Moreover. A non-AMR traffic channel. Link adaptation is the process by which the optimal codec is selected. the vocoding provides high sound quality rivaling that of EFR operating in a good channel condition. The AMR codec combination characteristics range from high vocoding rate / low channel coding rate to low vocoding rate / high channel coding rate. is permitted to select dynamically the optimal codec combination from a set of up to 4. an AMR traffic channel. this provides high sound quality. under good channel conditions. as the channel conditions degrade. such as full rate or Enhanced full rate. which provides the appropriate amount of voice and channel coding to maximize the sound quality with the constraint of maintaining a maximum permitted FER level. intelligible voice is still communicated. The decreased vocoding provides sound quality. which is noticeably less than EFR. just with less sound quality. Here. based on the observed channel conditions. in any channel condition. The optimal codec combination is the one.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-42 Speech channel encoding for AMR half rate CLASS 1a Y BITS CLASS 1b Z BITS CLASS 2 W BITS TAIL BITS PARITY CHECK Y 6 Z 4 CONVOLUTIONAL CODE INBAND SIGNALLING BITS 4 W CODE PUNCTURING 228 BITS Link adaptation for AMR channels The fundamental performance benefit of the AMR traffic channel is the network’s ability to dynamically select the optimal speech and channel codec combination in reaction to the observed channel conditions. This is better than no voice at all. an AMR traffic channel limits erased frames to a permitted level yet provides the highest sound quality possible for that condition. as they would be for EFR and FR operating under a poor channel condition. operating in a good channel condition. unlike EFR and FR. is permitted to use one fixed speech and channel codec combination only. 68P02900W21-S 3-60 01 Feb 2007 . However. However. Thus. the AMR channel selects the codec combination with the lowest vocoding and highest channel coding rates. the AMR traffic channel selects the codec combination with the highest vocoding and lowest channel coding rates. In favorable channel conditions. Under poor channel conditions. the speech frames are not erased. Here. For example. Thus. the minimal channel coding is sufficient to maintain the permitted FER level.

the BTS grants this request. the link adaptation process selects the combination with the next lowest vocoding / next highest channel coding rates. the link adaptation process selects the combination with the next highest vocoding / next lowest channel coding rates. is performed independently and simultaneously for the uplink and downlink channels. it must be conveyed to the sender to instruct it to use the selected combination in future speech transmissions. As C/I increases into the next highest range. To coordinate these processes. Generally. Each is sent in alternating encoded and transmitted speech frames. the synchronization channel (SCH) and the random access burst (RACH). The measured C/I value is compared to configurable C/I ranges which define when a particular codec combination (out of the set of 4) should be selected. GSM control channel encoding Figure 3-43 shows the principle of the error protection for the control channels. Thus. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-61 . The diagram applies to SCH and RACH. This scheme is used for all the logical signaling channels. • • Codec Mode Indication (CMI) Codec Mode Command/Request (CMC/R) The CMI indicates to the receiver which codec combination was used by the sender to encode the currently and subsequently transmitted speech frame.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Measuring channel conditions: C/I On an AMR traffic channel. but with different numbers. which reside within each encoded and transmitted speech frame. Likewise. Similarly. These instructions are conveyed using the InBand signaling bits. the CMC indicates to the mobile which codec combination the BTS would prefer be used in uplink speech encoding and transmission. Link adaptation. both the BTS and mobile observe and measure. two types of InBand signaling are used. As the C/I decreases into the next lowest range. This measurement is converted to a carrier to interference (C/I) value. the mobile selects the optimal combination and instructs the BTS to use it for subsequent downlink speech transmissions. the receiver can determine which combination to use in decoding the current and next received speech frames. The CMR indicates to the BTS which codec combination the mobile would prefer be used in downlink speech encoding and transmission. Coordinating adaptation: InBand signaling Once a codec combination is selected. or the selecting of optimal codec combinations. The BTS selects the optimal codec combination and instructs the mobile to use it for subsequent uplink speech transmissions. their respective receive channel conditions. This command is always granted.

6 kbit/s data channel.4 kbit/s are encoded slightly differently. Before the convolutional encoding. These bits are first protected with a cyclic block code of a class known as a Fire Code. exactly the same as for speech. as it uses 40 parity bits. 68P02900W21-S 3-62 01 Feb 2007 . The output from the encoding process for each block of 184 bits of signaling data is 456 bits. four tail bits are added which set the registers in the receiver to a known state for decoding purposes. The resulting 456-bit block is then interleaved before being sent over the air interface.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-43 Control channel coding 184 BITS 184 PARITY BITS FIRE CODE TAIL BITS 184 40 4 CONVOLUTIONAL CODE 456 456 BITS When control information is received by the BTS it is received as a block of 184 bits. but the principle is the same. GSM circuit-switched data channel encoding Figure 3-44 shows the principle of the error protection for the 9. The other data channels at rates of 4.8 kbit/s and 2. This is particularly suitable for the detection and correction of burst errors.

the 9. equaling a transmission rate of 12 kbit/s. because status signals (such as the RS-232 DTR) have to be transmitted as well. The data traffic channels need a higher net rate than their actual transmission rate (net rate means the bit rate before the coding bits have been added). 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-63 . so that like the speech and control channels. and 2. The output from the encoding process for each block of 240 bits of data traffic is 456 bits. they contain 456 bits every 20 ms.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Figure 3-44 Data channel encoding DATA CHANNEL 9.8 kbit/s. 9. The resulting 456-bit block is then interleaved before being sent over the air interface. some coded bits require to be removed (punctuated) before interleaving.4 kbit/s signaling information. 240 bits were transmitted in 20 ms. The encoded control information now occupies 456 bits but is still transmitted in 20 ms thus raising the transmission rate to 22.6 kbit/s 240 BITS 240 TAIL BITS 240 4 CONVOLUTIONAL CODE 488 PUNCTURE 456 456 BITS Data channels are encoded using a convolutional code only.6 kbit/s data. Over the PCM link. With the 9.6 kbit/s raw data.6 kbit/s service needs 12 kbit/s. exactly the same as for speech and control. For example.

The purpose of interleaving is to ensure that only some of the data from each traffic block is contained within each burst.full rate speech Figure 3-45 illustrates. bursts may be destroyed or corrupted as they travel between the MS and BTS. Table 3-6 Interleaving Transcoder Rate Adaptation Unit (TRAU) frame type Speech (full rate) Speech (half rate) Control CS data Number of GSM bursts the traffic block is spread over 8 4 4 22 Diagonal interleaving .22 blocks This process is an important one. the next step is to build its bitstream into bursts that can then be transmitted within the TDMA frame structure. A figure of 10 to 20% is quite normal.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Mapping logical channels in the TDMA frame structure Interleaving Having encoded or error protected the logical channel. in a simplified form. then it would be unable to do this and transmission quality would suffer. 68P02900W21-S 3-64 01 Feb 2007 . the loss does not affect the overall transmission quality because the error correction techniques are able to interpolate for the missing data. Because of interference. enabling it to withstand significant noise and interference. The following interleaving depths are used: • • • • Speech (full rate) .8 blocks Speech (half rate) . or physical interruption of the radio path. If the system worked by simply having one traffic block per burst. noise. It is interleaving (summarized in Table 3-6) that is largely responsible for the robustness of the GSM air interface. Thus when a burst is not correctly received. It is at this stage that the process of interleaving is carried out. for it safeguards the data in the harsh air interface radio environment. the principle of the interleaving process applied to a full rate speech channel. Interleaving spreads the content of one traffic block across several TDMA timeslots.4 blocks Control . and maintain the quality of service presented to the subscriber.4 blocks Data .

.. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-65 . 8.. 12.. the principle of the interleaving process applied to a half rate speech channel. Each block contains 456 bits. 448 BITS 4.. in a simplified form... 113 The diagram shows a sequence of speech blocks after the encoding process. 24 . 16. 24 .half rate speech Figure 3-46 illustrates..... Each block contains bits from even bit positions or bits from odd bit positions. The first four blocks is placed in the even bit positions of the first four bursts.. as shown. 28 .full rate speech 20 ms SPEECH SAMPLE 456 BITS 20 ms SPEECH SAMPLE 456 BITS 20 ms SPEECH SAMPLE 456 BITS BITS 0. In the diagram.. As each burst contains 114 traffic-carrying bits... and four with the block that succeeds it.. Diagonal interleaving . 20.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Figure 3-45 Diagonal interleaving . 20. The last four blocks are placed in the odd bit positions of the next four bursts. block 5 shares the first four bursts with block 4 and the second four bursts with block 6. 8.... it is shared by two speech blocks.. these blocks are then divided into eight blocks each containing 57 bits. 12. 16.. The GSM burst is produced using these blocks of speech bits. 113 012345678 . Each block shares four bursts with the block preceding it. 448 MAPPED TO ODD BITS OF BURST MAPPED TO EVEN BITS OF BURST MAPPED TO EVEN BITS OF BURST BITS 4.. 452 BITS 0. 28 . 452 MAPPED TO ODD BITS OF BURST 012345678 .

.. 113 The diagram shows a sequence of speech blocks after the encoding process.. The last two blocks are placed in the odd bit positions of the next two bursts. 12.. Each block contains 228 bits. 8..half rate speech 20 ms SPEECH SAMPLE 228 BITS 20 ms SPEECH SAMPLE 228 BITS 20 ms SPEECH SAMPLE 228 BITS BITS 0.. In the diagram. The GSM burst is produced using these blocks of speech bits.. 16.. 24 . as shown... and two with the block that succeeds it. 16.... 224 BITS 4. 24 .. 20.. 225 BITS 0. these blocks are then divided into four blocks each containing 57 bits. 12. 113 012345678 . providing the interleaving depth of eight. As each burst contains 114 traffic-carrying bits.. 20. 28 . The first two blocks are placed in the even bit positions of the first two bursts. block 5 shares the first two bursts with block 4 and the second two bursts with block 6. 68P02900W21-S 3-66 01 Feb 2007 .. Transmission ..full rate speech Each burst is transmitted in the designated timeslot of eight consecutive TDMA frames. 28 . 225 MAPPED TO ODD BITS OF BURST 012345678 .. 224 MAPPED TO ODD BITS OF BURST MAPPED TO EVEN BITS OF BURST MAPPED TO EVEN BITS OF BURST BITS 4. Table 3-7 shows how the 456 bits resulting from a 20 ms full rate speech sample are distributed over eight normal bursts. Each block contains bits from even bit positions or bits from odd bit positions. Each block shares two bursts with the block preceding it..Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-46 Diagonal interleaving .. it is shared by two speech blocks.. 8.

.. The FACCH steals a 456-bit block and is interleaved with the speech. Sub channel 0 transmits on the shared timeslot during the even numbered TDMA frames.450 3 11 19 27 35 43...... dedicated or combined.........half rate speech For half rate speech... Each burst containing a FACCH block of information has the appropriate stealing flag set. broadcast...........225 3 7 11 15 19 23 ..455 Burst even bits of burst N even bits of burst N + 1 even bits of burst N + 2 even bits of burst N + 3 odd bits of burst N + 4 odd bits of burst N + 5 odd bits of burst N + 6 odd bits of burst N + 7 It is important to remember that each timeslot on this carrier is occupied by a different channel combination: traffic........ two independent subchannels share the same air interface timeslot.... it experiences the same kind of interleaving as the speech data that it replaces (interleaving depth = 8)... Table 3-8 Distribution of 228 bits from one 20 ms half rate speech sample Distribution 0 4 8 12 16 20 ........ both subchannels alternate transmitting their associated four bursts on the air interface.226 1 5 9 13 17 21 .. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-67 ............ As FACCH steals speech bursts from a subscriber channel....452 5 13 21 29 37 45.....448 1 9 17 25 33 41 .................227 Burst even bits of burst N even bits of burst N + 1 odd bits of burst N + 2 odd bits of burst N + 3 It is important to remember that each timeslot on this carrier is occupied by a different channel combination: traffic...454 7 15 23 31 39 47...... while subchannel 1 transmits during the odd numbered frames.....................System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Table 3-7 Distribution of 456 bits from one 20 ms full rate speech sample Distribution 0 8 16 24 32 40 ......... dedicated or combined................ While each subchannel’s 20 ms speech sample is encoded and diagonally interleaved into its own 4 bursts separately............. Transmission ....449 2 10 18 26 34 42 .. To do this.... broadcast..... Table 3-8 shows how the 228 bits resulting from a 20 ms half-rate speech sample are distributed over eight normal bursts.451 4 12 20 28 36 44.453 6 14 22 30 38 46................... both subchannels must share the physical channel at transmission time.....224 2 6 10 14 18 22 ...

The FACCH steals a 456-bit block and is interleaved with the speech. The GSM burst is produced using these blocks of control. both the even and odd of the middle two bursts. the FACCH steals the bursts from two encoded half-rate speech blocks. Each block contains bits for even or odd bit positions. Each burst containing a FACCH block of information has the appropriate stealing flag set. 68P02900W21-S 3-68 01 Feb 2007 . the principle of rectangular interleaving. the FACCH steals the space of two encoded and interleaved 20 ms speech samples. Because the FACCH is twice as large as the half rate speech blocks. This is applied to most control channels.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning FACCH.control Figure 3-47 illustrates. because it steals speech bursts from a subscriber channel. Rectangular interleaving . However. It occupies the even bits of the first two bursts. these blocks are then divided into four blocks each containing 114 bits. experiences the same kind of interleaving as the speech data that it replaces (diagonal interleaving). and the odd bits of the last two bursts. in a simplified form. because the FACCH contains twice as many bits as a half rate speech block. Each block contains 456 bits. Figure 3-47 Rectangular interleaving – control CONTROL BLOCKS 1 2 3 4 5 6 456 BITS 4 5 6 114 BITS EVEN 114 BITS 114 BITS EVEN 114 BITS ODD ODD BURSTS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 FRAME 1 FRAME 2 FRAME 3 TDMA FRAMES The diagram shows a sequence of control blocks after the encoding process previously described.

control Each burst is transmitted in the designated timeslot of four consecutive TDMA frames. If the control information was diagonally interleaved. if a burst is lost. This is why speech uses a shorter interleaving depth.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Transmission . Therefore. Diagonal interleaving . Each block contains 456 bits. Figure 3-48 shows a diagrammatic representation of diagonal interleaving for CS data. it does not effect the reception quality. as are speech and data.CS data The data bits are spread over a large number of bursts. providing the interleaving depth of four. The first 6 bits from the first block are placed in the first burst. the receiver would not be capable of decoding a control message until at least two multiframes were received. These blocks are then interleaved together. in a simplified form. the lost data has a higher chance of being reproduced at the receiver. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-69 . does introduce a time delay in the transmission of the data. all from the same subscriber. Transmission . these blocks are divided into four blocks each containing 114 bits. Data channels have an interleaving depth of 22. If data transmission is slightly delayed. The diagram shows a sequence of data blocks after the encoding process previously described. This is because only a limited amount of control information is sent to every multiframe. This would be too long a delay. This wide interleaving depth. although this is sometimes also referred to as an interleaving depth of 19. to ensure that the data is protected. only a small amount of data from one data block is actually lost. The control information is not diagonally interleaved. The first 6 bits from the second block is placed in the second burst and so on. if a delay was introduced this could be detected by the subscriber.CS data Figure 3-48 illustrates. whereas with speech.6 kbit/s data channel. diagonal interleaving applied to a 9. although providing a high resilience to error. Due to the error protection mechanisms used. Each 114-bit block is spread across 19 bursts and the total 456 block is spread across 22 bursts.

The following applies to all four coding schemes: • • • User data (RLC data block.CS data DATA BLOCKS 1 2 3 4 5 6 456 BITS 5 114 BITS 114 BITS 114 BITS 114 BITS 114 114 114 114 FIRST 6 BITS FIRST 6 BITS FIRST 6 BITS FIRST 6 BITS LAST 6 BITS LAST 6 BITS LAST 6 BITS LAST 6 BITS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 GPRS channel coding schemes Four different coding schemes have been defined for GPRS: • • • • CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 The mother code used is a half-rate convolutional coder applied to CS1 to CS3 followed by puncturing (CS2 and CS3) leading to various effective code rates. Eight stealing bits (SB) are used to signal which coding scheme is used for transmission of a block. 68P02900W21-S 3-70 01 Feb 2007 .Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-48 Diagonal interleaving . Coded bits are block interleaved over four bursts. These are described in the following sections. segmented LLC PDUs) and RLC/MAC header are coded together. Coding is not applied to CS4.

Figure 3-49 GPRS channel coding scheme 1 (CS1) 3 bits USF 21 bits RLC/MAC Header Data Block coded 4 bits 224 bits Rate 1/2 convolutional coding TB 160 bits 40 bits BCS 465 bits Puncturing 465 bits Block interleaving over 4 bursts 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits Mapped to 4 TDMA bursts. Figure 3-49 shows the encoding of the user data (160 bits RLC data block. coding scheme signalled through 8 stealing bits (2 per burst) TB 3 bits Header & data 57 bits SB 1 bit TS SB Header & data 57 bits TB 3 bits 26 bits 1 bit 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-71 . In the first stage of coding. The subsequent 224 bits are then convolutionally coded followed by interleaving over four bursts. these 184 bits are protected according to Fire code using extra 40 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ). CS1 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 8 kbits/s. segmented LLC PDUs) and the RLC/MAC header (24 bits) for downlink.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Channel coding scheme 1 (CS1) CS1 is the most robust coding scheme of the four GPRS coding schemes.

segmented LLC PDUs) and the RLC/MAC header (34 bits) for downlink. these 274 bits are protected according to Fire code using extra 16 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ). punctured.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Channel coding scheme 2 (CS2) CS2 is less robust than CS1 at the expense of providing higher user data rate. The USF bits (3) are pre-coded to provide additional protection. In the first stage of coding. and interleaved over four bursts. Figure 3-50 shows the encoding of the user data (240 bits RLC data block. CS2 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 12 kbits/s. The subsequent 290 bits are then convolutionally coded. coding scheme signalled through 8 stealing bits (2 per burst) TB 3 bits Header & data 57 bits SB 1 bit TS SB Header & data 57 bits TB 3 bits 26 bits 1 bit 68P02900W21-S 3-72 01 Feb 2007 . Figure 3-50 GPRS channel coding scheme 2 (CS2) 6 bits (pre-coded) USF 28 bits Data Block coded 240 bits 16 bits BCS RLC/MAC Header 4 bits 290 bits Rate 1/2 convolutional coding TB 588 bits Puncturing 546 bits Block interleaving over 4 bursts 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits Mapped to 4 TDMA bursts.

In the first stage of coding. and interleaved over four bursts. coding scheme signalled through 8 stealing bits (2 per burst) TB 3 bits Header & data 57 bits SB 1 bit TS SB Header & data 57 bits TB 3 bits 26 bits 1 bit 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-73 . CS3 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 14. The subsequent 334 bits are then convolutionally coded.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Channel coding scheme 3 (CS3) CS3 is less robust than CS1 and CS2 at the expense of providing higher user data rate.4 kbits/s. The USF bits (3) are pre-coded to provide additional protection. punctured. Figure 3-51 GPRS channel coding scheme 3 (CS3) 6 bits (pre-coded) USF 24 bits Data Block coded 288 bits 16 bits BCS RLC/MAC Header 4 bits 344 bits Rate 1/2 convolutional coding TB 676 bits Puncturing 456 bits Block interleaving over 4 bursts 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits Mapped to 4 TDMA bursts. Figure 3-51 shows the encoding of the user data (288 bits RLC data block. these 318 bits are protected according to the Fire code using extra 16 bits for (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ). segmented LLC PDUs) and the RLC/MAC header (30 bits) for downlink.

Two types of packet random access burst are transmitted on the PRACH: an 8 information bits random access burst. Figure 3-52 GPRS channel coding scheme 4 (CS4) 12 bits (pre-coded) USF 28 bits Data Block coded 400 bits 16 bits BCS RLC/MAC Header 456 bits (0 bits TB) No convolutional coding 456 bits No puncturing 456 bits Block interleaving over 4 bursts 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits Mapped to 4 TDMA bursts. coding scheme signalled through 8 stealing bits (2 per burst) TB 3 bits Header & data 57 bits SB 1 bit TS SB Header & data 57 bits TB 3 bits 26 bits 1 bit All control channels except for the PRACH use CS1. CS4 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 20 kbits/s. The subsequent 456 bits are then interleaved (no convolutionally coding) over four bursts. CS3. The USF bits (3) are pre-coded to provide additional protection. Figure 3-52 shows the encoding of the user data (400 bits RLC data block. or an 11-information bits random access burst (called the extended packet random access burst). CS2. These 440 bits are protected according to Fire code using extra 16 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ). segmented LLC PDUs) and the RLC/MAC header (40 bits) for downlink.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Channel coding scheme 4 (CS4) CS4 is the least robust GPRS coding scheme and it has no FEC capability. 68P02900W21-S 3-74 01 Feb 2007 . or CS4. GPRS traffic channels use scheme CS1. The mobile must support both random access burst types. This allows the coding scheme to be dynamically adapted to the channel conditions and thereby maximizing throughput and optimizing the performance.

The two 16 kbit/s channels are referred to as the left and right channels. which have some signaling included to ensure the link is synchronized between the channel coders and the PCU. The method used is to combine two component 16 kbit/s TRAU channels to create a 32 kbit/s TRAU channel. which is currently used for all GPRS traffic.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Coding schemes CS3 and CS4 are not used before GSR5. therefore the 32 kbit/s TRAU is required. Table 3-9 shows that there is not enough bandwidth available on a 16 kbit/s link to carry CS3 and CS4. However. These links are carried over subrate switched E1 timeslots. is currently implemented using 16 kbit/s TRAU-like links.4 16 456 0 20 16/32 kbit/s TRAU In the BSS architecture. The left channel is the primary channel. segmented LLC PDUCs) BCS Tail Coded bits Punctured bits User Data rate at RLC/MAC kbit/s 1/2 CS2 2/3 CS3 3/4 CS4 1 3 3 21 181 3 6 28 268 3 6 24 312 3 12 28 428 40 4 456 0 8 16 4 588 132 12 16 4 676 220 14. The BCS is Block Check Sequence.1. Table 3-9 summarizes the coding parameters for the GPRS coding schemes. Table 3-9 Coding parameters for GPRS coding schemes Coding scheme CS1 Effective Code rate after 1/2 convolutional coding and puncturing USF Pre-coded USF RLC/MAC header/bits User bits (RLC blocks. the link. which is transmitted on the downlink and is an invitation to an MS to transmit. which the GPRS data traverses from the channel coders in the BTS to the PCU. which is used for the detection of errors and subsequent Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ). USF is the Uplink State Flag. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-75 . The right (or auxiliary) channel is used for the larger CS3 and CS4 GPRS TRAU-like frames.

and MCS-3. Eight stealing bits (SBs) are used to signal which header type should be used to extract various information. resulting in 12 bits and 36 bits for GMSK and 8-PSK coding schemes respectively. MCS-1 to MCS-9. EGPRS channel coding schemes Nine different coding schemes have been defined for EGPRS. A. These are described in the following sections. therefore termination is necessary. The following apply to all nine coding schemes: • • User data (RLC data block. The USF bits (3) are block coded. RLC/MAC header and the USF bits are coded independently. There are three different RLC/MAC header types used.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Only one 16 kbit/s timeslot (CIC) is used between the BSC and RXCDR for a CS call. and header type 3 is used for MCS-1 to MCS-4. particularly for higher code rates. the code combining process of radio blocks in error thus providing additional coding gain. The mother code used is 1/3 rate convolutional encoder. which contain information about the coding and puncturing scheme. used for a block. MCS-1 to MCS-4 coding schemes use GMSK and MCS-5 to MCS-9 coding schemes use 8-PSK. 68P02900W21-S 3-76 01 Feb 2007 . This facilitates multiplexing of GPRS and EGPRS on the same timeslot (GPRS mobiles must be able to detect USF sent by EGPRS GMSK block). In case of MCS-1 to MCS-4. B. 8 and 9 are in family A. Coding schemes MCS-1 and 4 are in family C. 5 and 7 are in family B. Header type 1 is used for MCS-7 to MCS-9. Two or three puncturing schemes per coding scheme are used enabling Incremental Redundancy (IR). segmented LLC PDUs). MCS-2. USF block coding is identical to CS-4. • • • • • • Hybrid ARQ type I is not supported. The code families facilitate re-segmentation of erroneous radio blocks into more robust coding schemes for re-transmission. 6. There are three code families. header type 2 is used for MCS-5 and MCS-6. Coding schemes MCS-7 to MCS-9 are interleaved over two bursts and coding schemes MCS-1 to MCS-6 are interleaved over four bursts. The mother code used is a 1/3 rate convolutional coder applied to all the coding schemes followed by various puncturing schemes leading to various effective code rates. and C.

8 kbits/s. Extra 12 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ) protect the user data. FBI and E bits) are then convolutionally coded. The subsequent 196 bits (including tail bits. punctured. MCS1 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 8. segmented LLC PDUs). and interleaved over four bursts. the RLC/MAC header (28 bits.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Channel coding scheme MCS-1 MCS1 is the most robust coding scheme of the four EGPRS GMSK modulated coding schemes. Figure 3-53 EGPRS channel coding scheme 1 (MCS-1) 196 bits 3 bits USF Block coded 28 bits 8 bits 2 bits 176 bits 12 bits 6 bits BCS TB RLC/MAC Header HCS FBI E Data Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 12 bits 108 bits 588 bits Puncturing P1 P2 372 bits SB = 12 12 bits 68 bits 372 bits Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 TB 3 bits Header & data 57 bits SB 1 bit TS 26 bits SB 1 bit Header & data 57 bits TB 3 bits 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-77 . Extra 8 bits (HCS) for error detection protect the header data. The subsequent 36 bits are then convolutionally coded. header type 3) for downlink. and interleaved over four bursts. punctured. Figure 3-53 shows the encoding of the user data (176 bits RLC data block.

FBI and E bits) are then convolutionally coded.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Channel coding scheme MCS-2 MCS-2 coding scheme is less robust than MCS-1. Extra 8 bits (HCS) for error detection protect the header data. header type 3) for downlink. The subsequent 244 bits (including tail bits. and interleaved over four bursts. punctured. the RLC/MAC header (28 bits. The subsequent 36 bits are then convolutionally coded. punctured. MCS2 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 11. Figure 3-54 EGPRS channel coding scheme 2 (MCS-2) 244 bits 3 bits USF Block coded 28 bits 8 bits 2 bits 224 bits 12 bits 6 bits BCS TB RLC/MAC Header HCS FBI E Data Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 12 bits 108 bits 672 bits Puncturing P1 P2 372 bits SB = 12 12 bits 68 bits 372 bits Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 TB 3 bits Header & data 57 bits SB 1 bit TS SB Header & data 57 bits TB 3 bits 26 bits 1 bit 68P02900W21-S 3-78 01 Feb 2007 . and interleaved over four bursts. Extra 12 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ) protect the user data.2 kbits/s. Figure 3-54 shows the encoding of the user data (224 bits).

punctured. The subsequent 316 bits (including tail bits. header type 3) for downlink. The subsequent 36 bits are then convolutionally coded. punctured. Extra 12 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ) protect the user data.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Channel coding scheme MCS-3 MCS-3 coding scheme is less robust than MCS-1 and MCS-2. Figure 3-55 shows the encoding of the user data (296 bits). FBI and E bits) are then convolutionally coded. Figure 3-55 EGPRS channel coding scheme 3 (MCS-3) 316 bits 3 bits USF Block coded 28 bits 8 bits 2 bits 296 bits 12 bits 6 bits BCS TB RLC/MAC Header HCS FBI E Data Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 12 bits 108 bits Puncturing 948 bits Puncturing P1 P2 372 bits P3 372 bits SB = 12 12 bits 68 bits 372 bits Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 TB 3 bits Header & data 57 bits SB 1 bit TS SB Header & data 57 bits TB 3 bits 26 bits 1 bit 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-79 . Extra 8 bits (HCS) for error detection protect the header data. MCS3 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 14. the RLC/MAC header (28 bits.8 kbits/s. and interleaved over four bursts. and interleaved over four bursts.

MCS4 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 17.6 kbits/s. the RLC/MAC header (28 bits. punctured. The subsequent 372 bits (including tail bits. punctured. Extra 8 bits (HCS) for error detection protect the header data. and interleaved over four bursts. Extra 12 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ) protect the user data. Figure 3-56 shows the encoding of the user data (352 bits). Figure 3-56 EGPRS channel coding scheme 4 (MCS-4) 372 bits 3 bits USF Block coded 28 bits 8 bits 2 bits 352 bits 12 bits 6 bits BCS TB RLC/MAC Header HCS FBI E Data Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 12 bits 108 bits Puncturing 1116 bits Puncturing P1 P2 372 bits P3 372 bits SB = 12 12 bits 68 bits 372 bits Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 TB 3 bits Header & data 57 bits SB 1 bit TS SB Header & data 57 bits TB 3 bits 26 bits 1 bit 68P02900W21-S 3-80 01 Feb 2007 . FBI and E bits) are then convolutionally coded. it has no FEC capability. and interleaved over four bursts.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Channel coding scheme MCS-4 MCS-4 coding scheme is the least robust GMSK modulated coding scheme. header type 3) for downlink. The subsequent 36 bits are then convolutionally coded.

4 kbits/s. the RLC/MAC header (25 bits. punctured. MCS5 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 22. Extra 12 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ) protect the user data. The subsequent 33 bits are then convolutionally coded. Figure 3-57 shows the encoding of the user data (448 bits). header type 2) for downlink. and interleaved over four bursts.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Channel coding scheme MCS-5 MCS-5 is the most robust coding scheme of the five EGPRS 8-PSK modulated coding schemes. punctured. The subsequent 468 bits (including tail bits. and interleaved over four bursts. FBI and E bits) are then convolutionally coded. Figure 3-57 EGPRS channel coding scheme 5 (MCS-5) 468 bits 3 bits USF Block coded 25 bits 8 bits 2 bits 448 bits 12 bits 6 bits BCS TB RLC/MAC Header HCS FBI E Data Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 36 bits 99+1 spare bits No puncturing 1404 bits Puncturing P1 P2 1248 bits SB = 8 36 bits 100 bits 1248 bits Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 TB 9 bits Data 156 bits H U SB TS 78 bits SB U H Data 156 bits TB 9 bits 12 5 1 bits bits bit 1 4 13 bit bitsbits 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-81 . Extra 8 bits (HCS) for error detection protect the header data.

MCS-6 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 29. Extra 12 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ) protect the user data. Figure 3-58 EGPRS channel coding scheme 6 (MCS-6) 612 bits 3 bits USF Block coded 25 bits 8 bits 2 bits 592 bits 12 bits 6 bits BCS TB RLC/MAC Header HCS FBI E Data Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 36 bits 99+1 spare bits No puncturing 1836 bits Puncturing P1 P2 1248 bits SB = 8 36 bits 100 bits 1248 bits Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 TB 9 bits Data 156 bits H U SB TS 78 bits SB U H Data 156 bits TB 9 bits 12 5 1 bits bits bit 1 4 13 bit bitsbits 68P02900W21-S 3-82 01 Feb 2007 . FBI and E bits) are then convolutionally coded. The subsequent 612 bits (including tail bits. and interleaved over four bursts. header type 2) for downlink.6 kbits/s. and interleaved over four bursts. the RLC/MAC header (25 bits.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Channel coding scheme MCS-6 MCS-6 coding scheme is less robust than MCS-5. Figure 3-58 shows the encoding of the user data (592 bits). punctured. punctured. Extra 8 bits (HCS) for error detection protect the header data. The subsequent 33 bits are then convolutionally coded.

which consists of two separate user data blocks. punctured. the RLC/MAC header (37 bits. 448 bits each. FBI and E bits) are then convolutionally coded. Figure 3-59 EGPRS channel coding scheme 7 (MCS-7) 468 bits 3 bits USF Block coded 37 bits 8 bits 2 bits 448 bits 12 6 bits bits 2 bits 448 bits 12 6 bits bits BCS TB RLC/MAC HCS FBI E Data Header BCS TB FBI E Data Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 36 bits 135 bits Puncturing 1404 bits Puncturing 1404 bits Puncturing P1 SB = 8 36 bits 124 bits P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 TB 9 bits Data 153 bits H U SB TS 78 bits SB U H Data 153 bits TB 9 bits 15 5 1 bits bits bit 1 4 16 bit bitsbits 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-83 .8 kbits/s. and interleaved over two bursts. The subsequent 468 bits per radio block (including tail bits. The subsequent 45 bits are then convolutionally coded. Extra 12 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ) protect each user data block. Figure 3-59 shows the encoding of the user data. Extra 8 bits (HCS) for error detection protect the header data. and interleaved over four bursts.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Channel coding scheme MCS-7 MCS-7 coding scheme is less robust than MCS-5 and MCS-6. MCS-7 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 44. header type 1) for downlink. It also carries two radio blocks per 20ms. punctured.

Extra 8 bits (HCS) for error detection protect the header data. Figure 3-60 shows the encoding of the two user data blocks. and interleaved over four bursts. header type 1) for downlink. the RLC/MAC header (37 bits. MCS-8 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 54. The subsequent 564 bits per radio block (including tail bits.4 kbits/s. The subsequent 45 bits are then convolutionally coded. FBI and E bits) are then convolutionally coded. Extra 12 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ) protect each user data block. 544 bits each. Figure 3-60 EGPRS channel coding scheme 8 (MCS-8) 564 bits 3 bits USF Block coded 37 bits 8 bits 2 bits 544 bits 12 6 bits bits 2 bits 544 bits 12 6 bits bits BCS TB RLC/MAC HCS FBI E Data Header BCS TB FBI E Data Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 36 bits 135 bits Puncturing 1692 bits Puncturing 1692 bits Puncturing P1 SB = 8 36 bits 124 bits P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 TB 9 bits Data 153 bits H U SB TS 78 bits SB U H Data 153 bits TB 9 bits 15 5 1 bits bits bit 1 4 16 bit bitsbits 68P02900W21-S 3-84 01 Feb 2007 . and interleaved over two bursts. punctured.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Channel coding scheme MCS-8 MCS-8 coding scheme carries two user data blocks like MCS-7. punctured.

FBI and E bits) are then convolutionally coded. Extra 8 bits (HCS) for error detection protect the header data. and interleaved over two bursts. MCS-9 provides a user data rate (excluding RLC/MAC header) of 59. header type 1) for downlink.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Channel coding scheme MCS-9 MCS-9 coding scheme carries two user data blocks like MCS-7 and 8. Figure 3-61 EGPRS channel coding scheme 9 (MCS-9) 612 bits 3 bits USF Block coded 37 bits 8 bits 2 bits 592 bits 12 6 bits bits 2 bits 592 bits 12 6 bits bits BCS TB RLC/MAC HCS FBI E Data Header BCS TB FBI E Data Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 36 bits 135 bits Puncturing 1836 bits Puncturing 1836 bits Puncturing P1 SB = 8 36 bits 124 bits P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 TB 9 bits Data 153 bits H U SB TS 78 bits SB U H Data 153 bits TB 9 bits 15 5 1 bits bits bit 1 4 16 bit bitsbits 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-85 . The subsequent 612 bits per radio block (including tail bits. Extra 12 bits (BCS) for error detection (used in ARQ) protect each user data block. punctured. The puncturing results in MCS-9 with having no FEC protection. and interleaved over four bursts. the RLC/MAC header (37 bits. Figure 3-61 shows the encoding of the MCS-9 two user data blocks.2 kbits/s. The subsequent 45 bits are then convolutionally coded. punctured. 592 bits each.

Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning EGPRS traffic channels use coding schemes MCS-1 to MCS-9.49 5 0. In case of GPRS.92 7 0.2 8.6 2 2x592 A 2 2x544 A 2x12 2x6 8 22.76 6 0.36 1/3 1/3 0.8 29.36 0. The IR feature of EGPRS also allows the LA process to be more aggressive in terms of BLER on the first transmissions and thereby increasing the utilization of higher code rates over a larger percentage of a cell.6 14. 68P02900W21-S 3-86 01 Feb 2007 .53 8-PSK 2 2x448 B 1 592 A 1 448 B 1 352 C 12 6 1 GMSK 1 224 B 1 176 C 296 A 64 kbit/s TRAU for EGPRS In the BSS architecture. therefore VersaTRAU frame formats are used to statistically multiplex the data for each air timeslot configured as a PDTCH on the RTF backhaul available for use as Versachannel. In case of EGPRS.37 4 1.53 0. is currently implemented using 16 kbit/s TRAU-like links.8 1.53 0.36 0.85 2 0. the link. Table 3-10 shows that there is not enough bandwidth available on a 32 kbit/s link to carry MCS7 to 9. These links are carried over subrate switched E1 timeslots.53 0. Table 3-10 summarizes the coding parameters for the EGPRS coding schemes.4 44.2 54. This allows the coding scheme to be dynamically adapted to the channel conditions like GPRS through the Link Adaptation (LA) process (see Link Adaptation in GPRS/EGPRS ) and thereby maximizing throughput and optimizing the performance. which the EGPRS data traverses from the channel coders in the BTS to the PCU.0 3 0.4 17. 32 kbits/s TRAU is used to carry CS3 and CS4.0 8 0.8 11.53 0.66 1 0. which have some signaling included to ensure the link is synchronized between the channel coders and the PCU. Table 3-10 Coding parameters for EGPRS coding schemes Coding scheme: MCS-n 9 Effective Code rate after 1/2 convolutional coding and puncturing Effective Header Code rate after 1/2 convolutional coding and puncturing Modulation RLC blocks per Radio Block (20ms) Raw Data within one Radio Block Family BCS Tail payload HCS User Data rate at RLC/MAC kb/s 59.

The actual implementation is generally based on guidelines provided by the standards and the boundaries specified in the standards. If VersaTRAU feature is unrestricted. there are various measurement reports produced by the MS that can be used as inputs to the LA process. a code change is applied to all the blocks and timeslots.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects For EGPRS. The development of LA algorithm is generally based on maximizing user or system throughput. IR is the only mode used in EGPRS. In Motorola’s implementation. that is. Without the comfort noise. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-87 . This ensures that the overall throughput performance is not degraded due to the operation of higher layers protocols. the backhaul for an EGPRS carrier can be configured using the rtf_ds0_count parameter. The LA process uses the measurement reports as inputs to move between various codes per packet downlink Ack/Nack period. The standards provide sufficient information and guidelines to facilitate the development of proprietary algorithms. Link adaptation (LA) in GPRS/EGPRS The Link Adaptation (LA) process is used to improve the throughput of users and system by adapting the highest coding scheme to the prevailing radio channel condition. and appropriate measures are taken to comply with the constraints specified in the standards. This is achieved through specific information elements in the various header and control messages communicated between the BTS and MS. any enabled carrier has a certain amount (ranging from 3 to 8 DS0s) of terrestrial backhaul configured and a portion of this backhaul is used as the Versachannel to carry the data for the air timeslots configured as PDTCHs. which is regenerated in the receiver. The LA impact in improving the system performance is greater in EGPRS compared to GPRS due to: • • • Higher number of codes. In addition. under the constraint of keeping the system’s operating BLER within an acceptable bound. This results in a data transmission rate for background noise. better granularity. known as comfort noise. VAD implementation is affected in speech mode by encoding the speech pattern silences at a rate of 500 bit/s rather than the full 13 kbit/s. Voice activity detection (VAD) VAD is a mechanism whereby the source transmitter equipment identifies the presence or absence of speech. The EGPRS feature needs additional backhaul to provision EGPRS carriers. if VersaTRAU feature is restricted. Richer MS measurement reports. the total silence between the speech would be considered to be disturbing by the listener. Incremental redundancy (Hybrid ARQ type II). In addition. The implementation of LA is manufacturer dependant and is also mandatory. The additional backhaul is either 7 DS0s to implement EGPRS on a BCCH carrier or 8 DS0s to implement EGPRS on a non-BCCH carrier.

on a call-by-call basis. of the possible 104 frames. when implemented at the MS can also result in considerable power saving. as illustrated in Figure 3-63 for each subchannel. During this time.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Discontinuous transmission (DTX) DTX overview DTX increases the efficiency of the system through a decrease in the possible radio transmission interference level. Instead. The implementation of DTX is much at the discretion of the network provider and there are different specifications applied for different types of channel usage. where it is played back to generate an agreeable sounding comfort noise. It does this by ensuring that the MS and BTS do not transmit unnecessary message data (that is background noise when the user is not speaking). DTX and full rate or enhanced full rate DTX is implemented over a SACCH multiframe (480 ms). 68P02900W21-S 3-88 01 Feb 2007 . background noise information is measured and periodically transmitted to the other user. only the 4 SACCH frames and 8 Silence Descriptor (SID) frames are transmitted. If the MS does not often transmit during silences there is a reduction in the overall power output requirement. DTX in its most extreme form. Figure 3-62 SACCH multiframe (480 ms) for DTX and full rate 26 FRAME MULTIFRAME 52-59 S A C C H 0 S A C C H SID S A C C H S A C C H 103 SID 4 x SACCH 26 FRAME MULTIFRAMES (120 ms) 8 x SILENCE DESCRIPTOR (SID) DTX and GSM half rate DTX is implemented over a SACCH multiframe (480 ms). as illustrated in Figure 3-62. as necessary. of the possible 104 frames. only the 4 SACCH frames and 8 Silence Descriptor (SID) frames per sub-channel are transmitted. During this time. The effects are most noticeable in communications between two MSs. DTX can be implemented.

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-89 . in downlink DTX. transmission during a silence period adheres to the following sequence: • • • One SID_FIRST DTX block is transmitted after the last speech block of the speech period. Unlike full rate or Enhanced full rate DTX. For example. AMR DTX is not designed with fixed TDMA frames of transmission during the SACCH multiframe. It is interleaved immediately following the last encoded speech block.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects Figure 3-63 SACCH multiframe (480 ms) for DTX and half rate DTX and AMR full rate or half rate Four types of DTX blocks exist for AMR channels. The four SACCH bursts are always transmitted during the SACCH TDMA frames. One SID_UPDATE DTX block is transmitted. Two NO_DATA DTX blocks elapse over the next two periods where encoded speech blocks would normally be transmitted. These blocks are transferred between the speech coder and the channel coder. The SID UPDATE block is encoded and rectangularly interleaved over 4 TDMA frames. these blocks would be sent from the TRAU to the channel coder in the same 320-bit frames as that used for 20 ms speech frames. ONSET: Indicates end of silence period and the start of a speech period. NO_DATA: Non-transmitted block during a silence period. SID_UPDATE: Conveys silence descriptor information periodically during a silence period. The receiver to generate comfort noise for the listener during the silence period uses this. • • • • SID_FIRST: Indicates end of speech period and the start of a silence (no transmission) period. However.

• For AMR channels. silence descriptor information (SID_UPDATE blocks) are transmitted every 8-speech blocks compared to every 24 for full rate and Enhanced full rate channels. Phase alignment has the advantage of being a continuously optimized arrangement in terms of signal level. multipath fading arises from destructive interference between two transmission paths. which is switched through to the receiver circuitry. but phase alignment diversity does not minimize distortion. Thus. The one SID_UPDATE and seven NO_DATA sequence repeat for as long as the silence period lasts. The RF signals from two receive paths can be phase aligned and summed. The Motorola transceivers use this diversity concept. Each of the methods has advantages and disadvantages. In the case of the switched configuration. If two receive antennas are mounted a defined distance apart. has not yet been implemented in a form that works over the full fading range capabilities of the receivers and therefore has to switch back to phase alignment at low signal levels. This ONSET is interleaved immediately before the first encoded speech block. The distortion minimizing approach. This means a rather complex control system is required. The phasing can be made so as to minimize the distortion arising from the multipath transmission. There are three ways of utilizing this concept: • • • The receiver can be switched between the two RF receive paths provided with two antennas. but the use of phase alignment diversity can help increase the mean signal level received. All four AMR DTX frames contain InBand signaling bits to allow link adaptation to be performed during silence periods (refer to Link adaptation for AMR channels for further details). • An ONSET can occur any time after a SID_FIRST DTX block. it simply selects the better of the two RF signals. One ONSET DTX block is transmitted immediately before the first speech block of the new speech period is sent. then it follows that the probability of them simultaneously experiencing maximum fade depth at a given frequency is much less than for the single antenna situation. thereby providing a more accurate representation of comfort noise to the user. 68P02900W21-S 3-90 01 Feb 2007 . depending on how long the silence period lasts. no SID_UPDATES would be transmitted if the silence period did not last long enough for the two NO_DATA periods to elapse. Silence information is more frequently updated for AMR channels. for example. It must be emphasized that diversity does not usually have any significant effect on the mean depression component of fading. • Receive diversity In its simplest case. The deepest instantaneous fade occurring at the frequency for which the effective path length difference is an odd multiple of half wavelengths.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning • Seven NO_DATA DTX blocks elapse over the next seven periods where encoded speech blocks would normally be transmitted. whilst being an attractive concept.

this enables the receiver to estimate the distortion ISI on the signal due to propagation effects. a digital signal-processing algorithm called an equalizer is built into the receiver. Figure 3-64 Receive diversity MOBILE ANTENNAS (approx 10 wavelengths) SPACE BETWEEN PATH LENGTH IN WAVELENGTHS METHODS OF UTILIZATION: a. PHASE ALIGNED AND SUMMED. resulting in a far cleaner. If nothing was done to try and counter the effects of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) caused by the time dispersed signals. If the two multipaths are 16 microseconds delayed then this would be approximately equivalent to 5-bit periods. PHASE ALIGNED WITH MINIMUM DISTORTION. As the transmitted training sequence is known at the receiver. BTS Equalization As mentioned in multipath fading. the M-Cellcity and Horizonmicro or Horizonmicro2 do not support spatial diversity. the quality of the received signal would be unacceptable for the majority of the time. As the training sequence is a known pattern. From this comparison. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-91 . it is possible to compare the actual multipath signal received with all 32 possible combinations reproduced in the receiver. The equalizer uses a known bit pattern inserted into every burst transmitted. giving a poor quality signal. the Bit Error Rate (BER) of the demodulated signal would be far too high. There are 32 combinations possible when two 5-bit binary signals are combined. c. in most urban areas the only signals received are multipath. b. SWITCHED. unacceptable to the subscriber. To counter this. less distorted signal. Training sequence code The training sequence code (see Figure 3-65) is used so that the demodulator can estimate the most probable sequence of modulated data. Without this equalizer.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overcoming adverse propagation effects In microcellular applications. the most likely combination can be selected and the filters set to remove the multipath element from the received signal. The receiver must be able to cope with two multipaths of equal power received at an interval of up to 16 microseconds. This allows the equalizer to assess and modify the effects of the multipath component. especially multipath reception. called the training sequence code.

Once the filters have been set.Overcoming adverse propagation effects Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The multipath element can be of benefit once it has been identified. they can be used to filter the random speech data as it is assumed they have suffered from the same multipath interference as the training sequence code. as it is constantly changing. The multipath delay is calculated on a burst-by-burst basis. as it can then be recombined with the wanted signal in a constructive way to give a greater received signal strength. Figure 3-65 Training sequence code Signal from shortest path 3 bits Signal from delayed path 68P02900W21-S 3-92 01 Feb 2007 .

The portable subscriber unit provides the user far more freedom of use but the subscriber still expected exactly the same service. For a DCS1800 system. The everyday subscriber neither knows nor really cares about the high level of technology incorporated into a cellular network. the major concern was trying to provide system coverage inside tunnels. However. for example).8 W for a hand portable. What the network designer must remember is that it is the subscriber who selects the type of equipment they wish to use on the network. high-density urban or low capacity rural coverage areas. With this introduction came new problems for the network designer.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Subscriber environment Subscriber environment Subscriber hardware System quality (voice quality. are the most significant factors in the success of a cellular network. The subscriber now wants quality service from the system at any location. as perceived by the customer. This location can be on a street or any floor of a building whether it is the basement or the penthouse and even in lifts (see Figure 3-66). It is up to the network provider to satisfy the subscriber. However. During the early stages of cellular system implementation. the designer has to plan for the choice of subscribers as to where they wish to use that phone. they do care about the quality of their calls. with the advances in technology the hand portable subscriber unit is now firmly established. The output power of the mobile subscriber is limited in a GSM system to a maximum of 8 W for a mobile and a minimum of 0. When only the mobile unit was available. and grade of service. Environment Not only does the network designer have to plan for the subscribers’ choice of phone. Thus. whatever they choose. system access. system coverage and hence subscriber use was limited to on street. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-93 . greater freedom of use for the subscriber gives the network designer even greater problems when designing and implementing a cellular system. the mobile subscriber is restricted to a maximum of 1 W and a minimum of 250 mW hand portable.

the network designer must be aware that traffic is not necessarily evenly distributed. Dense urban environments need an entirely different design approach. Even in urban areas. 68P02900W21-S 3-94 01 Feb 2007 . for example. so this must be accounted for when planning the interaction between network entities whilst the subscriber is using the network. than the approach used to design coverage for a sparsely populated rural environment. an urban area can contain sub-areas of uneven distribution such as a business or industrial district. It is vitally important that the traffic distribution is known and understood before network design. to ensure that a successful quality network is implemented. and has to plan for a seasonal increase of traffic due to. but also at what location these subscribers are attempting to use their phones. As Figure 3-67 illustrates. Road and rail networks have subscribers moving at high speed.Subscriber environment Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-66 Subscriber environment URBAN/CITY ENVIRONMENTS RURAL AREAS BUILDINGS LIFTS TUNNELS Distribution Not only do network designers have to identify the types of subscriber that use the cellular network now and in the future. a convention centre. due to considerations mentioned earlier in this chapter.

must recognize this. Therefore. The hand portable phone is a small lightweight unit. which is limited by battery life. This helps from not only an interference point of view.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Subscriber environment Figure 3-67 Subscriber distribution HIGH SPEED MOBILES (RAILWAYS) RURAL URBAN BUSINESS AREAS 40% ROAD/RAIL NETWORK EXHIBITIONS INDUSTRIAL 20% RESIDENTIAL 30% 10% SUBSCRIBERS DISTRIBUTION CHANGES ON A HOURLY BASIS Hand portable subscribers The network designer must ensure that the network is designed to ensure a quality service for the most demanding subscriber. The hand portable units have a low output power. what the hand portable actually needs from the network. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-95 . the network designer must first understand the limitations of the hand portable unit and secondly. and hence the network designers. For practical purposes.107W to 1W (8-PSK) for DCS1800. The ability of the unit to be used at any location means that the network must be designed with the provision of good in-building coverage as an essential element.25W to 1W (GMSK) and 0. which is easy to carry and has the ability to be used from any location. but also helps to extend the available talk time of the subscriber unit. So clearly the network users.2W to 2W (8-PSK) for GSM900. 0. Before commencing the network design based around hand portable coverage. the distance at which these units can be used from a cell is constrained by RF propagation limitations. The hand portable now represents the vast majority of all new subscriber units introduced into cellular networks. the actual transmit power of the hand portable should be kept as low as possible during operation. For example: • • 0. This is the hand portable subscriber.8W to 8W (GMSK) and 0.

This is because the re-use distance of larger cells is greater than that of smaller cells. By comparing different alternatives. Small-sized heavy traffic concentrations are characteristic of the real traffic distributions. Another wellknown traffic characteristic feature is the fast descent in the density of traffic when leaving city areas. Besides this need for cells of different size. is to enlarge the cell size gradually from small cells into larger cells. When making network plans. the designers should always remember that every location in a network has its own conditions. the traffic concentrations are so close to each other that the expansion cannot be completed before it is time to start approaching the next concentration. Even at this early stage. and all local problems must be tackled and solved on an individual basis. Connecting areas with different cell sizes brings about new problems. In principle. but a group of directional cells of varying size. In consequence. In most cases. there are no fixed rules for radio network planning. Theoretical frequency division methods applicable to homogenous clusters cannot be used. by gradually decreasing the cell size. It is quite rare that two or more neighboring cells need the same amount of channels. It is a case of experimenting and reiterating. 68P02900W21-S 3-96 01 Feb 2007 . it is possible to use cells of different size side-by-side. offering better frequency efficiency. It must always be kept in mind that the values calculated for future traffic distribution are only crude estimates and that the real traffic distribution always deviates from these estimates. but without careful consideration. the network plan should be flexible enough to allow for rearrangement of the network to meet the real traffic needs. It is uneconomical to build the whole network using a standard cell size. the unevenness of the traffic distribution also causes problems in frequency planning. The situation is often that the borders are so close to the high-density areas that the longer re-use distances mean decreased capacity. the model must be improved because any true traffic density does not follow the homogeneous pattern assumed in any theoretical models.Subscriber environment Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Future planning Normal practice in network planning is to select one point of a well-known re-use model as a starting point. it becomes necessary to use cells of varying sizes. Conclusion In conclusion. Another solution. this leads to a wasteful frequency plan. the network designers should find a plan that both fulfils the given requirements and keeps within practical limitations. This is why the practical network is not a regular cluster composition.

The traditional cell architecture design.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Microcellular solution Microcellular solution Layered architecture The basic term layered architecture is used in the microcellular context to explain how macrocells overlay microcells. The simplest implementation contains two layers. The bulk of the capacity in a combined cell architecture is provided by the microcells. as far as possible. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-97 . Combined cell systems can be implemented into other vendor networks. Figure 3-68. the cell gives almost total coverage for all the MSs within its area. as illustrated in Figure 3-69. is a multi-layer system of macrocells and microcells. ensures that. Figure 3-68 Layered architecture MACROCELL MICROCELL A MICROCELL B TOP VIEW SIDE VIEW MACROCELL MICROCELL A MICROCELL B Combined cell architecture A combined cell architecture system. It is worth noting that when talking of the traffic capacity of a microcell it is additional capacity to that of the macrocell in the areas of microcellular coverage.

Microcellular solution Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-69 Combined cell architecture UNDERLAYED MICROCELL (COULD BE A DIFFERENT VENDOR) CONTIGUOUS COVERAGE OVER AREAS OF HIGH SLOW MOVING TRAFFIC DENSITY OVERLAYED MACROCELLS Macrocells: Implemented specifically to cater to the fast-moving MSs and to provide a fallback service for coverage of holes and pockets of interference in the microcell layer. Macrocells form an umbrella over the smaller microcells. The microcells can give contiguous coverage over the required areas of heavy subscriber traffic. This structure is shown in Figure 3-70. 68P02900W21-S 3-98 01 Feb 2007 . Combined cell architecture structure A combined cell architecture employs cells of different sizes overlaid to provide contiguous coverage. Microcells: Microcells handle the traffic from slow-moving MSs.

Expansion solution As the GSM network evolves and matures.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Microcellular solution Figure 3-70 Combined cell architecture structure LINK TO IMPLEMENT MICROCELLS AS A SEPARATE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM (MICROCELLS CONTROLLED BY THE SAME BSC AS MACROCELLS) MSC BSC A SYSTEM 2 MICROCELL BSC B SYSTEM 1 MACROCELL BTS 1 BTS 2 BTS 5 BTS 3 BTS 4 MICROCELL COVERAGE MACROCELL COVERAGE SYSTEM 1 = OVERLAY SYSTEM SYSTEM 2 = UNDERLAY SYSTEM • • • Macrocell and microcell networks are operated as individual systems. Microcells can be underlayed into existing networks. The expansion of a BTS site past its original designed capacity can be a costly exercise and the frequency re-use implications require to be planned carefully (co-channel and adjacent channel interference). 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-99 . The increased coverage gives greater customer satisfaction. its traffic loading increases as the number of subscribers grow. Eventually a network reaches a point of traffic saturation. the microcells could be stand-alone cells to cover traffic hotspots or a contiguous cover of cells in a combined architecture. The use of microcells can alleviate the increase in congestion. The use of microcells can provide high traffic capacity in localized areas. The macrocell network is more dominant as it handles the greater amount of traffic.

as shown in Figure 3-71. Divide the dedicated band for TCH into 3 groups with an equal number of frequencies (N). Rules for Synthesizer Frequency Hopping (SFH) As the BCCH carrier is not hopping. RF and so on) and there is no universal textbook plan that suits every network.Frequency planning Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Frequency planning Introduction The ultimate goal of frequency planning in a GSM network is attaining and maintaining the highest possible C/I ratio everywhere within the network coverage area. The actual plan of a real network is a function of its operating environment (geography. 68P02900W21-S 3-100 01 Feb 2007 . Figure 3-71 Separating BCCH and TCH bands n channels BCCH Guard Band The benefits are as follows: • • Makes planning simpler. A general requirement is at least 12 dB C/I. some practical guidelines gathered from experience can help to reduce the planning cycle time. depending on the bandwidth available and operating environment. Figure 3-72 Band usage for macrocells with microcells Macro BCCH Micro TCH Micro BCCH Macro TCH (SFH) Practical rules for TCH 1x3 re-use pattern • • BCCH re-use plan: 4x3 or 5x3. the band usage shown in Figure 3-72 is suggested. allowing tolerance in signal fading the 9dB specification of GSM. m channels TCH If microcells are included in the frequency plan. These frequencies are the ARFCN equipped in the MA list of a hopping system (FHI). Better control of interference. it is strongly recommended to separate bands for BCCH and TCH. Nevertheless.

• • • TCH re-use planning example • • • • Bandwidth: 10 MHz Site configuration: Mix of 2-2-2. 2. The allocation of frequencies to each sector is recommended to be in a regular or continuous sequence (see planning example). Up to 4 different FHIs can be defined for a cell in a Motorola BSS and every timeslot on a transceiver can be independently assigned one of the defined FHI. MAI is a function of the TDMA frame number (FN). Motorola defines a Frequency Hopping Indicator (FHI) that is made up of the three GSM defined parameters. 1. Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) is an integer offset that determines which frequency within the MA is the operating frequency.715. As a general guideline. which is equal to 2. HSN = 1 to 63 provides a pseudo random hopping sequence. Some commonly used loading factors (sometimes termed as fractional load factors) are 40%. Use different MAIOs to control adjacent channel interference between the sectors within a site • Mobile Allocation (MA) is the set of frequencies that the mobile or BTS is allowed to hop over. Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) is an integer parameter that determines how the frequencies within the MA list are arranged.648 (26 x 51 x 2048) TDMA frames. Two timeslots on the same transceiver of a cell are configured to operate on different MAs. 33%. 3-3-3 and 4-4-4 Loading factor: 33% Environment: Multi layer (micro and macro co-exist) The spectrum is split as shown in Figure 3-73. then MAIO = {0. If there are N frequencies in the MA list. There are 64 HSNs defined by GSM. A theoretical maximum of 50% is permitted in 1x3 SFH. Use different HSNs for different sites. This helps to randomize the co-channel interference level between the sites. The number of frequencies (N) in each group is determined by the design loading factor (or carrier-to-frequency ratio). HSN and MAIO of a frequency hopping system. or about 3 hours 28 minutes and 54 seconds. Any value higher than 50% would practically result in unacceptable quality. … N-1}. • N= • • • ( highest non BCCH transceivercount in a cell) (loading factor) No more than 48 frequencies in a cell with multiple carriers with GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. MAI is an integer that points to the frequency within a MA list. HSN = 0 sets a cyclical hopping sequence where the frequencies within the MA list are repeated in a cyclical manner. where MAI = 0 and MAI = N-1 being the lowest and highest frequencies in the MA list of N frequencies. 25% and so on. Use the same HSN for sectors within the same site. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-101 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Frequency planning • Use an equal number of frequencies in all cells within the hopping area. MA is the subset of the total allocated spectrum for the GSM user and the maximum number of frequencies in a MA list is limited to 64 by GSM recommendations. The pseudo random pattern repeats itself after every hyperframe.

With careful planning. Since adjacent MAIOs are restricted. 47 HSN Any from {1. it can be used in high traffic areas as well.33 = 9 hopping frequencies per cell. Table 3-11 Frequency and parameter setting plan ARFCN Sector A Sector B Sector C 21. 2. the maximum number of MAIOs permitted is: • Max MAIOs = • 1 * (Total allocated channels) 2 In a 3-cell site configuration. 2. 33. 30. 46 23. 42. 38. The allocation of TCH frequencies to each sector is recommended to be in a regular or continuous sequence. 29. where the average occupancy of the hopping frequencies is low. 44. there are 47 usable channels. 5 0. 25. 32. Use the same HSNs for all carriers within a site and use MAIOs to avoid adjacent and cochannel interference between the carriers. 26. 4 The MAIO setting avoids all possible adjacent channel interference among sectors within the same site. 40. 31. 45 22. Thus.7% is inherent in a continuous sequence of frequency allocation. the logical maximum loading factor is 1/6 or 16. … 63} Same as Same as MAIO 0. 37.7%. 35. 4 1. One of the possible frequency and parameter setting plans are outlined in Table 3-11. N is calculated as N = 3 / 0. 36. A maximum loading factor of 1/6 or 16. Use different HSNs to reduce interference (co and adjacent channel) between the sites. 2. The remaining 8 channels are used in the micro layer as BCCH. The interference (co or adjacent channel) between sites still exists but it is reduced by the randomization effect of the different HSNs. 68P02900W21-S 3-102 01 Feb 2007 . BCCH re-use plan: 4X3 or 5X3. 41. 28. 43. Practical rules for TCH 1x1 re-use pattern • • • • • 1x1 is practical in rural area of low traffic density. depending on the bandwidth available and operating environment. 27. Figure 3-74 illustrates how co-channel and adjacent channel interference can be avoided.Frequency planning Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-73 Frequency split for TCH re-use planning example 8 channels Macro BCCH Micro TCH 12 channels Micro BCCH Macro TCH (SFH) 27 channels A total of 49 channels are available and the first and last one are reserved as guard bands. 3. Repeated or adjacent MAIOs are not to be used within the same site to avoid co-channel and adjacent channel interference respectively. 24. a total of 27 channels are required for the hopping TCH layer. Based on 33% loading and a 4-4-4 configuration. Thus. 12 channels are used in the BCCH layer with a 4x3 re-use pattern. 34. 39.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Frequency planning Figure 3-74 Avoiding co-channel and adjacent channel interference Different MAIOs to avoid co-channel interference HSN = 1 HSN = 1 HSN = 1 Non adjacent MAIOs to avoid adjacent channel interference Rules for BaseBand Hopping (BBH) All the rules outlined for SFH are generally applicable to BBH. the baseband hopping characteristic is restricted on the DD CTU2 DRIs of which Carrier A is EGPRS capable. a dedicated band separated from TCH is not essential. An example of frequency spectrum allocation is shown in Figure 3-75. Figure 3-75 BBH frequency spectrum allocation Micro BCCH BBH channels and micro TCH If the ITS feature is unrestricted and enabled. it is recommended to use the parameter re_rtf_id to map the DD CTU2 Carrier A to 64k RTF and exclude these ARFCNs from the MA list if BBH must be applied for the cell. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-103 . As the BCCH is in the hopping frequency list. These DRIs do not join the BBH even if in the database their corresponding ARFCNs are configured in the MA list. For effective utilization of the ITS feature and to maintain stability.

for BBH the system supports hopping for GMSK carriers assigned to Carrier B irrespective of the EDGE capabilities and PD support for Carrier A. The element enables or disables support of asymmetric EGPRS for CTU2D on per SITE basis. the system simply does not configure hopping systems for SD EDGE and DD EDGE. As this only impacts Baseband hopping and does not need wholesale configuration changes. 68P02900W21-S 3-104 01 Feb 2007 . When CTU2D is configured in CAPacity mode.Frequency planning Chapter 3: BSS cell planning {30828} CTU2D defines a new site-level parameter of asym_edge_enabled for the CTU2D asymmetric feature. The use of this functionality needs that the system remap its internal TDM allocations resulting in the removal of BBH support for EDGE (in any mode) for the entire Site. BTS supports the GMSK carrier B’s Baseband Hopping. that is.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Inter-radio access technology (2G-3G) cell reselection and handovers Inter-radio access technology (2G-3G) cell reselection and handovers Introduction An optional feature is supported for handovers and cell reselection between different Radio Access Technology (RAT) networks in the circuit and packet switched domain. support is needed from the MS. The GSM BSS support for this feature includes: • • Cell reselection across UTRAN (UMTS FDD neighbors) and GERAN in idle mode. To avoid these problems the operator may wish to configure their network such that handover and cell reselection between UMTS and GSM is possible. 68P02905W22. Restriction There is currently an upper limit of 32 FDD UTRAN neighbors in the GSM/GPRS system. UMTS is beyond the scope of this manual and only its handover interaction with GSM is described here.5G (GSM/GPRS/EDGE) or 3G (UMTS). Handovers between 3G (UMTS-FDD) and 2G (GSM) in active mode. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-105 . core network elements (MSC) and GSM/UMTS network elements. A GSM subscriber may wish to access a service with specific QoS characteristic (for example. there are likely to be small UMTS coverage areas within larger GSM coverage areas. The RAT can be either GSM/GPRS/EDGE (2G/2. This feature enables a multi-RAT MS (a mobile station that can function in multiple Radio Access Networks RANs) to either reselect or handover between a GSM RAN(GERAN) and a UMTS Radio Access Network (UTRAN). It also needs unrestricting on site by the operator with the inter_rat_enabled parameter. high bit rate data service) that may not be supported in the GSM system. Implementation The BSS Inter-RAT handover GSM function is an option that must be unrestricted by Motorola. In such an environment the call would drop when a UMTS subscriber goes out of a UMTS coverage area and into a GSM coverage area. For further information on UMTS. refer to System Information: UMTS Equipment Planning. The RAT can be either 2G/2. Current evolving 3G UMTS networks soon allows operators to provide UMTS coverage along with GSM/GPRS/EGPRS coverage in their networks. To accomplish this. With the arrival of UMTS systems. Congestion in the smaller UMTS areas could become a problem when the traffic in the UMTS coverage area is high.5G) or the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) (3G). The GSM BSS inter-RAT handover function provides a solution to these problems by allowing a multi-RAT MS to perform cell reselection and handover while between an UMTS FDD cell and a GSM cell. 2G-3G handover description The 2G-3G handover feature supports handovers between different RAT networks.

68P02900W21-S 3-106 01 Feb 2007 . Extended measurement reporting.Inter-radio access technology (2G-3G) cell reselection and handovers Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Impact of 2G-3G handovers on GSM system architecture Figure 3-76 shows the system architecture for the GSM BSS inter-RAT handover feature. Enhanced measurement reporting. Blind handovers. The sending of SI2quater on extended BCCH. Figure 3-76 GSM and UMTS system nodes and interfaces E-Interface GSM Core Network (MSC/GSN) Gn-Interface UMTS Core Network (3G MSC/SGSN) A-Interface Gb-Interface Iu-Cs-Interface Iu-Ps--Interface GSM/GPRS PCU BSC Abis BTS BTS UTRAN RNS RNC Iub Node B Iur RNS RNC Iub Node B BSS Um Uu Multi-RAT MS System consideration Existing 2G CoreNetwork (CN) nodes must be able to interact with the 3G CN nodes through MAP procedures defined on the E-interface between a 2G CN node and 3G CN node. The GSM BSS inter-RAT handover feature does not support: • • • • • • Cell reselection to UTRAN TDD neighbor cells or CDMA2000 neighbor cells. The BSS restricts the maximum number of UTRAN neighbors per GSM cell to 32.

The trigger would be that a CS page is received or the user decides to make a CS call before the PS session has completed. CS + PS. A DTM capable MS with a CS connection can make a DTM request to add a PS session. The number of timeslots allocated to each subscriber should be based on the capabilities of the mobile classes in the cell since the mobile class limits the number of timeslots the subscriber can use. that is the PDCHs. The higher class MS can support multiple PDCHs. as can DTM half rate CS sessions. they are treated as a regular data user. The DTM mode PS sessions can be multiplexed on the same timeslot. the required TCHs in the cell are converted into DTM PDCHs. The Database parameter Max_DTM_TS specifies the maximum number of TCH timeslots in a cell that can be converted to DTM PDTCHs in order to serve requests for DTM mode operation. are converted from TCH. the MS can add a PS session by making a DTM request.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Dual Transfer Mode Dual Transfer Mode This optional feature enables the network to support DTM capable mobiles (subset of class A). This applies only when the MS is entering DTM mode. If a DTM capable MS requests a PS session. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-107 . Figure 3-77 DTM MS states DTM Timeslots planning considerations The timeslots required for a DTM PS session. one each for the CS and PS sessions. Such mobiles are able to access packet and circuit services simultaneously. A DTM capable MS that has only a PS session should abort that session in order to establish a CS session. General rule for Max_DTM_TS configuration is to consider the number of subscribers using DTM in the cell at any instant and the number of timeslots that require to be allocated to each subscriber. Once the CS connection is established. DTM mode sessions need a minimum of two timeslots. When a DTM MS in dedicated mode requests the timeslots for the PS session. The following figure describes the DTM MS states.

Set max_dtm_ts with roundup value according to the number of subscribers using DTM at any instant and DTM mobile capability in this cell. DTM Class 9 and Class 11). 68P02900W21-S 3-108 01 Feb 2007 . max_dtm_ts = Roundup (Number of subscribers using DTM at any instant) * The maximum PD number supported by DTM MS capability in DTM mode in this cell. DTM Token per cell should be set with minimum value to ensure that the DTM Mobile is not downgraded to lower DTM Class capability with less throughput.Dual Transfer Mode Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The probability a subscriber is in dedicated mode is given by the following equation: R CS = (BHCA per sub * Voice call duration ) 3600 ⎛ UL traffic per sub (Kbits/hour) ⎞ ⎛ DL traffic per sub (Kbits/hour) ⎞ ⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ Average UL rate (Kbps) ⎟ Average DL rate (Kbps) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3600 The probability a subscriber is in packet transfer mode is given by the following equation: R PS = Where the UL traffic per sub (kbits) is given by the following equation: ⎛ Percentage GPRS CS usage in total UL traffic ⎞ ⎟ UL traffic per sub (Kbits) = ⎜ ⎟+ ⎜ * GPRS UL traffic per sub (Kbits/hour) ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ Percentage EGPRS MCS usage in total UL traffic ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ * EGPRS UL traffic per sub (Kbits/hour) ⎠ ⎝ the DL traffic per sub (kbits) is given by the following equation: ⎛ Percentage GPRS CS usage in total DL traffic ⎞ ⎟ DL traffic per sub (Kbits) = ⎜ ⎜ * GPRS DL traffic per sub (Kbits/hour) ⎟+ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ Percentage EGPRS MCS usage in total DL traffic ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ * EGPRS DL traffic per sub (Kbits/hour) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ the Average uplink rate is given by the following equation: 4 ⎛⎛ ⎞ ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ PercentageGPRS CS usage in total UL traffic* ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ ∑ (CSn_usage_ UL * CSn_rate)⎟ * (1 − BLERGPRS ⎟ + ⎜⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ n 1 = ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎟ AverageUL rate_per_s ub = ⎜ ⎜⎛ ⎞⎟ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ PercentageEGPRS MCS usage in total UL traffic* ⎜ (MCSn_usage ⎟ ⎟ _UL * MCSn_rate) * (1 − BLEREGPRS ⎟ ⎜∑ ⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ n =1 ⎠ ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ × ULTimeslot _ weighting and the Average downlink rate is given by the following equation: 4 ⎞ ⎛⎛ ⎞ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ Percentage GPRS CS usage in total DL traffic* ⎛ ⎜ ∑ (CSn_usage_DL * CSn_rate)⎟ * (1 − BLERGPRS ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟+ ⎟ ⎜⎝ ⎝ n =1 ⎠ ⎠ Average DL rate _ per _ sub = ⎜ ⎟ ⎞⎟ ⎛ 9 ⎞ ⎜⎛ ⎜ Percentage EGPRS MCS usage in total DL traffic* ⎜ ∑ (MCSn_usage_DL * MCSn_rate)⎟ * (1 − BLEREGPRS ) ⎟ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎝ n =1 ⎠ ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ * DLTimeslot _ weighting The probability a DTM capable subscriber is in DTM mode is given by the following equation: R DTM = (1 + DTM mode scaling factor ) * R ( CS * R PS ) The number of subscribers using DTM in a cell at any instant is given by: Number of subscribers using DTM at any instant = RDTM*PDTM*Total_Subs_per_cell Some DTM mobiles have the capability to support multiple DL or UL PDTCH together with voice TCH at the same time to acquire higher peak throughput (for example. Therefore.

107. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-109 . In such circumstances the PCU allocates resources (up to the maximum) for the RES TS. the total number of PDs requested per PCU may exceed its capabilities. details defined in the GSR8 QoS implementation). Therefore the recommendation is to use the user defined algorithm (gprs_ts_config_alg = 1). BSS still tries to admit the streaming traffic classes as one of the matching interactive traffic classes (determined based on the MTBR settings. The GSR8 Quality of Service Feature introduced the support for prioritized retention. • • • The BSS restricts the maximum number of DTM timeslots to 29 and with at least 1 reserved or switchable PD in a cell. The key components of QoS2 implementation are as follows: • • • Add support for Streaming Traffic class Maximum bit-rate enforcement as per the QoS Profile Capacity is based on a less conservative budget to start (using user configurable initial coding scheme) Support for Streaming Traffic Class allows the operator to specify a service requiring constraints on delay and jitter as well as minimum bit rate. If the performance algorithm is used. Any network entity not involved in negotiation and provision of QoS parameters might become a bottleneck. Then the remaining resources are shared between DTM and SW TS. System considerations The system considerations are as follows. With DTM unrestricted. the maximum PD number supported by DTM Class 5 mobile is 1 and the maximum PD number supported by DTM Class 9/11 mobile is 2. reserved PDCH takes all the best timeslots then the remainder is shared between DTM and SW. As a result of the requested DTM PDs (max_dtm_ts). admission and throughput (minimum bit rate enforcement) specifically targeted to support the Interactive and Background traffic classes defined in the 3GPP specifications. The GSR9 Quality of Service builds on top of this. It is important that QoS characteristics be provided as consistently as possible in the network. Quality of Service (QoS) architecture is aimed at providing a framework for differentiation of services and users. in which case the network planner should take into account how to set max_gprs_ts_per_carrier so as to free up some resource on carriers with high throughput for the PS portion of DTM mode sessions. SW and RES per cell. Support for PFCs requesting streaming traffic class can be enabled or disabled using the streaming_enabled BSS parameter. res_gprs_pdchs + sw_gprs_pdchs + max_dtm_ts <=30 in a cell. decreasing the operator’s perceived QoS. considering the impact on the voice quality.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Dual Transfer Mode For example. The BSS restricts the maximum number of Lapdm frames for GTTP to 12. The performance defined PD placement algorithm (gprs_ts_config_alg = 0) has not been modified as a result of DTM. The default value is set to 5. If support for streaming traffic class is disabled. the partition between the two is updated dynamically based on demand. Concepts and architecture for QoS are described in 3GPP technical specification 23. • QoS2 For GPRS/EGPRS.

which include stream_downgrade_enabled and mtbr_downgrade_enabled. Maximum bit rate enforcement allows the BSS to throttle the throughput of user to the maximum bit-rate stated in the QoS parameters (ABQP) even if there is capacity to provide the user a higher throughput. divided by the duration of the period. RT service are rejected if the idle resource is not enough. GSR9 streaming support is limited to at most one active real-time PFC per user at any given time. if stream_downgrade_enabled is disabled. the guaranteed bit rate is defined as the bit rate at the LLC layer. QoS2 is based on the GSR8 implementation and all the PFCs for a given user share the same TBF over the air interface to transfer data for the PFCs. the transfer delay for Radio Access Bearer is smaller than the overall requested transfer delay. some other parameters impact user experience although no impact to capacity. the transfer delay can be guaranteed.5 seconds. In addition. GSR9 enhances the LLC scheduling within the same TBF such that the real-time service is prioritized appropriately over the non real-time services where necessary but at the RLC layer.Dual Transfer Mode Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Guaranteed bit rate as per the 3GPP specification is defined as the guaranteed number of bits delivered at a SAP within a period of time (provided that there is data to deliver). The MTBR is measured as the raw air throughput at the RLC/MAC layer whereas the GBR measurements excludes any RLC retransmissions. when reselecting from one cell to another the connection between the mobile and the network is typically lost for 2 . Transfer delay of an arbitrary SDU is not meaningful for a bursty source (applicable only to real-time traffic classes – streaming/conversational). The main purpose of maximum bit rate enforcement from an operator’s perspective is to limit the delivered bit rate to applications or external networks and to allow maximum required or permitted bit rate to be defined for applications able to operate with different rates. all PFCs for the mobile still share the same pipe. QoS introduced the internal BSS concept of an Minimum Throughput Budget Requirement (MTBR) associated with each PFC. where delay for an SDU is defined as the time from a request to transfer an SDU at one SAP to its delivery at the other SAP. There are challenges for streaming traffic when performing cell reselection. Transfer Delay indicates maximum delay for 95th percentile of the distribution of delay for all delivered SDUs during the lifetime of a bearer service. the Guaranteed bit rate for each PFC is an extension of this concept except that the GBR needs to be enforced as a true guarantee and not just a commitment. For the GPRS RAN. If using the NACC feature. For example. The Maximum bit rate applies to all traffic classes. as transport through the core network uses a part of the acceptable delay. 68P02900W21-S 3-110 01 Feb 2007 . In addition. Transfer delay as all other attributes in the Aggregate BSS QoS Profile is negotiable. Streaming_enabled and qos_mbr_enabled parameters affect cell capacity.

05 U(MSC .BTS) = 0.40 UBSC-PCU = 0.40 UBSC-SMLC = 0. Table 3-12 Typical parameters for BTS call planning Busy hour peak signaling traffic model Call duration Ratio of SMSs per call Number of handovers per call Ratio of location updates to calls: non-border location area Ratio of location updates to calls: border location area Ratio of IMSI detaches to calls Location update factor: non-border location area using IMSI type 2 Location update factor: border location area using IMSI type 2 GSM circuit-switched paging rate in pages per second Ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers Ratio of LCSs per call Mobile terminated LCS ratio Mobile originated LCS ratio Percent link utilization (MSC to BSS) for GPROC2/GPROC3 Percent link utilization (BSC to BTS) Percent link utilization (BSC to RXCDR) Percent link utilization (BSC to SMLC) Percent link utilization (BSC to PCU) Parameter reference T = 90 seconds S = 2 H = 1.32 l=2 l=7 I = 0.6 Lcs = 0. Typical call parameters The number of control channels required at a BTS depends on a set of call parameters.5I = 2.1 L = l + 0.95 LRMO = 0.2 L = l + 0.25 UBSC-RXCDR = 0.20 U(BSC .25 Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-111 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Call model parameters for capacity calculations Call model parameters for capacity calculations Introduction This section provides information on how to determine the number of control channels required at a BTS. and is required when calculating the exact configuration of the BSC required to support a given BSS.5I = 7. This information is required for the sizing of the links to the BSC. typical call parameters for BTS planning are given in Table 3-12.1 LRMT = 0.SS) = 0.1 PGSM = 60 i = 0.

4 PGPRS = 25.33 PB-TCHs = 2% PB-Trunks = 1% CBTS = 3 SMSSIZE = 100 bytes BSCLA = 1 BHCAsub 1.Uplink GPRS Traffic per subscriber /BH (kbytes/hr) .91 CS1 = 9.8 68P02900W21-S 3-112 01 Feb 2007 .Downlink Average sessions per subscriber (per BH) PS attach/detach rate (per sub/BH) PDP context activation/deactivation (per sub/BH) Routing area update GPRS paging rate in pages per second Coding scheme rates (CS1 to CS4) at the RLC/MAC layer PKSIZE = 336.14 DLRATE = 127.5 PDPACT/DEACT = 0.8 kbit/s Continued MNEWCALL = 1 MHANDOVER = 1 LXBL = 50 Hhr-fr = 1 Parameter reference UGBL = 0.8 kbit/s CS4 = 21.2 kbit/s CS2 = 13.40 UCCCH = 0.65 ULRATE = 34.Call model parameters for capacity calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-12 Typical parameters for BTS call planning (Continued) Busy hour peak signaling traffic model Percent link utilization (BSS to SGSN) Percent CCCH utilization Block Rate for TCHs Block Rate for MSC-BSS trunks Number of cells per BTS Average SMS message size (payload only) Number of BSCs per location area Busy Hour Call Attempts per sub/BH XBL (enhanced auto connect) parameters Number of XBL messages per new call Number of XBL messages per hr <-> fr handover Length of an average XBL message.81 Avg_Sessions_per_sub = 0.4 RAU = 1.6 kbit/s CS3 = 15.64 PSATT/DETACH = 0. in bytes Number of hr <-> fr handovers per call GPRS parameters GPRS Average packet size (bytes) GPRS Traffic per subscriber /BH (kbytes/hr) .

95 kbit/s MCS3 = 16.81 MCS1 = 10.Uplink EGPRS Average packet size (bytes) .90 kbit/s MCS6 = 29.33 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-113 .Downlink EGPRS Traffic per sub/BH (kbytes/hr) -Uplink EGPRS Traffic per sub/BH (kbytes/hr) -Downlink EGPRS coding scheme rates (MCS-1 to MCS-9) at the RLC/MAC layer PKULSIZE = 134.10 kbit/s MCS8 = 46.39 PKDLSIZE = 562.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Call model parameters for capacity calculations Table 3-12 Typical parameters for BTS call planning (Continued) Busy hour peak signaling traffic model Coding scheme usage (CS1 to CS4) at a BLER of 10% Parameter reference CS1_usage_UL = CS1_usage_DL = 20% CS2_usage_UL = CS2_usage_DL = 45% CS3_usage_UL = CS3_usage_DL = 25% CS4_usage_UL = CS4_usage_DL = 10 Percentage GPRS coding scheme usage in total traffic Cell updates (per sub/BH) EGPRS parameters EGPRS Average packet size (bytes) .55 kbit/s MCS4 = 19.30 kbit/s Continued CSuse_UL_GPRS = CSuse_DL_GPRS = 50% CellUpdate = 0.99 ULRATE = 34.60 kbit/s MCS7 = 31.35 kbit/s MCS5 = 23.14 DLRATE = 127.55 kbit/s MCS2 = 12.90 kbit/s MCS9 = 61.

Uplink Average GBR for service mix (kbit/s) .99 CSuse_UL_EGPRS = CSuse_DL_EGPRS = 50% PKULSIZE = 134.70 MSDTM = 30% DTMfactor = 30% PKDLSIZE = 562.Downlink Peak GBR for service mix (kbit/s) -Uplink Peak GBR for service mix (kbit/s) .60 GBRPEAK_UL = 9.Call model parameters for capacity calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-12 Typical parameters for BTS call planning (Continued) Busy hour peak signaling traffic model Coding scheme usage (MCS1 to MCS9) at a BLER of 20% Parameter reference MCS1_usage_UL = MCS1_usage_DL = 10% MCS2_usage_UL = MCS2_usage_DL = 8% MCS3_usage_UL = MCS3_usage_DL = 33% MCS4_usage_UL = MCS4_usage_DL = 1% MCS5_usage_UL = MCS5_usage_DL = 21% MCS6_usage_UL = MCS6_usage_DL = 15% MCS7_usage_UL = MCS7_usage_DL = 5% MCS8_usage_UL = MCS8_usage_DL = 3% MCS9_usage_UL = MCS9_usage_DL = 4% Percentage EGPRS coding scheme usage in total traffic Average packet size for GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix (bytes) – Uplink Average packet size for GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix (bytes) – Downlink DTM parameters Percentage of DTM Mobiles DTM mode scaling factor QoS parameters Average GBR for service mix (kbit/s) .65 GBRPEAK_DL = 12.80 GBRAVG_DL = 5.39 68P02900W21-S 3-114 01 Feb 2007 .Downlink GBRAVG_UL = 3.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Call model parameters for capacity calculations • • Number of handovers per call and Ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers include 2G-3G handovers.5 * Ι 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-115 . • • • Location update factor (L) The location update factor (L) is a function of the ratio of location updates to calls (I). The type of IMSI detach used is a function of the MSC. The percentages represent the split of the traffic between the GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix which is network dependent. typically Ι = 0 (that is IMSI detach is disabled) as in the first formula given . When IMSI detach is enabled. The average packet sizes for a GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix are based on the GPRS and EGPRS percentage splits defined for this model. The percentages can be used to determine the average traffic per sub/BH for a GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix as follows: Traffic per subscriber/BH for GPRS and EGPRS mix (kbytes/hr) = (Percentage GPRS coding scheme usage in total traffic * GPRS Traffic per sub/BH) + (Percentage EGPRS coding scheme usage in total traffic * EGPRS Traffic per sub/BH). • • • If IMSI detach is disabled: L = I If IMSI detach type 1 is enabled: L = I + 0. The DTM scaling factor represents the likelihood that a DTM subscriber overlaps a CS call and a PS session. the ratio of IMSI detaches to calls (Ι) and whether the short message sequence (type 1) or long message sequence (type 2) is used for IMSI detach. the second or third of the formulas given should be used.2 * Ι If IMSI detach type 2 is enabled: L = I + 0.

This is used to page the MS. • Packet Timing advance Control CHannel (PTCCH/U) Uplink channel. they are: • • • • Broadcast Control CHannel (BCCH) Common Control CHannel (CCCH) Standalone Dedicated Control CHannel (SDCCH) Cell Broadcast CHannel (CBCH). Packet Data Traffic CHannel (PDTCH) A PDTCH corresponds to the resource allocated to a single MS on one physical channel for user data transmission. in either uplink or downlink directions. Used to notify the MS of a PTM-M. Packet Dedicated Control CHannels (PDCCHs) • Packet Associated Control CHannel (PACCH) The PACCH is bi-directional. which uses one SDCCH GPRS/EGPRS defines several new radio channels and packet data traffic channels. 68P02900W21-S 3-116 01 Feb 2007 . mapped on BCCH or PDTCH. Packet Notification CHannel (PNCH) Downlink only. Used to allocate one or several PDTCHs. The transceiver uses these bursts to estimate the timing advance for an MS when it is in transfer state. It is used for MS-PCU control signaling while the MS is performing a packet transfer. mapped on AGCH or PDTCH. This is used to allow request allocation of one or several PDTCHs. Packet Random Access CHannel (PRACH) Uplink only. • • Packet Paging Channel (PPCH) Downlink only. mapped on DTCH or CCCH. Packet Broadcast Control CHannel (PBCCH) Downlink only. This is not used in the first GPRS/EGPRS release. Packet Common Control CHannels (PCCCHs) The following channels are mapped onto PCCCH: • • • Packet Access Grant CHannel (PAGCH) Downlink only. used to transmit random access bursts.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Control channel calculations Introduction There are four types of air interface control channels.

the uplink part is implicitly provisioned with sufficient capacity. CCCH and PCCCH planning When PCCCH is disabled (pccch_enabled is set to zero). If the planner decides not to use paging coordination (called Network Operation Mode III). CCCH and PCCCH decision tree Figure 3-78 summarizes the decisions used to determine which planning steps should be used to determine the CCCH and PCCCH signaling capacity requirements. the CCCH planning is dependent on PCCCH planning. an additional variable must be considered. When PCCCH is enabled. When PCCCH is enabled (pccch_enabled is set to 1). and receives circuit-switched pages on the PACCH when it has been assigned a PDTCH. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-117 . CCCH signaling decreases when PCCCH is enabled. the network planner must consider three main variables: • • • Signaling requirements of the CCCH Signaling requirements of the PCCCH (if enabled) Signaling requirements of the SDCCH SDCCH planning can be done independently. control signaling for GPRS/EGPRS occurs on the PCCCH instead of the CCCH. It is assumed that by adequate provisioning of the downlink part of the CCCH or PCCCH. but CCCH planning depends on PCCCH planning. all control signaling for GSM and GPRS/EGPRS occur on the CCCH. Thus. the MS that needs to receive pages for both circuit-switched and packet-switched services should monitor paging channels on both PCCCH and CCCH. Network Operation Mode II is currently not supported in the Motorola BSS. In other words. then a MS only needs to monitor the paging channel on the PCCCH. If the planner decides to use paging coordination (also called Network Operation Mode I). used to transmit timing advance updates to several MSs at the same time.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Control channel calculations • Packet Timing advance Control CHannel (PTCCH/D) Downlink channel. Planning considerations In planning the GSM/GPRS/EGPRS control channel configuration. The network planner must decide whether or not to use paging coordination in the system.

Combined BCCH This planning guide provides the planning rules that enable the network planner to evaluate whether a combined BCCH can be used.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-78 CCCH and PCCCH decision tree (1) Decide whether or not paging coordination will be used in the network. o Combined BCCH (with four SDCCHs) Number of CCCH blocks = 3 • 68P02900W21-S 3-118 01 Feb 2007 . If PCCCH is enabled (pccch_enabled is set to 1). Further. In this case. or if a non-combined BCCH is required. a non-combined BCCH must be used. pccch_enabled = 1 pccch_enabled = 0 Calculate the number of CCCHs per BTS cell when PCCCH is disabled. and subsequently how many timeslots in total. are required to support the CCCH and SDCCH signaling load. if paging coordination is also enabled. (4) Calculate the number of PAGCHblocks per BTS cell. GSM CS paging also occurs on the PCCCH for all GPRS/EGPRS-enabled mobiles. A combined BCCH can offer four more SDCCH blocks for use by the GSM circuitswitched signaling traffic. more control channel timeslots are required. The network planning that is performed using the planning information determines how many CCCH and SDCCH blocks are required. If more than an average of three CCCH blocks. given the load on the CCCH control channel. depending on the CCCH and SDCCH load. The decision to use a noncombined BCCH is a function of the number of CCCH channels required and the number of SDCCH channels required. and the Random Access CHannel (RACH) in the uplink. When more than nine CCCH blocks are needed. If the CCCH has a low traffic requirement. When more than three and less than nine CCCH blocks are required to handle the combined load. (6) Calculate the number of PBCCH blocks per BTS cell. The use of a combined BCCH is desirable because it permits the use of only one timeslot on a carrier that is used for signaling. (3) Calculate the number of PRACH blocks per BTS cell. The determination of how many CCCH and SDCCH blocks are required to support the circuit-switched GSM traffic is deferred to the network planning that is performed with the aid of the relevant planning information for GSM. it is advantageous to use a combined BCCH again. are required to handle the signaling load. If the CCCH carries high traffic. the CCCH can share its timeslot with SDCCHs (combined BCCH). or more than four SDCCH blocks. (5) Calculate the number of PPCH blocks per BTS cell. then the PCCCH relieves all GPRS/EGPRS control signaling from the CCCH. Number of CCCHs and PCCCHs per BTS cell The following factors should be considered when calculating the number of CCCHs per BTS cell are as follows: • • The CCCH channels comprise the Paging CHannel (PCH) and Access Grant CHannel (AGCH) in the downlink. the use of a combined BCCH is not possible. one or more timeslots are required to handle the CCCH signaling. (2) Calculate the number of CCCHs per BTS cell when PCCCH is enabled. The planning approach for GPRS/EGPRS/GSM control channel provisioning is to determine whether a combined BCCH is possible.

17 messages/second. This is due to the 51-frame multiframe structure of the channel.25 messages/second. on timeslots 2. The message capacity of each PCCCH block is 4. The message capacity of each CCCH block is 4. Each CCCH block can carry one message. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-119 . but as a consequence it takes longer to page that MS. thus creating cells with 18. and 36 CCCH blocks. a lot of paging groups. Each PCH paging message can contain pages for up to four MSs using TMSI or two MSs using IMSI. no immediate assignment or immediate assignment reject messages are sent on that CCCH sub-channel. and 6 of the BCCH carrier. resulting in slower call set-up as perceived by a PSTN calling party). The number of blocks required for NCH depends upon the number of VGC calls envisaged to be active simultaneously in the cell. for example. Each AGCH immediate assignment reject message can reject channel requests from up to four MSs. The AGCH is used to send immediate assignment and immediate assignment reject messages for GSM MSs and.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Control channel calculations Number of CCCH blocks reserved for AGCH bs_ag_blks_res is 0 to 2 Number of CCCH blocks available for PCH is 1 to 3 o Non-combined BCCH Number of CCCH blocks = 9 Number of CCCH blocks reserved for AGCH bs_ag_blks_res is 0 to 7 Number of CCCH blocks available for PCH is 2 to 9 • When a non-combined BCCH is used. Some of these are: o Number of paging groups. This is due to the 52-frame multiframe structure of the channel. The current Motorola BSS implementation applies the following priority (highest to lowest) for downlink CCCH messages: o o o Paging message (if not reserved for AGCH) Immediate assignment message Immediate assignment reject message • • • • • Thus. These additional CCCH control channels are added. if PCCCH is not enabled. means the MS need only listen occasionally to the PCH. If no paging messages are to be sent in a particular CCCH block. Each AGCH immediate assignment message can convey channel assignments for up to two MSs. Paging group size is a trade off between MS idle-mode battery life and speed of access (for example. Each MS is a member of only one paging group and only needs to listen to the PCH sub-channel corresponding to that group. 4. • • It can normally be assumed that sufficient capacity exists on the uplink CCCH (RACH) once the downlink CCCH is correctly dimensioned. if PCCCH is not enabled. 27. if for a particular CCCH sub-channel there are always paging messages (that is high paging load) waiting to be sent. then an immediate assignment or immediate assignment reject message can be sent instead. The number of NCH blocks affects the AGCH/PCH bandwidth and also the performance of the NCH. Some other parameters can be used to configure the CCCH channels. The PCH is used to send GSM paging messages and. These configurations would only be required for high capacity cells or in large location areas with a large number of pages. GPRS/EGPRS paging messages. Each PCCCH block can carry one message. in order. GPRS/EGPRS MSs. Hence the option to reserve CCCH channels for AGCH. it is possible to add additional CCCH control channels (in addition to the mandatory BCCH on timeslot 0).

GPRS notation represents GPRS/EGPRS. The average number of blocks required to support AGCH and PCH is given by the following equation: N PCH + AGCH + NCH = N PCH + N AGCH + N NCH The average number of blocks required to support AGCH and PCH is given by the following equation: N PCH + AGCH = N AGCH + N PCH U CCCH The average number of blocks required to support AGCH only is given by the following equation: N AGCH = + N AGCH GSM + N AGCH GPRS 68P02900W21-S 3-120 01 Feb 2007 . According to the principle of Extended Uplink TBF. Thus the impact of RACH decrement can be ignored. total amount of decreased RACH is small. If the uplink application is rare. Determine the number of CCCHs per BTS. GSM pages. {26881} Extended Uplink TBF is the feature that enhances uplink data performance by minimizing the interruptions of uplink data flow in GPRS/EGPRS networks due to a frequent release and establishment of uplink TBF. and dividing that sum by the CCCH utilization factor. The calculation is performed by adding the estimated GPRS/EGPRS and GSM paging blocks for the BTS cell to the estimated number of GPRS/EGPRS and GSM access grant blocks for the BTS cell. this feature decreases the amount of RACH for uplink applications session like uplink FTP. some statistics can be collected (for example ACCESS_PER_PCH. Introducing the GPRS/EGPRS feature into a cell may cause noticeable delays for paging in that cell. Motorola advises operators to re-check the NPAGCH and NPCH equations provided here when adding GPRS/EGPRS to a cell. otherwise the impact of RACH decrement cannot be ignored and RACH decrement is taken into account for CCCHs calculation. Calculating the number of CCCHs per BTS cell .PCCCH disabled When PCCCH is disabled (pccch_enabled is set to zero). The following planning actions are required: In the following paragraphs. However. GPRS/EGPRS access grant messages and GSM access grant messages. The time MS must wait between repetitions on the RACH. The blocking factor and Erlang B table are then used to provide the number of CCCHs required.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning o o Number of repetitions for MSs attempting to access the network on the RACH. the provisioning of the CCCH is estimated by calculating the combined load from the GPRS/EGPRS pages. • Precise determination of the CCCH requirements is difficult. Enable PCCCH in cells with heavy paging. ACCESS_PER_AGCH) by the BSS and can be used to determine the CCCH loading and hence perform adjustments. if the uplink application is booming and total amount of decreased RACH is huge.

N AGCH / Block = 2 The average number of blocks required to support AGCH for GPRS/EGPRS traffic is given by the following equation: N AGCH GPRS = Where: RACHA Arrivals / Sec *1.25 The number of access grants per AGCH block is 2.25 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-121 .1 4.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Control channel calculations The average number of blocks required to support AGCH for GSM traffic is given by the following equation: N PCH + AGCH = λ AGCH N AGCH / Block * 4.25 GPRS _ Users * Avg _ Sessions _ per _ user 3600 RACHA _ Arrivals _ per _ sec = The access grant rate is given by the following equation: λ AGCH = λ CALL + λ L + λ S + λ LCS The call rate (calls per hour) is given by the following equation: λ call = e T c T c T c T The location update rate (LU per hour) is given by the following equation: λL = L * The SMS rate (SMSs per hour) is given by the following equation: λS = S * The LCS rate (LCSs per hour) is given by the following equation: λ LCS = L CS * The average number of blocks required to support PCH only is given by the following equation: N PCH = + N PCH GSM + N PCH GPRS The average number of blocks required to support GSM CS paging only is given by the following equation: N PCH GSM = PGSM N Pages / Block *1.

number of GSM circuitswitched traffic pages transmitted to a BTS cell per second.25 Where Is UCCCH λAGCH GPRS_Users Avg_Sessions_per_user CCCH utilization access grant rate (per second) number of GPRS and EGPRS users on a cell average number of sessions originated by user per busy hour (this includes the sessions for signaling) call arrival rate per second location update rate per second number of SMSs per second number of Erlangs per cell average call length. RPS is the probability of MS in PS mode and PDTM is the DTM penetration rate. in seconds.25 Where. The number of pages per paging PCH block depends on whether paging is performed using TMSI or IMSI. the average number of blocks required to support GSM CS paging is given by the following equation: P * (1 − R PS * PDTM ) N PCH _ GSM = GSM N Pages / Block * 4. For TMSI paging: N pages/Block = 4 For IMSI paging: N pages/Block = 2 The number of paging blocks required at a cell to support GPRS/EGPRS is given by: P * 1.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning When DTM feature is enabled. number of GPRS or EGPRS pages transmitted to a BTS cell per second λcall λL λS e T PGSM PGPRS 68P02900W21-S 3-122 01 Feb 2007 .2 N PCH GPRS = GPRS 4.

The average number of blocks required to support AGCH. The other timeslot may or may not be required. The value of N is >= 1. non-combined BCCH. The value of N is >= 1. the following planning rules should be used.PCCCH enabled When PCCCH is enabled (pccch_enabled is set to 1). Table 3-13 Control channel configurations Timeslot 0 Other timeslots Comments 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH N x 8 SDCCH combined BCCH. The average number of blocks required to support AGCH and PCH is given by the following equation: N PCH + AGCH = ( N AGCH + N PCH ) 1 U CCCH The average number of blocks required to support AGCH only is given by the following equation: N AGCH_ GSM = λ AGCH N AGCH/Block * 4.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Control channel calculations The following table provides the control channel configurations. 9 CCCH Calculating the number of CCCHs per BTS cell . the Network Operation Mode becomes relevant to the planning rules. Hence. This is an example of one extra timeslot of CCCHs added in support of GPRS traffic. If paging coordination is used and Network Operation Mode is I. Regardless of paging coordination though. then circuit-switched pages for Class A and Class B mobiles (mobiles that are capable of both GSM and GPRS) and pages for EGPRS mobiles are sent on the PCCCH instead of the CCCH. NNCH = 1. depending on the support of circuitswitched traffic where the value of N is >= 0. NCH and PCH is given by the following equation: N PCH_ AGCH_ NCH = N PCH_ AGCH + N NCH If VGCS is enabled in a cell.25 The number of access grants per AGCH block is 2. all GPRS/EGPRS control signaling occurs on the PCCCH. non-combined BCCH. 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH N x 8 SDCCH N x 8 SDCCH. N AGCH / Block = 2 The access grant rate is given by the following equation: λ AGCH = λ CALL + λ L + λ S + λ LCS The call rate (calls per hour) is given by the following equation: λ call = e T 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-123 .

25 If paging coordination is enabled. For TMSI paging: N pages/Block = 4 For IMSI paging: N pages/Block = 2 The number of paging blocks required at a cell to support GPRS/EGPRS is given by the following equation: P * 1. If paging coordination is not enabled then the average number of blocks required to support GSM CS paging is given by the following equation: N PCH = PGSM N Pages / Block * 4.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The location update rate (LU per hour) is given by the following equation: λL = L * c T c T c T The SMS rate (SMSs per hour) is given by the following equation: λS = S * The LCS rate (LCSs per hour) is given by the following equation: λ LCS = L CS * The average number of blocks required to support PCH depends on the provisioning of paging coordination in the cell.25 The number of pages per paging PCH block depends on whether paging is performed using TMSI or IMSI. the average number of blocks required to support GSM CS paging is given by the following equation: ⎡ N GSM Only MS ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ * PGSM N ⎢ ⎥ GSM Capable MS ⎦ N PCH = ⎣ N Pages / Block * 4.2 N PCH GPRS = GPRS 4.25 Where Is UCCCH λAGCH P λcall λL λS CCCH utilization access grant rate (per second) paging rate per second call arrival rate per second location update rate per second number of SMSs per second Continued 68P02900W21-S 3-124 01 Feb 2007 .

This delay is directly related to the delay before a mobile can start a data session following cell selection. Any uplink PCCCH blocks that are not reserved for PRACH can be used as PDTCH for up to 2 mobiles. The PCCCH timeslot is used for user data for up to 2 mobiles. Allocation among these channels is a trade-off between the following factors: • • The PPCH and PAGCH capacity required for the cell. PAGCH. The network planner allocates the 12 radio blocks on the downlink PCCCH among 4 logical channels: PBCCH. Any downlink PCCCH blocks that are not reserved for PBCCH. the network planner should calculate the number of PPCH blocks required in a BTS cell to determine how many blocks can be allocated to PBCCH blocks. For the subsequent calculations. in seconds. Nevertheless. • PBCCH blocks are reserved using the bs_pbcch_blks parameter. can be used for user data transmission when not being utilized for control signaling. and PDTCH. PAGCH blocks can be reserved using the bs_ag_blks_res parameter. the number of GSM circuit-switched traffic pages transmitted to a BTS cell per second.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Control channel calculations Where Is e T PGSM number of Erlangs per cell average call length. optionally. The PDTCH capacity available on the PCCCH timeslot. GPRS/EGPRS. [FR27539] PCCCH/PBCCH can be enabled if BCCH carrier is part of the hopping system and TS1 of the BCCH carrier is a non-hopping timeslot. The delay required for mobiles to acquire PBCCH system information upon entering the cell. This is also equal to the total number of mobiles in the system minus the number of GPRS/EGPRS-only mobiles in the system. NGSM_Only_MS NGSM_Capable_MS The network planner can provision up to 1 PCCCH timeslot per BTS cell. In other words. using the cell’s bs_prach_blks parameter. If the PCCCH is enabled. number of mobiles in the system that support GSM and. All other downlink PCCCH blocks can be used for the PPCH. The network planner can reserve 1 to 12 of the radio blocks on the uplink PCCCH as PRACH. PPCH. then the PCCCH occupies a reserved PDTCH timeslot on the BCCH carrier. number of mobiles in the system that do not support GPRS/EGPRS. the message capacity for each PCCCH block is 1 message per 0.240 second. but there is no parameter to reserve PPCH blocks. For GPRS/EGPRS random access. The use_bcch_for_gprs parameter is ignored to allow only the PCCCH timeslot on the BCCH carrier. hopping can be enabled on TS2 to TS7 of the BCCH carrier while PCCCH/PBCCH is enabled and TS1 is configured or allocated as PCCCH/PBCCH timeslot. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-125 .

GPRS notation represents GPRS/EGPRS.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning To calculate the number of PRACH blocks per BTS cell The network planner should use the average number of blocks necessary to support PRACH to set the cell’s bs_prach_blks parameter. bs_pag_blk = Roundup( N PAGCH ) The average number of blocks required to support PAGCH is given by the following equation: N PAGCH = GPRS _ RACH / Sec *1. bs_prach_blk = Roundup( N PRACH ) The average number of blocks required to support PRACH is given by the following equation: N PRACH = GPRS_RACH/Sec*0.24 U PCCCH GPRS _ Users * Avg _ Sessions _ per _ user 3600 Is The average number of PRACH arrivals per second is given by the following equation: GPRS _RACH / Sec = Where UCCCH GPRS_RACH/sec GPRS_Users Avg_Sessions_per_user desired PCCCH utilization GPRS/EGPRS random access rate (per second) number of GPRS and EGPRS users on a cell average number of sessions originated by user per busy hour (this includes the sessions for signaling) Calculating the number of PAGCH blocks per BTS cell The network planner should use the average number of blocks necessary to support PAGCH to set the cell’s bs_pag_blk parameter.24 U PCCCH 68P02900W21-S 3-126 01 Feb 2007 .1 * 0. In the following paragraphs.

24 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-127 .2 * 0. If paging coordination is not enabled in the network.24 The average number of PPCH blocks required to support GPRS/EGPRS paging only is given by the following equation: N PPCH _ GPRS = PGPRS * 1. GPRS notation represents GPRS/EGPRS.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Control channel calculations The average number of PAGCH arrivals per second is given by the following equation: GPRS_ RACH / Sec = GPRS _Users * Avg _ Sessions _ per _ user 3600 Is Where UCCCH GPRS_RACH/sec GPRS_Users Avg_Sessions_per_user desired PCCCH utilization GPRS/EGPRS random access rate (per second) number of GPRS and EGPRS users on a cell average number of sessions originated by user per busy hour (this includes the sessions for signaling) Calculating the number of PPCH blocks per BTS cell The average number of blocks required to support PPCH is given by: N PPCH = N PPCH _ GSM + N PPCH _ GPRS U PCCCH In the following paragraphs. then the average number of PPCH blocks required to support GSM CS paging only is zero: N PPCH _ GSM = 0 If paging coordination is enabled. then the average number of blocks required to support PPCH is given by the following equation: N PPCH _ GSM = N GSM _ GPRS MS N ALL _ SMS * PGSM * 0.

Therefore. 68P02900W21-S 3-128 01 Feb 2007 . Selecting the number of PBCCH blocks per BTS cell The network planner must allocate between 1 and 4 PBCCH radio blocks on the downlink PCCCH by setting the cell’s bs_pbcch_blks parameter. the PPCH blocks exceed the capacity of PCCCH. freeing up more radio resources for PAGCH. The number of PCCCH blocks available for PBCCH is given by the following equation: AvailablePBCCH = 12 − Roundup( N PAGCH ) − Roundup( N PPCH ) So. An allocation of 4 PBCCH blocks minimizes the time required for the mobile to acquire the GPRS/EGPRS broadcast system information of the cell. It is recommended that the network planner maximize the PBCCH blocks instead of PDTCH capacity on the PCCCH timeslot. In turn. that is. PPCH. and user data transmission. An allocation of 1 PBCCH block minimizes the radio resources consumed by PBCCH. and PDTCH. the PCCCH timeslot is the only GPRS/EGPRS timeslot.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Where Is UCCCH NGSM_GPRS_MS NALL_MS PGSM PGPRS desired PCCCH utilization number of mobiles in the system that are capable of both GSM and GPRS/EGPRS services total number of mobiles in the system number of GSM circuit-switched traffic pages transmitted to a BTS cell per second number of GPRS/EGPRS pages transmitted to a BTS cell per second When GSM CS paging load becomes heavy and paging coordination is enabled. this minimizes the delay before the mobile can start data transmission upon cell selection or reselection. the network planner can improve the user experience more by maximizing the PBCCH blocks and consequently minimizing data transmission delay following cell selection or reselection. The network user chooses to prioritize PDTCH capacity when only a single PDTCH exists in the cell. PAGCH. Thus choosing the number of PBCCH blocks per BTS cell is a trade-off between the data transmission delay following cell selection or reselection against radio resources available for PPCH. the network planner must select the number of PBCCH block (NPBCCH) such that it does not exceed the blocks available (maximum of 4 blocks). The network planner must also consider the trade-off with PDTCH capacity on the PCCCH timeslot. The PCCCH timeslot is only used for PDTCHs during conditions of cell congestion.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Control channel calculations User data capacity on the PCCCH timeslot The PCCCH timeslot can support user data traffic (PDTCH) for up to two mobiles.92 = 4. suppose the network planner expects good radio conditions on the PCCCH carrier so that CS4 is used 80% of the time and CS3 is used 20% of the time. the network planner can estimate the data capacity on the PCCCH timeslot. The raw downlink PDTCH capacity is given by the following equation: Downlink Capacity = 12 − N PBCCH − N PAGCH − N PPCH * TS Data Rate 12 The raw uplink PDTCH capacity is given by the following equation: Uplink Capacity = 12 − Roundup( N PRACH ) * TS Data Rate 12 Is Where TS_Data_Rate average data rate of the PCCCH timeslot based on the expected radio conditions on the PCCCH carrier.80 * 20 + 0. They are for informational use only. PAGCH.73 Kbits / s 12 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-129 . the radio blocks on the downlink PCCCH timeslot that are not required for PBCCH. Accordingly. The radio conditions determine the coding scheme used for the data transmission. Similarly. If other PDTCHs are available in the cell. the average data rate is calculated as follows: TS Data Rate = 0. The radio blocks on the uplink PCCCH timeslot that are not required for PRACH are available for PDTCH.92 Kbits / s So the raw data capacity for the downlink PCCCH can be calculated using the following equation: Downlink Capacity = 12 − 4 − 2 − 3 * 18. The network planner also calculates the following when dimensioning the PCCCH: NPAGCH = 2 NPPCH = 3 NPBCCH = 4 In this case.6 = 18. or PPCH are available for PDTCH as well. PDTCHs are allocated on the PCCCH timeslot when the cell is congested.2 *14. The formulas given can be use to estimate the raw data capacity of the PCCCH timeslot. For example. The raw data rate estimates are not adjusted for protocol overhead and possible data compression.

If DTM feature is unrestricted. or SDCCH if the MS intends to send a SMS. the network planner can tune the Max_Lapdm parameter. There is a limit of 124 or 128 SDCCHs (depending on whether control channels are combined or not) per cell. the GTTP has only minor impact on SDCCH planning. That is. use Erlang B. The SDCCH usage drops require to be accounted for. the call. By reviewing the collected network statistics GTTP_UL_LLC. location update and call set-up. The SDCCH is where a large portion of signaling and data messaging takes place for SMS. The formula should then be used to calculate the number of SDCCHs needed. • • • • • • 68P02900W21-S 3-130 01 Feb 2007 . The following factors should be considered when calculating the number of SDCCH per BTS cell: • To determine the required number of SDCCHs for a given number of TCHs per cell. The user configurable parameter TCH_usage_threshold keeps track of the percentage of TCH that are busy in the BCCH band. To determine the number of Erlangs supported by a cell. A TCH is directly allocated to the MS for a speech call when the Fast Call Setup feature is turned on. and does not need the use of an SDCCH. set Max_Lapdm parameter to the default value of 5. if the network is configured to send SMS over GPRS. GTTP_DL_LLC and DTM_REQ_REC on a continuous basis. Considering the impact to voice quality from GTTP signaling. Calculating the number of SDCCHs required is necessary for each cell at a BTS site. TCH directly to the MS if the MS intends to make a speech call. For MSs involved in a call. If the following requirements are met. Once these rates are determined. As the number of calls taking place in a BTS increases. as well as the SDCCH configuration. The rates for SMS are for the SMSs taking place over an SDCCH. the SMS takes place over the TCH. Refer to the equations for information on calculating the required number of SDCCHs. greater demand is placed on the control channel for call set-up and the same is true if the number of SMS increases. When the busy percentage is equal or higher to TCH_usage_threshold. Refer to the equations for information on calculating these rates. SMS does not need the use of a SDCCH. The number of LAPDm frames is smaller than Max_Lapdm specified by the network. the GTTP message is sent on SDCCH when the DTM subscriber is in dedicated mode and allocated to the SDCCH. The number of Erlangs in Table 3-15 and Table 3-16is the number of Erlangs supported by a given cell. The information contained in the message is signaling. based on the number of TCHs in that cell. The Fast Call Setup feature allows the BSS to allocate an appropriate channel based on the establishment cause. Based on the analysis. location update. the BSS turns this feature off. the required number of SDCCHs for the given number of TCHs can be determined. Further. A change in the call model also affects the number of SDCCHs (and supportable TCHs) required. This limits the number of supportable TCHs within a cell. the message is sent on the main DCCH by GTTP message: • • • The DTM MS is in dedicated mode. The equation for NSDCCH is used to determine the average number of SDCCHs. and SMS (point to point) rates must be determined.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Number of SDCCHs per BTS cell Determining the SDCCH requirement is an important part of the planning process.

Not all combinations of half rate usage are shown in the tables. The number of calls that use the half rate capable carriers varies depending upon such factor as cell loading. where all half rate capable carriers are used as half rate.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Control channel calculations • The number of TCHs in a cell vary depending upon the number of carriers that are (AMR or GSM) half rate capable. The average number of SDCCHs is given by the following equation: N SDCCH = λ Call * Tc * Tu + λ L * (TL + Tg ) + λ S * (TS + Tg ) + λ LCS * (TLCS + Tg ) 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-131 . as compared to inner sites of a location area (refer to Figure 3-79). mobile penetration and so on. • • • The call arrival rate is derived from the number of Erlangs (Erlangs divided by call duration). Use Erlang B (on the value of NSDCCH) to determine the required number of SDCCHs necessary to support the desired grade of service. In Table 3-15 and Table 3-16. The number of location updates is higher for sites located on the borders of location areas. Figure 3-79 Location area diagram BORDER BTS = INNER BTS = LOCATION AREA Calculating the number of SDCCHs per BTS cell Determine the number of SDCCHs per BTS cell. a worst case scenario is assumed.

but the actual number of SDCCH timeslots configured). Half Rate: Non Half Rate carriers are preferred over Half Rate capable carriers. that is. Carriers with lower pkt_radio_type are preferred over carriers with higher pkt_radio_type.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Where Is NSDCCH λcall Tc Tu average number of SDCCHs call arrival rate per second time duration for call set-up the Fast Call Setup component. It can only be used for SDCCHs since SDCCH timeslots do not need terrestrial backhaul. Per carrier db parameter pkt_radio_type: The parameter pkt_radio_type determines if the RTF can carry GPRS/EDGE or not. the NON BCCH carrier has preference over the BCCH carrier. Carrier with lower carrier id is selected over carrier with higher carrier id. Carriers with fewer sdcch loading are selected over carriers with higher sdcch loading so that SDs get distributed among carriers with identical SD related parameters. This is set to 1 if Fast Call Setup is disabled or not purchased otherwise this is set to (100 . Number of available TCH barred timeslots: Available TCH barred timeslots are TCH barred timeslots which are not configured as SDCCH timeslots yet. time duration of SMS (Short Message Service set-up) number of LCSs per second. Carrier id: Carrier id is used as a tie breaker among two carriers. λL TL Tg λS TS λLCS TLCS The timeslots allocated for SDCCH follows the new algorithm for picking the timeslots based on the parameter setting. Sdcch loading (Not the db parameter sd_load. • Per carrier db parameter sd_priority: The parameter sd_priority takes a value in the range 0 through 255. location update rate time duration of location updates guard time for SDCCH number of SMSs per second. TCH or PDTCH cannot be configured on a TCH barred timeslot since it does not have a terrestrial backhaul. This can take a value of 0 through 8. and this assigns a priority to the carrier (RTF). PGSM/EGSM: The PGSM carrier is preferred over EGSM carriers. • • • • • • • 68P02900W21-S 3-132 01 Feb 2007 .TCH usage threshold)/100. time duration of LCS (Location Service Set-up). the lower the priority the higher the possibility to get a SDCCH in the carrier (RTF). PBCCH: If PBCCH is configured. The db parameter sd_load determines the number of timeslots in the carrier that can be SDCCH. up to 8 timeslots can be configured as SDCCH in a single carrier.

94 5 1 BCCH +3 CCCH +4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCh N/A 1 hr 12 6. The following table provides a set of example configurations.61 8 8 SDCCH Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-133 . though 2 SDCCH TS is a preferred maximum. This can help alleviate SDCCH blocking in that cell.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Control channel calculations SDCCH configuration recommendations SDCCH TS should be spread as widely as possible across available carriers. Table 3-15 Control channel configurations for non-border location area Number of RTFs Number of TCHs Number of Erlangs Number of SDCCHs Timeslot utilization Timeslot 0 Other timeslots 1 fr 7 2. A maximum of 3 SDCCH TS on other carriers are recommended. the TCH in the cell can be reconfigured to SDCCH up to max_number_of_sdcchs based on need. only a partial listing is depicted. This can be achieved by setting sd_load on non BCCH RTF to 2 or 3. set the max_number_of_sdcchs to be greater than number_sdcchs_preferred by a value of 8 or 16. where the ratio of location updates to calls is 2. Only one SDCCH TS is allowed on the BCCH Carrier. When channel_reconfiguration_switch is enabled. Table 3-14 Example Configurations Number of SDCCH/ cell SDCCH on BCCH carrier SDCCH on second carrier SDCCH on third carrier SDCCH on fourth carrier SDCCH on fifth carrier SDCCH on sixth carrier 60 64 92 12 8 12 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 8 16 16 Control channel configurations Table 3-15 and Table 3-16 give typical control channel configurations based on the typical BTS planning parameters given in Table 3-12. then based on SDCCH usage. When SDCCH blocking is perceived to be high at a cell. Due to the many combinations of half rate capable RTFs. Control channel configurations for non-border location area The following table shows the configurations for non-border location area cell. Number_sdcchs_preferred is the number of SDCCH the system configures at the system initialization time. This can be achieved by setting sd_load parameter for BCCH RTF to 1.

7 41.03 31.2 13 15 13 16 21 22 16 20 22 16 22 16 20 20 24 28 2*8 SDCCH 2*8 SDCCH 2*8 SDCCH 2*8 SDCCH 3*8 SDCCH 3*8 SDCCH 2*8 SDCCH 3*8 SDCCH 3*8 SDCCH 2*8 SDCCH 3*8 SDCCH 2*8 SDCCH 3*8 SDCCH 3*8 SDCCH 3*8 SDCCH 4*8 SDCCH Continued 68P02900W21-S 3-134 01 Feb 2007 .3 34.03 18.0 21.04 21.03 27.3 31.03 27.0 21.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-15 Control channel configurations for non-border location area (Continued) Number of RTFs Number of TCHs Number of Erlangs Number of SDCCHs Timeslot utilization 2 fr 14 8.0 21.03 27.3 31.20 9 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH+4 SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 8 SDCCH 1 fr 1 hr 2 hr 3 fr 2 fr 1 hr 1 fr 2 hr 3 hr 4 fr 3 fr 1 hr 3 hr 4 fr 3 hr 4 fr 3 fr 1 hr 5 fr 6 fr 5 fr 1 hr 21 26 21 29 36 40 29 36 40 29 40 29 36 36 44 51 14.3 27.38 14.

0 7 12 15 20 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH +3 CCCH + 4SDCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 3 CCCH+ 4 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 8 SDCCH 2*8 SDCCH 2*8 SDCCH Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-135 .61 7. where the ratio of location updates to calls is 7.28 6. Table 3-16 Control channel configurations for border location area Number of RTFs Number of TCHs Number of Erlangs Number of SDCCHs Timeslot utilization Timeslot 0 Other timeslots 1 fr 1 hr 2 fr 1fr 1hr 6 12 13 21 2.4 14.6 41.3 62.9 35 43 28 32 35 39 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 5*8 SDCCH 6*8 SDCCH 4*8 SDCCH 4*8 SDCCH 5*8 SDCCH 5*8 SDCCH The CBCH reduces the number of SDCCHs by one and needs another channel. Control channel configurations for border location area The following table shows the configurations for the border location area cell.3 70.6 55.2 49.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Control channel calculations Table 3-15 Control channel configurations for non-border location area (Continued) Number of RTFs Number of TCHs Number of Erlangs Number of SDCCHs Timeslot utilization Timeslot 0 Other timeslots 3 fr 3 hr 6 hr 7 fr 8 fr 9 fr 10 fr 66 82 51 59 66 74 55.

3 52.2 19. to configure more EGPRS PDs on DD CTU2 Carrier A.3 19.5 27.9 52.8 39.5 39.6 13.3 25.5 26.3 25. set sd_priority to lowest value and set sd_load to 0 for both carrier A and B.3 45. 68P02900W21-S 3-136 01 Feb 2007 .1 24 21 27 34 36 27 34 35 41 48 62 48 55 64 68 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9CCCH 1 BCCH + 9CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9CCCH 1 BCCH + 9CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH 3*8 SDCCH 3*8 SDCCH 4 * SDCCH 5*8 SDCCH 5*8 SDCCH 4*8 SDCCH 4*8 SDCCH 5*8 SDCCH 6*8 SDCCH 6*8 SDCCH 8*8 SDCCH 6*8 SDCCH 7x8 SDCCH 8*8 SDCCH 9*8 SDCCH For the ITS feature.5 59.4 32.Control channel calculations Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-16 Control channel configurations for border location area (Continued) Number of RTFs Number of TCHs Number of Erlangs Number of SDCCHs Timeslot utilization Timeslot 0 Other timeslots 2 hr 3 fr 2 fr 1hr 1 fr 2hr 3 hr 4 fr 3 fr 1 hr 5 fr 6 fr 5 fr 1 hr 3 fr 3 hr 7 fr 8 fr 9 fr 10 fr 24 20 27 34 36 27 34 35 42 49 63 49 56 63 70 16.

for replanning a network. SIP signaling compression and TCP/IP header compression. These parameters consist of the expected BLock Error Rate (BLER) based on the cell RF plan. The statistics fall into two categories: PCU specific statistics. RLC/MAC). available after initial deployment. This subsection discusses the impact of different cell plans on the GPRS/EGPRS provisioning process. The effective load at a cell is used to determine the number of GPRS timeslots required to provision a cell.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS traffic planning GPRS/EGPRS traffic planning Determination of expected load The planning process begins by determining the expected GPRS/EGPRS load (applied load) to the system. and GSN (SGSN + GGSN) statistics. Network planning flow The following sections are presented in support of the GPRS/EGPRS network planning: • GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts This section introduces the key concepts involved in planning a network. The number of GPRS/EGPRS timeslots is the key piece of information that drives the BSS provisioning process in support of GPRS/EGPRS. the protocol overhead (GPRS/EGPRS protocol stack. In subsequent planning sections. and how to use this information in order to determine the number of GPRS/EGPRS timeslots that are required on a per cell basis. SNDCP. much of the content is dedicated to the discussion of this topic. that is TCP/IP. the expected advantage from V.42bis compression. • GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process This provides a table of inputs that can serve as a guide in the planning process. A key piece of information that is needed for the planning process is the RF cell plan. The next step is to determine the effective load to the system by weighing the applied load by network operating parameters. The provisioning process can be performed for a uniform load distribution across all cells in the network or on an individual cell basis for varying GPRS cell loads. LLC. and the multislot operation of the mobiles and infrastructure. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-137 . The planning process also uses network generated statistics. Because GPRS/EGPRS introduces the concept of a switchable timeslot that can be shared by both the GSM circuit-switched infrastructure and by the GPRS/EGPRS infrastructure. references are made to parameters in this table of inputs.

The desired network throughput per cell is used to calculate the number of GPRS/EGPRS timeslots required to support this throughput on a per cell basis. The GPRS/EGPRS traffic estimation process starts by looking at the per cell GPRS/EGPRS data traffic profile such as fleet management communications. an MS is either in idle mode or dedicated mode. 68P02900W21-S 3-138 01 Feb 2007 . Once a typical data traffic profile mix is determined. the GPRS/EGPRS subscriber can be attached and not sending data. audio/video playing. However. In circuit-switched mode. whether or not a subscriber is transporting voice or data. The network delay can be used to determine the mean or average time it takes to transfer a file of arbitrary length. web browsing. The results are provided in this planning guide. E-mail communications. a subscriber uses the infrastructure timeslots for carrying data only when there is data to be sent. but there is no circuit assigned. In GPRS/EGPRS mode. a circuit is assigned through the infrastructure. PoC service and large file transfers. One of the fundamental reasons for the difference is that a GPRS/EGPRS network allows the queuing of data traffic instead of blocking a call when a circuit is unavailable. In order to simulate the delay. the network knows where the MS is. The GPRS/EGPRS network planning is fundamentally different from the planning of circuit-switched networks. Consequently. the following factors are considered: • • • • • • Traffic load per cell Mean packet size Number of available GPRS/EGPRS timeslots Distribution of CS1 to CS4 and MCS-1 to MCS-9 rate utilization Distribution of Mobile Station (MS) multislot operation (1. the use of Erlang B tables for estimating the number of trunks or timeslots required is not a valid planning approach for the GPRS/EGPRS packet data provisioning process. In dedicated mode. The estimated GPRS/EGPRS network delay is derived based on computer modeling of the delay between the Um interface and the Gi interface. 3 or 4) BLER Use of timeslots The use of timeslots for GPRS/EGPRS traffic is different from how they are used in the GSM circuitswitched case.GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Introduction to the GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation Packet data notation is interchangeably used in this section. and this still presents a load to the GSN part of the GPRS/EGPRS system. which must be accounted for when provisioning the GPRS infrastructure in state 2 as explained . the required network throughput per cell can be calculated as measured in kbit/s. 2. In idle mode.

The timer value can be modified during the signaling process by MS request.) The MS and SGSN state models are illustrated in Figure 3-80. also referred to as control channels. The comment column specifies what the load is on the infrastructure equipment for that state. The ready timer (T3314) default time is 32 seconds. The BSS combines the circuit-switched and GPRS control channels together as BCCH/CCCH. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-139 . When the MS is in state 1. One of the more significant input decisions for the network planning process is to determine and specify how many of the attached MSs are actively transmitting data in the Ready state 3. and only in state 3 does the infrastructure equipment actually carry user data. no data is being transferred but the MS is using network resources to notify the network of its location. Network provisioning needs planning for traffic channels and for signaling channels. 2 STANDBY READY(3) PDU Transmission 3 READY IDLE(1) S GPRS/EGPR Detach 3 READY STANDBY(2) Ready timer expiry or force to Standby (network or the MS can send a GMM signaling message to invoke force to Standby. Subscriber is attached to GPRS/EGPRS MM and is being actively monitored by the infrastructure that is MS and SGSN establish MM context for subscriber IMSI.1800 s in 60 s increments. Data transmission through the infrastructure occurs in the Ready state. In the Standby state 2. but no data transmission occurs in this state.2 . The infrastructure has equipment limits as to how many MSs can be in state 2.60 s in 2 s increments or 61 . the only required infrastructure equipment support is the storage of MS records in the HLR. Table 3-17 MM state model of MS Present state number Next state Present state Condition for state transfer Comments (present state) 1 IDLE READY(3) GPRS/EGPRS Attach Subscriber is not monitored by the infrastructure that is not attached to GPRS/EGPRS MM. and therefore does not load the system other than the HLR records. The infrastructure equipment is planned such that many more MSs can be attached to the GPRS/EGPRS network that is in state 2.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts The GPRS/EGPRS mobile states and conditions for transferring between states are provided in Table 3-17 and shown in Figure 3-80 in order to specify when infrastructure resources are being used to transfer data. The software provides the option of configuring the PBCCH/PCCCH for GPRS/EGPRS control channels. than there is bandwidth available to simultaneously transfer data.

68P02900W21-S 3-140 01 Feb 2007 . the BCCH times slot uses 16 kbit/s sub rate.GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-80 MM state models for MS and SGSN IDLE IDLE GPRS Attach GPRS Detach GPRS Attach GPRS Detach or Cancel Location STANDBY timer expiry READY STANDBY timer expiry or Cancel Location PDU transmission READY READY timer expiry or Force to STANDBY READY timer expiry or PDU reception Force to STANDBY or Abnormal RLC condition STANDBY STANDBY MM State Model of MS MM State Model of SGSN Dynamic timeslot allocation This section proposes a network planning approach when utilizing dynamic timeslot mode switching of timeslots on a carrier with GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. Switchable timeslots are compatible with the AMR and GSM half rate features. In addition. 32 kbit/s TRAU are allocated before 16 kbit/s TRAU. 64 kbit/s terrestrial timeslots are needed on the link between the BTS and BSC to support the backhaul required for EGPRS coding schemes MCS-1 to MCS-9. The timeslot allocation is performed such that the GPRS/EGPRS reserved timeslots are allocated for GPRS/EGPRS use before switchable timeslots. For EGPRS. This is a single 64 kbit/s and not adjacent 16 kbit/s subrate timeslots. Motorola uses the term switchable to describe a timeslot that can be dynamically allocated for packet data service or for circuit-switched service. or allocated as switchable. The radio interface resources can be shared dynamically between the GSM circuit-switched services and GPRS/EGPRS data services as a function of service load and user preference. The timeslots on any carrier can be reserved for packet data use. For Non-BCCH carriers all timeslots should have 64 kbit/s while for BCCH. TRAU types are given priority over the BCCH carrier. The switchable timeslots are allocated with priority given to circuit-switched calls. for circuit-switched use only. 64 kbit/s TRAU are allocated before 32 kbit/s TRAU. Timeslots are further allocated by TRAU type and BCCH carrier. GSM circuit-switched timeslots are allocated to the circuit-switched calls before switchable timeslots.

reserved and switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots are granted the best available timeslots with the remainder left for potential conversion to DTM PDCH. The power output is not affected by the ITS feature for GMSK and 8PSK. linearity requirement on the power amplifier is increased to maintain the out-of-band radiation to a minimum. increase data throughput. Since 8-PSK modulated signals do not posses a constant envelope. The capping works in 4 steps by setting a data base parameter to the values as shown in Table 3-18. or voice) can be similar or higher than the output power in 8-PSK mode. With the introduction of ITS. To support EGPRS on DDM CTU2 and retain no HW changes of CTU2. Background and discussion Multiple carriers per cell can be configured with GPRS/EGPRS timeslots by the operator for packet data traffic handling capability. • User specified This provides the customer with the flexibility to configure reserve and switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots on a per carrier basis in a cell. when GSM is in SDM. if required. 16k) is restricted to reserve capacity for DTM. GPRS.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts It is possible for the circuit-switched part of the network to be assigned all of the switchable terrestrial backing under high load conditions and. The Compact transceiver unit (CTUII) can operate in two modes: High Power Mode (HPM) or Normal Power Mode (NPM). However. its output power can be up to 5dB higher than EGPRS. If DTM feature is unrestricted this option is recommended. that is. depending on whether operating in NPM or HPM respectively. the reserved GPRS pool of backing resources can be taken by the circuit-switched part of the network when BSC to BTSE1outages occur. The contiguous GPRS/EGPRS timeslots configured on a carrier in a cell provide ease in scheduling packet data and the capability to service multiple timeslot GPRS mobiles. and it is suggested that the network planner limit the maximum number of non DTM PDCHs per carrier (max_gprs_ts_per_carrier) so as to free up some resource (TCH) on the best carriers for the PS sessions of DTM MS. CTUII produces the same average output power in EGPRS 8-PSK mode as that of GSM (GMSK) when GSM is configured in DDM. In addition. There is a settable capping of the output power to equalize the average output power in GMSK and 8-PSK modes. If the DTM feature is unrestricted the number of timeslots that can be allocated for SW of each carrier type (64k. it can meet the expanding base of packet data subscribers and enhance performance. each CTU2 is able to rapidly switch between Double Density modulation (GMSK) and Single Density modulation (8PSK). there maybe some limitations on how timeslots are allocated to EGPRS on a carrier. It is also available on Horizon macro through CTUII upgrade. However. 32k. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-141 . EGPRS is available on Horizon macro II through software upgrade. in effect. Configure for performance provides the network with the capability to configure all the reserved and switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots in a cell contiguously to maximize performance. block GPRS access to the switchable timeslots at the BTS. By doing so. and when emergency pre-emption type of calls occur and cannot be served with the pool of non-reserved resources. EGPRS can operate in SDM and in DDM under which the output power in GMSK mode (irrespective of whether in EGPRS. There are two options to configure GPRS/EGPRS timeslots on multiple carriers per cell: • Configure for performance This is the network default option. Each have two sub-modes of operations as far as number of carriers are concerned: Single Density Mode (SDM) or Dual Density Mode (DDM). Depending on hardware configuration at a cell.

Different powers are on timeslot by timeslot basis. on average. Table 3-19 CTU2D output power GMSK 8PSK EGSM900 SD EGSM900 DD 63W -0/+2dB 20W -0/+2dB 20W -0/+2dB 8PSK 20W . as a general deployment rule the GMSK and 8-PSK signal power levels should be set equally (data base parameter value > 2). it is not recommended to map user preferred 64K RTF to improper DRI because it would invalidate the ITS feature. {30828}CTU2D output power is depicted in the following Table.0/+2dB (no Timeslot Blanking. voice and data. 64 kbit/s TRAU) are mapped to SDM or DDM equipped CTUII radios if possible. ITS Mode) 8PSK 9W . higher power than 8-PSK signals. Some of the timeslots of a 1-carrier cell (1/1/1) are allocated to EGPRS. that is. the carrier supports signaling.GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-18 Capping settings Step Data base parameter value 0 1 2 >2 5dB higher 2dB higher 1dB higher 0dB difference Therefore./+2dB (no Timeslot Blanking. ITS Mode 8PSK 8W . When such a mapping occurs. the EGPRS RTF falls back to 16K TRAU. it is possible that GMSK signals can be set to have. operators can operate on MCS-1 to MCS-4 and MCS-5 to MCS-9. On the same timeslot allocated to EGPRS.0/+2dB (Timeslot Blanking. If the ITS feature is unrestricted and enabled. However. that is.0/+2dB (Timeslot Blanking. depending on the configuration of a cell. The following are the scenarios in which there can be up to 5dB difference between GMSK and 8-PSK modulated signals: • • • A 2-carrier cell (2/2/2) can have one EGPRS carrier and one GSM full power carrier. ITS Mode) DCS1800 SD DCS1800 DD 50W -0/+2dB 16W -0/+2dB When the RTF to DRI mapping is performed. that is. If no single-density or double-density CTUIIs are available and other DRI hardware is available. {30828} The existing DRI-RTF Mapping functionality is enhanced to cater to the new radio (CTU2D) and enhanced capabilities (CAP and ASTM mode) which are summarized in the following table: 68P02900W21-S 3-142 01 Feb 2007 . the RTFs equipped for EGPRS (that is. that is. ITS Mode) 16W -0/+2dB 8PSK 16W .

3) / PWR-B (3) o o o When ASYM enabled When ASYM disabled Edge downgraded to 16K CAP-B is preferred due to removal of timeslot blanking and the use is unrestricted. even if that DRI is unable to support EGPRS. the BCCH is remapped onto an available DRI. Due to the importance of the BCCH carrier. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-143 . the carrier can only support GSM voice calls. In the event that the BCCH RTF is remapped onto a DRI that cannot support EGPRS. It results in PWR-A Edge being either stolen or downgraded to 16K. • Non Edge BCCH RTF Priority: CAP-B (1) / PWR-A / CAP-A / SD / PWR-B (2) o o • Non Edge non BCCH RTF Priority: As legacy except CAP-B is considered unrestricted.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Table 3-20 DRI-RTF Mapping functionality DRI-RTF Mapping functionality CAP and ASTM mode SD A DD DD-B PWR-A PWR-B CAP-A CAP-B CTU2/CTU2D in Single Density (Level0) CTU2/CTU2D GMSK Carrier A (Level1) CTU2/CTU2D GMSK Carrier B with DD-A (Level1) CTU2/CTU2D Edge Carrier A (Level2) CTU2/CTU2d D GMSK Carrier B with PWR-A (Level2) CTU2D Edge Carrier A (Level3/4) CTU2D Edge Carrier B with CAP-A (ASYM supported – Level4) or CTU2D GMSK Carrier B with CAP-A (ASYM not supported – Level3) Is Where Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 basic SD Edge/GMSK operation (CTU2/CTU2D Equivalent) basic DD GMSK/GMSK Operation (CTU2/CTU2D Equivalent) Level 1 + Basic DD Edge/GMSK Operation with A Edge and B GMSK with Timeslot Blanking (as per GSR8 ITS) (CTU2/CTU2D Equivalent) Level 1 + Enhanced DD Edge/GMSK removes B TS Blanking (CTU2D Only) Level 3 + Edge/Edge with B restricted to UL GMSK Only (CTU2D Only) Level 3 Level 4 The mapping preferences are given by: • Edge RTF Priority: SD / CAP-A / CAP-B (1) / PWR-A / CAP-B (2.

At initialization the BSS should load up non-CTUII hardware with 16K/32K carriers as much as possible. if the BCCH RTF is not configured with 64 kbit/s terrestrial backing and there is only one CTUII available. the BCCH is moved to a non-CTUII radio. Use switchable timeslots to provide low circuit mode blocking and high packet data throughput when the voice busy hour and the GPRS busy hour do not coincide. Switchable timeslots dynamically allocated for either GSM circuit-switched traffic or GPRS/EGPRS traffic (designated as switchable timeslots by Motorola). Planning goals . Technical Description: BSS Implementation (68PO2901W36) provides a complete description of these commands. Therefore. since EGPRS service and EGPRS one phase access would still be available. if any. The BSS supports a minimum of zero to a maximum of 30 GPRS/EGPRS timeslots per cell. The BSS ignores the pkt_radio_type value of the BCCH carrier if PBCCH/PCCCH is enabled in the cell. there is a circuit-switched blocking on that last timeslot on the cell until the timeslot becomes free. 68P02900W21-S 3-144 01 Feb 2007 . the operator can configure the RTF backhaul for an EGPRS capable carrier to be between 3 and 8 64 kbit/s terrestrial timeslots. the BCCH RTF is mapped onto that CTUII. Use switchable timeslots to provide higher packet data throughput without increasing the circuit-switched blocking rate. However. pkt_radio_type also accommodates the 64K backhaul necessary to support EGPRS and makes it possible to configure RTFs on which GPRS data is specifically disallowed. The GPRS/EGPRS carriers can be provisioned to carry a mix of circuit-switched traffic and GPRS traffic. There are three provisioning choices combined with timeslot configuration options selected : • • • Reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots allocated only for packet data use. The sum of reserved and switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots should not exceed 30. Thus. Remaining timeslots on the carrier with GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. If all the GPRS/EGPRS timeslots are provisioned as switchable. This requirement primarily comes into play post-initialization when the BCCH RTF fails. If the VersaTRAU feature is unrestricted. If the BCCH RTF is configured for EGPRS and there is only one SDM CTUII available. Every RTF equipped as pkt_radio_type = 3 (64K) also has a configurable attribute rtf_ds0_count.GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The BCCH RTF always attempts to migrate to a CTUII if possible. The third DS0 also helps in reducing the time required to start servicing the first PDTCH timeslot by keeping this backhaul synchronized between the BTS and the PCU even when there are no PDTCHs active on a carrier (provided there are enough GDS resources available across the cell). The BSS software attempts to both maintain EGPRS service and keep the BCCH on a CTUII if at all possible. only for circuitswitched use. The RTF allow_32k_trau and use_bcch_for_gprs attributes were replaced with a new parameter pkt_radio_type. Depending on the restrictions imposed on GPRS (32 kbit/s TRAU) and EGPRS (enabled or disabled). and then assign carriers to the rest of the hardware in its usual fashion. the BSS software attempts to assign EGPRS carriers onto EGPRS-capable hardware first. The minimum backhaul requirement is determined to be 3 DS0s since a minimum of 2 DS0s are required to support voice traffic if all 8 timeslots on a carrier are configured as TCH and the additional third DS0 provides the bare minimum backhaul required for configurations when 1 to 3 timeslots on the carrier are configured as PDTCHs.reserved against switchable timeslots The network planner can consider the following network planning goals when trying to determine when to use reserved timeslots against when to use switchable timeslots: • • • Use reserved timeslots to guarantee a minimum quality of service (QoS) for packet data users. pkt_radio_type can be set between 0 (no packet data) and 3 (64k). the last available timeslot is not given to a circuit-switched call until transmission of all the GPRS/EGPRS traffic on that last timeslot is completed.

Therefore. The PDCH planning considers only the GPRS PS traffic excluding PS in DTM mode. and 16K. TCHs are converted to DTM PDCHs in order to support DTM mode (CS + PS) sessions. when considering the circuit-switched planning information. In order to make the decision on how to best allocate reserved and switchable timeslots. reserved or switchable timeslots allocation should take into account the performance of DTM PDCHs. DTM PS traffic is considered in Max_DTM_TS planning (as described in the section DTM Timeslots planning considerations). res_gprs_pdchs + sw_gprs_pdchs + max_dtm_ts <=30 and also res_gprs_pdchs + sw_gprs_pdchs >=1 if max_dtm_ts > 0. Most INS number of timeslots: At this step. 1. The GPRS/EGPRS QoS can be planned by counting the number of available reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. 2. priorities 3 and 4 are not considered. If DTM feature is unrestricted. 3. Use switchable timeslots to provide extra circuit-switched capacity in spectrum limited areas. Hence. The highest local carrier id: This may or may not be corresponding to the RTF index. That means some candidate timeslots on the best performance carriers should be left behind for the DTM PDCHs. Reserved Switchable Circuit-switched (T) • When DTM feature is unrestricted. the potential impact on switchable timeslots can be analyzed. If DTM feature is unrestricted. the network planner needs to have a good idea of the traffic level for both services.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts • • Use switchable timeslots to provide some GPRS/EGPRS service coverage in low GPRS traffic volume areas. The priority of timeslot allocation takes into account the factors in the following list. the RTF index is irrelevant. Once the circuit-switched information is known. The proposal in this planning guide is to drive the allocation of switchable timeslots and reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots from a circuit-switched point of view. 32K. and by evaluating the expected utilization of the switchable timeslots by the circuit-switched part of the network during the GPRS/EGPRS busy hour. The highest priority starts with number 1 and the lowest priority is number 5. the highest local carrier id may not necessarily be RTF + 3 if there is a 4 carrier cell (RTF + 0 to RTF +3). and so on. the following are taken into account: o o o Continuous timeslots SD load (signaling load) SD priority 4. The max_gprs_ts_carrier setting should reserve some timeslots in these carriers for DTM PDCHs. This is depends on the DTM MS penetration. • 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-145 . DTM MS behavior. BCCH Carrier. res_gprs_pdchs + sw_gprs_pdchs <=30 for DTM feature is restricted. TRAU-Type . Otherwise. In the examples that follows. the network planner should account for the fact that some circuit-switched timeslots can be converted for the PS sessions of DTM subs. Max_DTM_TS configuration and DTM request blocking rate. as measured in Erlangs. Start by looking at the circuit-switched grade of service objectives and the busy hour traffic level.in the order 64K. So. TS priority in the following order: o o o 5.

that is. RG = Reserved GPRS timeslot (EGPRS cannot be used. {30828} With the removal of timeslot blanking for CAP configurations of CTU2D (CAP mode). an EDGE PD placed on A has no impact on Bs ability and priority for the support of EDGE/GPRS PDs. This example assumes that the VersaTRAU feature is not purchased. the following annotations are used: B = BCCH/CCCH timeslot for GPRS/GSM signaling. X = Blanked-out timeslots (on DDM CTU2 Carrier B as Carrier A is capable of EGPRS). In the examples. the RTF backhaul for an RTF with pkt_radio_type set to 3 (64K) is defaulted to 7 DS0s if it is the BCCH RTF or 8 DS0s if it is a non-BCCH RTF.GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The 64k DDM CTU2 carrier A is less preferred for 64k PDCH placement and its paired 32k carrier B is less preferred for 32k PDCH placement. SG = Switchable GPRS timeslot (EGPRS cannot be used. Example 1 There are 15 switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots and 10 reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots in a 5 carrier cell. if non-64K RTF). RE = Reserved EGPRS timeslot (GPRS can be used). The following are assumed: • pkt_radio_type is set to: o o o o • • PGSM BCCH RTF: 64K (3) EGSM 2 non-BCCH carriers: 32 k (2) PGSM 1 non-BCCH carrier: 16K (1) PGSM 1 non-BCCH carrier: None (0) One CTUII and four non-CTUII GPRS 32K and EGPRS unrestricted 68P02900W21-S 3-146 01 Feb 2007 . The subscript represents the ascending order in which the SDCCH timeslots are allocated across carriers. if non-64K RTF). P = PCCCH timeslot for GPRS/EGPRS signaling. T = Circuit-switched use only timeslots. When CTU2D is configured in ASYM mode. In this case. 64K Carrier A is preferred to 64K Carrier B due to asymmetric capability of Carrier B UL restriction to GMSK. SD = The ith SDCCH timeslot for GSM signaling. Some of these examples also illustrate the usage of the PDTCH/backhaul proportion when configuring the timeslots on an EGPRS capable carrier (pkt_radio_type set to 3) with a configurable RTF backhaul (using the rtf_ds0_count parameter). Carrier timeslot allocation examples The following configuration examples explore different ways to configure timeslots in a cell. SE = Switchable EGPRS timeslot (GPRS can be used). both Carrier A and Carrier B is considered as independent and non-interacting when placing PDs.

The BCCH RTF is mapped to CTUII and all the reserved timeslots are EGPRS capable. The non-BCCH 32K carriers are used for GPRS CS1 to CS4. HR is disabled. the RTF backhaul for an RTF with pkt_radio_type set to 3 (64K) is defaulted to 7 DS0s if it is the BCCH RTF or 8 DS0s if it is a non-BCCH RTF. In this case. {30828} Table 3-21 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 1 Carrier TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 BCCH 64K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 32K (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 32K(non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 16K (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH B SD7 SD8 SD3 SD1 SD5 SG SG SD4 SD2 SD6 SG SG SG T RE RG SG SG T RE RG SG SG T RE RG SG SG T RE RG SG SG T RE RG SG SG T Example 2 There are 15 switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots and 10 reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots in a 5 carrier cell. the preferred number of SDCCH is 64. and PBCCH is not enabled. The remaining switchable timeslots are mapped to one of the non-BCCH 16K carrier. The packet data timeslots are arranged as shown in the table . and the timeslot allocation is shown as illustrated. This example assumes that the VersaTRAU feature is not purchased. The EGPRS and GPRS timeslots are allocated to non-BCCH carriers as shown. The following are assumed: • pkt_radio_type is set to: o o o o • • BCCH RTF: None (0) 1 non-BCCH carrier: 64K (3) 2 non-BCCH carriers: 32K (2) non-BCCH carrier: 16K (1) One CTUII and four non-CTUII GPRS 32K and EGPRS unrestricted The GPRS/EGPRS timeslots are configured contiguously for performance. sd_priority is the same for all the carriers. The packet data timeslots are arranged as shown in the table . The BCCH RTF is mapped to non-CTUII DRI and all the circuit-switched timeslots are allocated to it. Table 3-22 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 2 Carrier TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 BCCH 16K (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 64K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 32K(non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 32K (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 16K (non-CTUII) B RE SG SG T SD RE SG SG SG T RE SG SG T T RE SG SG T T RE SG SG T T RE SG SG T T RE SG SG T T RE SG SG T 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-147 . The GPRS/EGPRS timeslots are configured contiguously for performance.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts {30828} Assuming sd_load of 2.

The following are assumed: • pkt_radio_type is set to: o o o o o o • PGSM BCCH RTF: 64K (3) and PBCCH enabled with sd_priority = 255 PGSM 2 non-BCCH carriers: 32K (2) with sd_priority = 100 EGSM non-BCCH carriers: None (0) with sd_priority = 255 EGSM non-BCCH carrier: None (0) with sd_priority = 200 One CTUII and four non-CTUII GPRS 32K and EGPRS unrestricted max_gprs_ts_carrier = 4 {30828} Assuming sd_load of 2 for all the carriers. In this case. This example assumes that the VersaTRAU feature is not purchased. it is not possible to make a DTM allocation on them). assuming they are GPRS capable (if not. and at the carrier level hr_allowed) the timeslot allocation is shown in Table 3-23. There are more options on the last two carriers. In the example a DTM allocation could be made on TS2 and TS3 for the first three carriers. This example also demonstrates how resources can be set aside for DTM mode sessions (which need allocation to TCHs). In this case. if it is the BCCH RTF or 8 DS0s if it is a non-BCCH RTF. This example assumes that the VersaTRAU feature is not purchased. and PBCCH not enabled. PBCCH is enabled (BSS level and cell level. if it is the BCCH RTF or 8 DS0s if it is a non-BCCH RTF. The following are assumed: • pkt_radio_type is set to: o o o BCCH RTF: None (0) 2 non-BCCH carriers: 64k (3) 1 non-BCCH carrier: 32k (2) 68P02900W21-S 3-148 01 Feb 2007 .GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Example 3 There are 8 switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots and 4 reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots in a 5 carrier cell. the RTF backhaul for an RTF with pkt_radio_type set to 3 (64K) is defaulted to 7 DS0s. Table 3-23 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 3 Carrier TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 BCCH 64K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 32K (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 32K(non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 16K (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 16K (non-CTUII) B SD1 SD2 SD7 SD5 P SD3 SD4 SD8 SD6 T T T T T T T T T T RE SG SG T T RE SG SG T T RE SG SG T T RE SG SG T T Example 4 There are 14 switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots and 10 reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots in a 5 carrier cell. the RTF backhaul for an RTF with pkt_radio_type set to 3 (64K) is defaulted to 7 DS0s. preferred number of SDCCH being 64.

is always allocated on the BCCH carrier. the RTF backhaul for an RTF with pkt_radio_type set to 3 (64K) is defaulted to 7 DS0s if it is the BCCH RTF or 8 DS0s if it is a non-BCCH RTF. on the BCCH carrier. the non-BCCH carrier configured with 64k backhaul is not used for packet data. BCCH is mapped to CTUII even though is not capable of supporting EGPRS. In this case. The following table shows the timeslot allocation. Therefore. PCCCH. Additionally. TS2 is allocated to PCCCH and TS3 to TS7 is allocated to circuit-switch TCH only. This example assumes that the VersaTRAU feature is not purchased. however. However.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts o • • • 1 non-BCCH carrier: None (0) Two CTUII and three non-CTUII GPRS 32K and EGPRS unrestricted pccch_enabled = 1 In this example. the BCCH carrier is not configured to be used as the carrier for GPRS/EGPRS. Table 3-24 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 4 Carrier TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 BCCH 16K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 64K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 64K(non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 32K (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 32K (non-CTUII) B RE SD RE P RE T RE T RE T RE T RE T RE T SG T T SG T T SG T T SG T T SG T T SG T T SG T T SG T Example 5 There are 12 switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots and 10 reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots in a 6 carrier cell. since there are two CTUIIs available. The following are assumed: • pkt_radio_type is set to: o o o o • • • BCCH RTF: 64K (3) 1 non-BCCH carrier: 64K (3) 1 non-BCCH carrier: 32K (2) 3 non-BCCH carriers: None (0) Three CTUII and three non-CTUII GPRS 32K and EGPRS unrestricted Two (AMR or GSM) half-rate enabled carriers 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-149 .

GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The following table shows the timeslot allocation. rtf_ds0_count = 4 1 non-BCCH carrier: 64k (3). Table 3-25 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 5 Carrier TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 RE SE SG T T T TS4 RE RE SG T T T TS5 RE RE SG T T T TS6 RE RE SG T T T TS7 RE RE SG T T T BCCH 64K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 64K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 32K(non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 16K (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 16K (hr enabled) (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 16K (hr enabled) (non-CTUII) B SE SG T T T SD SE SG T T T P SE SG T T T Example 6 There are 4 switchable EGPRS timeslots and 4 reserved EGPRS timeslots in a 4 carrier cell. The following are assumed: • • • • pkt_radio_type set to BCCH RTF 64k (3) 3 non-BCCH carrier: 64k (3) 3 CTUIIs EGPRS unrestricted Table 3-26 shows the timeslot allocation. The following are assumed: • pkt_radio_type set to: o o BCCH RTF: 64k (3). rtf_ds0_count = 5 68P02900W21-S 3-150 01 Feb 2007 . Table 3-26 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 6 Carrier TS0 TS1 TS2 SE SE TS3 SE SE TS4 RE RE TS5 RE RE TS6 RE RE TS7 RE RE BCCH 64K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 64K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 64K(CTUII) Non-BCCH 64K (CTUII) B SE SD SE T T T T T T T T T T T T T SE T SE Example 7 There are 10 switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots and 12 reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots in a 6 carrier cell.

The requested 9 PDs cannot be all met. The following are assumed: • pkt_radio_type set to: o o • • • BCCH RTF: 64K (3). 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-151 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts o o • • • 1 non-BCCH carrier: 32k (2) 3 non-BCCH carriers None (0) Three CTUII and three non-CTUII GPRS 32K and VersaTRAU (and therefore EGPRS) unrestricted Two (AMR or GSM) half-rate enabled carriers The following table shows the timeslot allocation. rtf_ds0_count = 6 CTUII (DDM) EGPRS and VersaTRAU unrestricted pccch_enabled = 1 The following table shows the timeslot allocation. The maximum PDs configuration for two carriers of DD CTU2 is 8 if Carrier A has EGPRS PDs. Table 3-27 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 7 Carrier TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 RE RE SG T T T TS4 RE RE SG T T T TS5 RE RE SG T T T TS6 RE RE SG T T T TS7 RE RE SG T T T BCCH 64K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 64K (CTUII) Non-BCCH 32K(CTUII) Non-BCCH 16K (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 16K (hr enabled) (non-CTUII) Non-BCCH 16K (hr enabled) (non-CTUII) B SE SG T T T SD SE SG T T T RE RE SG T T T Example 8 There are 5 switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots and 4 reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots in a 2 carrier cell. rtf_ds0_count = 6 1 non-BCCH carrier: 64K (3). Table 3-28 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 8 Carrier TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 T SG TS4 SE X TS5 RE X TS6 RE X TS7 RE X BCCH 64K (CTUII DD Carrier A) Non-BCCH 64K (CTUII DD Carrier A) B SG SD SG P X Non-BCCH 64K are downgraded to 16K.

The switchable timeslot is re-allocated back to the packet data mobile when the circuit-switched call ends. The operator provisions the packet data timeslots on a carrier by selecting the number of timeslots that are allocated as reserved and switchable. except when the switchable timeslot to be stolen is the last packet data timeslot in the cell and the protect_last_ts element is enabled. The sd_priority = 2 and sd_load = 3 for all the carriers. The number of reserved packet data timeslots can be changed by the operator to guarantee a minimum number of dedicated packet data timeslots at all times. even if it is the last available timeslot for packet data traffic. PBCCH is enabled and the preferred number of SDCCH is 80. this capability is essentially turned off. the BSS does not allocate the timeslot back for packet data service. When the number of idle timeslots is less than or equal to a programmable threshold. mapped to CTU2D PWR_A 1 PGSM non-BCCH carrier: 32K Table 3-29 Arrangement of packet data timeslots for example 9 Carrier TS0 TS1 TS2 SD(4) SD(3) SD(9) T TS3 SD(5) SE T T TS4 SD(6) SE T T TS5 RE SE SE T TS6 RE SE SE T TS7 RE SE SE T BCCH 64K (CTU2D CAP A) Non-BCCH 64K (CTU2D CAP B) Non-BCCH 64K (CTU2D PWR A) Non-BCCH 32K (CTU2D PWR B) B SD(1) SD(7) SD(10) PB SD(2) SD(8) T BSS timeslot allocation methods The BSS algorithm that is used in order to determine allocation of switchable timeslots gives priority to circuit-switched calls. Consequently. Motorola has implemented an idle circuit-switched parameter that enables the operator to strongly favor circuit-switched calls from a network provisioning perspective. 68P02900W21-S 3-152 01 Feb 2007 . and not by specifically assigning timeslots on the carrier. • • • • • 1 CTU2D (CAP) and 1 CTU2 (PWR) PGSM BCCH carrier: 64K 1 PGSM non-BCCH carrier: 64K with rtf_ds0_count = 6. By setting the idle parameter to 0. mapped to CTU2D CAP_B 1 PGSM non-BCCH carrier: 64K with rtf_ds0_count = 4. The CTU2D Asymmetric feature is unrestricted and ASYM mode is enabled for the site on which these 4 carriers are configured. When a circuit-switched call ends on a switchable packet data timeslot and the number of idle circuitswitched timeslots is greater than an user defined threshold. if a switchable timeslot is being used by a packet data mobile and a circuit-switched call is requested after all other circuit-switched timeslots are used. the BSS takes the timeslot away from the packet data mobile and gives it to the circuit-switched mobile.GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Example 9 {30828} There are 8 switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots and 4 reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots in a 4 carrier cell. the BSS re-allocates the borrowed timeslot for packet data service.

the corresponding blanked-out timeslot on Carrier B is configured back to OOS. suppose that timeslots 3 and 4 are switchable. The BSS takes the lowest numbered switchable timeslot in such a manner as to maintain contiguous GPRS/EGPRS timeslots for multislot GPRS/EGPRS operation and at the same time maintain an optimum ratio of PDTCH/available backhaul per carrier across the cell. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-153 . When the BSS needs to re-allocate a switchable timeslot from GPRS/EGPRS mode to circuitswitched mode. the switchable timeslots are not protected from being stolen for use by circuit-switched calls. the BSS assigns timeslot 3 before it assigns timeslot 4 for circuit-switched mode. This rank order is also used at the time of allocating the reserved and switchable timeslots in the cell. and then backoff from that number as timeslots are not available. and the protect_last_ts element is enabled. When the ITS feature is unrestricted and enabled and a voice call steals one EGPRS PD timeslot on a DD CTU2 Carrier A. except when the switchable timeslot to be stolen is the last packet data timeslot in the cell and the protect_last_ts element is enabled. the timeslot is stolen only if there is no data transfer active or queued for the timeslot. When (AMR or GSM) half rate is enabled on one or more (RTFs assigned to) carriers in a cell and some number of timeslots are reserved for half rate usage (hr_res_ts). the associated RTF backhaul (configured as rtf_ds0_count for EGPRS capable carriers if VersaTRAU is unrestricted or statically computed in other cases depending on the pkt_radio_type) and the number of switcahble or reserved timeslots already on the carrier. 6. and 7 are GPRS/EGPRS reserved (refer to Figure 3-81). and the protect last ts functionality is enabled). {30828} CTU2D PWR mode is treated the same as the ITS mode whereby the stolen operation is identical. The BSS supports dynamic switching between switchable timeslots and circuit-switched timeslots and vice versa. The BSS attempts to allocate as many timeslots as requested in multislot mode. Contiguous timeslots Multislot mobile operation needs that contiguous timeslots are available. When a switchable timeslot needs to be stolen for use by a CS call. Therefore switchable timeslots are allocated to full rate calls before the reserved half rate capable timeslots (the only exception to this being when the only available resource able to support the full rate request is the last GPRS/EGPRS timeslot. For example. A rank order based on the backhaul to PDTCH ratio is established at the time of the initial air timeslot allocation. and timeslots 5. the corresponding blanked-out timeslot on Carrier B comes back into service. Switchable packet data timeslots are stolen starting with the lowest numbered GPRS timeslot on a carrier to maintain continuous packet data timeslots. If the stolen EGPRS timeslot on DD CTU2 comes back to PDCH. Figure 3-81 provides timeslot allocation with reserved and switchable timeslots.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Stolen timeslots A switchable timeslot can be stolen at any time for use by a CS call. then the BSS attempts to ensure that the last timeslots to be allocated within a cell are half rate capable. If there are any reserved packet data timeslots in the cell. The BSS selects which switchable packet data timeslot is stolen based on an algorithm that takes into account the pkt_radio_type (GPRS/EGPRS capability). the switchable timeslot to be stolen is the last packet data timeslot in the cell. The switchable timeslots are the ones that result in the least degradation in the backhaul to PDTCH ratio for the cell when they get stolen for voice traffic.

and timeslots 4 and 5 are switchable. 1. suppose that timeslots 0. Figure 3-82 provides a timeslot allocation for this mobile. 9 and also class 11 when EDA is supported. but not simultaneously. Figure 3-82 Carrier with reserved. the system only supports DTM class 5 and 9 configurations. The DTM PS timeslots are converted from TCH dynamically per request. Blank: Circuit-switched use only timeslots.GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Figure 3-81 Carrier with reserved and switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots S S R R R TS0 TS7 R: Reserved PDTCH. The number of timeslots allocated to the CS connection of a DTM MS is limited to one. and DTM PDCHs are also adjacent with each other. When the BSS allocates 2 PDCHs and 1 TCH for a DTM MS in this carrier. the BSS selects the air timeslot that carries the emergency call from the following list (most preferable listed first): • • • • Idle circuit-switched Idle or in-service switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslot (from lowest to highest) In-service circuit-switched Idle or in-service reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslot (from lowest to highest) DTM PS timeslot allocation method is done by resource allocation algorithm. 1 DL: 1 UL and 2 DL: 1 UL respectively. and if necessary converted into. the system supports DTM multislot class 5. Because the BSS favors circuit-switched use of the switchable timeslots. and 7 are GPRS/EGPRS reserved. Half-rate PDCH is not supported in DTM mode. The CS and PS timeslots allocated to a DTM MS are contiguous. For example. This flexibility is in the form of additional available network capacity to both the circuit-switched and GPRS/EGPRS subscribers. 68P02900W21-S 3-154 01 Feb 2007 . that is. 2 and 3 are TCH. S: Switchable PDTCH. For the PS sessions of a DTM MS. If the emergency call pre-emption feature is enabled. switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots and DTM PDCHs Provisioning the network with switchable timeslots Provisioning the network with switchable timeslots can offer flexibility in the provisioning process for combining circuit-switched and GPRS/EGPRS service. If EDA is not enabled. the network planner should examine the demand for switchable timeslots during the circuit-switched busy hour and during the GPRS/EGPRS busy hour. When a DTM MS in dedicated mode requests the timeslots for the PS session. DTM PDCHs. and timeslots 6. some TCHs in the cell are required as.

all of the switchable timeslots are used up on the second carrier in an attempt to reach a 0. the number of switchable timeslots for normal GPRS/EGPRS data use should consider the situation for only pure GPRS/EGPRS data use excluding DTM PS traffic. The second carrier is a carrier with GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. The first carrier is for circuit-switched used as shown in Figure 3-83. as shown in Figure 3-84. in addition to the first circuit-switched carrier and the carrier with GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. The examples in Table 3-29 and Table 3-30 assumes that the planning is being performed for a cell that has two carriers. The number of actual (circuit-switched) calls that can expect to be using half rate depend upon such factors as user (both BSS and MSC) preference. such as 2%. and attempts to provide a better grade of service as a result of the switchable timeslots being available. This example shows some Erlang traffic levels that cannot be adequately served by two carriers at the stated grade of service listed in the tables. RF conditions. handoff parameter and threshold setting. In these cases. AMR or GSM half rate usage should be considered when determining the number of circuit switched timeslots required. The table was created using the Erlang B formula in order to determine how many circuit-switched timeslots are required for a given grade of service. GSM half rate) penetration. During the circuit-switched busy hour. mobile preference.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Normally. During the cell planning. the operator provisions the circuit-switched radio resource for a particular Grade Of Service (GOS). 2 carriers is not enough to serve the circuit-switched traffic at a 2% GOS. assumed to be 0. This occurs at the 7 and 8 Erlang levels for 0. as measured in Erlangs. it is now possible to share some GPRS timeslots between the circuit-switched calls and the GPRS/EGPRS calls. This means that 2 out of 100 circuit-switched calls are blocked during the busy hour. When DTM feature is enabled. The purpose of the table is to show how the circuit-switched side of the network allocates switchable timeslots during the circuit-switched busy hour in an attempt to provide the best possible GOS.1% GOS.1% GOS.1% for the purposes of this example. Two half rate circuit-switched calls can be carried in a single timeslot (provided of course that the (RTF assigned to) carrier is half rate enabled). The circuit-switched side of the network has priority use of the switchable timeslots. Once an estimate of half rate usage is determined. For the 9 Erlang traffic level. mobile (AMR capable. Table 3-30 and Table 3-31 show two examples using half rate assumptions. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-155 . The table covers the range of 2 Erlangs to 9 Erlangs of circuit-switched traffic in order to show the full utilization of two carriers for circuitswitched calls. it can be used to determine if the GOS can be met. and so on. The comments column in the table is used to discuss what is happening to the availability of switchable timeslots for GPRS/EGPRS data use as the circuit-switched traffic increases. If the operator chooses to use the new switchable timeslot capability. cell congestion levels. all eight timeslots are configured as switchable. This would indicate a need for a second circuit-switched carrier. the circuit-switched use of these switchable timeslots dominate their use. network planner can get the circuit-timeslots utilization for DTM by analysis of Max_DTM_TS and statistic DTM_TS_Usage.

Continued 0. the carrier most likely carries only packet data traffic. assuming there are 8 timeslots available for GPRS traffic.1% 2 8 2 2% 3 8 2 0.assumed to be 0. 2 of the switchable timeslots are occasionally used by the circuit-switched side of the network in an attempt to provide the 2% GOS. During the circuit-switched busy hour. During circuit.1% 4 4 5 5 9 12 10 14 3 6 4 8 2% 6 12 6 68P02900W21-S 3-156 01 Feb 2007 .1%. network planning should be performed.1% GOS.1% 3 10 4 2% 0.1%.1% 2% 0. Therefore.switched busy hour.GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-30 Switchable timeslot utilization (Part A) GOS Planned circuitswitched Erlangs/cell Total number of circuitswitched timeslots required Number of switchable timeslots necessary to provide GOS Comments 2% 2 6 0 Outside busy hour time periods. at least 2 of the switchable timeslots are occasionally used by the circuit-switched side of the network in an attempt to provide the best possible GOS . packet data.assumed to be 0. 4 of the switchable timeslots are occasionally used by the circuit-switched side of the network in an attempt to provide the best possible GOS . All the switchable timeslots are occasionally used to provide 0. During the circuit-switched busy hour.

There are not enough switchable timeslots to provide the 2% GOS.1% 9 20 14 2% 9 10 20 half rate calls at 2 subchannels per timeslot 14 9 full rate calls (9 timeslots) + 9 half rate calls (5 timeslots) 4 0. There are not enough switchable timeslots to provide 0.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Table 3-30 Switchable timeslot utilization (Part A) (Continued) GOS Planned circuitswitched Erlangs/cell Total number of circuitswitched timeslots required Number of switchable timeslots necessary to provide GOS Comments 0.1% GOS.1% GOS. All the switchable timeslots are occasionally used to provide 2% GOS. Assumption is 100% half rate utilization and all carriers are capable of half rate.1% 8 8 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-157 . 2% 0.1% GOS.1% 8 18 12 2% 9 15 9 0. There are not enough switchable timeslots to provide the 0. All of the switchable timeslots are occasionally used to satisfy the 2% GOS.1% 6 15 9 There are not enough switchable timeslots to provide 0. There are not enough switchable timeslots to provide 0. Assumption is 50% half rate utilization and all carriers are capable of half rate.1% 7 7 13 17 7 11 2% 8 14 8 0.1% GOS.

all timeslots (8 TCHs) designated as switchable S S S S S S S S TS0 TS7 S: Switchable TCH. Assumption is 100% half rate utilization and all carriers are capable of half rate. 68P02900W21-S 3-158 01 Feb 2007 . There are not enough switchable timeslots to provide the 0. Table 3-30 and Table 3-31 show the switchable timeslot utilization. 1 BCCH/CCCH + 1 SDCCH + 6 TCH timeslots B SD TS0 TS7 B: BCCH/CCCH for GPRS/GSM signalling. All of the switchable timeslots are occasionally used to satisfy the 2% GOS. one SDCCH timeslot. Figure 3-84 1 carrier.1% GOS. SD: SDCCH for GSM signalling. 0.1% 9 20 14 2% 9 10 20 half rate calls at 2 subchannels per timeslot 14 9 full rate calls (9 timeslots) + 9 half rate calls (5 timeslots) 4 0. Figure 3-83 Circuit-switched carrier.1% 8 8 Timeslot allocation for 2 carrier site (1 circuit-switched + 1 GPRS/EGPRS) Figure 3-83 shows one circuit-switched carrier with one BCCH/CCCH timeslot.GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-31 Switchable timeslot utilization (Part B) GOS Planned circuitswitched Erlangs/cell Total number of circuitswitched timeslots required Number of switchable timeslots necessary to provide GOS Comments 2% 9 15 9 There are not enough switchable timeslots to provide the 2% GOS. Assumption is 50% half rate utilization and all carriers are capable of half rate. Blank: Circuit-switched use only timeslots. Figure 3-84 shows one carrier for GPRS/EGPRS traffic with all timeslots (eight TCHs) designated as switchable. and six TCH timeslots.

if 8 PDCHs are needed for mean_load_traffic. If the busy hours overlap. the difference between the mean and peak traffic (as evidenced by the mean_load_factor parameter). For example. can then be serviced by SW TS. If overlap = 100% (CS and PS busy hour coincide). detailed value is decided according to statistics. then we need 4 . if overlap is 100% (CS and PS busy hour coincide). During the circuit-switched busy hour. then we need 4 RS (recommended minimum configuration for a larger GPRS cell) and 12 SW. particularly if QoS is enabled. it is recommended that RES TS are configured to be sufficient to service the mean PS load. that is. in the circuit-switched off busy hours. It is important to determine the GOS objectives for circuit-switched traffic and QoS objectives for packet data traffic before selecting the number of switchable timeslots to deploy. then a majority SW TS configuration is acceptable. the rule is where there is more overlap then more RES TS is required. then we need 8 RS and 8 SW PDCHs. Therefore. an adjustment is needed to the number of reserved timeslots allocated to the packet data portion of the network in order to guarantee a minimum packet data quality of service (QoS) as measured by packet data throughput and delay. When CS and PS busy hour coincide. If overlap = 50% (CS and PS busy hour partly coincide). The circuit-switched timeslot allocation mechanism continues to assign switchable timeslots as circuit-switched timeslots as the circuit-switched packet data continues to increase. Furthermore. most TSs are assumed to be available to PS users during the PS busy hour. This ensures that there is a minimum guaranteed network capacity for the data traffic during the circuit-switched busy hour. If overlap = 0 (CS and PS busy hour totally do not coincide). then we need 8 RS and 8 SW PDCHs. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-159 . In general. The BSS call statistics should be inspected to determine the actual use of the switchable timeslots by the circuit-switched services. and we can assume mean_load_factor is 200%.8 SW. Therefore. then the number of RES TS configured depends on the degree of overlap of the CS and PS load. peak_load_traffic needs 16 PDCHs. During the non-busy hours. Any TS configured as RES TS reduces the CS call capacity. More flexibility is envisaged with QoS disabled and if the operator does not have a strong commitment (for example. the switchable timeslots are considered as available for use by the packet data network.8 RS and 12 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Recommendation for switchable timeslot usage The following recommendation is offered when using switchable timeslots. due to pricing plans) to maintain a certain level of service for PS data. if there is a minimum capacity requirement for GPRS services. as measured by packet data throughput. In these networks. one or more circuit-switched carriers requires to be added to the cell being planned or replanned so that the switchable timeslots are not required in order to offer the desired circuit-switched grade of service. If the CS and PS busy hour do not coincide. potentially all switchable timeslots are occasionally used by the circuit-switched calls. potentially all switchable timeslots could be available for the packet data network traffic. Provision enough reserved timeslots for packet data traffic during the circuit-switched busy hour to meet the desired minimum packet data QoS objectives. since CS traffic automatically pre-empties any PS traffic on SW TS. the network planner should plan the carrier with enough reserved timeslots in order to handle the expected packet data traffic. Assume that switchable timeslots are occasionally unavailable for packet data traffic during the circuit-switched portion of the network busy hour. The circuit-switched busy hour and the packet data busy hour should be monitored to see if they overlap when switchable timeslots are in use. If there is no overlap whatsoever.

As previously discussed. review the collected network statistics on a continuous basis in order to determine whether the reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. switchable GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. 3 Add an extra circuit-switched carrier: If there is a require to use some timeslots on the carrier with only GPRS/EGPRS timeslots to satisfy the circuit-switched GOS objectives and the timeslot requirement overlaps with the number of reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. 4 Monitor network statistics: After deploying the GPRS/EGPRS timeslots on the cell. 68P02900W21-S 3-160 01 Feb 2007 . consider adding another circuit-switched carrier to the cell. 2 Allocate switchable timeslots: Determine the number of reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots are needed on a per cell basis. The use of switchable timeslots can potentially offer increased capacity to both the GPRS/EGPRS and circuit—switched traffic if the traffic is staggered in time. the use of switchable timeslots can offer network capacity advantages to both circuit-switched traffic and packet data traffic as long as the demand for these timeslots is staggered in time. The use of PBCCH in a cell needs at least one reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslot in that cell. Procedure 3-1 Determining the allocation of GPRS/EGPRS timeslots 1 Estimate reserved timeslot requirement: Determine the number of reserved GPRS/EGPRS timeslots are needed on a per cell basis in order to satisfy a packet data throughput QoS. The GPRS/EGPRS reserved timeslots should equal the sum of the active and standby timeslots that are allocated to a carrier.GPRS/EGPRS network traffic estimation and key concepts Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Timeslot allocation process on carriers with GPRS traffic The following procedure helps in determining how to allocate GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. and circuit-switched timeslots are truly serving the GOS and QoS objectives.

Acceptable QoS for the packet data users with best effort type service is qualified by the bitrate or delay experienced. there are some deployment rules that are applied if there is sufficient flexibility in the choice of carrier and segregation of timeslots. This should be at least like those experienced while using the normal wired line analogue modems. These are cell coverage and cell dimensioning. the cell planning and deployment can be broken down into two activities. the issues are further complicated when EGPRS is introduced in an existing GSM network which also supports GPRS. In GSM. In addition. which become inter-related depending on the traffic volumes supported and bandwidth available. Sophisticated tools are required to properly model the behavior of packet data users and dimension the required bandwidth for a given service mix. Issues and influential factors that should be consider in carrying out the process shown are qualified. this depends on the network configuration. Existing GSM network without GPRS. Figure 3-85 Generic planning and dimensioning process Number of subscribers (GPRS/EGPRS split) Area to cover coverage requirements RF Information Traffic Profile and Service mix QoS requirements Bandwidth available Network configurations RLC/MAC overheads Traffic characterisation RF cell planning BTS dimensioning TS dimensioning BSS dimensioning Interface dimensioning Cell sizes Number of cells TS requirements BSS requirements Interface requirements Input parameters Planning tools Output parameters At a higher level. The QoS feature allows the system to differentiate between subscribers on the basis of the QoS level subscribed to or negotiated by the system. A generic planning and dimensioning process is shown in Figure 3-85. QoS2 can support RT streaming. The main objectives are to minimize the number of sites and timeslots (spectrum) to support a given packet data users load at an acceptable QoS without compromising the QoS of voice users. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-161 . Network configuration Network configurations in which packet data (GPRS or EGPRS) can be introduced include: • • Existing GSM network with GPRS already deployed. It occupies more PDCHs.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Influential factors in GPRS/EGPRS cell planning and deployment The planning and dimensioning of a system containing packet data users is not as straightforward as a system populated with only circuit-switched users.

leads to less coverage (lower C/I or C/N) for higher code rates and impacts the system capacity. however. the first configuration is the most likely deployment and the most challenging one. When the QoS feature is enabled. only the first configuration is considered.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning • • Rolling out a new GSM network with or without GPRS. EGPRS can be introduced in an existing GSM network with full EGPRS coverage. RF cell planning (cell coverage) The degree of coverage per GPRS and EGPRS coding scheme varies depending on several factors including: • • • • • • Spectrum availability. the BSS is able to support real-time service and enforce MBR for a PFC. A new GSM based packet data system only. Environment: As the radio conditions change the subsequent C/I (C/N) requirements at a given BLER also change. In a conventional GSM voice network. So. It introduces more optimistic coding scheme for admission. higher operating BLERs can be tolerated. The second one dictates mass GPRS and/or EGPRS handset deployment to justify its deployment. Frequency re-planning is required not so much to guarantee GPRS/EGPRS coverage but more to eliminate possible coverage degradation for voice users. In addition. acceptable BLER operating point is embedded in the LA algorithms for GPRS and EGPRS. The higher the operating BLER the higher the coverage per GPRS/EGPRS coding scheme. Re-use patterns: hopping or non-hopping. Of these. In Motorola’s implementation. BSS algorithms (for example. CS1 and MCS-1 have been designed such that they match the voice coverage footprint. The PA output power capability does not impact the EGPRS availability at cell borders since power difference in HPM applies only to 8-PSK modulated coding schemes. the level of interference goes up because of the following factors: • • • • • • 68P02900W21-S 3-162 01 Feb 2007 . This. the system employs the best effort packet data services (no high QoS requirements are supported) with RLC acknowledge mode (ARQ). Cell sizes and cell border design criteria. The following factors are to be considered: • When the QoS feature is not enabled. The choice of operating BLER point is flexible within a certain range. When GPRS/EGPRS are introduced. However. LA). In Motorola’s implementation. the operating BLER cannot be excessive since it has undesirable consequences on system capacity and as such impacts the number of users that can be supported. due to IR in EGPRS. the LA algorithm attempts to maximize the throughput while keeping implicitly the BLER operating regions within an acceptable bound in order not to degrade the overall system performance. This allows the system to reserve throughput at the Local Timeslot Zone (Cell Level) and PRP (board level). The last two configurations are less of concern as they can be fine tuned to provide adequate coverage and grade of service. the frequency planning of the traffic carriers are based on assuming certain activity factors (DTX). BTS power amplifier capability and how it is set for GMSK and 8-PSK modes. the BSS is able to assign a MTBR per PFC. When QoS2 feature is enabled.

for example. QoS2 feature. It is envisaged that the impact of lower average power prevails the impact of PAR. Also due to behavior of packet data users being different. data flow control throughout the network. then the level of activity can be higher than that assumed for the voice only system. The BSS treats all mobiles equally when scheduling the air interface in a QoS disabled environment. Moreover. Volume of data has varying impacts on system capacity. Signaling overhead (control channels). Number of users multiplexed on the same timeslot. the number of PDTCHs required to support the MTBR specified is different than when QoS is disabled.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process o Higher activity: This depends on how the timeslot dimensioning is carried out to account for packet data users. The following shed light on some of the issues that are encountered: • If QoS is enabled. Hardware limitations. RLC protocols. QoS required (user experience). Of the influences listed. Streaming service is enabled or disabled. multiplexing of users on the same timeslot. 8-PSK signal peak to average ratio (PAR): due to 8-PSK envelop variation. Cell selection and re-selection. and the average powers in GMSK and 8-PSK modes should be set equal. the activity profile are different. the last two can be easily dealt with while the remaining ones need detailed investigation. Enforce MBR is enabled or disabled. the level of degradation should be considered within the context of the likely degradation that may encounter otherwise as a result of having a lower average power in the 8-PSK mode (thus reducing the impact of PAR). Multi-slot operation. FH carrier. the throughput seen in practice is lower than the ideal throughput for short messages and is closer to the ideal throughput for long messages. PDCHs required to support real-time service are more than QoS2 disabled. and volume of data that are to be supported. QoS feature enable or disabled. Short messages do not benefit from higher code rates for those users in good radio conditions since LA process needs time to converge to higher code rates. However. Multiplexing of GPRS and EGPRS users on the same timeslot. to fully quantify their impacts. degrade the capacity for short messages. that is. number of timeslots supported per cell. through simulation. • • 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-163 . Maintaining the same quality of service for the voice users means loading due to packet data users needs scaling. such as TBF holding time. RLC/MAC protocol parameters setting. Re-use pattern: BCCH carrier. applications. pipe size: • • • • • • • • • • • • Types of services. the GMSK symbols are occasionally hit with higher interference than usual when average power of GMSK and 8-PSK signals are set to be the same. If timeslots are driven hard. o Cell/timeslot dimensioning The following factors influence cell/TS dimensioning since they impact throughput per TS as well as the apparent throughput seen by a user. As a general rule. BSS provide more bandwidth and higher priority for real-time service to ensure transfer delay is met. If QoS2 feature is enabled.

the operating BLER cannot be excessive since it has undesirable consequences on system capacity and as such impacts the number of users that can be supported. this could impact the throughput per timeslot since the LA process suffers due to variation of radio channel conditions between scheduling opportunities. but the corresponding BLER is quite high. there is no impact for TD guarantee. The operating BLER is an important parameter in optimizing the end-to-end throughput. The only impact is a slight degradation in maximum achievable throughput for EGPRS users in the DL. In Motorola’s implementation. even for long messages the ideal throughput is hardly achieved. if the PFC is in UnAck mode. • • • • • 68P02900W21-S 3-164 01 Feb 2007 . the LA algorithm attempts to maximize the throughput while keeping implicitly the BLER operating regions within an acceptable bound in order not to degrade the system performance. Thus. Depending on system loading the apparent bit pipe seen by a user is subsequently reduced as in Figure 3-86. However. it is possible that the transfer delay for the LLC frame exceeds the TD guarantee. This improves the overall system and operators’ QoS performance depending on the bandwidth provisioned for the packet data users. For example. The higher the operating BLER the higher the coverage per GPRS/EGPRS coding scheme. timeslot dimensioning for packet data traffic should consider the blocks used for control signaling. RLC Ack/Nack window size. If Extended Uplink TBF feature is enabled. poll period (to receive measurement reports and Ack/Nack status of the transmitted blocks).GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning • Up to four users can be multiplexed on a timeslot. If the PFC is in Ack mode. impacts the throughput per timeslot and as such number of users that can be supported. Multiplexing of GPRS and EGPRS users on the same timeslot is possible. This is because the GMSK has to be used in the DL when the GPRS is to be scheduled in the UL. the TBF holding time is longer than that when the feature is disabled. This allows GPRS users to decode their block allocations sent on the DL (decoding the USF). This from system viewpoint could have detrimental effects due to the RLC protocol operation such as those in the last bullet points. In Motorola’s implementation. Alternately. The QoS feature extends this general concept to provide per traffic class MTBR. RLC protocols such as TBF holding time. but given that the TD guarantee is performed over a set of packets. although IR enables MCS-9 throughput to be like other coding schemes at low C/I values. the impact is minimal. In addition. If PCCCH is enabled. there is an intelligent load management algorithm in the PCU that attempts to balance the load across resources allocated to the packet data users.

Requests to create packet flows for conversational mode are treated as streaming. These are: • • • • Conversational Streaming Interactive Background The BSS has internally defined additional traffic classes created by grouping similar PFC characteristics. The internally defined traffic classes are: • • • Short-Term Non-Negotiated Traffic (STNNT) Pre-admission PFC (PAP) QoS Disabled Current GSR9 BSS does not support conversational service. the BSS does not make any guarantee regarding strict parameter for conversational traffic. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-165 . four traffic classes are defined to accommodate the need for different levels of these factors for different applications.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Figure 3-86 Multiplexing 4 TBFs on an air timeslot 4 TBFs/TS User 1 User 2 80ms 20ms block User 3 User 4 Time QoS dimensioning and QoS2 dimensioning The two most significant factors that influence quality of a service are: • • Delay Throughput In R99 and beyond. it is downgraded to streaming service when QoS2 is unrestricted and streaming_enabled is enabled.

MTBR is set and regulated in terms of throughput at the RLC/MAC layer. Table 3-32 shows typical TCP throughput for each 10 kbit/s of RLC/MAC throughput at zero block error rate. In addition to the three standardized priorities. MTBR allows the BSS to admit each PFC if a minimum budget for resources can be met. The GBR is a negotiable parameter.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Traffic handling priority (THP) Three priorities are defined in the standards for handling the traffic pertaining to the interactive traffic class only. THP provides a mechanism to differentiate services among different PFCs that may or may not belong to the same user. Average downlink Streaming EGBR is calculated as follows: STR_EGBR = Average_GBR / ρ * (1+BLER) 68P02900W21-S 3-166 01 Feb 2007 . Table 3-32 Typical TCP throughput against RLC/MAC throughput at zero block error rate RLC/MAC throughput (kbit/s) IP packet size (octets) LLC PDU size (octets) Typical TCP throughput (kbit/s) 10.0 10. For the BSS. MTBR is not achieved by a TBF with insufficient data to transmit. Minimum Throughput Budget Requirement (MTBR) A Minimum Throughput Budget Requirement (MTBR) is non-standards based BSS parameter associated with each PFC. This helps to ensure that no more users are admitted than the system can handle without compromising service. These weights are user configurable. The TABR of a given TBF is the sum of MTBRs and EGBRs of all the PFCs that are multiplexed on that TBF. these priorities determine relative throughput assigned to a particular Packet Flow Context (PFC).0 10.28 Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) The Guaranteed Bit Rate is defined in specification 3GPP TS 23.73 8.0 1500 1500 576 1508 600 604 8.107 Quality of Service (QoS) concept and architecture. It is not a guaranteed bitrate. a fourth and a fifth THP are defined internally by the BSS for the background and best effort traffic classes respectively. MTBR is measured as raw air throughput at the RLC/MAC layer without factoring in the Block Error Rate (BLER) and unsolicited retransmissions. Several typical values are shown in the following table. This is achieved by applying relative weights for each priority. In order to find the average downlink EGBR the minimum value for ρ must first be found. where ρ is a value between 0 and 1. The MTBR of a given TBF is the sum of MTBRs of all the PFCs that are multiplexed on that TBF. defined at a BSS level. The assigned weights for these internally defined THPs act relative to the three THPs that are defined for the interactive traffic class by the standards. Release 6 as a QoS attribute. maintained per streaming and conversational PFC. The MTBR is subjected to a minimum of 2 kbit/s for each admitted PFC. Throughputs at the application layer are lower than the RLC/MAC throughput due to overhead consumed by the headers and retransmissions at the intermediate layers and the application layer.33 8. The GBR in the uplink and downlink directions have different values. The TCP throughput depends upon the IP packet size and the LLC PDU size. MTBR is merely a budgeting guideline for the admission control mechanism. The operator is allowed to configure the minimum throughput budget requirement in both the uplink and downlink directions separately. EGBR is defined as GBR/ρ. The EGBR is the additional throughput that is allocated to a user that is sufficient to service the GBR and the transfer delay requirements of the streaming service.

91 Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-167 .84 0. The default minimum transfer delay value is set to 500ms resulting in ρ = 0.66 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 0. we obtain the ρ value to use. The value of ρ is dependent on the transfer delay parameter for the streaming service. This is obtained by multiplying the frequency of the service in the network by the GBR of the service.91 0. For planning purposes this value of minimum transfer delay is used to determine the value of ρ. N AverageGBR = ∑ GBRi * FSi / STRi i =1 Where Is N GBRi FSi the number of streaming service types in the network the GBR of streaming service i the percentage of streaming service i in service mix of subscribers in a given PCU the percentage of total streaming service in service mix of subscribers in a given PCU STRi Looking up that Average GBR value in the tables . PoC.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process BLER is typically 10%-15%.9 0.85 0.62. If an application does not need so stringent a transfer delay then the ρ will be larger for that application.52 0.59 0. first obtain the weighted average GBR per service in the network.42 0. for example.85 0.85 0.48 0. Table 3-33 ρ for various transfer delays at GBR 15 kbit/s or less Minimum Transfer delay (ms) ρ Minimum Transfer delay (ms) ρ Minimum Transfer delay (ms) ρ 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 0.62 0.56 0. The following table provides the minimum value of ρ given the minimum transfer delay supported in the PCU. in networks where the majority of streaming services have GBR of 15 kbit/s or lower. resulting in less EGBR required for a particular GBR.91 0. The minimum transfer delay that the PCU supports is user configurable.9 0.84 0.91 0.64 0.9 0.86 0.86 2850 2900 2950 3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 0. For a given GBR.84 0.91 0. the value of ρ is dependent on the transfer delay parameter for the streaming service. In order to determine the value of ρ to use.

for example.9 0.92 0. If the GBR value is not in the table. In networks where the configured minimum transfer delay parameter is set to be greater than 500ms then the table for the transfer delay of 500 ms should be used.92 0.66 41000 42000 43000 44000 0.68 0.73 0.83 0.91 0.92 0.81 67000 68000 69000 70000 0.89 0.71 0.92 0.82 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.86 0.7 0.92 0.87 0.87 0.88 0. the procedure is to first determine the GBR for which the majority of service in the network operate.89 0.86 0.63 0.74 0.9 0. then looking up the GBR at the table .91 0.88 0.79 0.8 0.86 0.8 0. Table 3-34 ρ for transfer delay = 500 ms at GBR greater than 15 kbit/s GBR (bits/s) ρ GBR (bits/s) ρ GBR (bits/s) ρ 15000 16000 17000 18000 0.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-33 ρ for various transfer delays at GBR 15 kbit/s or less (Continued) Minimum Transfer delay (ms) ρ Minimum Transfer delay (ms) ρ Minimum Transfer delay (ms) ρ 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 0.9 3250 3300 3350 3400 3450 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 0.87 0.8 0.8 0. then the two closest GBR values should be evaluated and the value resulting in the lower ρ value should be selected.82 0.92 0.86 0.87 0.78 0.81 0.89 0.83 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 2550 2600 2650 2700 2750 2800 0.93 For networks where the majority of streaming services have GBR greater than 15 kbit/s.92 0.76 0.89 0.92 0. the following two tables provide the minimum values of ρ for transfer delays of 500ms and 250ms.86 Continued 68P02900W21-S 3-168 01 Feb 2007 .93 0. video streaming 40 kbit/s.62 0.89 0. obtain ρ.65 0.88 0.77 0. Here.75 0.78 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.8 0.

74 0.72 0.85 0.63 0.85 0.78 0.49 41000 42000 43000 44000 45000 46000 47000 0.72 0.82 0.65 0.77 0.81 0.89 0.86 71000 72000 73000 74000 75000 76000 77000 78000 79000 80000 81000 82000 83000 84000 85000 86000 87000 88000 89000 90000 0.46 0.47 0.85 0.63 0.64 0.83 0.88 0.87 0.87 0.78 0.88 0.87 0.84 0.73 0.64 0.89 0.67 0.88 0.82 0.74 0.71 0.79 0.84 0.81 0.85 0.72 0.84 0.73 0.69 0.42 0.73 0.85 0.72 0.68 0.88 0.83 0.48 0.87 0.73 0.69 0.83 0.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Table 3-34 ρ for transfer delay = 500 ms at GBR greater than 15 kbit/s (Continued) GBR (bits/s) ρ GBR (bits/s) ρ GBR (bits/s) ρ 19000 20000 21000 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31000 32000 33000 34000 35000 36000 37000 38000 39000 40000 0.82 0.82 0.87 0.75 0.76 0.88 0.87 0.75 0.79 45000 46000 47000 48000 49000 50000 51000 52000 53000 54000 55000 56000 57000 58000 59000 60000 61000 62000 63000 64000 65000 66000 0.88 0.84 0.87 0.83 0.7 0.88 0.76 0.65 67000 68000 69000 70000 71000 72000 73000 0.43 0.86 0.89 Table 3-35 ρ for transfer delay = 250 ms at GBR greater than 15 kbit/s GBR (bits/s) ρ GBR (bits/s) ρ GBR (bits/s) ρ 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000 21000 0.89 0.79 0.72 0.85 0.64 0.77 0.73 Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-169 .88 0.89 0.45 0.

69 0.107 Quality of Service (QoS) concept and architecture. that provides prioritized allocation and retention.67 0.59 0.7 0.52 0.77 Admission control and retention (GSR8 QoS) Allocation/Retention Priority (ARP) is defined in specification 3GPP TS 23. version 4. The BSS uses ARP Rank to determine which PFCs have priority access to the system.74 0.66 0.67 0.0 Release 4 as a QoS attribute.56 0.58 0.53 0.75 0. It is a subscription parameter.69 0.71 0.62 48000 49000 50000 51000 52000 53000 54000 55000 56000 57000 58000 59000 60000 61000 62000 63000 64000 65000 66000 0.74 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.5 0.51 0.6. meaning non-negotiable by the network entities.61 0. ARP ranges from 1 to 3 with 1 being the highest priority.76 0.75 0.74 0.76 0.66 0.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-35 ρ for transfer delay = 250 ms at GBR greater than 15 kbit/s (Continued) GBR (bits/s) ρ GBR (bits/s) ρ GBR (bits/s) ρ 22000 23000 24000 25000 26000 27000 28000 29000 30000 31000 32000 33000 34000 35000 36000 37000 38000 39000 40000 0.59 0.7 0.76 0.71 0.56 0.72 74000 75000 76000 77000 78000 79000 80000 81000 82000 83000 84000 85000 86000 87000 88000 89000 90000 0.52 0.57 0.76 0. PCU upgrade for BSS and QoS capacity and QoS2 impact. Table 3-36 ARP mobile selection (ARP Rank) order ARP value THP 1 THP 2 THP 3 Effort Background 1 2 3 6 5 4 6 5 4 6 5 4 6 5 4 3 2 1 Admission Control determines which PFCs get access to the system and which PFCs get pre-empted from the system to make room for higher ARP Rank PFCs.77 0.62 0.74 0.68 0.66 0. For a complete description of allocating resources at the cell and PRP level. as shown in Table 3-36.76 0. ARP Rank 6 is higher priority than ARP Rank 1.69 0.7 0.76 0.75 0. The BSS maps the ARP parameter and the traffic class into ARP Rank.7 0. 68P02900W21-S 3-170 01 Feb 2007 .75 0.55 0.54 0.68 0.6 0. refer to Chapter 8.71 0. maintained per PFC.58 0.

The BSS uses ARP to determine which PFCs have priority access to the system. it means peak traffic is twice of mean traffic. It turns out that web traffic patterns are difficult to predict accurately and. pci and pvi attributes of the ARP IE are supported as part of the QoS Phase II Feature. the results come out different in follow-up studies. Using this cell loading factor has the following advantages: • • Cell overloading due to the bursty nature of GPRS/EGPRS traffic is minimized. PCU upgrade for BSS and QoS capacity and QoS2 impact. Self-similar traffic pattern means the interarrival rates appear the same. refer to Chapter 8. Some wired LAN/WAN traffic studies have shown that packet interarrival rates are not exponentially distributed. The exact nature of wireless GPRS traffic pattern is not known due to lack of field data.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process ARP (QoS2) The priority. therefore. Recent work argues that LAN traffic is much better modeled using statistically self-similar processes instead of Poisson or Markovian processes. This parameter impacts the connection between RS PDCH and SW PDCH with different overlap scenarios. by a factor of 200% to account for the burstiness of GPRS/EGPRS traffic. The BSS provides the user the same level of configurability using the attributes shown in the table for the cases where the BSS does not receive the ARP IE attribute from the SGSN (SGSN may not be R6 compatible or may not include the optional ARP IE in the CREATE-BSS-PFC message). 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-171 . Estimating the air interface traffic throughput The GPRS/EGPRS data throughput estimation process given in this chapter is based upon the Poisson process for determining the GPRS/EGPRS mobile packet transfer arrivals to the network and for determining the size of GPRS/EGPRS data packets generated or received by the GPRS/EGPRS mobiles. Table 3-37 BSS ARP configuration Parameters Traffic Class Precedence Class Streaming or Conversational Interactive or Best Effort Background 0 1 2 arp_streaming_1 arp_streaming_2 arp_streaming_3 arp_i_be_1 arp_i_be_2 arp_i_be_3 arp_bg_1 arp_bg_2 arp_bg_3 Admission Control determines which PFCs get access to the system and which PFCs get pre-empted from the system to make room for higher ARP PFCs. When mean_load_factor parameter is assumed 200%. it is highly recommended that the network planner makes routine use of the GPRS/EGPRS network statistics. which tends to be smoothed around the mean in a larger timescale). LAN/WAN wireline studies have also shown that even when statistically valid studies are performed. regardless of the timescale at which it is viewed (in contrast to Poisson process. For a complete description of allocating resources at the cell and PRP level. it is proposed in this planning guide to adjust the mean GPRS/EGPRS cell loading value. In order to minimize the negative impact of under-estimating the nature of the GPRS/EGPRS traffic. The variance in file transit delay over the Um to Gi interface is minimized such that the delay can be considered a constant value for the purposes of calculating the time to transfer a file of arbitrary size.

0 5. a specific simulation study is required to match the particular cell characteristics. Table 3-38 Percentage of code utilization in a 4x3 non-hopping re-use pattern at 20% BLER Coding scheme % of code utilization CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 10. it is necessary to change an existing cell plan used for GSM circuit-switched to get better BLER performance for the GPRS/EGPRS part of the network.5 12.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning The following sections describe dimensioning the system: • • • • Select a cell plan Estimating timeslot provisioning requirements Optimum file size calculation File transit times calculations Sections Optimum file size calculation and File transit times calculations are optional. To demonstrate the performance of various GPRS and EGPRS coding schemes.5 Continued MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 68P02900W21-S 3-172 01 Feb 2007 . The simulation process is outside the scope of this planning guide. The coding scheme rate selection is performed periodically during the temporary block flow (TBF).0 16. These should be followed if an over the air file transfer time can be calculated for any size file. it is required that there are no more than 48 frequencies in a cell with multiple carriers supporting GPRS/EGPRS timeslots. The results depend on the choices made in sections Select a cell plan and Estimating timeslot provisioning requirements. However. The cell plan that is selected for GPRS/EGPRS can be determined by the plan currently in use for the GSM circuit-switched part of the network. The PCU dynamically selects the best coding scheme in order to maximize the data throughput on a per mobile basis. Table 3-38 shows the percentage utilization of GPRS and EGPRS coding schemes at a fixed operating BLER of 20% in a 4x3 BCCH (non-hopping) re-use pattern.0 22. Select a cell plan Select a cell plan to determine the expected BLER and percentage of time data is transferred at the GPRS/EGPRS data rates. and under a TU channel condition. When the QoS feature is enabled. If non-regular patterns are used. When planning frequency.5 5.0 4. the timeslot zone and PRP board level headroom compensate for BLER.

5 7. pure PS without DTM mode is considered. • The equation is based on the DL traffic load and it is assumed that the DL provisioning would be sufficient to handle UL traffic. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-173 . provide the needed information for evaluating the following equation (totally segregated EGPRS and GPRS timeslots): No _ PDTCH _ TS = Roundup[( Mean _ traffic _ load _ GPRS * Mean _ load _ factor + TS _ Data _ Rate _ GPRS Mean _ traffic _ load _ EGPRS * Mean _ load _ factor )] TS _ Data _ Rate _ EGPRS When DTM is enabled. RCS is the probability of MS in CS mode and PDTM is the DTM penetration rate. we determine the number of GPRS/EGPRS timeslots that require to be provisioned on a per cell basis. as measured in kbit/s. The cell BLER and CS rate characteristics selected.5 2. Timeslot provisioning is based on the expected per cell mean GPRS/EGPRS traffic load. The calculation should use the following equation: No _ PDTCH _ TS = Roundup[( Mean _ traffic _ load _ GPRS * Mean _ load _ factor + TS _ Data _ Rate _ GPRS Mean _ traffic _ load _ EGPRS * Mean _ load _ factor ) * (1 − R CS * PDTM )] TS _ Data _ Rate _ EGPRS Where.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Table 3-38 Percentage of code utilization in a 4x3 non-hopping re-use pattern at 20% BLER (Continued) Coding scheme MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9 % of code utilization 0. No_PDTCH_TS includes the PCCCH timeslot when PCCCH is enabled in the cell.0 Estimating timeslot provisioning requirements Here.5 10. DTM capable MS in CS dedicated mode should be excluded. The packet data traffic load includes all SMS traffic routed through the GSN.5 1. Therefore. The SMS traffic is handled by the GPRS/EGPRS infrastructure in the same manner as all other GPRS traffic originating from the PDN.5 2. without additional provisioning.

If there are more numbers of higher multi-slot capable mobiles in the traffic the Mean_load_factor is further increased. The Mean_load_factor for networks with that traffic distribution is then P/M*100%. For systems without the QoS feature enabled. relative THP. local timeslot zone (cell level) and PRP board level headroom are considered in the Mean_load_factor. With QoS enabled headroom of 16. Allocating more PDTCHs has the effect that QoS mobiles are not downgraded during peak usage at a cell. For systems with the QoS feature enabled the Mean_load_factor can be used to take into account when multiple QoS enabled mobiles are in a cell at the same instance. Mean_traffic_load for each cell can be calculated using the following formulae: Mean trafficload GPRS = Avg sessions per sub * Data per sub per session * GPRS sub per cell 3600 Avg sessions per sub * Data per sub per session * EGPRS sub per cell 3600 Mean traffic load E GPRS = For systems with the QoS feature enabled. the 99th-percentile peak traffic load. GBR and MTBR mix. P. the MTBR needed and the relative THP weight would be higher which has a direct effect on Mean_load_factor. assuming a traffic load with normal distribution. could be calculated as P = M + 3*√M.7% is reserved for local timeslot zone/PRP board level. For example. mobiles multi-slot capability.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning • The Mean_load_factor of 200% has been applied to the traffic load for systems without the QoS feature enabled to account for any surges in the data traffic and to carry packet switched signaling traffic. If more headroom is reserved for local timeslot zone/PRP board level the number of PDCH provisioned should be more to meet the QoS requirements in the cell. Traffic class. Higher the Traffic Class. Mean_traffic_load for each cell can be calculated using the following formulae: Mean_traff ic_load_GP RS = (STR_EGBR * %subs_STR + I1_MTBR * %subs_I1 + I2_MTBR * %subs_I2 + I3_MTBR * %subs_I3 + BG_MTBR * %subs_BG + BE_MTBR * %subs_BE) * GPRS_subs_ per_cell/3 600 Mean_traffic_load_EGPRS = (STR_EGBR * %subs_STR + I1_MTBR * %subs_I1 + I2_MTBR * %subs_I2 + I3_MTBR * %subs_I3 + BG_MTBR * %subs_BG + BE_MTBR * %subs_BE) * GPRS_subs_ per_cell/3600 The units for Data_per_sub_per_session is kbyte/hr 68P02900W21-S 3-174 01 Feb 2007 . given a mean traffic load of M.

using all eight packet data timeslots for instance. default coding scheme is CS2 and MCS3 (refer to GPRS/EGPRS data rates). Number of timeslots The number of PDTCH timeslots calculated in the section Estimating timeslot provisioning requirements on page 3-173. The use of timeslots processed at any instance and total provisioned timeslots enables several cells to share the PCU resource. the PCU processes timeslots in 4 sets of 270 timeslots. The E1s between the BTS and BSC must be provisioned to handle the number of timeslots calculated because all of the timeslots can become active under high load conditions. While one cell is experiencing a high load condition.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process For systems without the QoS feature enabled: TS Data Rate GPRS = 1 4 ∑ CSi % Code utilization * CSi UserDatarate * (1 − BLER) 100 i =1 1 4 TS Data Rate EGPRS = ∑ MCSi % Code utilization * MCSi UserDatarate * (1 − BLER) 100 i =1 For systems with the QoS feature enabled: TS Data Rate GPRS = 1 (SUM from CS1 to egprs_init _cs (CS Code utilizatio n * CS UserData rate ) 100 + SUM from egprs_init _cs to max_egprs_ cs (CS Code utilizatio n * CS UserData rate for gprs_init_ cs) TS Data Rate EGPRS = 1 (SUM from MCS1 to egprs_init _cs (CS Code utilizatio n * CS UserData rate ) 100 + SUM from egprs_init _cs to max_egprs_ cs (CS Code utilizatio n * CS UserData rate for gprs_init_ cs) For systems with the QoS2 feature enabled. For example. It is possible. The PCU rapidly multiplex all the timeslots with a maximum of 270 timeslots at any instance in time. another cell operating its mean load averages out the packet data traffic load at the PCU. however. It is important to differentiate between the required number of timeslots processed at any instance in time and the total provisioned timeslots because it directly affects the provisioning of the communication links and the PCU hardware. (M)CS_USAGE is the percentage of usage of (E)GPRS coding schemes. denotes the number of timeslots that need to be provisioned on the cell to carry the mean traffic load on the cell. Timeslot refinement with QoS enabled The number of PDTCHs determined for support of QoS should be compared to the examples given. if there are MSs on each of 1080 timeslots provisioned on the air interface. Refer to the examples to determine a refined number of PDTCHs to support QoS with a given set of configuration parameters. to transfer packet switched data on each of the 1080 timeslots of a PCU simultaneously (assuming that all 9 PRPs are configured. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-175 . with switching between sets occurring every block period. legacy deployment mode). The active timeslots are timeslots that are simultaneously carrying data being processed by the PRP on the PCU at any instance in time.

GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-39 MTBR Mix MTBR Mix Percentage DL UL I1 I2 I3 BG BE 14 10 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Table 3-40 MTBR Constant MTBR Constant Percentage DL 2 2 2 2 2 UL I1 I2 I3 BG BE 2 2 2 2 2 Table 3-41 THP Weight Mix THP Weight Mix I1 I2 I3 BG BE 40 40 20 20 20 Table 3-42 THP Weight Constant THP Weight Constant I1 I2 I3 BG BE 40 40 20 20 20 68P02900W21-S 3-176 01 Feb 2007 .

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-177 . MTBR = 2. Table 3-44 and Table 3-45 show the impact of QoS on the number of PDTCHs required to support a given traffic mix.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Table 3-43 shows the QoS Configuration Examples. Table 3-43 QoS Configuration Examples Comparison: Number of Class 4 Mobiles in a Cell with 6 PDTCHs. all THP weight = 40. TRAU = 16K. The colored cells highlight the additional mobile being added for the specified time period.

Capacity: 18 users.33 3.00 3. DL Throughput per MS: 0.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-44 QoS Disabled.50 1.83 3.33 2.00 2.17 3.00 1.67 1.67 Continued 68P02900W21-S 3-178 01 Feb 2007 .50 2.33 (6/18) TS Mobiles 2 3 4 5 6 7 Link MS per TS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0 0 33 0 33 0 33 0 133 100 133 100 133 100 133 100 133 100 133 100 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 0 0 33 100 33 100 33 100 33 100 133 200 133 200 133 200 133 200 133 200 133 200 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 0 0 33 0 33 0 83 0 83 0 83 0 183 100 183 100 183 100 183 100 183 100 183 100 283 200 283 200 283 200 283 200 33 0 33 0 333 0 83 100 83 100 83 100 83 100 83 100 183 200 183 200 183 200 183 200 183 200 183 200 283 300 283 300 33 100 33 100 83 100 83 100 83 100 83 100 83 100 183 200 183 200 183 200 183 200 183 200 183 200 283 300 283 300 283 300 33 0 33 0 83 100 84 100 83 100 83 100 83 200 83 200 83 200 183 300 183 300 183 300 183 300 183 300 183 300 283 400 DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL Dl UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL 0.50 3.17 2.67 2.33 1.83 2.

50 1. DL Throughput per MS: 0.83 2.17 2. Capacity: 11 users. DL Throughput per MS: 0.00 1.83 Table 3-45 QoS Enabled.00 Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-179 .67 3.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Table 3-44 QoS Disabled. Capacity: 18 users.33 (6/18) TS (Continued) 333 17 300 18 19 20 21 22 23 333 300 333 300 333 300 333 300 333 300 333 300 233 300 333 400 333 400 333 400 333 400 333 400 333 400 283 200 283 200 283 200 283 200 283 200 283 200 283 200 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 300 283 400 283 400 283 400 283 400 283 400 283 400 283 400 DL UL DL UL DL UL Dl UL DL UL DL UL DL UL 3.50 1.54 (6/11) TS Mobiles 2 3 4 5 6 7 Link MS per TS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0 33 0 33 0 83 100 83 100 83 100 83 100 0 0 33 100 33 100 83 100 83 100 117 100 117 100 0 0 33 0 67 0 67 0 67 0 100 100 150 100 33 0 33 0 67 100 67 100 67 100 100 100 150 200 33 100 33 100 67 100 67 100 117 100 117 100 117 100 33 0 33 0 33 0 333 0 83 100 83 100 83 200 DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL Dl UL 0.

54 (6/11) TS (Continued) 83 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 100 133 100 133 100 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 233 200 117 100 167 200 167 200 167 200 167 200 167 200 167 200 167 300 167 200 167 200 167 200 167 200 167 200 167 200 167 200 167 200 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 100 150 200 150 200 150 200 150 200 150 200 150 200 150 200 150 200 150 200 150 200 150 100 150 200 150 200 150 200 150 200 150 200 167 100 167 100 167 100 167 100 167 100 167 1200 167 100 167 100 167 100 167 100 167 100 167 100 167 100 167 100 167 100 167 100 133 200 133 200 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 233 300 DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL Dl UL DL UL DL UL DL UL 3.67 3. DL Throughput per MS: 0.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-45 QoS Enabled.83 4.00 68P02900W21-S 3-180 01 Feb 2007 .33 3. Capacity: 11 users.

measured at the LLC layer. protocol overhead for TCP/IP/SNDCP/LLC/CRC is 53 bytes without header compression and 18 bytes with header compression. V. The file size consists of the application file to be transferred. the effective file size for transmission is reduced by the data compression factor which can range from 1 to 4.42bis application data compression is used. and close to no compression advantage (factor = 1) on image files and short files: File size LLC = ⎧ ⎫ App ln App ln + roundup ⎨ * protocol overhead ⎬ V.42bis factor ⎩ V. When TCP/IP header compression is used. The percentage of protocol overhead depends on the transport layer used. the TCP/IP protocol overhead is 40 bytes when TCP/IP header compression is not used. user application data file size.42bis yields a 2. such as TCP or UDP. The application file plus all of the protocol overhead summed together makes up the one or more LLC_PDU frames that constitute the file to be transferred. Typically.5. Finally. Figure 3-87 illustrates a typical LLC_PDU frame with the user application payload and all of the protocol overhead combined for the case of no TCP/IP header compression. maximum LLC PDU payload of 1527 bytes. V. which includes any application-related overhead.42bis_factor 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-181 . a typical value is equal to 2. there is transport and network layer protocol overhead. In addition to the application file. For example. The use of header compression continues for as long as the IP address remains the same.42bis factor * LLC Payload ⎭ Is Where File_size_LLC Appln LLC_payload protocol_overhead file size in bytes to be transferred. TCP and IP. measured in bytes. there is GPRS/EGPRS Link Layer Control (LLC) and sub network convergence (SNDCP) protocol overhead.5 compression advantage on a text file.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Optimum file size calculation This section is intended to be used as an aid in determining the size of a file that is to be transferred as an LLC PDU from the mobile to the SGSN. application data compression is over the range of 1 to 4. Figure 3-87 LLC_PDU frame layout 7 LLC 2 SNDCP 20 IP 20 TCP APPLICATION 4 CRC 64 BYTES < L < 1580 BYTES If V. the TCP/IP header can be reduced to 5 bytes from 40 bytes after the first LLC frame is transferred.

8(Typical SIP call setup).8)/2+ 27*53 + 18 = 7609 (bytes) File transit times calculations The network planner can follow this section to determine how long it takes to transfer a file of an arbitrary size over the Um to Gi interface.02(1 + CS _ BLER ) mslot 68P02900W21-S 3-182 01 Feb 2007 . 27 messages. that is no application data compression and No header compression: File size LLC = 6000+ (number of packet)* 53+ 5249+ (number of signaling)*53+18 = 6000+1060+ 5249 + 1431+ 18 = 13758 (bytes) SIP SIGcomp (RFC3322) has 2 regular compression algorithm and there are simulation results as follows: • • LZ77 algorithm: compression ratio range is from 0.42bis_factor = 1. For the PoC service of example2. that is no application data compression. only 2 LLC_PDU transmissions are required so the File_size_LLC is: File_size_LLC = 1500 + 53+18 = 1571 bytes Example 2: A PoC service has the following parameters: Application = 20 packets.5 can be used. SIP signaling with RSVP. 0. and mean RLC Transit Delay (RTD) value: FTD = RTD + RLC blocks * 0. if V. number of timeslots used during the transfer. and all subsequent LLC_PDUs are compressed. The File Transit Delay (FTD) is calculated using the following information: total number of RLC blocks of the file. every packet has a size range from 200 to 400 bytes. BLER.42bis_factor = 2. and speak 10s then listen 10s. Assume V.9(Typical SIP call setup).7 to 0. no SIGcomp. the size of total signaling size is 5249 Bytes (from INVITE to PRACK.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Examples of calculation Example 1: A 3 kbyte/s application file transfer needs the following number of bytes to be transferred at the LLC_PDU layer: Application = 3 kbytes Assume that V. RoHC algorithm: compression ratio range is from 0. For this size file of 3000 bytes. The application file is segmented into LLC PDU frames as illustrated previously. assuming total 6000 Bytes.42bis_factor =2. using LZ77 algorithm.).2 to 0.8 can be used. 0. whose size varies from 5 to 625 Bytes. Without Header compression: File_size_LLC = 3000/2 + roundup (3000/2/1527) x 53 = 1553 bytes With header compression: The first LLC_PDU header is not compressed. File size LLC = (6000)/2+ 20*53+ (5249*0.

6 seconds can occur. RTD is estimated to be 0. The assumptions used in the simulation to determine the RTD value at a mean cell throughput level of 50% are: 25% of the cell traffic at the CS1 rate and 75% of the cell traffic at the CS2 rate. The value is specified in decimal form. The reason is that the largest effect is in the uplink direction. This can be calculated by dividing file_size_LLC by the corresponding RLC data size for various GPRS and EGPRS code rates. It is recommended that cell throughput provisioning be performed at the mean cell capacity level of 50%. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-183 .9 seconds. the RTD value increases dramatically. When the cell approaches its throughput capacity limit. It is expected that the downlink acknowledgement messages do not significantly effect the file transit delay in the downlink direction. total number of RLC blocks of the file. Provisioning for a mean cell throughput greater than 50% greatly increases the likelihood of dropped packets. transit delay time from the Um interface to the Gi interface for a file size of only one RLC/MAC block of data. DL. This parameter is updated when field test data is available. whereas the uplink generates an acknowledgement message based on downlink commands transmitted at a frequency varying between 2 and 12 RLC blocks. The DL sends an acknowledgement message on an as-needed basis. and it is expected that the downlink direction l dominates the cell traffic. 8 PDTCH. and the infrastructure starts to drop packets. mobile multislot operating mode. and RTD values of over 2.1 to 0. Simulation data indicates that when traffic load is minimal. mean LLC_PDU packet size of 435 bytes.2 RLC_Blocks mslot CS_BLER The equation does not include the effects of acknowledgement messages. BLER 10%. At a cell throughput capacity of 50%. Typical values range form 0.7 seconds. the BLER for the specific coding rate. The RTD parameter is directly correlated to the system utilization and the mean packet size.9 s when the system running at 50% capacity. the RTD value is at a minimum limit of 0. the RTD increases to 0. mobiles multislot distribution 1:2:3:4 = 20:50:20:10.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Where Is FTD RTD file transit delay measured in seconds. the value can be from 1 to 4.

and no header or V.2 seconds Where Is equal to File_size_LLC CS2 payload Air time for one RLC/MAC block (1 + CS_BLER) Multislot operation Example 2: 3106 bytes (as calculated in the previous example) 30 bytes 0. Then every PoC voice data packet has different TD.02 * 1. size = 300 bytes. whose size varies from 5 to 625 Bytes.098 seconds Total time = 1.). the size of total signaling size is 5249 Bytes (from INVITE to PRACK. has 290 packets. every packet has a size range from 200 to 400 bytes. using one timeslot. Assume V. assuming total 6000 Bytes. maximum size = 400 bytes. the minimum size = 250 bytes. then 68P02900W21-S 3-184 01 Feb 2007 .42bis_factor = 1. that is no application data compression.1 1 An Audio Streaming service. no SIGcomp. packet size is 400 bytes.9 + Roundup (3106/30) * 0. SIP signaling with RSVP. the first packet.1 1 A PoC service has the following parameters: Application = 20 packets. BLER = 10%. No header compression.02 seconds 1.1 / 1 = 3. BLER = 10%.098*290 = 318 s Where Is equal to File_size_LLC MCS5 payload Air time for one RLC/MAC block (1 + CS_BLER) Multislot operation Example 2: 400+53+18 =471 bytes 56 bytes 0. and no header or V.9 + Roundup (471/56) * 0. 27 messages.02 seconds 1. for other packets. and speak 10s then listen 10s. for example.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Examples of calculations Example 1: A 3 kbyte/s application file transit time at the CS2 rate.1 / 1 = 1.42bis compression is: Transit time of a packet over Um to Gi interface = 0.02 * 1.42bis compression is: 3 kbyte/s file transit time over Um to Gi interface =0.

such as microcells. or MCS 1 to MCS 4).1 1 Configurable initial coding scheme Before GSR7.032 s TDMax = 0. If the coding scheme configured is lower.5 s since MS Radio access cost some time.1/1 = 1. TD1 = 0.02*1. for other packets.8/56]*0. CS2 is still used to start when the carrier or PDTCHs assigned for the TBFs are not capable of the initial coding scheme CS3 or CS4 if they are set in the database. Assume using LZ77 algorithm (0. Carrier B’s UL TS is always restricted to GMSK (CS 1 to CS 4.02 seconds 1. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-185 .02*1.9 + Roundup[(400+53)/56]*0.8). the budgeted throughput per TS is lower.02*1.054 s TDMin = 0. maximum size = 625 Bytes. since listen and talk has 10s interval. actual transfer delay for PoC call maybe 3. the operator is able to control the initial downlink coding scheme (using database parameters) to improve throughput of cells in which it is well known that all mobiles are capable of higher coding schemes.02*1.1/1 = 1.12+ Roundup[(5324-625)*0.1/1 = 2. total signaling size is 5324.8/56]*0.9 + Roundup[(250+53)/56]*0. minimum size = 5 bytes.098 s Total transfer delay for PoC service is meaningless. size is 625 Bytes. The feature also applies to EGPRS. Where Is equal to MCS5 payload Air time for one RLC/MAC block (1 + CS_BLER) Multislot operation 56 bytes 0. Total signaling time is 1.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process TD1 = 0. Coding Scheme 2 (CS2) was used to start for all downlink and uplink TBFs. For signaling transfer: The first signaling is INVOKE. {30828} In CTU2D ASYM mode. MCS-2 can be selected as the initial coding scheme.1/1 = 1.616 s.1/1 = 1.1/1 = 0. Therefore when the egprs_init_ul_cs is configured higher than MCS4 it is restricted to MCS3 when admitting a new mobile on Carrier B. QoS2 has default value of CS-2 and MCS3.02*1.02*1.02*1.022 s TDMax= Roundup[(625+53)*0.8/56]*0. Now.12 s TDMin = Roundup[(5+53)*0.9+ Roundup[(300+53+18)/56]*0. for examples.1/1 = 0.8 /56]*0.22 s.9+ Roundup[(625+53+18)*0.

for example. o o • • • • H/C = Header compression. This parameter is also configured in SGSN). For more than 1 timeslot. that is. Figure 3-85). if required. TS = Timeslot. the overheads are applied only to one of the timeslots. It is also used to calculate timeslot data rates at each layer. 68P02900W21-S 3-186 01 Feb 2007 . this imposes additional overhead since the channel is not fully utilized for certain portion of time. perfect TCP response is assumed. • The following assumptions are made to arrive at the numbers: • • Mean IP packet size of approximately 500 bytes. user rate: Includes header associated with TCP (20 bytes.bis is enabled. that is. user and header encoding procedures. The rates are calculated bottom to top as follows (refer to Figure 3-87 and Figure 3-88): • • • • • • • • Physical layer: GSM data rates. Increased efficiencies gained from lowered overhead. The behavior of TCP. V42. In practice. App. LLC: Error free user data rate excluding RLC/MAC header. IP user rate: Includes header associated with SNDCP (2 bytes.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning GPRS/EGPRS data rates • The information provided is for reference only. The final throughput at application layer is less than those quoted in the tables due to various protocol overheads and the behavior of various layers in response to packet data flow. the LLC acknowledged mode imposes relatively significant overhead at RLC/MAC level due to additional signaling required over the user data channel. This implies that it is assumed there is no signaling overhead to acknowledge LLC frames. SNDCP: Includes header associated with LLC (7 bytes + 4bytes CRC. These are theoretical calculated values. They do not necessarily represent the data rates that the system can support. RLC/MAC: Error free data rate including RLC/MAC headers (see earlier description of various coding schemes. Figure 3-85). LLC broken into RLC blocks (Figure 3-88).bis data compression is disabled (if V42. is not taken into consideration. In practice. slow start. Figure 3-85). based on the protocol overheads at each layer. BLER = 0. LLC in unacknowledged mode. Figure 3-85). The header compression is not applied to the first LLC IP frame. the data rate is highly variable depending on data contents. C/I for each coding scheme is sufficient to support error free transport. that is. as a result of using higher numbers of timeslots. is not calculated for this analysis. TCP: includes header associated with IP (20 bytes.

94 8.83 15.93 15.93 7. Table 3-46 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (CS1) Protocol Stack CS1 and TS = 1 CS1 and TS = 2 CS1 and TS = 3 CS1 and TS = 4 No H/C App.73 15. Puncturing and Interleaving Burst 1 Burst 2 Burst 3 Burst 4 Transmission across the radio link Table 3-46 through Table 3-71 provide illustrations of the data rates by application at each layer in the GPRS stack.86 H/C 7.8 135.00 9.91 7.44 H/C 31.73 31.73 23.93 23.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Figure 3-88 LLC PDU to TDMA bursts LLC frame LLC layer RLC block Segment Segment Segment RLC/MAC layer Header RLC data Tail Radio link layer Convolutional encoding (dictates code rate).94 16 18.83 23.93 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-187 . user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 7.6 101.83 7.72 H/C 15.93 23.58 H/C 23.4 67.94 24 27.93 31.92 No H/C 15.94 32 36.73 7.20 33.93 31.93 No H/C 31.93 15.93 No H/C 23.83 31.

60 47.44 H/C 31.90 No H/C 35.70 28.93 7.92 No H/C 15.26 No H/C 28.73 7.07 43.67 28.4 15.50 57.4 67.92 14.20 33.73 31.48 Table 3-49 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (CS4) Protocol Stack CS4 and TS = 1 CS4 and TS = 2 CS4 and TS = 3 CS4 and TS = 4 No H/C App.94 16 18.91 7.68 No H/C 42. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 7.93 23.08 No H/C 57.90 35.86 H/C 7.0 135.12 57.24 14.10 43.58 H/C 23.83 23.72 H/C 28.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-47 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (CS2) Protocol Stack CS2 and TS = 1 CS2 and TS = 2 CS2 and TS = 3 CS2 and TS = 4 No H/C App. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 11.60 23.93 23.72 42.58 H/C 35.8 33.90 23.2 135.93 31.6 63.48 57.30 57.83 7.72 H/C 15.90 11.75 47.75 35.93 68P02900W21-S 3-188 01 Feb 2007 .86 H/C 11.90 No H/C 47.92 36 40.89 47.6 33.93 31.50 28.32 28.47 57.92 48 54.86 11.94 32 36.90 Table 3-48 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (CS3) Protocol Stack CS3 and TS = 1 CS3 and TS = 2 CS3 and TS = 3 CS3 and TS = 4 No H/C App.58 H/C 43.08 43.30 14.90 43.83 15.65 101.89 35.93 15.94 24 27.75 23.44 H/C 47.83 31.75 11.8 31.93 No H/C 31.44 H/C 57.2 47.3 101.93 15.86 H/C 14.92 12 13.89 23.8 135.10 14.89 No H/C 23.28 14.60 11.1 67.5 67.00 9.92 24 27.60 35.6 101.73 15.94 8. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 13.93 No H/C 23.90 47.73 23.68 28.72 H/C 23.

93 31.26 No H/C 28.8 135.07 43.90 No H/C 47.92 36 40.8 33. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 7.58 H/C 35.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Table 3-50 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (CS1) Protocol Stack CS1 and TS = 1 CS1 and TS = 2 CS1 and TS = 3 CS1 and TS = 4 No H/C App.58 H/C 23.75 47.48 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-189 .65 101.44 H/C 31.68 28.23 57.79 15.90 No H/C 35.2 135.0 135.90 43.83 31.93 No H/C 23.88 11.44 H/C 47.4 67.69 23.93 7.79 31.30 14. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 11.28 14.8 31.10 14.86 H/C 7.00 9.92 No H/C 15.90 47.92 7.1 67.75 35.93 15.67 28.10 43.69 35.92 12 13.79 23.93 23.89 47.92 48 54.94 32 36.2 47.83 23.6 63.83 15.94 16 18.69 11.4 15.50 28.68 No H/C 42.93 31.43 28.75 11.69 47.6 101.94 24 27.08 No H/C 57.08 43.47 57.72 H/C 28.93 No H/C 31.92 24 27.90 23.79 7.72 H/C 15.44 H/C 57.72 H/C 23. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 14.25 14.89 23.93 Table 3-51 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (CS2) Protocol Stack CS2 and TS = 1 CS2 and TS = 2 CS2 and TS = 3 CS2 and TS = 4 No H/C App.83 7.89 No H/C 23.86 H/C 14.58 H/C 43.90 11.83 42.93 23.75 23.6 33.5 67.90 Table 3-52 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (CS3) Protocol Stack CS3 and TS = 1 CS3 and TS = 2 CS3 and TS = 3 CS3 and TS = 4 No H/C App.86 H/C 11.93 15.3 101.89 35.20 33.70 28.48 57.90 35.03 14.50 57.94 8.30 57.

60 38.72 H/C 39.12 35.20 135.31 22.20 42.57 44.84 79.03 22.60 21.20 12.74 8.95 33.80 135.82 79.32 No H/C 34. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 19.84 59.48 39.11 11.55 33.54 17.2 135.58 59.09 No H/C 22.83 No H/C 59.72 H/C 17.58 19.12 Table 3-55 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS2) Protocol Stack MCS2 and TS = 1 MCS2 and TS = 2 MCS2 and TS = 3 MCS2 and TS = 4 No H/C App.44 H/C 35.83 No H/C 79.52 17.32 26.51 33.02 35.65 101.42 17.40 25.72 44.32 22.82 59. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 8.44 H/C 44.30 22.97 11.12 11.48 59.72 No H/C 17.34 26.58 H/C 59.62 8.86 20 21.58 H/C 26.7 101.86 H/C 8.86 80 86.53 17.91 35.71 44.23 33.33 26.58 39.86 H/C 11.86 H/C 19.30 No H/C 33.6 33.83 10.40 31.84 19.58 79.70 44.31 17.07 11.80 19.50 33.80 51.81 No H/C 39.49 19.50 No H/C 44.85 101.48 79.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-53 GPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (CS4) Protocol Stack CS4 and TS = 1 CS4 and TS = 2 CS4 and TS = 3 CS4 and TS = 4 No H/C App.1 67.52 33.70 8.13 35.37 33.14 35.84 39. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 10.51 8.73 8.43 44.80 10.22 26.72 H/C 22.82 39.52 No H/C 26.11 26.83 Table 3-54 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS1) Protocol Stack MCS1 and TS =1 MCS1 and TS = 2 MCS1 and TS = 3 MCS1 and TS = 4 No H/C App.10 67.17 22.86 40 43.90 67.70 68P02900W21-S 3-190 01 Feb 2007 .58 H/C 33.44 H/C 79.86 60 64.

16 H/C 44.46 17.64 44.68 14.90 406.59 44.26 70.41 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-191 .50 29.60 23.42 89.60 33.45 66.62 44.40 17.58 H/C 22.35 33.89 59.02 67.08 35.40 23.11 29.66 No H/C 29.43 52.15 22.21 52.04 35.66 21.81 70.72 H/C 29.10 67.43 No H/C 34.31 14.60 19.58 H/C 52.32 H/C 89.20 135.26 44.28 44.70 58.27 No H/C 58.99 67.86 H/C 14.01 No H/C 88.23 17.65 101.22 22.04 67.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Table 3-56 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS3) Protocol Stack MCS3 and TS = 1 MCS3 and TS = 2 MCS3 and TS = 3 MCS3 and TS = 4 No H/C App.63 14.03 70.40 135.06 35.07 Table 3-57 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS4) Protocol Stack MCS4 and TS = 1 MCS4 and TS = 2 MCS4 and TS = 3 MCS4 and TS = 4 No H/C App.09 44.90 203.70 14.48 29.10 59.05 101.29 29.61 No H/C 66.30 44. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 14.20 38.05 44.49 14.70 67.58 H/C 44.72 H/C 35.24 22.80 23.06 59.47 No H/C 43. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 17.93 22.20 66.20 23.46 29.40 77.44 H/C 59.90 101.65 No H/C 69.48 17.64 52.19 No H/C 44.39 89.13 89.80 16.83 35.02 17.73 67.90 304.68 52.86 H/C 17.44 H/C 70.44 89.66 52.25 Table 3-58 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS5) Protocol Stack MCS5 and TS = 1 MCS5 and TS = 2 MCS5 and TS = 3 MCS5 and TS = 4 No H/C App.40 49.05 No H/C 52.33 44.91 44.80 58.08 59.28 70.61 34.55 33. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 21.74 H/C 66.85 88.24 70.

29 44.75 162.00 406.32 68P02900W21-S 3-192 01 Feb 2007 .99 29.54 No H/C 117.01 No H/C 177.32 Table 3-60 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS7) Protocol Stack MCS7 and TS =1 MCS7 and TS = 2 MCS7 and TS = 3 MCS7 and TS = 4 No H/C App.27 H/C 53.81 134.40 56.60 406.79 178.27 H/C 178.58 108.74 H/C 88.40 124.14 118.20 62.43 44.50 101.80 113.47 H/C 217.23 89.29 89.78 H/C 118.96 58.49 44.80 203.41 117.32 No H/C 58.03 134. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 28.88 No H/C 106.42 108.16 162.22 217.20 169.32 Table 3-61 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS8) Protocol Stack MCS8 and TS =1 MCS8 and TS = 2 MCS8 and TS = 3 MCS8 and TS = 4 No H/C App.60 53.89 179.62 28.10 217.47 H/C 133.19 118.90 101.78 53. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 52.93 58.70 162.90 133.82 163.39 29.70 178.13 118.30 108.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-59 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS6) Protocol Stack MCS6 and TS = 1 MCS6 and TS = 2 MCS6 and TS =3 MCS6 and TS = 4 No H/C App.13 53.99 134.20 203.78 216.80 46.40 406.70 304.16 118.20 187.58 H/C 44.40 140.18 88.95 54.21 No H/C 132.38 No H/C 88.16 H/C 58.58 H/C 29.60 226.31 43.67 89.59 88.21 58.16 H/C 89.19 89.30 304.74 217.80 93.99 107.58 58.74 178.00 203.87 44.94 No H/C 87.11 88.81 88.07 H/C 162.10 101.26 29.60 31.50 304. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 43.83 178.02 54.73 No H/C 215.36 29.60 93.53 88.33 No H/C 161.56 88.09 134.99 59.35 108.67 H/C 108.38 162.15 217.

09 No H/C 234.32 22. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 10.71 58.72 No H/C 17.31 22.97 H/C 58.62 176.44 H/C 35.57 H/C 236. user rate TCP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 57.62 8.17 26.12 Table 3-64 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS2) Protocol Stack MCS2 and TS = 1 MCS2 and TS = 2 MCS2 and TS = 3 MCS2 and TS = 4 No H/C App.40 122.20 42.30 22.40 25.53 17.95 33.20 12.22 26.58 117.51 33.73 8.74 236.57 8.09 No H/C 22.17 H/C 117.80 10.71 8.80 245.60 38.44 H/C 44.90 67.97 11.29 58.86 H/C 8.42 17.55 33.79 59.91 10.52 17.32 No H/C 34. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 8.52 33.11 22.24 57.25 236.13 35.72 H/C 17.71 44.02 35.80 135.37 17.60 21.64 No H/C 116.39 236.37 H/C 177.16 177.99 118.82 235.91 117.72 44.10 67.90 307.05 177.72 H/C 22.30 No H/C 33.12 35.74 8.86 H/C 11.52 No H/C 26.20 61.50 33.31 236.58 H/C 33.89 No H/C 175.58 H/C 26.57 44.85 101.85 117.37 33.32 26.70 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-193 .54 17.80 51.20 406.60 183.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Table 3-62 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with TCP (MCS9) Protocol Stack MCS9 and TS =1 MCS9 and TS = 2 MCS9 and TS = 3 MCS9 and TS = 4 No H/C App.50 No H/C 44.09 11.17 22.30 101.70 44.34 26.31 33.97 35.40 31.11 11.12 11.19 177.65 101.14 35.32 Table 3-63 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS1) Protocol Stack MCS1 and TS =1 MCS1 and TS = 2 MCS1 and TS = 3 MCS1 and TS = 4 No H/C App.60 203.11 177.51 44.43 117.53 58.20 135.33 26.

47 29.27 44.44 H/C 59.65 101.46 17.75 34.24 70.80 23.19 No H/C 44.64 44.07 59.86 H/C 17.04 67.01 No H/C 89.86 H/C 14. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 14.55 33.44 H/C 70.08 59.42 89.90 101.23 17.89 59.40 135.16 H/C 44.70 67.03 70.58 H/C 52.60 19.34 52. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 21.02 44.27 No H/C 58.47 No H/C 44.82 21.35 33.58 H/C 44.28 70.13 89.25 Table 3-67 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS5) Protocol Stack MCS5 and TS = 1 MCS5 and TS = 2 MCS5 and TS = 3 MCS5 and TS = 4 No H/C App.58 H/C 22.64 52.17 22.02 67.80 16.66 No H/C 29.00 67.20 135.42 14.93 22.60 44.06 35.20 23.10 67.32 H/C 89.66 52.40 77.15 17.90 203.07 Table 3-66 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS4) Protocol Stack MCS4 and TS = 1 MCS4 and TS = 2 MCS4 and TS = 3 MCS4 and TS = 4 No H/C App.05 101.20 66.94 70.33 44.20 38.04 35.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-65 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS3) Protocol Stack MCS3 and TS = 1 MCS3 and TS = 2 MCS3 and TS = 3 MCS3 and TS = 4 No H/C App.62 44.90 304.40 23.65 No H/C 69.28 44.29 29.73 67.22 22.48 29. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 17.05 No H/C 52.70 14.61 No H/C 66.60 33.43 52.83 35.09 44.74 H/C 67.62 66.60 23.22 29.08 35.65 14.82 58.48 17.72 H/C 29.80 58.24 22.68 52.40 49.02 88.30 44.44 89.26 70.22 44.50 29.72 H/C 35.49 14.90 406.68 14.40 89.10 59.41 68P02900W21-S 3-194 01 Feb 2007 .43 No H/C 34.42 17.

50 304.99 29.32 Table 3-70 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS8) Protocol Stack MCS8 and TS =1 MCS8 and TS = 2 MCS8 and TS = 3 MCS8 and TS = 4 No H/C App.38 No H/C 88.21 No H/C 133.00 203.36 29.40 56.47 H/C 217.54 88.03 134.30 304.84 28.40 406.58 108.99 59.67 89.32 No H/C 58.40 140.07 H/C 162.94 No H/C 88.83 178.19 118.50 101.60 406.32 Table 3-69 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS7) Protocol Stack MCS7 and TS =1 MCS7 and TS = 2 MCS7 and TS = 3 MCS7 and TS = 4 No H/C App.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Table 3-68 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS6) Protocol Stack MCS6 and TS = 1 MCS6 and TS = 2 MCS6 and TS =3 MCS6 and TS = 4 No H/C App.04 178.65 43.19 216.70 304.96 58.59 88. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 43.63 117.32 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 3-195 .30 29.20 203.24 133.15 217.78 H/C 118.94 58.00 134.87 44.35 108.39 107.81 134.03 88.54 No H/C 117.58 H/C 29.39 29. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 53.16 118.43 44.44 88.29 89.33 No H/C 161.74 H/C 88.20 89.09 134.23 89.75 162.32 108.10 101.35 44.80 178.18 88.72 162.16 162.27 H/C 178.80 113.16 H/C 89.56 88.47 H/C 134.89 179.01 No H/C 178.90 101.02 54.14 118.40 124.58 H/C 44.20 62.80 203.74 178.58 58.73 No H/C 216.22 217.13 53.49 44.20 187.20 169.60 226.16 H/C 58.95 54.82 163.27 H/C 53.80 46.88 No H/C 107.79 162.00 406.00 53.14 118.44 58.67 H/C 108.85 53.60 31.74 217.60 93. user rate UDP IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 28.80 93.42 108.12 217.

71 58.64 No H/C 116.30 101.GPRS/EGPRS air interface planning process Chapter 3: BSS cell planning Table 3-71 EGPRS downlink data rates (kbit/s) with UDP (MCS9) Protocol Stack MCS9 and TS =1 MCS9 and TS = 2 MCS9 and TS = 3 MCS9 and TS = 4 No H/C App.37 H/C 177.07 176.20 61.60 58.80 245.08 177.20 406.29 58.60 183.91 117.89 No H/C 176.11 177.79 59.88 117.17 H/C 117. user rate UD IP user rate SNDCP LLC RLC/MAC Physical layer 57.32 68P02900W21-S 3-196 01 Feb 2007 .97 H/C 58.16 177.09 No H/C 235.90 304.99 118.57 H/C 236.74 236.28 236.39 236.27 235.31 236.87 117.40 122.58 117.19 177.60 203.68 57.

and performance discussed. The manual gives an understanding of how AMR and GSM half rate works and how they are configured. The various parameters controlling AMR operation are discussed. The GSM half rate and the half rate portion of AMR are similar. The benefits of the features are outlined. Hence.Chapter 4 AMR and GSM planning This chapter provides an overview of the Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) and GSM half rate feature and their operation within the Motorola system. not all of the commands and parameters are shown in detail. the information here covers both features. However. The topics described are as follows: • • • • • • • Introduction to AMR and GSM planning Quality and capacity Rate adaptation Handover and power control Miscellaneous information Half rate utilization Hardware 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-1 .

Variable partitioning between speech and channel coding bit rates to adapt to channel conditions for best speech quality. The best examples of applying the codec are: • • • hr only for maximum capacity advantage. fr only for maximum robustness to channel errors but no capacity advantage. Capacity is enhanced by allocating half rate channels to some or all mobiles. and operates at a fixed coding rate. the speech quality is poor when compared to the half rate mode of AMR (as well as all forms of full rate speech). The three primary levels of adaptation of the control system are: • • • Handovers between hr and fr channels according to traffic demands. Handovers between hr and fr channels vary according to traffic demands. Mixed hr/fr operation allowing a trade-off between quality and capacity. Optimization of channel and codec control algorithms to meet specific user needs and network conditions. GSM half rate is used as a means to increase capacity within a cell. This gives better channel quality and better robustness to errors. Mixed hr/fr operation allowing a trade–off between quality and capacity. A carrier could have a mix of GSM half rate and AMR (full rate and/or half rate) simultaneously. the penetration rate of half rate capable mobiles is high. Channel protection is also fixed. This allows the codec to be applied in many ways. Due to this early introduction into the standards. AMR adapts the speech and channel coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel.Introduction to AMR and GSM planning Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Introduction to AMR and GSM planning AMR basic operation Existing GSM speech codecs operate at a fixed coding rate. 68P02900W21-S 4-2 01 Feb 2007 . In order to obtain the best balance between quality and capacity. or by allocating a half rate or full rate (fr) channel according to channel quality and the traffic load on the cell. However. AMR and GSM half rate interaction AMR and GSM half rate can co-exist in a cell. the system allocates a half rate (hr) or full rate (fr) channel according to channel quality and the traffic load on the cell. of which three important examples are: • • • GSM half rate basic operation GSM half rate was introduced in phase 2 of the standards. hr only for maximum capacity advantage. capacity is increased by either always preferring half rate (hr). The parameters that govern half rate operation have been made generic to facilitate that style of operation. As with AMR half rate. The control system is not fixed but can be tuned to meet particular needs.

GSM half rate–capable handset penetration (see the second NOTE ). These include: • • • • • AMR-capable handset penetration (see the first NOTE ). This equipment.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Introduction to AMR and GSM planning New hardware New hardware has been developed to support the AMR and the GSM half rate features. provides the capabilities necessary to exploit the advantages of AMR and/or GSM half rate. Most handsets or mobiles are GSM half rate capable. Use of reserved channels / cell congestion. This equipment consists of the following: • • • • • Double Kiloport Switch (DSW2) Double Kiloport Switch Extender (DSWX) Generic DSP Processing board 2 (GDP2) Remote Transcoder Unit 3 (shelf) (RXU3) Base Station System Cabinet 3 (BSSC3) AMR and GSM half rate is used without the benefit of any of the new hardware. Transceiver capability. in conjunction with the supporting software and firmware. Carrier configuration. although not as efficiently (this is discussed later in the chapter). Influencing factors There are many factors to be taken into account when configuring/operating a system in which AMR and/or GSM half rate is present. • • It is assumed that an AMR-capable handset or mobile includes both fr and hr capability. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-3 . Without new hardware. AMR needs the use of GDPs configured as EGDP(s).

with examples showing the potential gains under a variety of configurations and (half rate) capable handset penetration. Hardware contains a description of the new hardware and what advantages it delivers. such as codec rates and backhaul. The capacity increases made possible with half rate are discussed. It is used in severely congested areas. Quality and capacity describes the benefits of the AMR codecs and how AMR Full Rate and AMR Half Rate compare to the existing GSM codecs. This configuration provides quality voice coverage until congestion is reached. The information in Quality and capacity can be used to help determine how AMR full rate and AMR/ GSM half rate is utilized. 68P02900W21-S 4-4 01 Feb 2007 . As stated earlier. • • Rate adaptation provides information on the rate adaptation characteristics of AMR. and what combination of new and old equipment is to be utilized. This method is robust but provides no capacity advantage per carrier. It is particularly suited to areas where adverse propagation conditions prevail. Forced half rate: This is used when capacity is paramount. The information contained in Half rate utilization can be used to help configure the system to maximum effectiveness when half rate is used. This capacity on demand configuration is well suited for environments with varying traffic patterns. there are three primary methods of AMR usage. Voice quality is sacrificed to carry more calls per carrier.Introduction to AMR and GSM planning Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Planning The system operator must decide how the system should operate with regard to full and half rate. two of which apply to GSM half rate: • AMR full rate only (AMR only): This has the advantage of providing better voice quality under a broad range of channel conditions. or where voice quality is not a concern. Miscellaneous information provides information on emergency call handling and circuit pooling. Also discussed are the benefits in coverage of AMR Full Rate. Other decisions. at which time half rate is employed. A mix of full rate and half rate: Full rate is generally used until the cell becomes congested. The GSM Half Rate codec is compared to the other GSM codecs. must also be made. Utilization of the half rate capability of AMR and/or GSM half rate.

The overall improvements are dependant upon channel quality (C/I). 7. propagation conditions) and are beyond the scope of this chapter. The graphs in Figure 4-1 to Figure 4-3 and the accompanying information are extracted from GSM 06. This translates to an improvement in terminal or BTS sensitivity. However. an AMR FR codec mode. The half rate mode of AMR can be utilized to obtain a capacity gain on the air interface. Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) are subjective. This can result in potentially higher traffic loading.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Quality and capacity Quality and capacity Benefits of AMR The ability of the AMR codec to change dynamically the allocation of source and channel coding bits provides a high level of speech quality. AMR Full Rate and AMR Half Rate speech quality Introduction Here. The conditions used in the tests are no background impairments. This can be tied to congestion at the cell level to provide capacity gains on an as needed basis. However. the benefits of AMR do not extend to the signaling channels.0). and ideal frequency hopping. or improved coverage in buildings.75 (v. is selected. but is subject to the limit of robustness of the signaling channels (presumed to be at least 2 dB. static channel conditions. As channel quality deteriorates. This allows good speech quality to be maintained under conditions 6 dB worse than the corresponding level for EFR. the relative performance of the AMR Full Rate and Half Rate speech codecs is shown for comparative purposes. a codec with a higher level of error protection (and a corresponding decrease in speech quality) is selected. Range extension is discussed further in AMR voice quality improvement and coverage later in this chapter. or to the use of non-AMR codecs and data services. which has a low source-coding rate and a high level of error protection. a capacity gain can be realized because of the ability to operate at a lower C/I threshold. Under high channel error conditions.2. leading to an increase in sensitivity of the transceivers. Capacity gains of this type are dependent on other factors (for example. and possibly as high as 4 dB or 6 dB). the relative performance of the codecs to each other is reliable. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-5 . This can be exploited for range extension. With AMR operating in full rate mode. or in a mix of full rate and half rate where handovers between the modes is permitted. Test conditions affect MOS. Performance Characterization of the GSM Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) speech codec. thus providing optimum performance.

Quality and capacity Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning AMR Full Rate In Figure 4-1.0 Sel.66 C/I= 1 dB Figure 4-2 shows the individual codec modes for AMR FR/clean speech. 68P02900W21-S 4-6 01 Feb 2007 .0 2.65 3.05 C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB C/I= 4 dB 3.01 4. as illustrated in Figure 4-1.96 3. Requirements AMR-FR EFR 4. Figure 4-1 AMR FR/clean speech versus EFR versus performance requirements MOS 5.0 3.01 4.0 4.06 4.08 3.65 3.13 4.01 4.01 C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB 4.53 2. AMR FR speech quality (best AMR codec) is compared with EFR and performance requirements under a range of channel conditions.59 1. Requirements AMR-FR EFR Conditions 1.01 4.06 4.0 No Errors Sel.

59 3.50 1.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Quality and capacity Figure 4-2 AMR FR/clean speech codec modes MOS 5.84 3.29 3.52 C/I= 4 dB 1.53 1.0 EFR 12.95 7.69 3.11 3.93 4.65 3.0 3.80 C/I= 7 dB 3.77 3.72 3.2 7.75 No Errors C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB 4.9 5.0 EFR 12.7 5.4 6.01 3.05 3.58 3.15 4.43 Conditions C/I= 1 dB 1.86 3.06 4.05 4.96 4.91 3. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-7 .0 2.15 4.96 3.01 4.94 C/I=10 dB 3.4 6.01 4.0 4.75 4.01 4.46 2.80 3.9 5.04 3.39 1.87 2.26 3.66 AMR half rate Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4 show performance curves for AMR HR speech quality compared to EFR as well as GSM FR and HR under the same range of channel conditions as the AMR FR comparison shown in Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2.95 7.98 3.20 2.44 3.7 5.43 1.83 3.13 3.06 3.2 10.43 2.44 3.50 3.2 7.2 10.08 3.

0 3.50 2.96 3.38 3.10 3.11 4.24 2.99 4.99 4.0 Sel.21 3.50 3.34 2.21 3.80 C/I= 4 dB 1.0 AMR-HR EFR FR HR 1.14 3.74 3.50 3. Requirements AMR-HR EFR FR HR 3.0 No Errors Sel.Quality and capacity Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Figure 4-3 AMR HR/clean speech versus EFR versus GSM FR versus GSM HR versus performance requirements MOS 5.99 3.50 1.74 3.58 1.72 4. Requirements 2.0 4.35 C/I=19 dB C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB C/I=10 dB C/I= 7 dB 3.74 2.92 Conditions 68P02900W21-S 4-8 01 Feb 2007 .04 3.00 1.14 3.

0 3.38 3.93 3.0 to be the accepted communications quality level.74 2.04 3.78 2.94 3. at which time some fr calls can also be moved to hr.4 6.93 3.58 1.7 5.34 1.95 7.24 C/I= 7 dB 3.60 3.0 EFR 7.11 3.7 5.19 3.53 2.21 1.14 3.22 2. considerably better at lower C/I levels.72 3.42 3. including forcing all calls to use hr all the time.96 3.80 1. If one considers a MOS score of 3.35 4. as well as many others.70 3.00 1.0 EFR 7.10 2.75 FR HR Conditions No Errors 4.53 3.50 1.37 3.92 C/I= 4 dB 1.21 4.95 7.9 5. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-9 . The Motorola system supports this configuration.95 3.46 C/I=19 dB C/I=16 dB C/I=13 dB 4.74 2.9 5.10 3. but not as good as EFR.59 3.60 3.0 2.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Quality and capacity Figure 4-4 AMR HR/clean speech codec modes MOS 5.68 3. A hr call can also be moved to a fr channel through an interference-based handover.74 3. equipment permitting.0 4.4 6. MOS scores are subjective and vary depending upon customer expectations. This behavior suggests that one viable deployment strategy is to use the fr mode until capacity limitations force calls to utilize hr mode.82 3. Selection of a particular mode of operation is up to the user.85 3.21 3. AMR HR speech quality is better than GSM FR and HR.15 4.57 2.15 4. depending on the congestion state of the cell and system parameter settings.90 3.52 3.50 3. then at lower C/I levels (7 dB and 4 dB) the AMR HR speech coder quality is poor.84 2.33 1.60 1.50 C/I=10 dB 3.30 3. AMR hr provides the capacity benefit of allowing two calls to exist in the space of one timeslot.75 FR HR Conclusions The MOS scores for AMR FR are higher than EFR.

The coverage reliability is expected to increase by 5 to 8 percentage points depending on the frequency reuse patterns. A study has been done to quantify the potential coverage gains. System is 100% loaded: all the available physical resources are used (this is the worst-case assumption . All terminals are AMR. and the shadowing lognormal standard deviation is 10 dB. The link budget improvement can potentially lead to an increase in cell areas around 27%.Quality and capacity Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning AMR voice quality improvement and coverage Analysis has shown that AMR FR under C/I = 13 dB provides the same quality of service (MOS = 4) as GSM FR/EFR under C/I = 15 dB.6% 16. 68P02900W21-S 4-10 01 Feb 2007 .5% 16.6% 10. This can translate to an increase in coverage area. Table 4-1 AMR potential coverage gains Frequency re-use pattern Coverage at 15 dB Coverage at 13 dB Gain in coverage (increase in cell radius) Gain in coverage area 1-3-3 3-1-3 3-3-9 4-1-4 4-3-12 7-1-7 7-3-21 44% 57% 81% 70% 92% 88% 98% 36% 49% 74% 62% 87% 82% 96% 8% 8% 7% 8% 5% 6% 2% 16. The following assumptions are used: • • • • • System is interference-limited (the impact of thermal noise is negligible compared with the level of interference). Non-AMR terminal performance could be degraded under these conditions.76. Path loss exponent assumed to be 3. The results of the study are shown in Table 4-1. AMR FR provides better overall voice quality than GSM FR/EFR under comparable radio conditions. The majority of terminals are AMR.4% 4% First digit = # cell sites.3% 12. second digit = # sectors/cell and third digit = # carriers/cell. Power control and any type of DTX are not used. This type of increase in coverage applies to existing networks where site spacing can be modified or new networks where it has to be selected.coverage gains increase with less loading).6% 14.

A hr call is also moved to a fr channel through an interference-based handover. this is a trade-off with quality). Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) are subjective and can vary depending upon customer expectations. Selection of a particular mode of operation is the decision of the user. the GSM Half Rate codec voice quality performance is inferior to the other codecs. The Motorola system supports this configuration. This suggests a deployment strategy of using fr mode until capacity limitations force calls to utilize hr mode. corresponding to the proportion of mobiles within a coverage area that supports Half Rate. For each configuration. at which time some fr calls can also be moved to hr. The use of half rate can be tied to congestion at the cell level to provide capacity gains on a needed basis. including forcing all calls to use hr all the time. it is considered a viable option for high-density areas. The conditions used in the tests are no background impairments. The GSM Half Rate codec uses the VSELP (Vector-Sum Excited Linear Prediction) algorithm. As the penetration level rises. The actual increase in call carrying capacity is typically less than 100% due in part to the penetration level of half rate capable handsets. GSM half rate has a high penetration level (of GSM HR capable mobiles) due to its early introduction into the standards. Capacity increase due to half rate usage On the air interface up to twice as many calls can be handled in a cell when half rate is used (as previously mentioned. Test conditions affect MOS. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-11 . However. In conclusion. The VSELP algorithm is an analysis-by-synthesis coding technique and belongs to the class of speech coding algorithms known as CELP (Code Excited Linear Prediction).System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Quality and capacity Benefits of GSM half rate GSM Half Rate offers enhanced capacity over the air interface. as well as many others. In Figure 4-4 to Figure 4-8. FR. GSM Half Rate speech quality Figure 4-1 shows how GSM Half Rate compares with the EFR. equipment permitting. the capacity increase is shown as a function of the handset penetration level. depending on the congestion state of the cell and system parameter settings. The benefits of GSM half rate are an increase in capacity at a cell without requiring additional transceiver boards or carriers. and AMR HR codecs. as well as a quality-based handover when no viable candidate neighbor cells exist. the carried Erlangs (at 2% blocking) are shown for a variety of carrier configurations. and ideal frequency hopping. static channel conditions. the relative performance of the codecs to each other is reliable. Due to these large penetration levels. the half rate carriers become more efficient.

00 68P02900W21-S 4-12 01 Feb 2007 .000 5. Preference is at call establishment to assign a hr-capable handset an idle subchannel on a timeslot that has the other subchannel occupied with a call.80 0. else.000 20.10 0. Graphs The graphs are intended to illustrate the call carrying effectiveness as a function of hr carriers and hrcapable MS penetration and do not take into account any control channels. Preference is to assign a fr-capable only handset to a fr carrier if available.30 0.60 0.000 0.50 0.40 0.70 AMR Capable MS Penetration 0.000 15. it is assigned to a hr-capable carrier. else a fr timeslot on a fr carrier.000 10. only one hr-capable carrier Carried Erlangs (at ~2% blocking) 25.20 0.90 1. Figure 4-5 3 carriers.000 0.00 0. The actual carried Erlangs can be slightly less than the Erlangs in the graphs.Quality and capacity Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning The results shown were obtained through simulation and under the following assumptions: • • • A hr-capable handset is given a hr timeslot if available.

000 5.000 0.000 30.00 0.000 15.60 0.000 30. only one hr-capable carrier Carried Erlangs (at ~2% blocking) 40.000 25.000 10.40 0.40 0.000 10.000 0.000 35.000 25.000 35.000 0.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Quality and capacity Figure 4-6 3 carriers.20 0. all hr-capable Carried Erlangs (at ~2% blocking) 40.00 0.20 0.000 20.000 20.000 0.80 1.00 AMR Capable MS Penetration 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-13 .000 15.80 1.00 AMR Capable MS Penetration Figure 4-7 5 carriers.60 0.000 5.

000 20.000 10. GSM hr-capable handset penetration is expected to be high.Quality and capacity Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Figure 4-8 5 carriers.000 0.000 20.50 0.000 40.20 0. in a 5 carrier cell with a 50% handset penetration rate. for some deployment strategies such as a maximum capacity configuration. For example.000 0. there is not much difference in Erlang capacity between a 3 hr-capable carrier configuration and a 5 (all) hr-capable carrier configuration.000 40. only 3 hr-capable carriers Carried Erlangs (at ~2% blocking) 60.000 70.000 30.70 AMR Capable MS Penetration 0.000 60.10 0. 68P02900W21-S 4-14 01 Feb 2007 .30 0.00 0.00 Figure 4-9 5 carriers.80 0.000 10.90 1. The 5 hr-capable carrier configuration is better able to utilize the extra capacity that hr offers as the handset penetration rises.20 0.00 Conclusions Figure 4-4 to Figure 4-8 are useful in illustrating that.30 0.80 0. all hr-capable carriers Carried Erlangs (at ~2% blocking) 80.000 0.40 0. more carrier equipment should be configured as hr-capable when hrcapable handset penetration raises.70 AMR Capable MS Penetration 0.000 50.000 30.10 0.40 0.00 0.000 0.60 0.60 0.50 0.90 1.000 50.

The Motorola algorithm attempts first to assign new calls to timeslots that have one subchannel in use before using a timeslot with both subchannels idle. Other strategies. in general. would need fewer hr-capable carriers. Simulations have been carried out under a variety of configurations and conditions. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-15 . ensure that the call capacity rating of the various components of the system have not exceeded. Timeslot usage This section briefly describes timeslot configuration and the algorithm used to optimize usage. it is best to use both subchannels of a single timeslot rather than one subchannel on two timeslots. This frees up contiguous subchannels for use in a fr call. Limiting the number of hr capable carriers in a cell can reduce this disparity. such as utilizing hr only during periods of high demand. and so on). To optimize capacity. a half rate call has the same impact as a full rate call.5% or less resulted for the fr only handsets (as compared with the hr-capable handsets). That is. additional blocking of 1.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Quality and capacity When migrating a system to one that includes half rate. A GSM carrier consists of 8 timeslots. Figure 4-4 to Figure 4-8 demonstrates how even adding one hr-capable carrier can increase Erlang capacity. it is desirable not to have fragmented hr usage. At any instance. originations. but from a load perspective. It was also considered whether to further pack hr calls together through intra-cell handover whenever fragmenting reaches a level where a fr call can be blocked. handovers. Some degree of fragmenting is unavoidable as calls begin and end and the algorithm attempts to fill in the holes as new calls arrive. Although the results varied according to penetration rate and configuration. a carrier contains a combination of fr and hr calls. each voice call occupies one timeslot. the timeslot is split into two subchannels. In full rate. This applies to all arriving calls (for example. In half rate. each of which is capable of supporting one hr call. A fr call cannot be carried within two subchannels split across two timeslots. and it was determined that the negative aspects of performing the otherwise unnecessary handover outweighs the slight capacity gain. depending on configuration. Use of hr improves the spectral efficiency over the air interface (and potentially the backhaul). This provides a large degree of concentration. some or all of which can be used for voice traffic.

hence. This is called the Active Codec Set (ACS). 5.Rate adaptation Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Rate adaptation Introduction Rate Adaptation (RA) is particular to AMR and refers to the control and selection of the codec mode based upon channel quality.95 kbit/s 7. 7.4 kbit/s 6. Half Rate: 7. 68P02900W21-S 4-16 01 Feb 2007 . If 16 kbit/s backhaul is used for the BTS-BSC interface (that is 4 x 64 kbit/s timeslots per hr carrier) then the 7.15 kbit/s. The shaded areas indicate the codec modes that are not supported. The result is the selection of 5 fr and 5 hr codec modes. The term Codec Mode refers to one of the various choices of bit partitioning between the speech and error protection bits. 10.9 kbit/s 5. An analysis has been performed to determine that common set of codec modes should be supported across all the CCU platforms (not all platforms could support all of the codec modes).2 kbit/s.2 kbit/s 10.4 kbit/s 6.4 kbit/s. default values were determined for the ACS and initial codec modes. 8 for the fr channel mode.95 kbit/s 7.4 kbit/s. and 5. ideal frequency hopped system with a co-channel interferer and a typical urban multipath channel model.2 kbit/s. The conditions is a 900 MHz. The ACS can be selected from the supported codec modes. one for uplink and one for downlink. The analysis provided the following defaults for the ACS: • • Full Rate: 12. Up to 4 codec modes are utilized for any given voice call. Another name for it is Codec Mode Adaptation. These initial values are subjected to change and are appropriate for all conditions. Table 4-2 Supported AMR codecs Speech codec bit rate (fr) Is codec mode supported? Speech codec bit rate (hr) Supported? 12. there are 2 sets of associated thresholds and hysteresis. and 5.7 kbit/s 5.75 kbit/s N/A N/A Y Y Y Y Y N Through simulation and testing.2 kbit/s 7.75 kbit/s Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes N/A N/A 7.95 kbit/s codec mode is added to the hr ACS.9 kbit/s.7 kbit/s 5. and 6 for the hr channel mode.15 kbit/s 4. The speech is at a nominal input level and is not degraded by background noise.15 kbit/s 4.15 kbit/s.9 kbit/s 5. Codec modes 14 codec modes are defined for AMR. as shown in Table 4-2. The uplink and downlink directions can each use a different codec mode.

95 codec mode is added to the HR ACS. The analysis provided the following default values: • • FR initial codec mode: 10.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Rate adaptation An initial codec mode is also required.7 kbit/s even if the 7. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-17 .7 kbit/s. meaning that the threshold and hysteresis values are out of the range of the C/I measuring ability of the MS.2 kbit/s. thresholds and hystereses C/I CODEC_MODE_4 THR_3 + HYST_3 =THR_MX_ Up (3) THR_3 CODEC_MODE_3 THR_2 + HYST_2 =THR_MX_ Up (2) THR_2 CODEC_MODE_2 THR_1 + HYST_1 =THR_MX_ Up (1) CODEC_MODE_1 THR_1 = THR_MX_ Dn (2) = THR_MX_ Dn (3) = THR_MX_ Dn (4) Rate adaptation thresholds and hystereses are set on a per cell basis. HR initial codec mode: 6. A list of parameters with their ranges and default values (subject to change) is provided in Table 4-3 for completeness. The BSS uses the Codec Mode Requests and the reported RXQUAL values from the MS to determine if the threshold and hysteresis values used by the MS are inefficient. For this reason. The HR initial codec mode remains at 6. The BSS instructs the MS of the change in threshold and hysteresis values using the Channel Mode Modify procedure. Figure 4-10 Rate adaptations: codec modes. Downlink adaptation MS monitor There is a risk that certain mobiles have an impaired ability to estimate correctly the C/I for a channel in certain conditions. resulting in the MS being unable to adapt its codec mode efficiently. For these mobiles the codec mode adaptation threshold and hysteresis values proves to be inefficient. the BSS monitors mobiles to detect such scenarios. Thresholds and hystereses Associated with the Active Codec Set are the thresholds and hystereses used for the codec mode adaptation in the BSS and the MR for both uplink and downlink directions. and increase or decrease the threshold and hysteresis values accordingly. The codec mode is changed rapidly in response to the changing radio conditions as illustrated in Figure 4-10.

The threshold defaults to 0.5% BER or RXQUAL4 50% 100% 95% 0QBand Units 7QBand Units 4QBand Units amr_ms_low _rxqual 0QBand Units 7QBand Units 2QBand Units Threshold for monitoring MSs continually requesting the lowest mode. then the MS monitor functionality is disabled. The threshold defaults to 2. Range is 1 to 7 dB in steps of 1 dB. If the user specifies a value of zero. 68P02900W21-S 4-18 01 Feb 2007 .Rate adaptation Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Table 4-3 BSS parameters used to determine MS threshold and hysteresis Parameter amr_ms_monitor _period Minimum Maximum Default Description 10SACCH periods 120SACCH periods 40SACCH periods Used for detecting MSs continually requesting the highest or lowest modes. Percentages for monitoring AMR MSs continually requesting the lowest codec mode.5% BER or RXQUAL 2 amr_dl_thresh _adjust 1 dB 7 dB 3 dB For applying compensation to the C/I adaptation thresholds. amr_ms_high _cmr amr_ms_low _cmr amr_ms_high _rxqual 50% 100% 99% Percentages for monitoring AMR MSs continually requesting the highest codec mode. Threshold for monitoring AMR MSs continually requesting the highest codec mode.

It does not explain how they are used. These values (see Table 4-4. Analysis has been carried out to determine a default set of AMR-specific Rxqual threshold values. The Rxlev thresholds are applicable to both AMR and non-AMR calls. The half rate Rxqual values are used for both GSM half rate and AMR half rate operation. The existing parameters and levels are still applicable to non-AMR calls. new thresholds are provided for AMR-specific use. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-19 . The ranges are not indicated either.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Handover and power control Handover and power control Introduction to handover and power control This section explains the new AMR and GSM half rate specific handover and power control threshold parameters. are applicable to the fr ACS and the hr ACS as described in Rate adaptation. hence no new Rxlev parameters are introduced. as behavior at Rxqual decision points is similar. Handover and power control thresholds The upper and lower Rxqual thresholds for handover and power control are affected by the ACS within a cell. The default database values follow the recommendations of Rxlev Handovers Disabled and Uplink diversity. which are preliminary and subject to change. as this is according to current operation. As a result. as they are like the existing values.

all figures in QBand Units Threshold name Non Frequency Hopping No UL Diversity RXLEV enabled l_rxqua l_XX_p_ amr_fr l_rxqua l_XX_h_ amr_fr l_rxqua l_XX_p_ hopping _amr_fr l_rxqua l_XX_h_ hopping _amr_fr l_rxqua l_XX_p_ hr l_rxqua l_XX_h_ hr u_rxqua l_XX_p_ hr l_rxqua l_XX_p_ hopping _hr l_rxqua l_XX_h_ hopping _hr RXLEV disabled UL Diversity RXLEV enabled RXLEV disabled RXLEV enabled Frequency Hopping No UL Diversity RXLEV disabled UL Diversity RXLEV enabled RXLEV disabled 3/3 3/3 4/3 4/3 4/4 4/4 5/4 5/4 4/4 4/4 5/4 5/4 5/5 5/5 6/5 6/5 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 3/3 3/3 3/3 3/3 0/0 0/0 0/0 0/0 2/2 2/2 2/2 2/2 3/3 3/3 3/3 3/3 XX refers to ul or dl. 68P02900W21-S 4-20 01 Feb 2007 .Handover and power control Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Table 4-4 Handover and power control .Full and Half Rate default values Thresholds (UL/DL) .

and both hr_intracell_ho_allowed and force_hr_usage allow for it. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-21 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Handover and power control Regarding intra-cell hr to fr handovers: An intra-cell handover from a hr channel to a fr channel is attempted either if an interference based handover is indicated (the received quality is of a BER greater than l_rxqual_xx_h_hr and the signal level is u_rxlev_xx_ih and both hr_intracell_ho_allowed and force_hr_usage allow for it). or A quality-based handover is indicated and there are no viable neighbor cells.

the MSC must select a CIC. If the MSC allocates an A interface circuit. BSC planning steps and rules. The older XCDR card only supports GSM full rate. If AMR is indicated as the only option and a CIC attached to a GDP is selected. EGDP/GDP2) is used in conjunction with AMR being enabled. Siemens. it is incumbent upon the MSC to do the selection. while the EGDP supports fr. Therefore. which is attached to an EGDP or GDP2. the terrestrial circuit allocated by the MSC is selected taking into account the circuit pool the circuit belongs to and the required channel type. if AMR is the only option allowed in the Channel Type element of the Assignment Request or Handover Request messages. Layer 3 specification. Failing that.) This topic is expanded upon in Transcoding in Chapter 6. the call is rejected.Alcatel supports circuit pool 27. This can be realized in practice by grouping the circuits into pools supporting the same channel types. The GDP supports FR. EFR. 68P02900W21-S 4-22 01 Feb 2007 .BSS) interface. certain circuits can be used for different combinations of bearer capabilities. the MSC must avoid choosing an EGDP CIC. Circuit pooling On the terrestrial route connecting the BSS and the MSC. The MSC vendors (Alcatel. Mobile-services Switching Centre Base Station System (MSC . (Specifically it was asked about circuit pool 26. a call of a lower priority is pre-empted. The ability of the MSC to select a CIC based on the available channel types is called circuit pooling. and Transcoding in Chapter 7. if possible. it should only ask for resources from the BSS that it knows are not incompatible with the nominated circuit. Similarly. If AMR is one of the possible options (FR or EFR being the others) then the MSC should select an EGDP/GDP2 CIC. For more detailed information on circuit pooling. followed by a timeslot carrying two hr calls (both being of lower priority). GSM HR and EFR speech only. when GSM HR is the only option allowed. The MSC holds this information as route data. If necessary to do so. and AMR. a lower priority single occupancy hr call (the other subchannel is idle) is searched for. the software attempts to minimize the disruption by choosing first a fr call of lower priority. EFR. which all except Alcatel support . If the call is not AMR possible. and Nortel) support circuit pooling. nor the circuit pool and circuit pool list elements. The GDP2 supports FR. When selecting a call to pre-empt. When a mix of transcoding equipment (GDP. RXCDR planning steps and rules.Miscellaneous information Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Miscellaneous information Emergency call handling It is a priority to place an emergency call upon a fr channel. GSM HR. refer to GSM 08. the MSC should select a GDP CIC. The BSC does not support the option to do the CIC selection. In the case where several circuit pools (groups of circuits supporting the same channel types) are available on the BSS MSC interface. Nokia. and AMR.

It is configurable on a cell basis. some parts of the existing congestion relief feature set. The parameter is checked upon arrival of a new call entering the system and for all handovers. This parameter range is 0-101 in steps of 1%. When triggered. For multi-zone cells. Brief descriptions of these parameters and their impact to system operation are provided here. the BSS considers only outer zone resources when establishing whether the threshold has been exceeded. Both the fr and hr resources within the outer zone are used for the calculation. Congestion relief Some capabilities of hr utilization are similar to. There are two sets of thresholds defined within a cell that control the triggering of congestion based intercell handovers: tch_congest_prevent_thres (1-101) mb_tch_congest_thres (1-101) 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-23 . in particular. The parameter is checked upon arrival of a new call entering the system and all handovers. on a cell basis that can trigger the handover of some calls to neighboring cells in order to reduce congestion in the triggering cell. in units of percentage. These features must be enabled in order for those particular hr capabilities to operate properly. See also the Inner zone utilization threshold. Advanced congestion relief allows the operator to set thresholds. the MSC channel type preference is overridden whenever possible. Parameter descriptions Unconditionally forcing hr usage Force hr usage (force_hr_usage) This parameter allows the operator to force hr usage when assigning a resource.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Half rate utilization Half rate utilization Description Some parameters associated with the usage of half rate (hr) have been introduced to allow the operator to tailor their system to suit their needs. It is configurable on a BSS basis. A brief description of the pertinent congestion relief features is provided for completeness. Cell congestion threshold forcing hr usage Congestion threshold for hr usage (new_calls_hr) This parameter is used to qualify hr usage in a cell with the level of cell congestion (that is. or make use of the calculations of. The parameter can be set to enable or disable and defaults to disable. busy traffic channels). The MSC channel type preference is overridden whenever possible. directed retry and advanced congestion relief. The value of 101 indicates the mechanism is disabled and is the default value.

the BSS reconfigures. the BSS considers only outer zone resources when establishing whether the threshold has been exceeded. This parameter range is 0-101 in steps of 1%. some fr calls within a cell are reconfigured (by handover) to a hr channel within the same cell in order to reduce congestion in that cell. This qualification is performed in an attempt to ensure that the operator is provided with adequate QoS when the call is reassigned to a half rate traffic channel. Attempts to handover as many call as meet the congestion handover criteria. mb_tch_congest_thres must be less than or equal to tch_congest_prevent_thres. It is configurable on a cell basis. so only the MSs near the candidate cell(s) are moved. For multi-zone cells. which are at the extremities of the cell by using a power budget calculation involving the neighbor handover congestion margin. The criteria identify calls. See also the Inner zone utilization threshold. Call reconfiguration threshold Intra-cell fr to hr call reconfiguration threshold (reconfig_fr_to_hr) When the indicated threshold is exceeded. which is identified by the existing congestion relief calculations as being at the extremities of the cell. This mechanism works in conjunction with the congestion relief feature. Once triggered.Half rate utilization Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning The tch_congest_prevent_thres parameter specifies the level at which the congestion relief procedure is initiated. The BSS does not perform reassignment to a half rate traffic channel for a call. When the congestion relief threshold (tch_congest_prevent_thres) exceeds. 68P02900W21-S 4-24 01 Feb 2007 . The value of 101 indicates the mechanism is disabled and is the default value. Inner zone utilization threshold Inner zone utilization threshold (inner_hr_usage_thres) This parameter is necessary because the reconfig_fr_to_hr and new_calls_hr thresholds are triggered by the usage of the outer zone only within a cell. Calls within the cell consider RF conditions. resulting in the new call being moved to an alternative cell. Directed retry (mb_tch_congest_thres) redirects new traffic when the cell is congested. the BSS behaves according to the setting of the element ho_exist_congest: • • Attempts to handover as many calls as the number of queued requests. as many qualifying existing hr-capable calls (currently using fr) to use hr as there are hr resources available. The threshold is calculated upon arrival of a new call entering the system and all handovers. The qualification is based upon the existing congestion relief (directed retry alternatives) criteria for congestion based inter-cell handovers. and needs congestion relief to be enabled (within the cell). The BSS applies qualification criteria to the half rate capable full rate calls before allowing the reconfiguration to a half rate traffic channel. Both the fr and hr resources within the outer zone are used for the calculation. The mb_tch_congest_thres parameter specifies the level at which a MultiBand MS is redirected to the preferred band.

It protects against reconfigurations within. It is configurable on a cell basis. although it is configurable on all cells and not just multi-zone cells. when the usage of the inner zone is low. The situation can occur where the inner zone has low usage but the outer zone is congested such that the reconfig_fr_to_hr threshold is exceeded. The default value is 2 timeslots (each timeslot is capable of supporting two hr calls). This parameter range is 0-101 in steps of 1%. Reserved timeslots Half rate resource guard limit (hr_res_ts) When congestion triggered half rate usage either is employed. The value of 101 indicates no half-rate usage in the inner zone and is the default value. If the threshold reconfig_fr_to_hr has been exceeded.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Half rate utilization Both concentric cells and dual band cells are multi-zone cells. The BSS attempts to trigger full rate to half rate intra-cell handovers for the calls that qualify. and new hr calls assigned to the inner zone. an additional threshold is applied. hr_res_ts is also limited by the number of half rate capable resources available in the cell or zone. If some of the calls that qualify reside within the inner zone. in multi-zone cells. through call assignments (cell congestion threshold forcing hr usage) or through reconfigurations (call reconfiguration threshold). A similar situation can occur when the new_calls_hr threshold is exceeded and new calls are assigned. there are half rate capable resources available within the inner zone to allow half rate utilization related procedures to be employed. It is configurable on a cell basis. When reserved timeslots only are left within an inner zone. the operator has the option to allow the BSS to reserve a maximum number of (half rate capable) traffic timeslots within the inner zone. The reserved timeslots are applied to the inner zone only. The BSS limits the hr_res_ts for the inner zone if the BSS detects that the inner_hr_usage_thres is not able to exceed if the hr_res_ts element is left as the user defined. the BSS attempts to reconfigure these half rate capable full rate calls to half rate when the inner zone is not congested. there must be available hr resources for the mechanism to work properly. The inner zone utilization threshold (inner_hr_usage_thres) is used for this purpose. However. To ensure that there are half rate resources available. half rate capable calls are eligible to be assigned directly to half rate channels within the inner zone if the inner_hr_usage_thres has also been exceeded. This is normally accounted for by setting reconfig_fr_to_hr and new_calls_hr such that when they are triggered. If the threshold new_calls_hr has been exceeded. It has no effect when set on a non multi-zone cell. there are sufficient resources available for the half rate calls. a full rate resource is sought in the outer zone before the reserved timeslots in the inner zone being considered. This facility is provided to ensure that when a multi-zone cell enters into congestion. inner zone resources could be exhausted before any congestion thresholds are reached (the thresholds only consider outer zone resources). The actual value within the inner zone can be dynamically limited to be less than hr_res_ts by the BSS. This parameter range is 0-255 in steps of one timeslot. half rate capable full rate calls residing on the inner zone are eligible as candidates for reconfiguration from full rate to half rate if the inner_hr_usage_thres has also been exceeded. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-25 . The inner_hr_usage_thres is applied when the utilization of half rate is triggered by reconfig_fr_to_hr being exceeded and when new_calls_hr is exceeded. To prevent these situations from occurring.

then the control for this hr intra-cell handover is passed to the MSC by sending a Handover required message. This parameter range is 0-255 in steps of 1. it indicates that the cell is experiencing problems with bad interference and the call would be best served by the network by being moved to another cell. All intra-cell half rate interference handovers contribute to the existing hop_count. the BSS attempts to allocate a hr or fr target resource for the hr intra-cell interference based handover.Half rate utilization Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Intra-cell hop count Number of intra-cell interference handovers (hr_fr_hop_count). The element has 4 possible values. If handover required is sent to MSC. Intra-zone intra-cell hr interference handovers are governed by the BSS in a similar manner to how fr calls are governed by the existing hop_count and hop_count_timer elements. The default value is 1 hop. If so many intra-cell interference based handovers are performed in a short period. handovers are disabled. This functionality mirrors the fr functionality specified by the element: intra_cell_handover_allowed. If hr_intracell_ho_allowed is set such that hr intra-cell handovers are enabled and fr is only allowed. used to qualify the new hr (hr_fr_hop_count) element and the existing element (hop_count). An inter-cell handover is not triggered by hr_fr_hop_count. If hr_intracell_ho_allowed is set such that hr intracell handovers are disabled. which take effect when a hr intra-cell handover is triggered by the BSS. The hop count timer (hop_count_timer) is an existing parameter. the BSS attempts to allocate a fr channel as a target resource for the hr intra-cell interference or quality-based handover. The BSS does not allow an intra-cell congestion handover to be performed by a call for which the hr_fr_hop_count is met and the hop_count_timer has not expired. This allows a call experiencing repeated high interference levels to remain on a fr channel rather than hr during congestion. A qualitybased handover always targets a fr channel. based on the congestion levels within the cell. The intra-cell handover request is ignored by the BSS. A similar mechanism is employed for intra-cell half rate interference handovers. Quality based handovers always target a full rate channel when handovers are enabled. Then no Handover Required is sent to MSC. The value of the element causes the following behavior: If hr_intracell_ho_allowed is set to hr intra-cell. the MSC preference and the user preference. 68P02900W21-S 4-26 01 Feb 2007 . If the hop_count is exceeded within the hop_count_timer period. It is configurable on a cell basis. The force_hr_usage element overrides any preference specified with the hr_intracell_ho_allowed element. the BSS triggers an inter-cell quality based handover for the call.full and/or half rate. The hr_fr_hop_count parameter is provided to limit the number of intra-cell interference based handovers from hr to fr. If hr_intracell_ho_allowed is set such that hr intra-cell handovers are enabled and hr is allowed. This functionality mirrors the fr functionality specified by the element: intra_cell_handover_allowed. then hr intra-cell handovers are not supported within the cell. hr intra-cell handover support Enable/Disable (support) of hr intra-cell handover (hr_intracell_ho_allowed). identifying the current cell as the only handover candidate. The hr_intracell_ho_allowed element contains an option to disable intra-cell quality handovers for half rate channels. For interference based handovers it further specifies the possible target channel types . It must be set to a value less than or equal to hop_count. The current functionality restricts the number (hop_count) of intra-cell interference based handovers within a period (hop_count_timer). for this functionality the existing hop_count parameter is used.

The inner zone utilization threshold is used in multi-zone cells and prevents unnecessary inner zone reconfigurations. with call quality of secondary concern. This allows calls to be handled at the higher voice quality (fr) level until cell congestion reaches a configurable threshold. Half-rate Intra-Cell handovers are enabled. Half-rate and full-rate allowed. hr_intracell_ho_allowed can then be set to allow hr to fr intra-cell handovers. By using the existing congestion relief feature and the cell reconfiguration threshold. When this mechanism is employed. Half-rate intra-cell handovers are disabled. Congestion is calculated as a function of busy timeslots (and half timeslots) divided by all timeslots (not counting control channels). then a value of 2 should be used. As described earlier. provided it is possible (that is MSC allows AMR hr and/or GSM hr. to tie hr usage to the congestion level within a cell (new_calls_hr). The default value is 3. the operator can decide to maximize half rate usage in the system by enabling the force AMR hr usage parameter (force_hr_usage). a hr channel is available. and so on). cell. Where half rate is being used to provide capacity gains using half rate but with more emphasis placed on call quality. the CIC is capable of the transcoding. then a value of 3 should be used. This forces all hr-capable MSs to be placed upon an available hr capable carrier. It is recommended that hr_intracell_ho_allowed is set to a value of 2 or 3 dependent on the half rate (AMR or GSM) strategy of the network. additional capacity can be attained. less congested.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Half rate utilization This parameter range is 0-3 and is configurable on a cell basis. This setting maximizes Erlang capacity in the system at the expense of call quality (due primarily to the lower MOS of hr) and to a lesser extent the prohibiting of hr to fr intra-cell handovers). Operational aspects Using half rate exclusively In some situations. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-27 . a hr channel is available. the CIC is capable of the transcoding. Where half rate is being used to maximize capacity gains by half rate. Where Is 0 1 2 3 Half-rate intra-cell handovers are not initiated by the BSS. Handover required sent to MSC. Half-rate intra-cell handovers are enabled. new_calls_hr can be set low and hr_intracell_ho_allowed used to control intra-cell handovers. at which point new hr-capable calls are assigned to hr channels (hrcapable means that the MSC allows AMR and/or GSM hr. As an alternative to using force_hr_usage. The configuration of parameters takes place as follows: The congestion threshold for hr usage (new_calls_hr) is selected. the congestion relief feature can be used to identify calls most likely to benefit from a switch to another. and perform a handover to move them. the operator can then use the cell reconfiguration capability to increase capacity further by reconfiguring qualifying fr calls to hr. Full-rate only allowed. thus improving call quality in some instances. Using half rate in conjunction with congestion The system is configured on a cell basis. and so on). Handover required not sent to MSC.

Following the descriptions. In these cases. an inner zone utilization threshold is selected. The selection of AMR or GSM is dependent upon the MSC preferences (indicated in the Channel Type element of the Assignment Request or Handover Request messages) and the capabilities of the selected CIC. as calls qualifying for congestion relief are not candidates for fr to hr reconfiguration. In many cases. the reconfiguration threshold must not be set the congestion threshold for hr usage (new_calls_hr). then congestion relief handover should be performed first. then the cell reconfiguration threshold is set at a level at which it wishes to force qualifying MSs (on a fr channel) to be reconfigured to hr (reconfig_fr_to_hr). The hop count timer (hop_count_timer) is also set to the desired value. The level of support of hr intra-cell handovers (hr_intracell_ho_allowed) is configured. Figure 4-11 Congestion threshold settings for AMR half rate CONGESTION HIGH reconfig_fr_to_hr new_calls_hr and inner_hr_usage_thres Congestion relief threshold LOW hr intra-cell handover control The intra-cell hop count (hop_count) is set to the desired value. the inner zone utilization threshold can be set the same as the new call threshold or the reconfiguration threshold. This can be set above or below the congestion relief threshold. When GSM half rate and AMR are enabled in the BSS and in a cell. 68P02900W21-S 4-28 01 Feb 2007 . half rate-enabled carriers are capable of supporting both AMR and GSM calls. If voice quality (that is. otherwise calls could be assigned fr and immediately reconfigured to hr. For multi-zone cells. and the congestion relief feature is enabled.Half rate utilization Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning If it is desired to attain additional capacity through call reconfigurations. The value of these settings is particular to the system being optimized. the thresholds could be set in the pattern shown in Figure 4-11. In addition. fr) is the primary concern. the criteria for inner zone hr utilization is the same as the outer zone. It must be set equal to or less than the hop_count parameter. AMR hr and GSM hr operation AMR hr and GSM hr are compatible with each other.

can support a and 30 channels of FR/EFR/AMR.) EC mode needs the use of all DSW2s and DSWXs. each half rate call needs a full 16 kbit/s backhaul bearer. and are interchangeable (in nonESS and non-EC modes) with. again. EC mode is available in the RXCDR and can be used to increase the number of timeslots available. 8 kbit/s backhaul can be used between the BSC and that RXCDR. Two cards however. with the restriction that a KSWX cannot be connected to a DSWX or viceversa. this can result in a 50% saving in backhaul costs per 8 kbit/s hr-capable carrier. EGDP and GDP2 The current GDP can terminate 30 terrestrial circuits and handle the transcoding for GSM Full Rate (FR). Each new item is described here. When used in the RXCDR along with DSWXs. it allows for double the timeslot capacity (with one extension shelf.BSC interface. For every connected RXCDR with ESS enabled. operating in a tandem configuration through a firmware upgrade. 1024 timeslots per shelf) (called enhanced capacity (EC) mode). the restriction that a KSWX cannot be connected to a DSWX or vice-versa. Use of ESS mode needs all DSW2s to be used (within the BSC or RXCDR). Due to the added processor burden required by AMR. Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) and GSM Half Rate (HR). and GDP2s) needs a specific number of timeslots. GDPs. which provides for additional E1 connectivity. (More detailed information is available in the later chapters of this manual. EGDPs. more combinations of equipment are possible. When ESS mode is enabled in the BSC. KSWXs and DSWXs are used (exclusively or mixed). It takes up one slot and connects to a single E1 span line. or four 64 kbit/s timeslots per carrier.95 codec mode (AMR) is not used. As long as the 7. the backhauled TRAU fits in an 8 kbit/s subchannel. By increasing the number of timeslots available across two shelves. A similar saving can be achieved on the BSC .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Hardware Hardware Equipment descriptions New hardware (and associated software) has been developed to enhance the operation of AMR and/or GSM half rate. It occupies two card slots and can terminate one E1 span line. With 8 kbit/s switching. This arrangement of two GDPs is called an EGDP. the GDP cannot support 30 channels beyond FR/EFR/HR.RXCDR interface. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-29 . ESS mode is used to decrease backhaul costs when half rate is in use between the BTS and BSC and (if also enabled in the RXCDR) the BSC and RXCDR. This capability is likely to be used in conjunction with the RXU3 shelf. DSW2 and DSWX The DSW2 provides two improvements over existing capability: • • It allows for 8 kbit/s subrate switching in the BSC and RXCDR (called extended subrate switching (ESS) mode). 8 kbit/s backhaul can be used between the BTS and BSC. the same backhaul as is required for full rate (two 64 kbit/s timeslots) is used. On the BTS . Without 8 kbit/s switching. Each device (that is MSIs. DSW2s and DSWXs are backwards compatible with KSWs and KSWXs.

depending on how the cabinet shelves are equipped. of which up to 6 slots are used for the transcoder function. as they were designed to hold GDPs (or the older XCDRs). All card combinations are present in a system simultaneously. of which 5 are considered MSI-capable. BSSC3 The BSSC2 cabinet has connectivity for up to 48 E1 span lines. a new BSSC3 cabinet has been developed which can terminate up to 76 E1 span lines. All slots support the connectivity for two E1 terminations per card slot. These are called MSI slots. the BSSC3 cabinet can function as a BSC (BSC2) or an RXCDR (RXCDR2). enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used. Figure 4-12 shows the alternative configurations available for the BSSC3. The RXU3 shelf provides for termination of two E1 span lines per card slot. the GDP2 is capable of transcoding 60 channels of FR/EFR/HR/AMR. 68P02900W21-S 4-30 01 Feb 2007 . The other 14 slots can terminate only one E1 span line. meaning they have connectivity for two E1 span lines. Like the BSSC2. It takes up one card slot and can terminate two E1 span lines. Earlier BSUs/RXUs were used in the BSSC3 cabinet instead of or in conjunction with the BSU2/RXU3. When the GDP2 is inserted into a card slot that terminates only one E1 span (a non-RXU3 shelf) 30 terrestrial circuits are supported. A more efficient solution is provided through a new development. the GDP2. To accommodate the additional shelf capacity. Within the current BSC. RXU3 The existing RXU shelf provides 19 MSI slots (see NOTE). This enables the GDP2s to be used to capacity. This is accomplished by adding 6 additional T43/BIB boards to the cabinet top. which is the capacity of two of the existing shelves. allowing GDP2s to be used to capacity. Within the RXCDR. the BSU shelf contains 12 MSI slots. With its upgraded DSP and other enhancements. but they may contain either a MSI or a transcoder board. A combination of MSIs and XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s can share these 19 slots without connectivity restriction (timeslot restrictions still apply).Hardware Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning EGDP cannot support GSM HR.

The amount of terrestrial backing allocated for an RTF is based on three parameters: hr_enabled (with values 0 = no half rate. or as 2 separate BSC2s BSC2 with transcoding Basic RXCDR2 RXCDR2 with expansion shelf Backhaul Table 4-5 and Table 4-6 show how one fr voice call or two hr calls on a single air timeslot are mapped to terrestrial resources at the RTF. 1 = half rate) allow_8k_trau (with values 0 = no 8k TRAU. 1 = 8k TRAU) pkt_radio_type (adds EGPRS support and supersedes allow_32k_trau) Table 4-5 Backhaul configuration based on parameter settings hr_enabled allow_8k_trau 0 = voice only pkt_radio_type 1 = 16k data and voice 2 = 32k data and voice 3 = 64k data and voice 0 1 0 16k 32k 16k 32k (data uses only 16k) 16k 32k 32k VersaTRAU Not Supported (allow_ 8k_trau cannot be set to 0 if pkt_radio_ type is 3) VersaTRAU 1 1 16k 32k 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-31 . Table 4-5 shows how the amount of backhaul configured for each timeslot for a given RTF is based on database parameter settings.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Hardware Figure 4-12 Alternative configurations for the BSSC3 cabinet BSC2 Configuration RXCDR2 Configuration BSU2 RXU3 RXU3 BSU2 BSU2 BSU2 RXU3 RXU3 Basic BSC2 With expansion shelf.

The first half rate voice channel is allocated bit 0. 1 1 0 1 2 half rate calls on separate 16k subrates Not supported.7 respectively.see Table 4-7. The second half rate voice channel is allocated bit 1.H are air timeslots 0 . 2 half rate calls share one 16K subrate Table 4-7 Voice call mapping on the backhaul for a 64K RTF VersaTRAU subchannel DS0 Bit 0 DS0 Bit 1 DS0 Bit 2 DS0 Bit 3 DS0 Bit 4 DS0 Bit 5 DS0 Bit 6 DS0 Bit 7 0 1 2 A0 E0 A1 E1 B0 F0 B1 F1 C0 G0 C1 G1 D0 H0 D1 H1 Key: A . air timeslot B has the first half rate channel assigned to B0 and the second half rate channel assigned to B1 – see Table 4-7. 68P02900W21-S 4-32 01 Feb 2007 . For example. Half rate with 8K switching assigns the two half rate voice channels to the two bits allocated to an air timeslot. Table 4-6 Call placement on terrestrial backhaul hr_enabled allow_8k_trau 0 = voice only pkt_radio_type 1 = 16k data and voice 2 = 32k data and voice 3 = 64k data and voice 0 - Full rate call on 16k Full rate call on left most 16k subrate group of the 32k (duplicated on both 16k in the UL) Full rate call on 16k subrate corresponding to the air timeslot .Hardware Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Table 4-6 shows how a fr call or two hr calls are placed onto the terrestrial backhaul.

Figure 4-13 and Figure 4-14 apply only to the 16kbit/s backhaul. The tables give sample configurations for 16kbit/s.95 kbit/s) For a connected AMR hr call not requiring the 7.(The idle tone insertion is used internally to fill the 16 kbit/s timeslot. Figure 4-13 AMR backhaul paths 16 kbit/s Ater-CIC connection CIC EGDP / GDP2 16 kbit/s Ater-CIC connection CIC EGDP / GDP2 RXCDR Switch 16 kbit/s Ater allocated BSC Switch RXCDR Switch 16 kbit/s Ater allocated BSC Switch 16 kbit/s Abis backhaul 16 kbit/s Abis backhaul BTS Switch CCU CCU BTS Switch AMR fr call over air interface hr call over air interface (w / 7. 32kbit/s. and 64kbit/s backhaul. For the same call. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-33 .95 codec rate or a GSM hr call. but not in the RXCDR. When a fr call is connected. then a similar backhaul path is needed. if ESS mode is enabled in the BSC and the RXCDR then the path showed on the right in Figure 4-14 results. 16 kbit/s backhaul is required on all the legs. When an AMR hr call is connected which includes the 7.95 kbit/s rate in the Active Codec Set. then the backhaul path shown on the left in Figure 4-14 results.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Hardware • • The VersaTRAU Subchannel2 and any higher numbered VersaTRAU Subchannels are always used to carry the multiplexed data for all the PDCHs configured on this carrier. the BTS-BSC-RXCDR backhaul path is as shown on the left in Figure 4-13. as shown on the right in Figure 4-13. if ESS mode is enabled in the BSC.

ESS mode enabled 16 kbit/s Ater-CIC connection CIC EGDP / GDP2 8 kbit/s Ater-CIC connection CIC EGDP / GDP2 8 kbit/s idle tone RXCDR Switch 16 kbit/s Ater allocated 8 kbit/s idle tone RXCDR Switch 8 kbit/s Ater allocated BSC Switch 8 kbit/s Abis backhaul BSC Switch 8 kbit/s Abis backhaul BTS Switch CCU hr call over air interface CCU BTS Switch hr call over air interface 68P02900W21-S 4-34 01 Feb 2007 .Hardware Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning Figure 4-14 hr backhaul paths .

the latter double the capacity (60 channels of FR/EFR/HR/AMR per card slot). The RXU3 shelf provides 2 x E1 connectivity for all card slots (enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used in non–MSI slots). GSM HR transcoding can be supported with the GDP (30 channels) or the GDP2 (60 channels). In order to use the RXU3 shelves to capacity.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Summary Summary AMR transcoding is supported using existing GDPs working in a tandem configuration. use of DSW2s/DSWXs can support a greater number of timeslots. The former provides a capacity of one half (15 channels of FR/EFR/AMR per card slot) of what is currently supported for the GDP (30 channels FR/EFR/HR per card slot). for local transcoding configurations. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 4-35 . but only at half capacity because there is connectivity of only one E1 per card slot (for most slots). the BSSC3 cabinet has been developed. Additionally. This can terminate 76 E1 span lines. which translates to more combinations of card types. the EGDP. when hr is used. The proper combination(s) of equipment should be tailored per network. The DSW2 can be utilized to reduce backhaul costs between both the BTS and BSC and the BSC and RXCDR. particularly MSIs. GDP2s work in the existing RXU shelf. The existing BSU shelf provides two E1 connectors per card slot. The current BSSC2 cabinet provides for 48 E1 terminations. or with the GDP2. within the RXCDR.

Summary Chapter 4: AMR and GSM planning 68P02900W21-S 4-36 01 Feb 2007 .

BSC planning steps and rules. and that for the remote transcoder (RXCDR) are in Chapter 7. including the macrocell and the microcell. RXCDR planning steps and rules. The planning steps and rules for the BSC are provided in Chapter 6.Chapter 5 BTS planning steps and rules This chapter describes the planning steps and rules for the BTS. This chapter details the following sections: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BTS planning overview Macrocell cabinets Microcell enclosures Receive configurations Transmit configurations EGPRS enabled CTU2/CTU2D configuration Antenna configurations Carrier equipment (transceiver unit) Micro base control unit (microBCU) Network interface unit (NIU) and site connection BTS main control unit Cabinet interconnection Battery back-up provisioning External power requirements Network expansion using macro/microcell BTSs Line interface modules (HIM-75. HIM-120) DRI/Combiner operability components 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-1 .

For EGPRS enabled CTU2 configuration. • • • Antenna configuration for each cell. • Existence of equipment shelters at the site. The potential future growth of the site must be known to make intelligent trade offs between fewer cabinets/enclosures initially and ease of expansion later. refer to the section Macrocell cabinets. For number of microcell enclosures required. Duplexers can be used to reduce the amount of cabling and the number of antennas. Outline of planning steps Macrocell and microcell BTS sites The information required for planning a macro/microcell BTS site is as follows: • • • • • • • Determine if the site is indoor or outdoor.BTS planning overview Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules BTS planning overview Introduction The following information should be available to plan the equipage of a BTS site: • • • • Number of cells controlled by the site. Number of standby carriers per cell. refer to the section EGPRS enabled CTU2/CTU2D configuration. Alternatives include changing combiner types or using more than one transmitting antenna. refer to the section Receive configurations. refer to the section Transmit configurations. Number of carriers required. • Requirement of battery backup equipment for the outdoor equipment. The required output power must be known to ensure that the selected combining method and antenna configuration provides sufficient output power. For transmit configuration. Output power per cell. Number of macrocell cabinets required. refer to the section Microcell enclosures. Macro/microcell should be included where rooftop mounting or distributed RF coverage is required or where space and access are restricted. Macro or microcell outdoor equipments should be included in the BTS planning for locations where there are no equipment shelters. For receiver configuration (including planning for Dual Band). Cabinet or enclosure types to be used. 68P02900W21-S 5-2 01 Feb 2007 . Future growth potential. refer to the section Antenna configurations. For antenna configuration.

refer to the section Network interface unit (NIU) and site connection. For the number of network interface units required. refer to the section BTS main control unit. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-3 . For the number of FOX and FMUX boards required. refer to the section Battery back-up provisioning. refer to the section Cabinet interconnection. refer to the section Carrier equipment (transceiver unit). For battery back-up provisioning. For the number of E1/T1 links required. refer to the section Micro base control unit (microBCU). refer to the section External power requirements. For external power supply requirements. For the number of micro base control units required. refer to the section Network interface unit (NIU) and site connection. For the number of main control units required.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BTS planning overview • • • • • • • • For the amount of carrier equipment required.

Expansion beyond 12 carriers per cabinet needs additional cabinets. Expansion beyond six carriers needs additional cabinets. Horizonmacro A Horizonmacro cabinet (indoor or outdoor) can support six carriers (CTUs). A Horizon II macro cabinet (indoor or outdoor) can support 12 carriers when populated fully with six {30828} CTU2s/CTU2Ds. The maximum RF carriers supported per Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC) is 24. The Horizon II macro outdoor is a Horizon II macro indoor along with an outdoor enclosure that incorporates heat management. 68P02900W21-S 5-4 01 Feb 2007 . used in double density mode. thus reducing the amount of E1 spans needed at a site that needs more than two RSLs. Horizonmacro and M-Cell BTSs currently support two RSLs per E1. or can support six carriers when the six {30828} CTU2s/CTU2Ds are used in single density mode.Macrocell cabinets Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Macrocell cabinets Horizon II macro Horizon II macro is the next generation replacement for Horizonmacro. All Horizonmacro cabinets/enclosures incorporate heat management systems. an outdoor enclosure which can accommodate either one or two indoor cabinets for 6 or 12 carrier operation. RSLs. The Horizonmacro outdoor can operate at ambient temperatures up to 50°C. The Horizon II macro does not support the use of CCBs. in effect. The Horizon II macro outdoor can operate in the temperature range from -40°C to 50°C. {30828} The mode Capacity can be configured for CTU2D if the CTU2D Capacity feature is unrestricted. CCBs cannot be used with the Horizonmacro indoor cabinet if the cabinet is to be installed in the 12 carrier outdoor enclosure. Horizon II macro and Horizonmacro are identical in terms of capacity and support the same numbers of carriers. The Horizonmacro 12 carrier outdoor can operate at ambient temperatures up to 45°C. The Horizon II macro supports equipping of four RSLs per E1. and E1s. The Horizonmacro 12 carrier outdoor is.

for outdoor cabinets only. The M-Cell2 outdoor cabinet accommodates all the elements in an indoor cabinet. It also provides limited accommodation for LTUs and battery backup. or reconstituted stone. The M-Cell6 HMS has the following options: • • • Fans that circulate ambient air through the cabinet.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Macrocell cabinets Horizoncompact and Horizoncompact2 The Horizoncompact and the Horizoncompact2 are an integrated cell site. for both indoor and outdoor units. brickwork. for both indoor and outdoor units. future references to Horizoncompact2 also include Horizoncompact unless specifically stated otherwise. stonework. for outdoor cabinets only. M-Cell6 The M-Cell6 cabinet can support six carriers (TCUs or CTU2 Adapter in an EGPRS configuration) or 12 carriers (TCUs or CTU2 Adapter in a non-EGPRS configuration). for outdoor cabinets only. The wall can be concrete. An air conditioning unit for ambient temperatures up to 55°C. with or without rendering. dense aggregate block work. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-5 . delivering 10 W (nominal) at each antenna. A heat exchanger for ambient temperatures up to 45°C. The M-Cell2 HMS has the following options: • • • Fans that circulate ambient air through the cabinet. A heat exchanger for ambient temperatures up to 45°C. Expansion beyond this needs additional cabinets. A fan within the cabinet provides cooling. designed primarily for outdoor operation and consist of: • • BTS unit This is like Horizonmicro / Horizonmicro2 and is a two-carrier cell with combining. Outdoor cell sites are provided with an ancillary cabinet and a side cabinet. and the unit can operate at ambient temperatures up to 50°C. Unlike M-Cell6 outdoor cabinets where the antenna terminations are in a side cabinet. M-Cell2 The M-Cell2 cabinet can support two carriers (CTU2 Adapter in EGPRS configuration) or four carriers (CTU2 Adapter in non-EGPRS configuration). Cooling is by natural convection. Booster unit This incorporates two Tx amplifiers. for outdoor cabinets only. The BTS can be wall-mounted or pole-mounted. M-Cell2 terminations are on the main cabinet. In this document. • • The main difference between the Horizoncompact and the Horizoncompact2 is that the latter can be expanded to support two additional BTSs. An air conditioning unit for ambient temperatures up to 55°C.

the carrier capacity is 1-4 carriers. or rack. as the communications power card. Horizon II mini is available as indoor and outdoor variant.Microcell enclosures Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Microcell enclosures Horizon II mini Horizon II mini. supports EGPRS. The Horizon II mini uses E1 links for both TRAU and RSL and can be expanded from a Horizonmacro family BTS or be used as a network of Horizon II minis. and can be mounted on wall. Horizonmacro. should be inserted in the Site I/O slot. 68P02900W21-S 5-6 01 Feb 2007 . When the outdoor enclosure is configured with the SDH module. there is no accommodation for redundancy hardware. The Horizon II mini parameters allow for: • • Only one BTP to be equipped to a Horizon II mini master cabinet. As a result. The architecture is based on the Horizon II macro architecture and effectively Horizon II mini operates like a Horizon II macro cabinet. The Mini BTS can be expanded from the Horizon II macro. The outdoor enclosure configuration cannot be expanded in a network. introduced in GSR7. {30828} The mode Capacity can be configured for CTU2D if the CTU2D Capacity feature is unrestricted. stonework. The Horizon II mini enclosure can house two {30828} CTU2s/CTU2Ds that can be configured in both single density and double density mode. or reconstituted stone. it can be a standalone only BTS. brickwork. Due to the compact and low-cost nature of this product. to supply -48 V dc. dense aggregate block work. for a maximum network configuration of 16 to 24 carriers per site dependent on cabinet capacity. floor. Software parameters are added to distinguish Horizon II mini cabinets to allow easier configuration. with or without rendering. can satisfy all the current Horizon II macro requirements but also add significant functionality that enables it to be classed as a Mini Macro BTS like the M-Cell2 BTS. A maximum of two physical radios to be equipped to a Horizon II mini cabinet. The wall may be concrete. and M-Cell6. therefore. SDH feature Horizon II mini also supports an auxiliary power supply or an optional third party SDH module requiring a 48 V dc power supply up to a maximum dissipation of 60W. Horizon II mini can only be equipped with {30828} CTU2/CTU2D radios and.

The wall may be concrete. or reconstituted stone. brickwork. • • The main difference between the Horizonmicro and the Horizonmicro2 is that the latter can be expanded to support two additional BTSs. designed primarily for outdoor operation and consist of a single small two-carrier BTS unit. It can be seen as a replacement to the Horizonmicro2 where it deems obsolete (because of an obsolete chip set or where features no longer can be supported) and is to target applications in both 900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Microcell enclosures Horizonmicro and Horizonmicro2 The Horizonmicro and the Horizonmicro2 are an integrated cell site. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-7 . Cooling is by natural convection or by an internal fan. dense aggregate block work. with or without rendering. double density mode can be used for EGPRS. It can be configured for two carriers in double density mode for GSM/GPRS or one carrier in Single Density mode for EGPRS. brickwork. The Horizonmicro and Horizonmicro2 can be wall or pole-mounted. The unit can operate at ambient temperatures up to 50°C. The wall may be concrete. The Horizon II micro can be wall or pole-mounted. Cooling is by natural convection. or reconstituted stone. future references to Horizonmicro2 also include Horizonmicro unless specifically stated otherwise. and the unit can operate at ambient temperatures up to 50°C. dense aggregate block work. If ITS is unrestricted and enabled. designed for indoor. stonework. and outdoor microcellular applications and consists of a single small two carrier BTS ({30828} CTU2/CTU2D) unit. In this document. with or without rendering. stonework. {30828} The mode Capacity can be configured for CTU2D if the CTU2D Capacity feature is unrestricted. Horizon II micro The Horizon II micro is an integrated cell site.

Planning considerations The factors affecting planning for GSM900 and DCS1800 BTSs are provided in this section. Horizoncompact2 is two-carriers only. an optional SURF2 dual band adaptor allows a 900 MHz SURF2 and an 1800 MHz SURFs to be installed in the same cabinet. 68P02900W21-S 5-8 01 Feb 2007 . One version can operate on GSM900 frequencies and the other can operate on DCS1800 frequencies. thus providing dual band capability. • • Horizonmicro2 and Horizon II micro are two-carriers only. for Horizon II macro only. This has dual band (900/1800 MHz) capability. Two versions of the Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 BTSs are available. Receive antennas can be extended across M-Cell6 cabinets by using the IADU expansion ports to feed an IADU in another cabinet. a second (optional) 900 MHz SURF2 can be installed to provide 4-branch diversity. combined to a single antenna. it is distributed from the first cabinet. If the signal is to go to multiple cabinets. Receive antennas can be extended across Horizon II macro/Horizon II mini cabinets by using the 900 SURF2 expansion ports to feed a SURF2 in another cabinet. For Horizon II macro only. Receiver equipment is required for each Rx signal in every cabinet or enclosure in which it is used. Each Rx antenna must terminate on a single cabinet or enclosure. with two antennas. • M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 BTSs need one DLNB for each sector. • Horizonmacro BTSs need one 900 MHz SURF for each cabinet. Receive antennas can be extended across Horizonmacro cabinets by using the 900 SURF expansion ports to feed a SURF in another cabinet. GSM900 The following factors should be considered when planning the GSM900 receive equipment: • Horizon II macro and Horizon II mini BTSs need one 900 MHz SURF2 for each cabinet.Receive configurations Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Receive configurations Introduction The receiver equipment provides the termination and distribution of the received signals from the Rx antennas. Currently.

Horizonmacro BTSs need one 1800 MHz SURF for each cabinet. Receive antennas can be extended across Horizon II macro/Horizon II mini cabinets by using the 1800 SURF2 expansion ports to feed a SURF2 in another cabinet. Receive antennas can be extended across M-Cell6 cabinets by using the LNA expansion ports to feed an LNA in another cabinet. The rear SURF2 controls {30828} CTU2/CTU2D radio slots 3. Contact your Motorola Local Office for more information. 4. Determine the type and quantity of receive equipment required. the SURF2 is not dual band and only supports 900 MHz/1800 MHz capability in separate cabinets. Currently. for Dual Band cabinet physical configuration. one 900 MHz SURF2 and a Dual Band Adaptor. when planning dual band (that is. Determine the number of Rx antennas per cell supported in each cabinet. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-9 . Determine the number of cells which have {30828} CTU2s/CTU2Ds/CTUs/TCUs in more than one cabinet. Receive antennas can be extended across Horizonmacro cabinets by using the 1800 SURF expansion ports to feed a SURF in another cabinet. Refer to Chapter 12. support for both DCS1800 and GSM900 within a single cabinet) receive equipment. 1. For Horizon II macro only. Receiver planning actions The following planning actions are required: • • • • Determine the number of cells. • Two types of 1800 SURF are available: One is 1800 MHz single band and the other is 1800 MHz/900 MHz dual band. • • • • The maximum number of transceiver units for a dual band cabinet configuration is 3 {30828} CTU2s/CTU2Ds per band. • M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 BTSs need one LNA for each sector.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Receive configurations DCS1800 The following factors should be considered when planning the DCS1800 receive equipment: • Horizon II macro and Horizon II mini BTSs need one 1800 MHz SURF2 for each cabinet. A third power supply is required. and 2. Standard BSS and Horizon BTS configurations. and 5. a second (optional) 1800 MHz SURF2 can be installed to provide 4-branch diversity. DCS1800 and GSM900 It should be considered that Horizon II macro Dual Band capable cabinets need one 1800 MHz SURF2. The front SURF2 controls {30828} CTU2/CTU2D radio slots 0.

Dropping one carrier does not affect the second CTU2 carrier. 68P02900W21-S 5-10 01 Feb 2007 . both carriers should be in the same sector and can be individually reset.Receive configurations Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules When using CTU2s in double density mode.

with two antennas. Planning considerations The transmit configurations available for Horizon II macro. Horizoncompact2 is two-carrier only. Horizonmacro. For M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 cabinets. Table 5-1 Transmit configurations Number of Carriers BTS Types Cabinet Transmit Configurations Wide Band Combining Cabinet Transmit Configurations Cavity Combining 1 1 1 or 2 1 or 2 2 2 3 3 3 or 4 3 or 4 M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 Horizonmacro Horizon II macro Horizon II mini M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 Horizonmacro M-Cell6 Horizonmacro Horizon II macro Horizon II mini 1 TxBPF 1 DCF or 1 TDF 1 DUP 2 DUP (BowtieCombiner) 1 HCOMB + 1 TxBPF 1 DCF 2 HCOMB + 1 TxBPF 2 DCF or 1 DDF DUP + 1 HCU or 2 DUP and Air 2 DUP (BowtieCombiner) and Air Not available Not available Not available Not available 1 CCB output 1 CCB output 1 CCB output 1 CCB output CCBs not supported CCBs not supported Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-11 . M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 BTSs are listed in Table 5-1. • • Horizonmicro2 and Horizon II micro are two-carrier only. combined to a single antenna. Horizon II mini. a TxBPF is required for each antenna. The {30828} CTU2/CTU2D used in Horizon II macro can be configured to use a single high power carrier (single density mode) or two lower power carriers (double density mode).System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Transmit configurations Transmit configurations Introduction The transmit equipment provides bandpass filtering and signal combining for the BTS cabinets.

68P02900W21-S 5-12 01 Feb 2007 . The Tx configuration options apply only for the Horizonmacro and Horizon II macro cases as 1 carrier per CTU2 Radio.Transmit configurations Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Table 5-1 Transmit configurations (Continued) Number of Carriers BTS Types Cabinet Transmit Configurations Wide Band Combining Cabinet Transmit Configurations Cavity Combining 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 M-Cell6 Horizonmacro M-Cell6 Horizonmacro M-Cell6 Horizonmacro Horizon II macro 2 HCOMB + 1 TxBPF 1 DDF + 1 HCU 3 HCOMB + 1 TxBPF 2 DDF and Air 4 HCOMB + 1 TxBPF 2 DDF and Air 1 DUP + 1 DHU or 2 DUP + 1 HCU and Air 1 CCB output + 1 CCB extension 1 CCB output + 1 CCB extension 1 CCB output + 1 CCB extension 1 CCB output + 1 CCB extension 1 CCB output + 1 CCB extension 1 CCB output + 1 CCB extension CCBs not supported • A CCB output includes a TxBPF. • EGPRS supports single density CTU2 configuration only. but a CCB extension does not include it. Transmit planning actions Determine the transmit equipment required.

If VersaTRAU is restricted. {30828} CTU2D is supported on H2Macro. Some numbers of these DS0s are needed for RSLs to the BSC (up to 6 with MCUF. EGPRS RTFs on each E1 (using 24 DS0s) for a total of 18 EGPRS non-BCCH carriers. If the recommended non-aggressive backhaul of five DS0s per EGPRS carrier is used. An entire RTF must be configured to the same physical E1. The remaining 7 DS0s can be used for BCCH RTFs and RSLs. if VersaTRAU feature is restricted. the EGPRS can be configured on double density CTU2. If VersaTRAU is unrestricted. The remaining DS0s are available for use as RSLs. This allows configuration of three non-BCCHs. the maximum number of EGPRS carriers that can be equipped for a threesector site is 21. H2Mini. and will be delivered in a separate software load. and H2Micro Sites only. If VersaTRAU feature is unrestricted. the maximum number of EGPRS carriers for the same configuration can be up to 24. and H2 site controller). the worst-case configuration when every possible timeslot is configured as an EGPRS carrier in a three-sector site is 21 carriers: • • • 18 (3x6) non-BCCH (with 8 air timeslots on each RTF) carriers at a site. Three BCCH carriers (with 7 air timeslots on each RTF). The CTU2-D is not currently part of GSR9. In addition. legacy Mcell and H1 extension cabinets do not support CTU2D and remain OOS. If ITS feature is unrestricted and enabled. the CTU2 radio is supported in the M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 cabinet platforms when the CTU2 Adapter is used. The CTU2 radio is supported in the Horizon II macro and Horizonmacro BTS cabinet platforms. six EGPRS carriers (using 30 DS0s) can be configured on each E1. The total number of E1s available at a Horizonmacro or Horizon II macro site is 6. Therefore. EGPRS general configuration The EGPRS feature needs additional backhaul to provision EGPRS carriers.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning EGPRS enabled CTU2/CTU2D configuration EGPRS enabled CTU2/CTU2D configuration {30828} EGPRS enabled CTU2/CTU2D configuration limitations {30828} EGPRS is a restricted feature. When the master cabinets are H2Macro and H2Mini. This configuration is supported only when this feature is unrestricted. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-13 . This would need four E1s for the 24 EGPRS carriers leaving the remaining four DS0s available for RSLs. the backhaul for an EGPRS carrier can be configured using the rtf_ds0_count parameter. The additional backhaul is either seven DS0s to implement EGPRS on a BCCH carrier or eight DS0s to implement EGPRS on a nonBCCH carrier. The rest of the DS0s are available for TRAU. the extension H2 cabinets support CTU2D.

EGPRS enabled CTU2/CTU2D configuration Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules BaseBand Hopping (BBH) There are several restrictions for an EGPRS enabled {30828} CTU2/CTU2D. the BBH restrict ion on carrier A is the same as PWR mode. CTU2D PWR mode and ITS mode are identical. {30828} For BBH restriction aspect. Table 5-2 BBH capability for Horizon II macro Site Controller CTU2 (SD EGPRS) CTU2 (SD EGPRS) CTU2 (DD GSM) CTU2 (SD GSM) CTU (SD GSM) CTU2 (DD GSM) CTU2 (SD GSM) CTU (SD GSM) 4 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 Table 5-3 BBH capability for Horizonmacro Site Controller CTU2 (SD EGPRS) CTU2 (SD EGPRS) CTU2 (DD GSM) CTU2 (SD GSM) CTU (SD GSM) CTU2 (DD GSM) CTU2 (SD GSM) CTU (SD GSM) 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 6 6 4 4 68P02900W21-S 5-14 01 Feb 2007 . EGPRS double density carrier A and its pair are excluded for BBH. In CTU2D CAP mode. Table 5-2 indicates that BBH is not permitted with EDGE enabled CTU2s when Horizonmacro is the Master Site Controller. Table 5-2 and Table 5-3 show the restrictions for the Horizon II macro Site Controller and the Horizonmacro Site Controller respectively. In CTU2D ASYM mode. all the EGPRS carriers (in SD/DD/Capacity mode) within the site are removed from BBH system. In ITS mode. Baseband hopping (BBH) is only allowed with other EGPRS enabled CTU2 radios in the same hopping group. and GMSK carrier B supports for BBH. BBH is only permitted with EDGE enabled CTU2s when they are controlled by the Horizon II macro Site controller as Master.

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-15 . For EGPRS. the only radio that supports 64K is the {30828} CTU2/CTU2D.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning EGPRS enabled CTU2/CTU2D configuration Broadcast Control CHannel (BCCH) RTF configuration The Broadcast control channel (BCCH) Radio Transceiver Function (RTF) should be configured as a 64K carrier. It is not necessary that the {30828} CTU2/CTU2D used for the BCCH RTF is EGPRS enabled.

Antenna type: o o o o o Gain Size Bandwidth Appearance Mounting Antenna planning actions Determine the antenna configuration. Diversity considerations. three sector (either 120° or 60°). Share existing antenna(s) or new/separate antenna(s). one sector. two sector. or six sector (two cabinets are needed). 68P02900W21-S 5-16 01 Feb 2007 .Antenna configurations Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Antenna configurations Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the antenna configuration: • • • • Omni.

This can be configured to operate in single density (single carrier) or double density (2 carrier) mode. as used in the Horizon II macro. RF power output from the CTU2s is reduced. The CTU2 can also be used as a CTU replacement (subject to restrictions) in a Horizonmacro cabinet. CCBs are not supported when CTU2s are used in Horizonmacro indoor BTSs. PSU redundancy is not available in these configurations. Restrictions in CTU2s usage in Horizonmacro BTSs The following restrictions apply when CTU2s are used to replace CTUs in Horizonmacro BTSs: • • • • • • CTU2s cannot be used in Horizonmacro outdoor BTSs. Fully populated Horizonmacro cabinets that contain two or more CTU2s need three PSUs. References to TCU in the text include TCU-B. For rules relating to replacement of a CTU with a CTU2. CTU2s cannot be used in Horizonmacro indoor BTSs that are powered from 110 V ac. except where stated otherwise. The TCU-B is an enhancement of the original TCU and can be used as a direct replacement for the TCU. This is eventually phased out and replaced by the CTU2. CCBs are not supported by the {30828} CTU2/CTU2D (refer to Chapter 1 for more information of CTU2D configuration). AMR and GSM half rate are supported on all transceiver equipment described here. but NOT an outdoor cabinet. except for the DTRX. TCU-B has the following differences: • • The TCU-B only supports GSM/EGSM900. BBH is only supported in single density mode when CTU2s are used in Horizonmacro indoor BTSs. The transceiver unit for Horizonmacro is a CTU. The TCU-B cannot be used as a SCU (in pre M-Cell equipment). 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-17 . The transceiver unit for Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 is a DTRX. The transceiver unit for M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 is either a TCU or a TCU-B.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Carrier equipment (transceiver unit) Carrier equipment (transceiver unit) Introduction The transceiver unit for Horizon II macro and Horizon II mini is the {30828} CTU2/CTU2D. contact your Motorola Local Office. However.

Table 5-4 CTU/CTU2 power requirements Horizonmacro Number of CTUs Number of CTU2s Number of power supplies required Horizon II macro Number of CTU2s Number of power supplies required 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 4 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 6 5 4 3 2 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 Continued 68P02900W21-S 5-18 01 Feb 2007 . These power supply requirements change if CTU2s are used in the Horizonmacro cabinet. In cases where battery backup is required. Table 5-4 lists the CTU/CTU2 combinations and power supply requirements in Horizonmacro and Horizon II macro cabinets. Depending on the number of CTU2s used. Table 5-4 does not include Horizon II mini. redundancy is lost. where a third (redundant) PSM is already installed. the Horizonmacro only needs two power supply modules (PSMs) to power six CTUs. In addition. This table applied to both GPRS and the EGPRS feature overlay. as Horizon II mini needs only one power supply as minimum/maximum. thus losing the internal battery backup facility. it can be necessary to install a third PSM. an external battery backup unit (BBS) needs to be added.Carrier equipment (transceiver unit) Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules CTU/CTU2 power supply considerations Under normal circumstances. and the third PSM slot can be used either for a redundant PSM or for an optional hold-up battery module (in ac-powered systems).

Table 5-5 CTU/CTU2 power requirements for M-Cell cabinets Number of CTU2 Adapters Number of power supplies required M-Cell6 AC Indoor: 1–6 M-Cell6 AC Outdoor: 1–4 5–6 M-Cell6 DC Indoor: 1–4 5–6 M-Cell2 AC Indoor and M-Cell2 AC Outdoor: 1 2 1 1 (add one more for redundancy) 2 2 (add one more for redundancy) 3 4 5 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-19 . This table is independent of the CTU2 operating mode or feature overlay.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Carrier equipment (transceiver unit) Table 5-4 CTU/CTU2 power requirements (Continued) Horizonmacro Number of CTUs Number of CTU2s Number of power supplies required Horizon II macro Number of CTU2s Number of power supplies required 2 1 0 1 0 0 4 4 4 5 5 6 3 3 2 3 3 3 The Horizon II macro always has a spare fourth power supply slot available for either a redundant power supply or for a hold-up battery module (in ac-powered cabinets). This table assumes that slots that do not use CTU2 adapters are populated with TCUs. Table 5-5 lists the CTU/CTU2 combinations and power supply requirements in M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 cabinets.

Carrier equipment (transceiver unit) Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning carrier equipment: • • • The number of carriers based on traffic considerations. • • • Transceiver planning actions Determine the number of transceivers required and the number of power supplies required to power the transceivers. One transceiver unit is required to provide each RF carrier. {30828} With the introduction of CTU2D more modes. one CTU2 per carrier). one {30828} CTU2/CTU2D can support one RF carrier or be configured to support two RF carriers. Allowance must be made for BCCH and SDCCH control channels. If ITS feature is unrestricted and enabled. can support EGPRS with double density without timeslot blanking. that is. The exception to this is for EGPRS. Redundancy can be achieved by installing excess capacity in the form of additional transceiver units. an EGPRS enabled CTU2 can also be configured in double density mode but with timeslot blanking on the paired carrier. An EGPRS enabled CTU2 can only be configured in single density mode (that is. Plan the number of power supplies required in accordance with the number of transceivers required. Include redundancy requirements. The {30828} CTU2/CTU2D is capable of single and double density operation for GSM/GPRS. However. Information about how to determine the number of control channels required is in the Control channel calculations section in Chapter 3. CAP and ASYM. 68P02900W21-S 5-20 01 Feb 2007 . Plan for future growth. with the introduction of the {30828} CTU2/CTU2D this is no longer true.

the NIU is integrated on the HIISC (the equivalent of the Horizonmacro MCUF) and external FMUXs and BPSMs are not required.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Micro base control unit (microBCU) Micro base control unit (microBCU) Introduction The microBCU (or μ BCU) is the macro/microcell implementation of a BTS site controller. • M-Cell2 The first M-Cell2 cabinet needs one microBCU2 cage. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-21 . determine the number of microBCUs required. Additional cabinets do not need microBCU2 cages. The digital module shelf can be equipped for redundancy and/or additional E1/T1 link capacity with the addition of a redundant HIISC. NIU. FMUX. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the µ BCU complement: • Horizon II macro/Horizon II mini The Horizon II macro/Horizon II mini is like the Horizonmacro in that it has a built-in digital module shelf. • M-Cell6 Each M-Cell6 cabinet needs one microBCU cage. Two microBCU cages can be equipped for redundancy and/or additional E1/T1 link capacity with the addition of a redundant MCU. However. • Horizonmacro Each Horizonmacro cabinet has a built-in digital module shelf. The digital module shelf can be equipped for redundancy and/or additional E1/T1 link capacity with the addition of a redundant MCUF. This provides the Horizonmacro equivalent of M-Cell6 microBCU cage functionality. and FOX/FMUX. and BPSM. Two microBCU2 cages can be equipped for redundancy and/or additional E1/T1 link capacity. NIU. unlike Horizonmacro. MicroBCU planning actions For M-Cell equipment.

68P02900W21-S 5-22 01 Feb 2007 . Horizon II mini does not support hardware redundancy. the Integrated NIU functions in the same way as the standalone NIU with the exception that support for four RSL links per E1 and a maximum of six E1s is now supported in Horizon II macro and Horizon II mini. • M-Cellcity and M-Cellcity+ are fitted with a single NIU-m only. • • For Horizon II macro only: The integrated NIU within the redundant HIISC has connectivity to all the E1 links for that site through the use of relays and switches. Horizonmacro or M-Cell2/6 BTS to the terrestrial network. the following factors should be considered when planning the NIU complement: Horizon II macro/Horizon II mini • • Both Horizon II macro and Horizon II mini use the Horizon II site controller (HIISC). If a redundant HIISC is installed. Planning considerations Depending on the BTS equipment installed. taking over all duties of the main HIISC (including controlling all E1 links at that site) through a BTS reset. From the functional point of view. A minimum of one HIISC (with integrated NIU functionality) is required in the master cabinet for each Horizon II macro BTS site. NIU functionality is integrated into the HIISC.Network interface unit (NIU) and site connection Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Network interface unit (NIU) and site connection Introduction The NIU provides the interface for the Horizon II macro. • The equivalent modules in Horizoncompact2 and Horizonmicro2 are RHINO/DINO. Slave Horizon II macro cabinets connected to the master cabinet also need redundant site expansion boards and redundant XMUXs. For a Horizon II macro master cabinet. redundancy for the NIU functionality depends on a redundant HIISC. The redundant HIISC can be switched automatically to become the main HIISC. a redundant site expansion board is also required.

In the drop and insert (daisy chain) configuration.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Network interface unit (NIU) and site connection Horizonmacro and M-Cell • • • • • • • The first NIU in a digital module shelf (Horizonmacro) or microBCU cage (M-Cell6) can interface two E1/T1 links. A minimum of one NIU is required for each BTS site. The NIU feeds the active MCUF/MCU. Plan for a maximum of two NIUs per digital module shelf or microBCU cage (three E1or T1 links). One NIU can support two MCUFs (Horizonmacro) or two MCUs (M-Cell6). every site needs its own 64 kbit/s link for signaling. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-23 . which are connected to it by the drop and insert (daisy chain) method. A 64 kbit/s link is required for every RSL (LAPD signaling channel) to the site. Plan for a maximum of one NIU per microBCU2 cage for M-Cell2 cabinets (two E1 or T1 links). The minimum number of NIUs and microBCU cages required for a given number of E1/T1 links to a single M-Cell cabinet is shown in Table 5-6. The second NIU in a digital module shelf or microBCU cage can interface one E1/T1 link. Table 5-6 Site connection requirements for M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 Number of E1/T1 links Minimum number of NIU required Number of μBCU cages required NOTEs 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 M-Cell6 M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 M-Cell2 and M-Cell6 M-Cell6 only M-Cell6 only Only one digital module shelf is installed in the Horizon II macro and Horizonmacro. To calculate the number of 64 kbit/s links required. • • • Redundancy for the NIU module depends on the number of redundant E1/T1 links to the site. view the site as consisting of its own equipment. o o Two 64 kbit/s links are required for each active transceiver. Each E1/T1 link provides 31 (E1) or 24 (T1) usable 64 kbit/s links. and that of other sites.

For driving a single ended 75 ohm 2. T1 link interfaces For driving a balanced 110 ohm 3 V (peak pulse) line. use a BIB.Network interface unit (NIU) and site connection Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules E1 link interfaces For driving a balanced 120 ohm 3 V (peak pulse) line.37 V (peak pulse) line. 68P02900W21-S 5-24 01 Feb 2007 . use a BIB. NIU planning actions Determine the number of NIUs required. use a T43.

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-25 . There is no accommodation for redundancy in this BTS. The HIISC used can support a maximum of 24 RF carriers across the sites. since they are integrated in the HIISC. Horizonmacro uses a main control unit with dual FMUX (MCUF). The main control unit used depends on the BTS equipment: • • • Both Horizon II macro and Horizon II mini use a Horizon II macro site controller (HIISC) with triple XMUX. Horizon II mini • • Only the master Horizon II mini cabinet needs a HIISC. For redundancy. The MCUF is backward compatible with the MCU and can be used in M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 BTSs. M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 use a main control unit (MCU). Planning considerations Horizon II macro The following factors should be considered when planning the HIISC complement for a Horizon II macro site: • • Only the master Horizon II macro cabinet needs a HIISC. add another HIISC in the digital module shelf of the master cabinet.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BTS main control unit BTS main control unit Introduction The main control unit provides the main site control functions for a BTS. This redundancy configuration also needs a redundant site expansion board in all Horizon II macro cabinets at sites where more than one cabinet is installed. Horizon II mini is a new small macro BTS and the HIISC used within can support a maximum of 24 RF carriers across the sites. The HIISC used in Horizon II macro can also support 24 RF carriers. This also provides redundancy for the NIU and XMUX as well. • • • The HIISC can only be used in Horizon II macro.

add another MCUF in the digital module shelf of the master cabinet. If redundancy is required. a redundant XMUX and redundant site expansion board must be installed. An optional 20 MB PCMCIA memory card is installed for non-volatile code storage. Horizon II mini does not support hardware redundancy. An optional 20 MB PCMCIA memory card is installed for non-volatile code storage. A site expansion board is required. 68P02900W21-S 5-26 01 Feb 2007 .BTS main control unit Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Horizonmacro The following factors should be considered when planning the MCUF complement for a Horizonmacro site: • • • Only the master cabinet needs a MCUF. Horizonmacro master BTS planning considerations • • Only the master cabinet needs an MCUF. Horizon II mini slave BTS planning considerations • • • A XMUX is required instead of a HIISC in the slave cabinet. add another mBCU cage and MCU in the master cabinet. Horizon II macro slave BTS planning considerations • • • A XMUX is required instead of a HIISC in the slave cabinet. For redundancy. M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 The following factors should be considered when planning the MCU complement for an M-Cell6 or M-Cell2 site: • • • Only the master cabinet needs a MCU. A site expansion board is required. For redundancy. Planning considerations – Horizon II macro/Horizon II mini as expansion cabinet This information describes the factors that require to be taken into account if Horizon II macro cabinets are used to expand existing Horizonmacro or M-Cell6 sites. If the site is equipped with a redundant MCUF. the PCMCIA is also mandatory for the redundant MCUF. A 20 MB PCMCIA memory card running CSFP must be installed in the MCUF to accommodate the use of the CTU2 transceiver from a code storage standpoint.

The master cabinet must have a FMUX installed to communicate with the Horizon II macro BTS. Horizonmacro Determine the number and configuration of MCUFs required. A 20 MB PCMCIA memory card running CSFP must be installed in the MCU to accommodate the use of the CTU2 transceiver from a code storage standpoint. the PCMCIA is also mandatory for the redundant MCU. • Planning actions Horizon II macro/Horizon II mini Determine the number of HIISCs required. If the site is equipped with a redundant MCU. M-Cell2 BTSs cannot be used with Horizon II macro (or Horizonmacro) cabinets. • • Only the master cabinet needs an MCU.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BTS main control unit M-Cell6 master BTS planning considerations Due to expansion limitations. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-27 . M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 Determine the number and configuration of MCUs required.

It can be connected to either another Horizon II micro or any legacy macro or mini product through an expansion board like the Horizon II macro – Site I/O. The master Horizon II macro cabinet does not need a XMUX as a triple XMUX is integrated on the HIISC. Horizon II micro Horizon II micro supports up to three cabinets. A site expansion board (unique to Horizon II macro) is required for the master and every expansion cabinet in the Horizon II macro BTS site when expansion is required (see Table 5-7). Horizonmacro The FMUX multiplexes and demultiplexes full duplex transceiver links between a MCUF and up to six CTUs. There is no support for hardware redundancy in Horizon II mini. Horizon II mini The XMUX multiplexes and demultiplexes full duplex transceiver links between a site expansion board and two {30828} CTU2s/CTU2Ds in a Horizon II mini expansion cabinet. The FMUX multiplexes and demultiplexes electrical connections for up to six TCUs or CTU2 Adapters onto a single fiber optic connection operating at the rate of 16. M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 The FOX provides the bidirectional electrical to optical interface between an MCU and FMUX and up to six TCUs.384 Mbit/s. • 68P02900W21-S 5-28 01 Feb 2007 . Planning considerations Horizon II macro The following factors should be considered when planning the XMUX complement: • • • • A XMUX is required in each Horizon II macro expansion cabinet. Redundancy needs duplication of the HIISC in the master cabinet and all XMUXs and site expansion boards.Cabinet interconnection Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Cabinet interconnection Introduction Horizon II macro The XMUX multiplexes and demultiplexes full duplex transceiver links between a site expansion board and up to six {30828} CTU2s/CTU2Ds in a Horizon II macro expansion cabinet.

Table 5-8 Horizon II mini only network XMUX expansion requirements Cabinet Master Expansion 1 Expansion 2 Expansion 3 1 (master) 2 None 1 site expansion board only 1 site expansion board only 1 site expansion board only 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 3 4 Table 5-9 Horizon II macro as master . The master Horizon II mini cabinet does not need a XMUX.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Cabinet interconnection Table 5-7 Horizon II macro XMUX expansion requirements Cabinet Master Expansion 1 Expansion 2 Expansion 3 1 (master) 2 None 1 site expansion board only 1 site expansion board only 1 site expansion board only 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 3 4 Horizon II mini The following factors should be considered when planning the XMUX complement: • • • A XMUX is required in each Horizon II mini expansion cabinet.Horizon II mini as expansion XMUX requirements Cabinet Master Expansion 1 Expansion 2 Expansion 3 1 (master) 2 None 1 site expansion board only 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board Continued 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-29 . as a triple XMUX is integrated on the HIISC. A site expansion board (unique to Horizon II macro and Horizon II mini) is required for the master and every expansion cabinet in the Horizon II macro BTS site when expansion is required (see Table 5-8 to Table 5-10).

Redundancy needs duplication of an FMUX and associated MCUF.Cabinet interconnection Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Table 5-9 Horizon II macro as master . A fourth Horizonmacro cabinet needs one FMUX plus one FMUX in the master cabinet (see Table 5-11).Horizon II mini as expansion XMUX requirements Cabinet Master Expansion 1 Expansion 2 Expansion 3 1 (master) 2 None None 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 3 None 4 1 FMUX The Horizon II mini is a micro family BTS and the HIISC used has RF limitations of 24 carriers per site in a Horizon II mini network.Horizon II mini as expansion XMUX requirements (Continued) Cabinet Master Expansion 1 Expansion 2 Expansion 3 3 1 site expansion board only 1 site expansion board only 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 1 XMUX + 1 site expansion board 4 Table 5-10 Horizon II macro as master . Horizonmacro The following factors should be considered when planning the FMUX complement: • • • An FMUX is not required in the master cabinet for two or three cabinet configurations (see Table 5-11). Table 5-11 Horizonmacro FMUX expansion requirements Cabinet Master Expansion 1 Expansion 2 Expansion 3 1 (master) 2 3 4 None None None 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 68P02900W21-S 5-30 01 Feb 2007 .

The following factors should be considered while planning to use a Horizon II macro as a master cabinet with Horizonmacro or M-Cell6 expansion cabinets: • • • • A site expansion board is required in the Horizon II macro master cabinet. Planning considerations . XMUX/FMUX/FOX planning actions Horizon II macro Determine the number of XMUXs required (applies to expansion cabinets only). Each Horizonmacro or M-Cell6 slave cabinet must contain a FMUX (replaces the MCUF/MCU).System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Cabinet interconnection M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 The following factors should be considered when planning the FOX/FMUX complement: • • • A FOX board is required for more than two TCUs. A XMUX is not required in the Horizon II macro master cabinet. the master Horizon II macro cabinet needs an additional HIISC and site expansion board. Each Horizonmacro slave cabinet needs an additional FMUX.Horizon II mini as master cabinet Horizon II mini as a Master cabinet and Macro family BTS as expansions are considered a non-Motorola approved configuration. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-31 .Horizon II macro as master cabinet Due to expansion limitations. and each M-Cell6 slave cabinet needs an additional FMUX and FOX. Each additional M-Cell6 cabinet needs a minimum of one FOX and FMUX plus one FMUX in the first cabinet. Planning considerations . Horizon II mini outdoor variant needs a -230 V dc supply. For redundancy. M-Cell2 BTSs cannot be used with Horizon II macro cabinets. Redundancy needs duplication of all FOX and FMUX boards and associated MCU and microBCU cages.

Cabinet interconnection Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Horizonmacro Determine the number of FMUXs required. M-Cell6 and M-Cell2 Determine the number of FOX/FMUXs required. determine the number of site expansion boards required. Site expansion board planning actions (Horizon II macro only) If more than one cabinet is to be used at a site. M-Cell2 BTSs are not supported as an expansion to Horizon II macro or Horizonmacro cabinets. 68P02900W21-S 5-32 01 Feb 2007 .

the weight is 40kg. This cabinet can house up to 16 Hawker SBS C11 battery cells (8 strings) or equivalent. The frame can house a maximum of two strings of SBS C11 batteries (each string consisting of 2 batteries) which provides 1 hour back-up power. 590 kg with 16 SBS C11 batteries included. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-33 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Battery back-up provisioning Battery back-up provisioning Introduction The Horizon II outdoor enclosure can be provisioned to have battery back-up in case of power failure at the site. An optional external battery cabinet has dimensions 1555x799x760 mm and weight 110 kg when empty. the weight is 160kg. Planning considerations The following factors influence the planning for battery back-up for a Horizon II outdoor enclosure. and external battery backup are for a fully loaded system in a worst case scenario. Weight: Without batteries including metalwork and interconnect cables. Longer back-up times are achieved under a typical load. Two string sets can provide a battery back-up for about one hour. With batteries. • • Two optional internal batteries to provide a minimum of 5 minutes back-up. The intermediate battery back-up solution consists of a frame fixed to the ground housing the batteries and an oversized shroud fitted over it fixed onto the main cabinet. intermediate. The back-up times for the internal. o o • Size: 350mm wide x 687mm deep x 1441mm high. a full cabinet can provide battery back-up for about four hours. There is a visual display of outdoor battery voltages.

Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the power supply requirements: • Horizon II macro Horizon II macro power requirements are determined by the BTS cabinet type. -48 V dc. -48 V dc. • Horizonmacro Horizonmacro power requirements are determined by the BTS cabinet type. Only -48 V dc indoor cabinets can be installed in the 12 carrier outdoor. 230 V ac Outdoor: 110 V ac single phase. -48 V dc. 12 carrier outdoor: 230 V ac single/3-phase. M-Cell6 The M-Cell6 BTS cabinet can be configured to operate from either a +27 V dc or -48 V/-60 V dc power source (indoor) or 230 V/110 V ac. Indoor: +27 V dc. 68P02900W21-S 5-34 01 Feb 2007 . 230 V ac single/3-phase. 110-230 V ac Outdoor: 200-240 V ac single/3-phase only. • Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 The Horizonmicro2 and Horizoncompact2 enclosures operate from 88 to 265 V ac power source.External power requirements Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules External power requirements Introduction Macrocell cabinets and Microcell enclosures can operate from a variety of power supplies. • Horizon II mini Horizon II mini power requirements are determined by the BTS cabinet type. Indoor: +27 V dc. • • Horizon II micro The Horizon II micro enclosure operates from 88 to 300 V ac power source. 110-230 V ac Outdoor: 230 V ac only. Indoor: +27 V dc.

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning External power requirements • M-Cell2 The M-Cell2 BTS cabinet can be configured to operate from either a +27 V dc or 230 V/110 V ac power source. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-35 . • M-Cellcity and M-Cellcity+ The M-Cellcity and M-Cellcity+ BTS enclosures operate from 88 to 265 V ac power source. Power planning actions Determine the power supply required.

A macro/microcell BTS can occupy any position in a network. Transmission systems of this manual. TopCell. or ExCell. Example To upgrade a BTS6 2/2/2 to a 3/3/3. 68P02900W21-S 5-36 01 Feb 2007 . SWVN2460. BTS6. or ExCell. to obtain a suitable license for upgrading. The Network topology can be any of those specified in Chapter 2. To expand a previous generation site. until the cabinets are full.InCell Interworking. BTS5. The rules governing the number of NIUs required at the macro/microcell BTS are given in Table 5-6 of this chapter. proceed in the following manner: • • • • • Sites with previous generation equipment should be expanded with the appropriate modules.Network expansion using macro/microcell BTSs Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules Network expansion using macro/microcell BTSs Introduction An existing network with previous generations of Motorola equipment such as BTS4. BTS4. Expansion considerations The following factors should be considered when expanding an existing network using macro/microcell BTS cabinets: • • • A macro/microcell BTS cannot share a cell with a BTS4. order an M-Cell omni 3 and install it to serve the third sector. The macro site should then be connected into the network by daisy chaining it to the existing site. BSC planning steps and rules. BTS6. the equipment in the previous generation cabinet must be re-configured so that it serves a complete set of sectors in the target configuration. TopCell. A macro site should then be added to the site to serve the remaining sectors. The rules governing the number of MSIs required at the BSC are given in the Multiple serial interface (MSI) section of Chapter 6. TopCell. Mixed site utilization To upgrade sites utilizing previous generations of Motorola equipment such as BTS5. or ExCell can be expanded using macro/microcell. reconfigure the BTS6 to a 3/3. BTS6. Customers who have not purchased the daisy-chaining feature should order the free of charge feature M-Cell . BTS5.

use a HIM-120. 75 ohm (HIM-75). Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the line interface complement: • • • To match a balanced 120 ohm (E1 2. and HDSL interface module.37 V (peak pulse) line. use a HIM-75. 120 ohm (HIM-120). T1 and HDSL links. Determine the number of HIM-75s or HIM-120s required.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Line interface modules (HIM-75. Each HIM-75/HIM-120 can interface four E1/T1 links to specific slots on one shelf. HIM-120) Introduction The line interface modules.544 Mbit/s) 3 V (peak pulse) line. HIM-75/HIM-120 planning actions The following planning actions are required: • • Determine the number to be deployed.048 Mbit/s) or balanced 110 ohm (T1 1. To match a single ended unbalanced 75 ohm (E1 2.048 Mbit/s) 2. provide impedance matching for E1. HDSL interface module. HIM-120) Line interface modules (HIM-75. Minimum number of HIM − 75s or HIM − 120s = Number of PCUs 2 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 5-37 .

DRI/Combiner operability components Chapter 5: BTS planning steps and rules DRI/Combiner operability components Overview This enhancement improves the operability of the Digital Radio Interface (DRI) and combiner devices by increasing the flexibility with which these devices can be equipped. DRI and combiner relationship Figure 5-1 illustrates the DRI and combiner relationship. Figure 5-1 DRI and combiner relationship COMB 0 First controlling DRI Second controlling DRI DRI 0 0 DRI 0 1 68P02900W21-S 5-38 01 Feb 2007 . and re-equipped. This feature is achieved by specifying the DRI role in system combining when equipping the DRI. unequipped.

The topics described in this chapter are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BSC planning overview Capacity calculations BSC system capacity Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities Determining the number of RSLs required Determining the number of MTLs required Determining the number of LMTLs required Determining the number of XBLs required Determining the number of GSLs required Generic processor (GPROC) Transcoding Multiple serial interface (MSI) Packet Subrate Interface (PSI2) Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2) BSU shelves Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and double kiloport switch extender (DSWX) Generic clock (GCLK) Clock extender (CLKX) Local area network extender (LANX) Parallel interface extender (PIX) Line interface boards (BIB/PBIB.Chapter 6 BSC planning steps and rules The plans for setting up a BSC and the relevant rules to be followed are described in this chapter. T43/PT43) Digital shelf power supply Non Volatile Memory (NVM) board Verifying the number of BSU shelves and BSSC cabinets 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-1 .

Use of balanced or unbalanced E1. The NE configuration needs the following information: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Number of BTS sites to be controlled. Number of TCHs and PDTCHs at each site. Total number of AMR half rate or GSM half rate capable TCHs at each site. Number of RF carriers (RTF) at each BTS site. This is also true for the cabinets.BSC planning overview Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules BSC planning overview Introduction Information pertaining to the NEs must be known to plan the equipage of a BSC. as the RXU shelf is primarily used in the RXCDR. This needs using the information contained in this chapter (for the BSC) and those in Chapter 7. when mixing the BSU and RXU shelves at a BSC. 68P02900W21-S 6-2 01 Feb 2007 . Path for the OML links to the OMC-R. This applies to both the legacy RXU shelf and the new RXU3 shelf. Location of the XCDR function. Physical interconnection of the BTS sites to the BSC. Number of MSCs to BSC trunks. The additional connectivity provided by the new BSSC3 is required in the BSC when the RXU3 shelf or shelves are used. RXCDR planning steps and rules (for the RXCDR). LCS architecture. Number of cells controlled from each BTS site should not exceed the maximum number of cells per BSC detailed in Table 6-1. Traffic load to be handled (also take future growth into consideration). Use of PBIB or PT43. Use of E1 links. Use of Ethernet links. Mixing of equipment types The planning rules for each type of shelf should be taken into account. Total number of TCHs and PDTCHs under the BSC.

T43/PT43). Plan the number of KSWXs/DSWXs required. Verify the planning process. Plan the number of XBL links required between the BSC and AXCDR. Plan the number of (P) BIB or (P) T43s required. Refer to the section Multiple serial interface (MSI). Refer to the section Determining the number of LMTLs required. Refer to the section Clock extender (CLKX). Ignore this if the BSS supports only the NSS-based LCS architecture. Plan the number of E1 links between the BSC and SMLC if LCS is enabled in the BSS and if BSS-based LCS architecture is supported. Refer to the section BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning actions. Refer to the section BSU shelves. Plan the number of LANXs required. Refer to the section Generic processor (GPROC). Plan the number of E1 links between the BSC and BTS site(s). Plan the number of LMTL links required between the BSC and the SMLC. Refer to the section Parallel interface extender (PIX). if LCS is enabled in the BSS and if BSS-based LCS architecture is supported. Refer to the section Determining the number of MTLs required. Refer to the section Determining the number of RSLs required. Plan the number of KSWs/DSW2s and timeslots required. Refer to the section Generic clock (GCLK). Refer to the section Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and double kiloport switch extender (DSWX). Plan the number of PIXs required. Plan the power requirements. Ignore this if the BSS supports only the NSS-based LCS architecture. Refer to the section Local area network extender (LANX). Refer to the section Line interface boards (BIB/PBIB. Plan the number of GSL links required between the BSC and the PCU. Decide whether an NVM board is required. Refer to the section Verifying the number of BSU shelves and BSSC cabinets.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSC planning overview Outline of planning Planning a BSC involves the following steps: • • • • • • • • Plan the number of RSL links between the BSC and BTS site(s). Plan the number of PSI2s required. Refer to the section Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2). Plan the number of GPROCs required. Refer to Determining the number of GSLs required. Refer to the section Non Volatile Memory (NVM) board. Plan the number of CLKXs required. Refer to the section Packet Subrate Interface (PSI2). Plan the number of XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s required. Plan the number of MTL links between the BSC and MSC. Refer to the section Determining the number of XBLs required. Refer to the section Digital shelf power supply. Plan the number of GCLKs required. Plan the number of BSU shelves. Refer to the section Determining the number of LMTLs required. Refer to the section Transcoding. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-3 . Plan the number of MSIs required.

One guideline is to have each BSC connect to four RXCDRs. The following sections. Each BSC connects to up to nine RXCDRs. nor should larger BSCs be connected only to one RXCDR. the RXCDR call (CIC) capacity is greater than that of a BSC. and vice-versa. discussed . signaling link capacities and BSC processing capacities: • • • • • BSC system capacities BSS signaling link capacities Traffic models BSC GPROC functions and types Number of GPROCs required Remote transcoding When the transcoding function resides outside of the BSC cabinet. GPROC) and the throughput capacities of its data links. These capacities are limited by the ability of the processors. The connectivity is limited to 20 at each BSC and RXCDR (see Determining the number of XBLs required in this chapter). capacity. 68P02900W21-S 6-4 01 Feb 2007 . in the RXCDR. and cost are the major factors in deciding the configuration. and the links to process the signaling information associated with these TCHs. and vice-versa. Excess RXCDR capacity should not be wasted. it is possible to have multiple RXCDRs connected to a single BSC.Capacity calculations Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Capacity calculations Introduction The throughput capacities of the BSC processing elements (for example. A failure of an RXCDR or communication line does not result in a complete failure of the BSC to handle calls. System size. provide information on how to calculate processor requirements. determine the number of supported traffic channels (TCHs). This is especially useful for two reasons: • • In certain configurations. The level of connectivity is constrained by the number of XBLs supported. The operator determines the level of connectivity.

b 100d 250 384a.000 a. For example.b 100 250 384 a.b.d 250 1 60c 112e 250 232 25 2400a. c 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-5 . 60 per PCU in GSR7 and GSR8.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSC system capacity BSC system capacity System capacity summary Table 6-1 provides a summary of BSC maximum capacities.b 112 250 232 25 2400 16 16 112 N/A 90. For GSR9. slot 20 and slot 24 in shelf 0 and slot 20 in shelf 1.b.000 a. it is mandatory to deploy GPROC3/GPROC3-2s in active and/or standby BSP slots in the BSC in any potential BSP slots on a site.b 250 3 180 c 384a.The capacity can be increased to 512 carriers and 3200 trunks if the optional enhanced BSC capacity feature is enabled. b . .180 for 3xPCU.d 16 16 112e 12f 90.b a .d 384a.For GSR9.000d 384a. Table 6-1 BSC maximum capacities Item GSR7 GSR8 GSR9 BTS sites BTSs (cells) Active RF carriers DRIs RSLs PCUs GSLs MMS PATHs DHPs LCFs Trunks(see NOTE ) C7 links to MSC C7 links to SMLC E1 links Ethernet links Maximum busy hour call attempts 100 250 384 a.b 250 3 180 c 112 250 232 25 2400 16 16 112 N/A 90. the BSS can support 60 GSLs with the introduction of ePCU (refer to Chapter 8).

medium. because there is less time and effort involved than compared with having to move sites from one BSC to another. . Before GSR7. or even from one OMC-R to another.With {22169}96 MSI feature introduced. it is mandatory to deploy GPROC3s in active and/or standby BSP slots in the BSC in any potential BSP slots on a site (that is. or large models. or large networks are efficiently addressed by the scaleable BSC where minimal incremental hardware is required to be added as the networks grow. BSSs targeted at small. The maximum capacity is increased as shown in Table 6-1. and 4800 trunks. This increased capacity is achieved through the deployment of GPROC2s or GPROC3s/GPROC3-2s for each function at the BSC. 20 sites of three sectors and two carriers per sector. If the GPRS traffic is carried on the BSS. there is a possibility that the LCF or C7 limit is reached before the Erlang limit is reached. medium. . 750 carriers. the capacity is increased to allow the operator to move to support in the order of 64 sites of three sectors and two carriers per sector. From GSR8. Planning is a multi-variant problem. when dimensioning a BSC with a specific non-standard call model. At GSR3. Scaleable BSC With the launch of the scaleable BSC. or alternatively. the GSM circuit-switched traffic handling capacity reduces in direct proportion to the timeslots configured for GPRS traffic. 68P02900W21-S 6-6 01 Feb 2007 .The capacities represent the BSS capacities for GSM circuit-switched traffic. Being able to expand capacity within a BSC is beneficial from an operational viewpoint. The maximum number of PSI2 boards and Ethernet links is 12. The scaleable BSC also offers a substantial advantage for microcellular deployment where a single BSC is able to support up to 100 microcellular BTSs. each equipped with two carriers per site. any limit given in Table 6-1 should not be exceeded for the GSR version used. The GPROC3/GPROC3-2 is a high performance direct replacement for the GPROC2 and the original GPROC (GPROC1).BSC system capacity Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules d . if the optional huge BSC capacity feature is enabled. including Base Station Processor (BSP) and Link Control Function (LCF). The scaleable BSC capacity is enabled because of the increased processing performance and memory of the GPROC. When planning a BSC. slot 20 and slot 24 in shelf 0 and slot 20 in shelf 1). a BSC site can support 192 MMSs. e f A PSI2 replaces a MSI to support the Ethernet link between BSC and PCU. At GSR4. the move to a scaleable BSC is enabled through the migration of the processing boards within the BSC to use the GPROC2 throughout. GPROC2s can be replaced by the new GPROC3s at board level in any slot. Motorola moved to a position where the diverse requirements of network users in terms of BSC size are addressed by a single platform that can be efficiently configured in small. The first element to reach its limit sets the capacity of the BSC.The capacity can be increased to 140 BTS sites. the capacity was increased to allow the operator to move to support in the order of 40 sites of three sectors and two carriers per sector. Now. For example. thus preserving the scaleable BSC architecture. The maximum number of DRIs is 750. the BSC capacity before GSR3 supported in the order of 40 sites of three sectors and one carrier per sector. The MMS number and E1 links decrease accordingly. Put into context.

The provisioning rules and steps for BSS equipment only support cell ID and the TA positioning method for LCS is provided for NSS-based and BSS-based LCS architectures respectively in the following sections. no location service capability is provided. New LCS signaling messages on the Mobis interface and Um interface. 384 RF carriers. BTP processors at the InCell BTSs must be replaced with GPROC2s. If the feature is unrestricted. HSP MTLLCF processors must be replaced with GPROC3-2 to support the HSP MTL link and DSW2/DSWX is mandatory to increase the number of TDM timeslots from 1024 to 2048. the BSC maximum capacity is increased to 512 RF carriers and 3200 trunks. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-7 . and 2400 trunks (see Table 6-1). 750 RF carriers. and the BSS supports new LCS signaling for cell ID +TA positioning method: • • New LCS signaling messages on the A-interface or Lb interface. and 2400 trunks (see Table 6-1). LCS option This feature is a restricted option. If the feature is unrestricted. GPROC3s are required in the BSP slots. the BSC maximum capacity is increased to 140 BTS sites. the BSS supports the Network Sub-System (NSS) based Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC) architecture or the BSS-based SMLC architecture. If the feature is unrestricted. and 4800 trunks. the BSC supports the BSC maximum capacity of 100 BTS sites.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSC system capacity Enhanced BSC capacity option This feature is introduced as a restricted option. Hardware upgrades are required by the BSS to support the optional Enhanced BSC capacity. If the feature is restricted. If the feature is restricted. From GSR8. Specifically. Hardware upgrades are required by the BSS to support the optional Huge BSC capacity. Huge BSC capacity option This feature is introduced as a restricted option. the BSC supports the normal BSC maximum capacity of 384 RF carriers. If the feature is restricted.

BTSs. location updating. In general telephony environments. handover. 68P02900W21-S 6-8 01 Feb 2007 . the traffic model expresses processing requirements for these procedures as ratios to the number of call attempts processed. or the capacity of a particular GPROC. MTLs and RSLs). The capacity of the BSC as a whole. all signaling information to be processed by the BSC is related to the offered call load (the amount of traffic offered/generated by subscribers). Traffic models are fundamental to some planning actions. once the network is running. to the offered call load. • A standard traffic model can be assumed when initially planning a network. However. including subcomponents. and the OMC-R. As a result. To apply this for the GSM BSC. BSC capacity planning needs a model that takes into consideration the signaling generated from all the pertinent GSM procedures: call setup and clearing. most of the signaling associated with call setup and clearing still takes place. it is critical to monitor and measure the real call parameters (described in Chapter 11) from the live network to ascertain the true network call model.Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities BSC signaling traffic model For a GSM system. processing and link throughput capacities can be stated in terms of the offered call load. even though few or no trunk resources are utilized. depends on its ability to process information transported through signaling links connecting it to the other network elements. The trunk count can be used as an approximate Erlang value for the potential load carried. A capacity figure can be stated for each GPROC device type in terms of a static capacity such as the number of physical signaling links supported. Therefore. the throughput of network entities. the signaling links and processing requirements should be able to handle the greater of the following: • • Offered load Potential load The number of trunks or the offered call load in Erlangs (whichever is greater) should be used to determine the link and processing requirements of the BSC. Depending on its device type and BSC configuration. To establish the relationship between all the procedures. These elements include MSC. and paging. adequate signaling resources should be planned to handle the potential carried traffic. The rate at which call attempts are processed is a function of the offered call load and the average call hold time. When calls are blocked due to all trunks or all TCHs being busy. a GPROC controls signaling links to one or more other network elements. and a dynamic capacity such as processing throughput. depends upon the assumed traffic model used in the network design or operation. In the case where the BSC has more than enough trunks to handle the offered traffic. the offered call load (which includes the blocked calls) should be used in planning the signaling resources (for example.

PLUS THE # OF GDS TRAU LINKS (DETERMINED FROM THE NUMBER OF GPRS TIMESLOTS UNDER A BSC) .PLUS THE # OF XBL LINKS .PLUS .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities • Future planning should then be based on this actual (non-standard) call model instead of the standard call model.25 MAY BE PASSED TO RXCDR OR MSC SITE ** GDS-TRAU AND GSL ARE CARRIED ON SEPARATE LINKS USING TRAFFIC. and this has a direct impact on dimensioning requirements.PLUS THE # OF GSL LINKS BSC 1 x 64 KBIT/S OF 1 x 16 KBIT/S RTF CIRCUIT/LAPD SIGNALLING LINK 2 x 64 KBIT/S CIRCUITS/RTF 4 x 64 KBIT/S CIRCUITS/RTF (SEE NOTE) MOTOROLA BSC/BTS INTERFACE NON-BLOCKING THE # OF TCHs REQUIRED (USING TYPICALLY 2% BLOCKING) TO CARRY SUBSCRIBER TRAFFIC. PDTCHs AND SIGNALLING TSs -TYPICALLY 2% BLOCKING FOR CS TRAFFIC AIR INTERFACE (TRAFFIC IN ERLANGS) TRANSCODING MUST BE LOCATED AT THE BSC. Figure 6-1 graphically depicts various factors that should be taken into account when planning a BSS.25 CONTROL LINK * -REQUIRED TRUNKS GDS INTERFACE ** .25 SIGNALLING LINK* 1 x 64 KBIT/S CIRCUIT/TRUNK A INTERFACE (TERRESTRIAL LINKS) -C7 SIGNALLING LINKS -X.PLUS THE # OF C7 SIGNALLING LINKS .25 SIGNALLING LINK * 1 x 64 KBIT/S CIRCUIT/ XBL 1 x 64 KBIT/S CIRCUIT/4 TRUNKS 1 x 64 KBIT/S CIRCUIT/8 TRUNKS (HALF RATE WITH 8 KBIT/S SUBMULTIPLEXING ENABLED) WITH SUBMULTIPLEXING TRANSCODING AT BSC 1 x 64 KBIT/S CIRCUIT/C7 SIGNALLING LINK 1 x 64 KBIT/S CIRCUIT/X. OR BETWEEN THE BSC AND MSC 8 pt. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-9 .25 LINKS (USUALLY ONE PER BSC) . TO DETERMINE E1/T1 LINK INTERCONNECT HARDWARE FOR THE `A' AND `BSC TO BTS' INTERFACE.GDS TRAU CHANNELS . left aligned text TCH = TRAFFIC CHANNEL TS = TIMESLOT * X. Past studies have shown that the actual call model in some networks differs considerably from the standard call model.(IF APPLICABLE*) THE # OF X. TYPICALLY USING 1% BLOCKING) FROM ALL BTSs .GSL LINKS GBL BSC TO PCU GDS-TRAU CIRCUITS THE # OF GSLs THE # OF GBLs PCU 1 x 16 KBIT/S CIRCUIT/GPRS TIMESLOT FOR CS1 AND CS2 2 x 16 KBIT/S CIRCUIT/GPRS TIMESLOTS FOR CS3 AND CS4 1 x 64 KBIT/S GSL LINK RTF_DS0_COUNT x 64 KBIT/S FOR EACH EGPRS RTF THE BSC TO MSC 64 kbit/s CIRCUITS ARE DETERMINED FROM THE # OF TRUNKS REQUIRED TO CARRY THE SUMMATION OF AIR INTERFACE TRAFFIC (IN ERLANGS. THE TCHs PLUS THE REQUIRED SIGNALLING TSs DIVIDED BY EIGHT (OR 16 WITH HALF RATE MANDATED) DETERMINES THE CARRIERS REQUIRED (ON A BTS/SECTOR BASIS) BTS AIR INTERFACE -TCHs. Figure 6-1 BSS planning diagram MSC TRANSCODER WITH SUBMULTIPLEXING TRANSCODING AT MSC 1 x 64 KBIT/S CIRCUIT/C7 SIGNALLING LINK 1 x 64 KBIT/S CIRCUIT/X.

more complex formulae must be used as indicated in Nonstandard traffic model planning steps.5I = 2. When the call parameters being planned differ significantly from the standard traffic model. Besides the factors described in Figure 6-1.32 l=2 l=7 I = 0.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set.1 Continued 68P02900W21-S 6-10 01 Feb 2007 . RSL link provisioning with LCS supported.6 Lcs = 0.1 L = l + 0. or (for AMR only) the 7. but not both. Table 6-2 Typical call parameters Busy hour peak signaling traffic parameter Reference parameter Call duration Ratio of SMSs per call Number of handovers per call Ratio of location updates to calls: non-border location area Ratio of location updates to calls: border location area Ratio of IMSI detaches to calls Location update factor: non-border location area using IMSI type 2 Location update factor: border location area using IMSI type 2 GSM circuit-switched paging rate in pages per second Ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers Ratio of LCSs per call T = 90 seconds S =2 H = 1. Two methods for determining the BSC link capacity are given. when LCS is enabled in the BSS.1 PGSM = 60 i = 0.2 L = l + 0. LMTL link provisioning for BSS-based LCS architecture only.Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules 4 x 64 kbit/s circuits/RTF for a (AMR or GSM) HR RTF and 8 kbit/s switching is not provisioned.5I = 7. Typical parameter values The parameters required to calculate BSC processing and signaling link capacities are listed in Table 6-2 with their typical values. The first method is based on the typical call parameters given in Table 6-2 and simplifies planning to look up tables. the following factors require to be taken into account when planning a BSS: • • • MTL link provisioning to support LCS signaling between the MSC and BSC for either NSSbased LCS architecture or BSS-based LCS architecture. or the simple formulae indicated in the standard traffic model planning steps.

4 PGPRS = 25.40 UBSC-PCU = 0.40 UCCCH = 0.05 U(MSC – BSS) = 0.64 PSATT/DETACH = 0.4 RAU = 1.14 DLRATE = 127.8 MNEWCALL = 1 MHANDOVER = 1 LXBL =50 Hhr-fr = 1 PKSIZE = 336.91 Continued Number of XBL messages per new call Number of XBL messages per hr <-> fr handover Length of an average XBL message.25 UBSC-RXCDR = 0. in bytes Number of hr <-> fr handovers per call GPRS parameters GPRS Average packet size (bytes) GPRS Traffic per sub/BH ( bytes/hr) – Uplink GPRS Traffic per sub/BH ( bytes/hr) — Downlink Average sessions per subscriber (per BH) PS attach/detach rate (per sub/BH) PDP context activation/deactivation (per sub/BH) Routing area update GPRS paging rate in pages per second 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-11 .40 UBSC-SMLC = 0.81 Avg_Sessions_per_sub = 0.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities Table 6-2 Typical call parameters (Continued) Busy hour peak signaling traffic parameter Reference parameter Mobile terminated LCS ratio Mobile originated LCS ratio Percent link utilization (MSC to BSS) Percent link utilization (BSC to BTS) Percent link utilization (BSC to RXCDR) Percent link utilization (BSC to SMLC) Percent link utilization (BSC to PCU) Percent link utilization (BSC to SGSN) Percent CCCH utilization Block Rate for TCHs Block Rate for MSC-BSS trunks Number of cells per BTS Average SMS message size (payload only) Number of BSCs per location area Busy Hour Call Attempts per sub/BH XBL (enhanced auto connect) parameters LRMT = 0.5 PDPACT/DEACT = 0.33 PB-TCHs = 2% PB-Trunks = 1% CBTS = 3 SMSSIZE = 100 bytes BSCLA = 1 BHCAsub = 1.25 UGBL = 0.95 LRMO = 0.65 ULRATE = 34.20 U(BSC – BTS) = 0.

Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities

Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules

Table 6-2 Typical call parameters (Continued) Busy hour peak signaling traffic parameter Reference parameter

Coding scheme rates (CS1 to CS4) at the RLC/MAC layer

CS1 = 9.2 kbit/s CS2 = 13.6 kbit/s CS3 = 15.8 kbit/s CS4 = 21.8 kbit/s

Coding scheme usage (CS1 to CS4) at a BLER of 10%

CS1_usage_UL = CS1_usage_DL = 20% CS2_usage_UL = CS2_usage_DL = 45% CS3_usage_UL = CS3_usage_DL = 25% CS4_usage_UL = CS4_usage_DL = 10%

Percentage GPRS coding scheme usage in total traffic (see ) Cell updates (per sub/BH)
EGPRS parameters

CSuse_UL_GPRS = CSuse_DL_GPRS = 50% CellUpdate = 0.33 PKULSIZE = 134.39 PKDLSIZE = 562.99 ULRATE = 34.14 DLRATE = 127.81 Avg Sessions per sub = 0.64 PSATT/DETACH = 0.5 PDPACT/DEACT = 0.4 RAU = 1.4 PGPRS = 25.91 MCS1 = 10.55 MCS2 = 12.95 MCS3 = 16.55 MCS4 = 19.35 MCS5 = 23.90 MCS6 = 29.60 MCS7 = 31.10 MCS8 = 46.90 MCS9 = 61.30
Continued

EGPRS Average packet size (bytes) - Uplink EGPRS Average packet size (bytes) Downlink EGPRS Traffic per sub/BH (kbytes/hr) Uplink EGPRS Traffic per sub/BH (kbytes/hr) Downlink Average sessions per subscriber (per BH) PS attach/detach rate (per sub/BH) PDP context activation/deactivation (per sub/BH) Routing area update GPRS paging rate in pages per second Coding scheme rates (MSC1-MSC9) at the RLC/MAC layer

68P02900W21-S 6-12 01 Feb 2007

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning

Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities

Table 6-2 Typical call parameters (Continued) Busy hour peak signaling traffic parameter Reference parameter

Coding scheme usage (MCS1 to MCS9) at a BLER of 20%

MCS1_usage_UL = MCS1_usage_DL = 10% MCS2_usage_UL = MCS2_usage_DL = 8% MCS3_usage_UL = MCS3_usage_DL = 33% MCS4_usage_UL = MCS4_usage_DL = 1% MCS5_usage_UL = MCS5_usage_DL = 21% MCS6_usage_UL = MCS6_usage_DL = 15% MCS7_usage_UL = MCS7_usage_DL = 5% MCS8_usage_UL = MCS8_usage_DL = 3% MCS9_usage_UL = MCS9_usage_DL = 4%

Percentage EGPRS coding scheme usage in total traffic Average packet size for GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix (bytes) – Uplink (see ) Average packet size for GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix (bytes) – Downlink (see )
DTM parameters

CSuse_UL_EGPRS = CSuse_DL_EGPRS = 50% PKULSIZE = 134.39 PKDLSIZE = 562.99

Percentage of DTM mobiles DTM mode scaling factor (see )
QoS parameters

MSDTM = 30% DTMfactor = 30% GBRAVG_UL = 3.80 GBRAVG_DL = 5.60 GBRPEAK_UL = 9.65 GBRPEAK_DL = 12.70

Average GBR for service mix (kbit/s) - Uplink Average GBR for service mix (kbit/s) Downlink Peak GBR for service mix (kbit/s) - Uplink Peak GBR for service mix (kbit/s) - Downlink

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Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules

• •

Number of handovers: These include 2G-3G handovers. Percentage GPRS coding scheme usage: These percentages represent the split of the traffic between for GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix, which is network dependent. The percentages can be used to determine the average traffic per sub/BH for a GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix as follows: Traffic per sub/BH for GPRS and EGPRS mix (kbytes/hr) = (Percentage GPRS coding scheme usage in total traffic * GPRS Traffic per sub/BH) + (Percentage EGPRS coding scheme usage in total traffic * EGPRS Traffic per sub/BH) Average packet size for GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix (bytes): These are the average packet sizes for a GPRS and EGPRS traffic mix based on the GPRS and EGPRS percentage splits defined for this model. DTM mode scaling factor: The DTM scaling factor represents the likelihood that a DTM subscriber can overlap a CS call and a PS session.

Location update factor
The location update factor (L) is a function of the ratio of location updates to calls (l), the ratio of IMSI detaches to calls (I) and whether the short message sequence (type 1) or long message sequence (type 2) is used for IMSI detach; typically I = 0 (that is IMSI detach is disabled) as in the first formula given . When IMSI detach is enabled, the second or third of the formulas given should be used. The type of IMSI detach used is a function of the MSC. If IMSI detach is disabled: L=1 If IMSI detach type 1 is enabled: L = 1+ 0.2 * I If IMSI detach type 2 is enabled: L = 1+ 0.5 * I

Other parameters
Other parameters used to determine GPROC and link requirements are listed in Table 6-3.
Table 6-3 Other parameters used in determining GPROC and link requirements Busy hour peak signaling traffic mode Reference parameter

Number of MSC - BSC trunks Number of BTSs per BSS Number of cells per BSS Pages per call LCS request rate (req/sec/BSC)

N B C PPC = PGSM * (T/N) LCS_BSC_Rate = (N/T) * LCS

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System Information: BSS Equipment Planning

Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities

Assumptions used in capacity calculations
Signaling message sequence and size assumptions
Certain signaling message sequence patterns and message sizes have been assumed to calculate link and processing capacity values for the various procedures included in the signaling traffic model. These assumptions translate into specific formula coefficients and include a margin of safety. As they are dependent on call procedures, they are recalculated for every major software release. Link utilization should be monitored to detect significantly different behavior. The procedures used for the calculations are provided in Table 6-4.
Table 6-4 Signaling message procedures MSC - BSC BSC - BTS SMLC - BSC

Call setup and clearing Handover, incoming and outgoing Location update SMS - P to P IMSI detach (type 1) IMSI detach (type 2) Paging N/A

Call setup and clearing Handover, incoming and outgoing Location update SMS - P to P IMSI detach (type1) IMSI detach (type 2) Paging One phase access and Enhanced one phase access

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Enhanced One Phase is not supported with EGPRS carriers. LCS LCS LCS

The BSS software uses a new small message header (compact header) for delivering messages between the BSC/PCU and the BTS. The new message header contains the minimum information necessary to deliver the messages between the processes. The size of the new message header is 8 bytes, as compared to 28 bytes in pre GSR6 releases. This reduces the signaling link utilization between the BSC-BTS and BSC-PCU. An additional assumption, which is made in determining the formula coefficients, is that the procedures not included in the traffic model are considered to have a negligible effect.

Supplementary Service (SS) messaging has not been taken into account. This could contribute a significant signaling overhead in some networks.

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Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules

Paging assumptions
In calculating the average message size for paging, it is assumed that paging is by LAC (or LAI) only. Paging by LAC only, is the recommended method. Paging by LAC and cell ID is not necessary, and has two major disadvantages:

The paging method is controlled by the MSC and is signaled to the BSC through the setting of the Cell Identification Discriminator in the BSSMAP paging message. The BSC can determine from its Configuration Management database the cells that require to be paged from the location area code only. Therefore, the MSC does not require to send a list of each individual cell identity. Paging by LAC and Cell ID increases the length of the BSSMAP paging considerably and significantly increases the C7 signaling load between the MSC and BSC. Paging by LAC only reduces the possibility of paging channel overload on the air interface caused by any database mismatch between the BSC and MSC. If the BSC receives a cell identity in the paging message from the MSC that does not exist in its Configuration Management database, it defaults to paging all cells in the BSS for safety reasons. This can cause overload of the paging channel on the radio interface.

Half rate assumptions
A (AMR or GSM) half rate enabled carrier is capable of carrying two half rate calls in each timeslot, for 16 (half rate) TCHs. The actual number in use at a given instance depends upon such factors as user (both BSS and MSC) preference, mobile (that is, AMR capable) penetration, RF conditions, handoff parameter, and threshold setting, cell congestion levels, and so on. If it is known to a large degree of certainty what is the mix of half rate and full rate calls, that number can be used when considering equipment planning. Otherwise, it is recommended that a worst case approach be taken. For example, when determining the RSL signaling link capacity required, and half rate usage is expected to be no more than 50%, and there are two (both half rate enabled) carriers, a mix of 9 fr and 10 hr (plus 2 timeslots for signaling) TCHs can be used (for a total of 19). A worst case estimate assumes 16 TCHs per half rate enabled carrier, for 28 TCHs. If only one carrier is half rate enabled, worst case results in (16 hr, 6 fr) 22 TCHs. When 8 kbit/s subrate switching is not available, or an RTF is configured as AMR half rate capable and the 7.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set, then the carrier unit assigned to that RTF needs four 64 kbit/s timeslots on the E1 circuit (regardless of how they are utilized). For an EGPRS capable RTF (pkt_radio_type set to 3), 16 kbit/s switching on the backhaul is not supported and allow_8k_trau has to be enabled if half rate is supported.

AMR HR Active Codec Set cannot include 7.95 kbit/s, when pkt_radio_type is set to 3.

68P02900W21-S 6-16 01 Feb 2007

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning

Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities

Link capacities
The level of link utilization is largely a matter of choice of the system designer. A design that has more links running at a lower message rate can have the advantage of offering better fault tolerance, since the impact of failure of any one link on the signaling traffic is less. Reconfiguration around the fault could be less disruptive. Such a design could offer reduced queuing delays for signaling messages. A design that utilizes fewer links at a higher message rate, reduces the number of 64 kbit/s circuits required for signaling, and potentially reduces the number of resources (processors, data ports) required in the MSC. It is recommended that the C7 links be designed to operate at no more than 20% link utilization when the MTL is running on a GPROC1 and no more than 40% utilization when the MTL/LMTL is running on a GPROC2 or GPROC3. Before use of the 40% utilization for GPROC2 or GPROC3, it is imperative that the operator verifies that the MSC/SMLC vendor can also support 40% utilization at the MSC/SMLC end; if not, only 20% link utilization should be used for GPROC2 and GPROC3. If higher link utilizations are used, the controlling GPROCs (LCF-MTLs/LCF-LMTLs) become overloaded. If HSP MTL {28337} is enabled, no more than 20% link utilization for the 2M MTL is recommended.

Overloading GPROCs can cause the BSC to become unstable. Links must be monitored closely to ensure that link utilization does not exceed the maximum. If link utilization is regularly approaching the maximum, additional capacity should be added to reduce the possibility of overloading the GPROCs. The protocol C7, used for the MSC to BSC links and SMLC to BSC links, allows for the signaling traffic from the failed link to be redistributed among the remaining functioning links. Both the MSC-BSC and SMLC-BSC C7 link set officially have at least two and at most 16 links. The failure of links, for any reason, causes the signaling to be shared across the remaining members of the link set. Therefore, the design must plan for reserve link and processing capacity to support a certain number of failed signaling links.

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Determining the number of RSLs required

Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules

Determining the number of RSLs required
Introduction
Each BTS site that is connected directly to the BSC, including the first site in a daisy chain, must be considered individually. Once individual RSL requirements are calculated, the total number of LCFs can be determined for the BSC.

Planning considerations
The following factors should be considered when planning the provision of RSL (LAPD signaling) links from the BSC to BTS sites:

With the Motorola BSC/BTS interface, there is a need for at least one RSL link to every BTS site. One link can support multiple collocated cells. As the system grows, additional signaling links are required. Refer to the section Determining the required BSS signaling link capacities in this chapter to determine the number of RSL links required. If closed loop daisy chains are used, each site needs a RSL in both directions. The provision of additional RSL links for redundancy. PCCCH signaling traverses the GDS (on a PDTCH) instead of the RSL. Thus, cells with PCCCH enabled do not add to the RSL requirements for the BTS. If paging coordination is enabled with PCCCH, GSM circuit-switched pages are sent on the PCCCH. Thus, some of the GSM paging load is removed from the RSL. If LCS is enabled in the BSS, the signaling load due to LCS needs to be taken into account. The number of 16 kbit/s RSL links is limited, depending on the platform. See 16 kbit/s RSL in Chapter 2 for further details. 64 kbit/s RSLs must be used when allowable numbers are exceeded.

• • • • • •

If DTM is unrestricted in the BSS, the signaling load due to DTM Call Establishment/Release and GTTP needs to be taken into consideration. Based on the analysis under current call model parameters, the additional load by DTM is minor and can be ignored. With the incremental penetration of DTM capable subscribers, the DTM signaling load will be increased in the future. {26881} Extended Uplink TBF is the feature enhances uplink data performance by minimizing the interruptions of uplink data flow in GPRS/EGPRS networks due to a frequent release and establishment of uplink TBF. According to the principle of Extended Uplink TBF, this feature decreases the amount of RACH for uplink applications session like uplink FTP, and so on. If the uplink application is rare, the total amount of decreased RACH is small. Thus, the impact of RACH decrement can be ignored. If the uplink applications are booming, total amount of decreased RACH is huge. Therefore the impact of RACH decrement cannot be ignored, and RACH decrement is taken into account for RSL calculation.

68P02900W21-S 6-18 01 Feb 2007

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning

Determining the number of RSLs required

Table 6-5 lists the limitations for 16 kbit/s RSLs supported on each BTS platform. Table 6-5 BTS support for 16 kbit/s RSLs BTS Platform Number of 16 kbit/s RSLs Supported

A BSU-based BTS Horizon II macro and Horizonmacro Horizonmicro2 / Horizoncompact2 M-Cell6 M-Cell2 M-Cellmicro and M-Cellcity

8 6 2 6 4 2

Horizon II macro BTSs support 4 x RSLs per E1, whereas Horizonmacro and M-Cell BTSs only support 2 x RSLs per E1. This should be taken into consideration when determining the number of E1s required to support the calculated RSLs per site.

Determining the number of RSLs
The equation for determining the number of RSL links for the combined signaling load is as follows: RSLGPRS + GSM = RSLGPRS + RSLGSM This is evaluated for 16 kbit/s RSLs or for 64 kbit/s RSLs. The interface between the BTS and BSC does not permit mixing the two RSL rates.
Where Is

RSLGPRS + GSM

the combined number of RSL signaling links on a per BTS site basis operating at a 16 kbit/s RSL rate or at a 64 kbit/s RSL rate. the number of RSL signaling links required to serve the GPRS part of the network at 16 kbit/s or at 64 kbit/s. the number of RSL signaling links required to serve the GSM part of the network at 16 kbit/s or at 64 kbit/s.

RSLGPRS

RSLGSM

One phase access and enhanced one phase
In a GPRS network, there are two packet access procedures that a mobile station can use to establish an uplink TBF. The packet access performs in either one phase or in two phases. In GPRS software architecture before GSR6, the BSS supports only the two phase-access procedure. Now, one phase access mode and enhanced one phase access mode are supported.

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-19

Determining the number of RSLs required

Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules

One phase access
In a one phase uplink TBF access, the MS initiates an uplink TBF by sending a RACH to the BSS. The RACH is received at the BTS and is then forwarded to the PCU. The PCU responds to the RACH with an Immediate Assignment message containing an uplink assignment. The MS moves to the assigned PDTCH and begins its uplink data transfer. This procedure allows the MS to gain access to the network much quicker than the two-phase establishment procedure.

Enhanced one phase
The enhanced one phase uplink TBF access procedure speeds up the one phase packet access procedure even further. The enhanced one phase access procedure allows the PCU to assign resources for a one phase uplink TBF, allowing the BTS to react quickly to a one phase RACH without forwarding the RACH to the PCU and incurring excessive RSL delay and increasing RSL load. Depending on the RSL load, the RACH to Immediate Assignment delay reduces by approximately 60 ms or more.

Standard traffic model
The number of BSC to BTS signaling links (RSLs) must be determined for each BTS. This number depends on the number of TCHs and PDTCHs at the BTS. Table 6-6 gives the number of RSLs required (rounded up to the nearest integer value) for a BTS to support the given number of TCHs and PDTCHs, based on the typical call parameters given in the standard traffic model column of Table 6-2. If the call parameters differ significantly from the standard traffic model, use the formulae for the non-standard traffic model.

• • •

Table 6-6 assumes that there are no cells with PCCCH enabled.

Enhanced One Phase is not supported with EGPRS carriers. For assumptions specific to half rate refer to section Half rate assumptions.

Table 6-6 Number of BSC to BTS signaling links (without LCS) With Enhanced One Phase Access #TCHs/BTS (n) #PDTCHs/ BTS (Ngprs) # 64 kbit/s RSLs # 16 kbit/s RSLs With One Phase Access # 64 kbit/s RSLs # 16 kbit/s RSLs

<= 30

0 15 30 45 60 75 90

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

8 8 8 8 8 8 8

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Continued

68P02900W21-S 6-20 01 Feb 2007

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning

Determining the number of RSLs required

Table 6-6 Number of BSC to BTS signaling links (without LCS) (Continued) With Enhanced One Phase Access #TCHs/BTS (n) #PDTCHs/ BTS (Ngprs) # 64 kbit/s RSLs # 16 kbit/s RSLs With One Phase Access # 64 kbit/s RSLs # 16 kbit/s RSLs

31 to 60

0 15 30 45 60 75 90

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 14

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 14
Continued

61 to 90

0 15 30 45 60 75 90

91 to 120

0 15 30 45 60 75 90

121 to 150

0 15 30 45 60 75 90

151 to 180

0

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-21

Determining the number of RSLs required

Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules

Table 6-6 Number of BSC to BTS signaling links (without LCS) (Continued) With Enhanced One Phase Access # TCHs/BTS (n) #PDTCHs/ BTS (Ngprs) # 64 kbit/s RSLs # 16 kbit/s RSLs With One Phase Access # 64 kbit/s RSLs # 16 kbit/s RSLs

15 30 45 60 75 90 181 to 210 0 15 30 45 60 75 90

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

The RSL calculations assume PGPRS = 0 for cells in which Ngprs = 0. This is not necessarily true. If the BSC has GPRS timeslots, even if the cells do not have traffic channels configured as PDTCHs, it may have paging traffic.
RACH_Arrivals/sec figures have been calculated using Avg_Sessions_per_user as in the call model table. GPRS_Users_BTS has been calculated based on the number of timeslots configured on the cell.

A BTS can support either 64 kbit/s RSLs or 16 kbit/s RSLs, but not both. The number of 16 kbit/s RSLs allowable is dependent on the hardware platform and some 16 kbit/s values in the tables may not be valid. 64 kbit/s RSLs must be used if the allowable number of 16 kbit/s RSLs is exceeded.

Non-standard traffic model
64 kbit/s RSLs
If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 6-2, use the following formula to determine the required number of 64 kbit/s RSLs. If LCS is enabled at the BSS, LCS signaling (+ 24 * LCS) needs to be included (as shown) in the following equations. If LCS is disabled, remove (+ 24 * LCS) from the equations.

68P02900W21-S 6-22 01 Feb 2007

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning

Determining the number of RSLs required

If paging coordination (NOM I) is enabled and every cell in the BTS site has PCCCH enabled (pccch_enabled = 1):

RSL GSM@64K =

(n) * (59 + S * (25 + Size * 0.125) + 38 * H + 24 * L + 24 * L CS ) (1000 * U * T) + ((31 + 3 * C BTS ) * PGSM /(8000 * U)) * (N GSM_only_M S /N GSM_Capabl e_ - MS )

Otherwise:

RSL GSM@64K =

(n) * (59 + S * (25 + Size * 0.125) + 38 * H + 24 * L + 24 * L CS ) (1000 * U * T) + ((31 + 3 * C BTS ) * PGSM /(8000 * U))

If DTM feature is enabled,

RSL GSM@64K =

(n) * (59 + S * (25 + Size * 0.125) + 38 * H + 24 * L + 24 * L CS ) (1000 * U * T) + ((31 + 3 * C BTS ) * PGSM * (1 - R PS * PDTM )/(8000 * U)))

Where, RPS is the probability of MS in PS transfer mode; PDTM is the DTM penetration rate. The RSL traffic load for GPRS depends on the following factors:
• •

PCCCH provisioning per cell. The access mechanism used on the air interface. Motorola BSCs allow use of one phase access or a Motorola proprietary enhanced one phase mechanism.

With one phase access
RSL GPRS@64K =

(32 + C BTS ) * PGPRS
8000 * U

* (PCCCH _ BTS) +

5.5 * GPRS _ RACH / sec * (1 − R PCCCH _ Cells _ in _ BTS ) 1000 * U

With enhanced one phase access

Enhanced One Phase is not supported with EGPRS carriers.

RSL GPRS@64K =

* (PCCCH _ BTS) + 8000 * U 7.5 * GPRS _ RACH / sec * (1 − R PCCCH _ Cells _ in _ BTS ) 1000 * U

(32 + C BTS ) * PGPRS

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-23

Determining the number of RSLs required

Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules

Therefore, the total number of 64 kbit/s RSLs required is:

RSL GSM + GPRS @ 64 k = Roundup(RSL GSM @ 64 k + RSL GPRS @ 64 k )

When all cells in the BTS have PCCCH enabled then RSLGPRS@64k = 0.

16 kbit/s RSLs
If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 6-2, use the following formula to determine the required number of 16 kbit/s RSLs. If LCS is enabled at the BSS, LCS signaling (+ 24 * LCS) needs to be included (as shown) in the following equations. If LCS is disabled, remove (+ 24 * LCS) from the equations. If paging coordination (for example NOM I) is enabled and every cell in the BTS site has PCCCH enabled (pccch_enabled = 1): RSLGSM@16K={(n)*(59+S*(25+Size*0.125)+38*H+24*L+24*LCS)/(1000*U*T)+((31+3*C BTS)*PGSM/(8000*U))*(NGSM_only_MS/NGSM_Capable_-MS) }*4 Otherwise: RSLGSM@16K={(n)*(59+S*(25+Size*0.125)+38*H+24*L+24*LCS)/(1000*U*T)+(31+3*CBTS)*PGSM/(8000 *U) }*4 When DTM is enabled, RSLGSM@16K={(n)*(59+S*(25+Size*0.125)+38*H+24*L+24*LCS)/(1000*U*T)+(31+3*CBTS)*PGSM*(1RPS*PDTM)/(8000*U) }*4 Where, RPS is the probability of MS in PS transfer mode; PDTM is the DTM penetration rate.

With one phase access
RSL GPRS@16k = GPRS _ RACH / sec ⎡ (32 + C BTS ) * PGPRS ⎤ * (PCCH _ BTS) + * (1 − R PCCH _ Cells _ In _ BTS )⎥ * 4 ⎢ 8000 * U 1000 * U ⎣ ⎦

With enhanced one phase access

Enhanced One Phase is not supported with EGPRS carriers.

68P02900W21-S 6-24 01 Feb 2007

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning

Determining the number of RSLs required

RSL

GPRS@64K

= / sec

(7 . 5 * GPRS _ RACH ⎡ (32 + C BTS ) * P GPRS * (PCCCH _ BTS ) + ⎢ 8000 * U 1000 * U ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ (1 − R PCCCH _ Cells _ In _ BTS ) ⎢ ⎣
Therefore, the total number of 16 kbit/s RSLs required is: RSLGSM+GPRS@16k = Round up (RSLGSM@16K + RSLGPRS@16k)

) *⎤

⎥ ⎥ ⎥*4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

When all cells in the BTS have PCCCH enabled then RSLGPRS@16k = 0.

GPRS RACH arrivals
The average number of RACH arrivals per second is given by:

GPRS _ RACH / sec =

GPRS _ Users _ BTS * Avg _ Session _ per _ user 3600

RACH/sec depends on the traffic profile on the network. For the same amount of data transferred per user in a busy hour, if the traffic is predominantly WAP, then the number of RACH arrivals is high compared to what is observed when the data traffic is predominantly FTP transfers. The traffic profile should be calculated based on the applications running on the network. With the introduction of the Interleaving TBF feature, it is expected that the sessions arrival rate in each cell may potentially be higher than in GSRs before GSR6. With interleaving, TBFs it is possible to have multiple MSs on each timeslot. Customers should consider this fact when estimating the sessions for the formula. In the equations:
Where Is

RSLGSM + GPRS n S SMSSIZE H

the number of BSC-BTS signaling links. the number of TCHs at the BTS site. the ratio of SMSs to calls. the average size of the SMS message (payload only). the number of handovers per call.
Continued

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-25

Determining the number of RSLs required

Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules

Where

Is

L LCS U T PGSM PGPRS CBTS GPRS_RACH/sec GPRS_Users_BTS Avg_Sessions_per_user

the location update factor. the number of LCSs per call. the percent link utilization (example 0.25). the average call duration. the GSM paging rate in pages/second. the GPRS paging rate in pages/ second. the number of cells at the BTS. the number of RACH arrivals/ second/BTS. the number of GPRS users on the BTS. the average number of sessions per user in a busy hour. This includes the sessions required for signaling (attach, detach, PDP context activation/ deactivation, routing area updates, and so on). the number of mobiles in the system that do not support GPRS. Equals 0, if all cells in the BTS have PCCCH enabled, otherwise, this equals 1. the ratio of PCCCH-enabled cells at the BTS (the number of cells at the BTS with PCCCH enabled divided by the total number of cells at the BTS). Percentage of Capable Mobiles using DTM DTM Mode Scaling Factor probability that a sub is in DTM mode probability that a sub is in dedicated mode probability that a sub is in Packet transfer mode Busy Hour Call Attempts Per Sub number of handovers per call GSM circuit-switched paging rate in pages per second
Continued

NGSM_Only_MS PCCCH_BTS

RPCCCH_Cells_in_BT

PDTM DTM_Mode_Scaling_Factor RDTM RCS RPS BHCA_per_sub H PGSM

68P02900W21-S 6-26 01 Feb 2007

System Information: BSS Equipment Planning

Determining the number of RSLs required

Where

Is

RAU PDPACT/DEACT PSATT/DETACH CellUpdate T ULRate DLRate Total_subs_per_BSS T ULRate DLRate Total_subs_per_BSS

routing area update PDP context activation/deactivation (per sub/BH) PS attach/detach rate (per sub/BH) cell updates (per sub/BH) call duration Traffic per sub/BH (kbytes/hr) — Uplink Traffic per sub/BH (kbytes/hr) — Downlink the total users under a BSS in the busy hour call duration Traffic per sub/BH (kbytes/hr)Uplink Traffic per sub/BH (kbytes/hr) Downlink the total users under a BSS in the busy hour

The Enhanced Scheduling feature introduces a new parameter percent_traf_cs, which secures a portion of the bandwidth on the RSL for Circuit Switched (CS) traffic. The default value of this parameter is 55%, which means that GPRS traffic cannot utilize more than 45% of the total RSL bandwidth, that is, 45% of the total link capacity (16 k or 64 k). Setting percent_traf_cs to zero implies pre-GSR7 conditions, that is, CS and GPRS have equal privileges to occupy the RSL. Normal RSL planning does not recommend exceeding a MEAN of 25% RSL utilization. Hence, the thresholds for this parameter are to be triggered under abnormal conditions, where unexpected sustained surge occurs. Assuming that during a surge of traffic (much higher than the planned 25%) the ratio of CS to GPRS traffic is maintained, the default value (55%) for percent_traf_cs can be adjusted to reflect it. Take an example where total RSL MEAN utilization is 25%, and the ratio of CS to GPRS traffic 4 to 1. In other words, CS contributes 20% to RSL utilization and GPRS contributes 5%. Maintaining the same ratio during a surge suggests to set percent_traf_cs to 80%, meaning that GPRS cannot occupy more than 20% of total RSL bandwidth.

BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning actions
Determine the number of E1 links required to connect to a BTS. Redundant links are added, if required. To determine the impact of different coding schemes on interconnect planning, use the following equation:

{[( N BSC − BTS =

nE GPRS i=0

∑ RTF _ DSO _ COUNTi ) + ( nC
31

GPRS

* 4 ) + ( nG GPRS * 2 ) + L16 / 4 ]} + L 64

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-27

Determining the number of RSLs required

Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules

Where

Is

NBSC-BTS nEGPRS nCGPRS

the minimum number of E1 links required (rounded up to an integer). the number of carriers with EGPRS enabled. the number of carriers with GPRS CS3 and CS4 enabled and GSM voice only carriers where the half rate exception case applies. the number of carriers with GPRS CS1 and CS2 enabled and GSM voice only carriers where the half rate exception case does not apply. the number of 16 kbit/s RSLs (LAPD links). the number of 64 kbit/s RSLs (LAPD links). value of rtf_dso_count for the RTF.

nGGPRS

L16 L64 RTF_DSO_COUNTi

This formula includes both L16 and L64 to provide the necessary number of RSLs. As, either L16 or L64 RSL can be used to a single BTS, but not both.
Table 6-7 defines the backhaul required for the different coding schemes and configurations. Table 6-7 Backhaul requirements 16 kbit/s 32 kbit/s VersaTRAU backhaul

GSM Voice only carries where the half rate exception case does not apply. Carriers with only GPRS CS1 and CS2 enabled.

GSM Voice only carriers where the half rate exception case does apply. Carriers with only GPRS CS1, CS2, CS3, and CS4 enabled.

EGPRS capable carriers (MCS1-MCS9).

All EGPRS carriers (pkt_radio_type = 3) use VersaTRAU frame formats on the backhaul between BTS and PCU to carry the data for PDTCHs on this carrier irrespective of whether VersaTRAU is restricted/unrestricted.

BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning example
Assume a three sector BTS with 8 carriers per sector. Each sector has:
• • • • •

2 carriers of GSM voice with no half rate exception. 1 carrier with GPRS CS1 and CS2. 2 carriers of GSM voice with half rate exception. 2 carriers of GPRS CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4. 1 carrier of EGPRS, VersaTRAU is restricted and all EGPRS RTFs are non-BCCH.

68P02900W21-S 6-28 01 Feb 2007

E1s = {[(3 * 5) + (12 * 4) + (9 * 2) + 0] + 1} =3 31 In this example. 2 carriers of GPRS CS1. The GPRS/EGPRS LCF GPROC requirements can be directly added to the GSM requirements in order to determine the total number of LCF GPROCs to equip at a BSC. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-29 . Both GPROC2 and GPROC3 or a combination of the two can perform layer 3 call processing for GSM and GPRS (GPROC3 is a direct board level replacement for GPROC2). CS3. It is possible to calculate the GPRS/EGPRS part of the signaling load for the LCF GPROCs in fractional increments. all of the BTSs backhaul requirements would require to be calculated and then added together. The number of E1s would be calculated as follows: No. 3 E1s are required to backhaul this BTS to the BSC.E1s = {[(3 * 8) + (12 * 4) + (9 * 2) + 0] + 1} =3 31 In this example. The same example is presented in a scenario where VersaTRAU is unrestricted. The network uses cross connect equipment between BTSs and BSCs. Determining the number of LCF GPROCs for RSL and GSL processing BSC to BTS E1 interconnect planning actions Determine the number of GPROCs required to support the layer 3 call processing. Refer to the network configuration to determine if backhaul from multiple BTSs could be multiplexed on a single E1. 1 carrier with GPRS CS1 and CS2.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the number of RSLs required The number of E1s is calculated as follows: No. We again have a 3 sector BTS with 8 carriers per sector. The calculations are performed separately for the number of GPROCs required for GSM traffic and for GPRS traffic. To find out the total number of E1s required for a BSC. See Generic processor (GPROC) later in this chapter. all of the BTSs backhaul requirements would require to be calculated and then added together. VersaTRAU is unrestricted and RTF backhaul is set to 5. Examples of this type of capability would be if: • • The BTSs are daisy chained. To find out the total number of E1s required for a BSC. Each sector has: • • • • • 2 carriers of GSM voice with no half rate exception. The LCF GPROCs can simultaneously handle signaling traffic from both the GSM and GPRS parts of the network. 1 carrier of EGPRS. 3 E1s are required to backhaul this BTS to the BSC. CS2. 2 carriers of GSM voice with half rate exception. and CS4.

34*H*(1-0.35*Lcs)/(19. GL3 = n*(1+0. the location update factor.4*i)+0.32*L+0.34*H*(1-0. the alternative formula given should be used to determine the recommended number of LCFs. the number of cells. the number of TCHs at the BSC (see half rate assumptions earlier in this chapter). The first is used when the call parameters are like those listed in Table 6-2 (standard traffic model).35*S+0.6*T) + (0. the number of BTS sites. GL3 = n*(1+0.32*L+0. Standard traffic model (without LCS) Use the formula: GL3 = n/693+B/20+C/120 Where Is GL3 n B C Non-standard traffic model the number of LCF GPROCs required to support the layer 3 call processing. The second method is used when the call parameters differ significantly from those listed in the tables (that is non-standard traffic model).004)*B+C/120 Where. the number of LCSs per call. the number of BTS sites.00075*PGSM*(1RPS*PDTM)+0. Where Is GL3 n S H i L LCS T PGSM B the number of LCF GPROCs required to support the layer 3 call processing. the ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers. the ratio of SMSs to calls.004)*B+C/120 When DTM is enabled and network-paging coordination is disabled (not in NOM1). Continued 68P02900W21-S 6-30 01 Feb 2007 . the number of TCHs under the BSC (see half rate assumptions earlier in this chapter).00075*PGSM+0.35*Lcs)/(19. the average call duration.6*T) + (0.Determining the number of RSLs required Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules GSM layer 3 There are two methods for calculating this number. the GSM paging rate in pages per second. PDTM is the DTM penetration rate. RPS is the probability of MS in PS transfer mode.35*S+0. If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 6-2. the number of handovers per call.4*i)+0. The formula has been calculated using 70% mean utilization of the GPROC.

the number of TCHs under the BSC (see Half rate assumptions earlier in this chapter). the number of cells. paging rate in pages per second. the total number of GPRS users under a PCU in the busy hour. the ratio of PCCCH-enabled cells (the number of cells in the BSS with PCCCH enabled divided by the total number of cells in the BSS. GPRS layer 3 The MSC can send GSM alerting pages to a GPRS/EGPRS mobile that operates in class A or class B modes. The significance of this is that GPRS/EGPRS mobile stations capable of class A and B operation create a larger population of GSM capable mobile stations that should be considered when provisioning the LCF GPROCs. the sites should be redistributed on the other available LCFs. or additional LCFs should be equipped. The planning information provided here should be used for this provisioning. the average number of sessions per subscriber in a busy hour (includes sessions for signaling). Having calculated the LCF GPROCs for RSLs.00075 * B * PGPRS * PCCCH_BSS Where Total _ Rach / sec = GPRS _ subs _ per _ PCU * Avg _ session _ per _ subs 3600 Is Where GL3_GPRS Total_RACH/sec RPCCCH_Cells the sum of all GPRS RACH arrivals at the BSC.002 * Total_RACH/sec * (1-RPCCCH_Cells) + 0.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the number of RSLs required Where Is C LCS T PGSM B C the number of cells. This can be difficult in cases where large sites are being used. the number of LCSs per call. Alternatively. If the calculated value exceeds 1. and in such cases additional LCFs are required. ensure that the traffic is evenly distributed across the LCFs. otherwise = 1. use the formula for traffic channels on each LCF. the number of BTS sites. the GSM paging rate in pages per second. the average call duration. 0 if all cells in the BSS have PCCCH enabled. B PCCCH_BSS PGPRS GPRS_subs_per_PCU Avg_session_per_subs 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-31 . GL3_GPRS = 0. the number of BTS sites.

which are also used for traffic. The BSC can support either NSS-based LCS architecture or BSS-based LCS architecture. Mix configuration of 64kbit/s and HSP MTLs is not supported. Only one HSP MTL can be supported on a GPROC3-2 board. Determine the MTL loadshare granularity to be used for the BSC. the number of TCHs required or the subscriber potential. • • • HSP MTL (High Speed MTL) is part of Huge BSC feature to provide 2M MTL capacity. HSP MTLs are only supported on E1 links. but not both. Traffic is determined using either of the following methods: o Multiply the number of subscribers expected to use the BSC by the average traffic per subscriber. 64kbit/s MTLs are carried on E1 links between the MSC and BSC. determined by the number of TCHs available. • 68P02900W21-S 6-32 01 Feb 2007 . This feature allows a more gradual increase in the number of MTLs required with the increased traffic load on the BSC. MTL loadshare granularity determines the number of logical links that is mapped onto the physical links. When it is deployed. Setting the mtl_loadshare_granularity database element to 1 results in a more even distribution of traffic across the MTL links. Determine if LCS is enabled in the BSS and which LCS architecture is supported by the BSC.Determining the number of MTLs required Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Determining the number of MTLs required Introduction MTLs carry signaling traffic between the MSC and BSC. Total the traffic potential of each BTS under the BSC. The number of required MTLs depends upon the BSS configuration size and traffic model. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the links from the BSC to MSC: • Determine traffic requirements for the BSC. BSC supports MTL with 64kbit/s and 2Mbit/s. or o • • Determine the number of trunks to support the traffic requirements of the BSC using Erlang B tables at the required blocking rate. GPROC3-2 is required to host HSP LCF.

which are then evenly spread across the active MTLs. If the MSC vendor does not provide the planning rules for the MTLs required in a downlink direction. These calculations are for the MTLs required from the BSS perspective. Table 6-8 and Table 6-9 illustrate the difference between setting the loadshare granularity to 0 and 1 for 64k MTL. CCITT C7 uses a 4-bit number. The offered call load at a cell is a function of the number of TCHs and blocking. the number of 64k MTLs required for a BSC goes up from 8 to 16. and capacity of the GPROCs controlling the MTLs and the MTL loadshare granularity. When using a granularity of 1. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-33 . some links experience a higher load. generated by the upper layer to load share message traffic among the in-service links of a link set. Table 6-8 and Table 6-9 give the recommended minimum number of MSC to BSC signaling links based on the typical call parameters. for a cell with 15 TCHs and 2% blocking. the type. only 10 64k MTLs is required. GPROC3-2 is required at BSC for supporting HSP MTL. with 20% link utilization. If the MSC vendor supplies their own planning rules for a given configuration. using the BSS planning rules. the offered call load is 9. {28337} For GSR9. detailed in Table 6-2. The BSS software distributes call-signaling traffic across 16 or 64 logical links. The potential carried load (approximately equal to the number of MSC to BSC trunks). There is only one HSP MTL per GPROC3-2 board. Load sharing of MTLs in the downlink direction depends on the mechanism used by the MSC to load share the signaling links from the MSC to BSC.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the number of MTLs required For example. GPROC3s are required in the BSP slots. over 64 logical links. Table 6-10 and Table 6-11 illustrate the difference between setting the loadshare granularity to 0 and 1 for HSP MTL. This results from the enhanced load sharing of 64k MTLs and illustrates the difference between setting the load share granularity to 0 and 1 respectively. The BSS supports distribution of signaling in the uplink direction. with an increase in the number of MSC-BSC trunks from 1550 to 1600. As blocking increases. Load share granularity of 0 means 16 logical links mapped to equipped physical MTL links. The number of MTLs is a function of the number of MSC to BSC trunks or the offered call load and signaling for the call load. The value for N is the greater of the following: • • The offered call load (in Erlangs) from all the BTSs controlled by the BSC.01 Erlangs. the Signaling Link Selection (SLS). Load share granularity of 1 means 64 logical links mapped to equipped physical MTL links. The BSS evenly distributes the 64 logical links over the active MTLs. • • From GSR8. Standard traffic model The number of MSC to BSC signaling links (MTL) required depends on the desired link utilization. For example. then use a load share granularity of 0 to be conservative in MTL provisioning. the offered call load also increases. if using a granularity of 0. When the number of in-service links is not a power of 2. The offered call load for a BSS is the sum of the offered call load from all of the cells of the BSS. the more conservative MTL provisioning figures should be used.

Determining the number of MTLs required Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Before setting the load share granularity to 1. respectively. with 20% and 40% link utilization. or local office. Table 6-8 and Table 6-9 show how to estimate the number of 64k MTLs to be used for the BSC. Table 6-8 Number of MSC and BSC signaling links without LCS (20% utilization) N = the greater of number of MSC-BSC trunks or the offered load from the BTSs Number of MTLs with 16 logical links Minimum required With redundancy Number of MTLs with 64 logical links Minimum required With redundancy N <= 85 85< N <=170 170 < N <= 350 350 < N <= 450 450 < N <= 660 660< N 4 6 8 16 16 16 5 7 9 16 16 16 4 6 8 11 13 16 5 7 9 12 14 16 Table 6-9 Number of MSC and BSC signaling links without LCS (40% utilization) N = the greater of number of MSC-BSC trunks or the offered load from the BTSs Number of MTLs with 16 logical links Minimum required With redundancy Number of MTLs with 64 logical links Minimum required With redundancy N <= 85 85< N <=170 170 < N <=350 350 < N <= 520 520 < N <= 880 880< N <=1000 1000< N <= 1200 1200< N <= 1500 1500< N 2 3 4 6 8 16 16 16 16 3 4 5 7 9 16 16 16 16 2 3 4 6 8 10 11 13 16 3 4 5 7 9 11 12 14 16 Table 6-10 shows how to estimate the number of 2M HSP MTLs to be used for the BSC. 68P02900W21-S 6-34 01 Feb 2007 . it is recommended that confirmation is gained from the Motorola local contact. that the switch is compatible with the load share granularity set to 1. with 20% link utilization.

If not.16*S + 0. then only 20% link utilization should be used for GPROC2 and GPROC3/GPROC3-2. it is imperative that the operator verifies if the MSC vendor can also support 40% utilization at the MSC end.05)) The maximum amount of traffic an MTL (a physical link) can handle (nlmin) is the smaller of the two numbers from.005 * B + 0. the following procedure is used to determine he required number of 64k DS0 MSC to BSC signaling links: • Use the formula to determine the maximum number of Erlangs supported by a C7 signaling link (nlink).5 * H * (1 − 0.6 * i) + 0. It is required the HSP MTLs be designed to operate at no more than 20% utilization. nl min = MIN(n link .125*SMSSIZE) + 24* H *(1− 0. nl LCF _ MTL ) 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-35 .42* L + 0. It is recommended that the C7 links be designed to operate at no more than 20% link utilization when the 64k MTL is running on a GPROC1 and no more than 40% utilization when the MTL/LMTL is running on a GPROC2 or GPROC3/GPROC3-2. Non-standard traffic model for 64k MTL If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 6-2.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the number of MTLs required Table 6-10 Number of MSC and BSC signaling links without LCS (20% utilization) N=the greater of number of MSCBSC trunks or the offered load from the BTSs Number of MTLs with 16 logical links Minimum required With redundancy Number of MTLs with 64 logical links Minimum required With redundanc y N<=1227 1227<N<=2773 2773<N<=3804 3804<N<=4179 4179< N<=4800 1 2 3 4 4 2 3 43 5 5 1 2 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 5 The capacities shown in Table 6-8. Table 6-9 and Table 6-10 are based on the standard traffic model shown in Table 6-2.83*i) + 24* L + CICS * LCS + 9* PPC Use the formula to determine the maximum number of Erlangs supported by a GPROC (LCF-MTL) supporting a C7 signaling link (nlLCF-MTL). Before use of the 40% utilization for GPROC2 or GPROC3/GPROC3-2.45* L CS + PPC * (0. n link = • 1000* U *T 40 + S* (26 + 0. nl LCF−MTL = • 20* T (1 + 0.

is calculated as: N log ical = N Ng 68P02900W21-S 6-36 01 Feb 2007 . which corresponds to 16 or 64 logical links.125*SMS SIZE) + 24* H * (1− 0. the total amount of traffic that a logical link would hold. respectively. Hence. the total amount of traffic that a logical link would hold. The number of logical links is defined on the BSC by database parameter mtl_loadshare_granularity = 0 or 1. the number of required MTLs (mtls) is: mtls = roundup( Ng n log_ per _ mtl ) + R ≤ 16 • • mtls should not exceed 16 per BSC. Suggest to maintain the mean utilization of GPROCs at or 70%. n link = • 31000 * U*T 40+ S*(26+ 0. Hence. over which the MTL signaling is load shared. Non-standard traffic model for HSP MTL If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 6-2. is calculated as: N log ical = • N Ng Next we require to determine the number of logical links each MTL (physical link) can handle n log_ per _ mtl = rounddown( • nl min ) N log ical Finally. over which the MTL signaling is load shared. which corresponds to 16 or 64 logical links.83*i) + 24* L + CICS * LCS + 9 * PPC Signaling over the A-interface is uniformly distributed over some logical links.Determining the number of MTLs required Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules • Signaling over the A-interface is uniformly distributed over some logical links. the following procedure is used to determine the required number of MSC to BSC HSP signaling links: • Use the formula to determine the maximum number of Erlangs supported by a C7 signaling link (nlink). respectively. The formula to determine the maximum number of Erlangs supported by a GPROC (LCF-MTL) has been calculated using 70% mean utilization of GPROC2 (see Calculate the number of LCFs for MTL processing later in this section). The number of logical links is defined on the BSC by database parameter mtl_loadshare_granularity = 0 or 1.

the number of logical links (16 or 64).20). the number of LCSs per call. the number of redundant MTLs. the number of MTLs required round up to the next integer. 31 for BSSbased architecture. the minimum of two values. the average size of the SMS message (payload only). the ratio of SMSs per call. the ratio of intra-BSC handovers to all handovers. the number of BTSs supported by the BSC. the number of pages per call.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the number of MTLs required • Next we require to determine the number of logical links each MTL (physical link) can handle n log_ per _ mtl = rounddown ( • n link ) N log ical Finally. the number of required MTLs (mtls) is: mtls = roundup( Ng n log_ per _ mtl Is: ) + R ≤ 16 Where: U T S SMSSIZE H i L Clcs LCS PPC B mtls round up round down MIN Ng R the percent link utilization (for example 0. the location update factor. 26 for NSS-based architecture. the number of handovers per call. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-37 . call hold time. round down to the next integer.

calculated in the previous section. rounding up to the next integer. • Both GPROC2 and GPROC3 or a combination of the two can perform MTL processing (GPROC3 is a direct board level replacement for GPROC2). calculated in the previous section. See Generic processor (GPROC) later in this chapter.Determining the number of MTLs required Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Calculate the number of LCFs for MTL processing The purpose of the MTL LCF GPROC is to support the functions of MSC link protocol. It is not permitted for a LCF to support both MTLs and LMTLs. then N LCF = mtls mtls ) 2 Otherwise. • LCFs for 64k MTL links Since one LCF GPROC can support two 64k MTLs. calculated in the previous section. N LCF = Roundup( LCFs for HSP MTL links Since one GPROC3-2 LCF can support one HSP MTL. the number of required LCFs is: N LCF = Roundup( mtls ) 2 However. the number of required LCFs is the number of HSP MTLs. if the traffic model does not conform to the standard model: If 2 * n link > nl LCF − MTL . It is not recommended that an LCF supports both MTLs and RSLs. N LCF = mtls Where Is NLCF ROUND UP mtls nlink nlLCF-MTL the number of LCF GPROCs required. 68P02900W21-S 6-38 01 Feb 2007 .

It is recommended that when PCR is used.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the number of MTLs required MSC to BSC signaling over a satellite link The BSC supports Preventive Cyclic Retransmission (PCR) to interface to the MSC over a satellite link. This puts an additional processing load on the GPROC (LCF-MTLs) controlling the C7 signaling links. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-39 . that the number of MTLs (and thus the number of LCF-MTLs) be doubled from the number normally required. PCR retransmits unacknowledged messages when there are no new messages to be sent.

The number of required LMTLs depends upon the BSS configuration size and traffic model. Determining the number of LMTLs Traffic model The number of required LMTLs depends upon the BSS configuration size and traffic model. See Table 6-1. This is only applicable for BSSbased LCS architecture when LCS is enabled in the BSS. the percentage of the link utilization.Determining the number of LMTLs required Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Determining the number of LMTLs required Introduction LMTLs carry the LCS signaling traffic between the BSC and the SMLC. rounding up to the next integer. Planning considerations The following factors require to be considered when planning the number of LMTL links from the BSC to the SMLC: • • Determine the LCS traffic requirements of the BSC. LMTLs are carried on E1 between the SMLC and BSC. A BSC can only connect to one SMLC. LMTL number Use the following formula to determine the required number of 64 kbit/s LMTLs (rounded up to the next integer): ⎛ LCS_ BSC_ Rate *19 ⎞ ⎟ L LMTL = Roundup ⎜ ⎜1000 * U ⎟ BSC _ SMLC ⎝ ⎠ Where Is LLMTL LCS_BSC_Rate UBSC_SMLC ROUND UP the number of BSC to SMLC signaling links. Table 6-2 and Table 6-4. requests number per BSC per second. 68P02900W21-S 6-40 01 Feb 2007 .

rounding up to the next integer. Redundant links are added. It is not recommended that an LCF supports both LMTLs and RSLs.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the number of LMTLs required BSC to SMLC interconnection planning actions Determine the number of E1 links required to connect to a SMLC. a GPROC3 is required. The BSC-SMLC signaling link LLMTL can only be terminated on an E1. if the LMTL functionality is assigned to the BSP. • • 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-41 . Calculate the number of LCFs for LMTL processing The purpose of the LMTL LCF GPROC is to support the functions of the SMLC link protocol. ⎛ L LMTL ⎞ ⎟ N BSC-SMLC = Roundup ⎜ ⎜ 31 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Where Is NBSC-SMLC ROUND UP the minimum number of E1 links required (rounded up to an integer). From GSR8. one dedicated LCF-LMTL is required for processing LMTLs. if required. • Both GPROC2 and GPROC3 or a combination of the two can perform LMTL processing (GPROC3 is a direct board level replacement for GPROC2). For the LCF GPROC. It is not permitted for a LCF to support both MTLs and LMTLs. See Generic processor (GPROC) later in this chapter.

This is due to peak usage requirements during start up and reconfigurations due to faults and maintenance. Determine the mode (backward compatibility or auto-connect/ enhanced auto connect) in which the BSC and RXCDR operate. queuing delays could become substantial. calculated on a per XBL basis. 80% utilization. Table 6-11 Number of BSC to RXCDR signaling links N = number of MSC to BSC trunks No redundancy Number of 64 kbit/s XBLs Number of 16 kbit/s XBLs With redundancy Number of 64 kbit/s XBLs Number of 16 kbit/s XBLs N ≤ 1200 1200 < N ≤ 2400 2400 < N ≤ 3200 3200 < N <=4800 1 2 3 4 4 8 11 16 2 4 6 8 8 16 22* 32* * This exceeds the 20 XBL limit and is therefore not a valid configuration. with auto-connect mode or enhanced auto-connect mode. Although both auto-connect mode and enhanced auto-connect mode apply a load. A maximum of 20 XBLs (64 kbit/s or 16 kbit/s) can be configured for a BSC/RXCDR. 68P02900W21-S 6-42 01 Feb 2007 . See Chapter 2 for a description of the modes. This allows a link to double the capacity (to 80%) under fault conditions (in some configurations). A BSC can connect to a maximum of 10 RXCDRs and vice-versa. the XBL link utilization should be monitored to determine if additional capacity is required. Determining the number of XBLs The calculations should be performed for every connected RXCDR. When operating in this mode. The number of XBL links as shown is a minimum number that are required. The number of XBL links depends on the number of trunks on the BSC-RXCDR interface and whether the auto-connect mode or enhanced auto-connect mode is enabled at the RXCDR/BSC. regardless of measured utilization. It is recommended that the XBL link utilization does not exceed 40%. The number of XBL links required depends upon the number of CICs and/or the number of Ater interface channels. Planning considerations The following factors require to be considered when planning the number of XBL links from the BSC to the RXCDR: • • • • Determine the traffic requirements of the BSC and/or the number of trunks (CICs) used between the BSC and RXCDR.Determining the number of XBLs required Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Determining the number of XBLs required Introduction XBLs carry the signaling traffic between the BSC and RXCDR. it is the enhanced auto-connect mode load that can vary depending on system configuration. XBL link utilization is a network statistic. Table 6-11 details the minimum number of XBLs required to support the given number of trunks between the BSC and RXCDR.

Non standard traffic model If the call parameters differ significantly from those given in Table 6-12. use the following formula to determine if the required number of 64 kbit/s XBLs (rounded up to the next integer) should be adjusted: XBL = (N / T ) * (M newcell + M handover * H f r − hr ) * L XBL * 8 64000 * U BSC-RXCDBC Use the following formula to determine if the required number of 16 kbit/s XBLs (rounded up to the next integer) should be adjusted: ⎡(N / T ) * (M newcell + M handover * H f r − hr ) * L XBL * 8⎤ XBL = ⎢ ⎥*4 64000 * U BSC-RXCDBC ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Where Is XBL N T Mnewcall Mhandover Hfr-hr LXBL U(BSC-RXCDR) the number of BSC to RXCDR signaling links.40. the percentage link utilization (0. the number of XBL messages per new call. Table 6-12 Typical call parameters relating to XBLs Parameter Value Link utilization Call duration Average XBL message size XBL messages per new call * XBL messages per full rate <-> half rate handover Full rate <-> half rate handovers per call 40% 90 s 50 bytes 1 1 1 * Mobile origination. for example). the number hr <-> fr handovers per call. hand-in from MSC.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the number of XBLs required Standard traffic model The minimum number of XBL links required as given in Table 6-11 was verified using a standard set of call parameters. the number of MSC-BSC trunks. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-43 . mobile termination. the number of XBL messages per hr <-> fr handover. These are given in Table 6-12. the average length of a XBL message in bytes. the average call duration in seconds.

68P02900W21-S 6-44 01 Feb 2007 . The number of XBLs required is then the larger of the number as determined by the formula and the number given in Table 6-11.Determining the number of XBLs required Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Double the number if redundancy is desired.

BSS executive header protocol. Each GSL message consists of three parts: LAPD protocol. With one phase access. With one phase access GSL RACH = 1 − R PCCH _ Cells * Total _ RACH / sec* 5. GSL provision should be load-balanced over multiple links. up to 60 GSL 64kbit/s timeslots can be supported in the system: • • Only Ethernet links are used. DTMGSL_overhead=103%. The LAPD and BSS protocol parts can be considered messaging overhead.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the number of GSLs required Determining the number of GSLs required Planning considerations In GSR9. In addition. the connection between PCU and BSC can be E1 and/or Ethernet link. the GSL traffic depends on the access mechanism used on the Air interface. even when the GSL is lightly loaded. When only E1 is used. there is additional loading on the RSL and GSL due to enhanced one phase messaging and immediate assignment messages for UL TBF setups. The number of GSLs required is calculated as follows: GSL = MAX (GSLrun_time. PCU needs one E1 in order to carry GSL signaling. When DTM feature is unrestricted. Each 64 kbit/s timeslot is one LAPD channel. GSLrun_time= (GSLPaging+GSLRACH) *DTMGSL_overhead Where. and the application message carrying actual signaling information. Ethernet links and E1 links can be equipped simultaneously in the system. Ethernet and E1 links are used simultaneously. GSLrun_time= GSLPaging+GSLRACH When DTM is enabled. In the following configuration.5 1000 * U ( ) 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-45 . The calculation for the required number of GSL links during runtime (after the system stabilizes) is as shown . maximum of 30 GSL 64kbit/s timeslots can be carried by one Ethernet link. PCU can support up to 30 primary GSL 64 kbit/s timeslots and 30 redundant. and a second E1 for redundancy. in a similar manner to RSL. the network planner need consider the additional loading on the GSL due to DTM paging coordination and new introduced signaling messages. as the mechanism for providing resiliency against link failures. GSLinit_time) The requirement for the number of GSLs during system initialization (GSLinit_time) is 6. In this configuration. When Ethernet link is used. It is recommended that two GSL E1 links per PCU are provisioned for resilience purposes.

GSL RACH = 1 − R PCCH _ Cells * Total _ RACH / sec* 7. The GSL requirements for GPRS paging is given by the following: GSL Paging = 8.5 * PGPRS * No _ LCFs _ for _ RSL * PCCCH _ BSS 1000 * U Where Is GSL GSLinit_time GSLrun_time PGPRS Total_RACH/sec U GPRS_subs_per_PCU Avg_session_per_subs the number of 64 kbit/s LAPD GSL timeslots to provision. the GPRS paging rate in pages per second. the link utilization. the number of GSLs required for system initialization. the sum of all GPRS RACH arrivals on the BSC. the total GPRS users under a PCU in the busy hour. the number of GSLs required for signaling while the system is stable.25. If PCCCH is enabled at a cell then the GPRS page is sent to that cell on the GDS TRAU link. Continued 68P02900W21-S 6-46 01 Feb 2007 .5 1000 * U Where: ( ) Total _ RACH / sec = GPRS _ subs _ per _ PCU * Avg _ session _ per _ subs 3600 GPRS paging is performed per routing area (RA). typically 0. A GPRS page is sent to all cells within the RA. the average number of sessions per subscriber in a busy hour (this includes sessions for signaling).Determining the number of GSLs required Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules With enhanced one phase access Enhanced One Phase is not supported with EGPRS carriers.

GSM circuit-switched paging rate in pages per second. the total users under a BSS in the busy hour. = 0 if all cells in the BSS have PCCCH enabled. Traffic per sub/BH (kbytes/hr) — Uplink. probability that a sub is in dedicated mode. otherwise = 1 Percentage of Capable Mobiles Using DTM. Traffic per sub/BH (kbytes/hr) — Downlink. PDP context activation/deactivation (per sub/BH). DTM Mode Scaling Factor. PS attach/detach rate (per sub/BH). cell updates (per sub/BH). Busy Hour Call Attempts Per Sub. number of handovers per call. the number of LCF boards in the BSC that terminate RSL links. call duration. routing area update.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Determining the number of GSLs required Where Is RPCCCH_Cells the ratio of PCCCH-enabled cells (the number of cells with PCCCH enabled divided by the total number of all cells in the BSS). No_LCFs_for_RSL PCCCH_BSS PDTM DTM_Mode_Scaling_Factor RDTM RCS RPS BHCA_per_sub H PGSM RAU PDPACT/DEACT PSATT/DETACH CellUpdate T ULRate DLRate Total_subs_per_BSS 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-47 . probability that a sub is in DTM mode. probability that a sub is in Packet transfer mode.

gsl_lcf_mapping is always set to MANUAL. The operator can choose to distribute manually the GSLs. In sysgen. the operator can chose to consider the total count of PDTCHs on each LCF and assign more GSLs to those LCFs having more PDTCHs. Should the operator require to specify LCFs outside of sysgen mode or wish to configure the system manually. but it is recommended to use a similar approach . Outside of sysgen.evenly distribute among LCFs carrying RSL traffic. 68P02900W21-S 6-48 01 Feb 2007 . AUTO mode of gsl_lcf_mapping is only valid in sysgen. Although it is not necessary. the load is balanced over these GSLs. the user is prompted for an LCF during the equipage of the GSL. Furthermore. In Auto mode.Determining the number of GSLs required Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Load balancing When applying even distribution of GSLs terminated on LCFs. The general rule of thumb is to terminate at least one GSL on a SITE LCF in a heavily loaded system to avoid unnecessary LAN traffic. the GSLs should be evenly distributed among the LCFs that terminate the RSLs. the GSL traffic is load balanced over all GSLs. should more than one GSL terminate on a LCF. the gsl_lcf_mapping parameter determines if the BSS automatically distributes the GSLs to different LCFs (Auto mode) or if the operator should specify the LCF (Manual mode) that terminates the GSL. the user is not prompted for the LCF during the equipage of the GSL and the system distributes the GSLs as evenly as possible on the LCFs In Manual mode.

OMC-R communications . Introduction Generic processor (GPROC) boards are used throughout the Motorola BSS as a control processor. GPROC3 specifically refers to the GPROC3. 2. The BSC configuration type and GPROC device type are essential factors for BSC planning. the following nomenclature is used: GPROC1 specifically refers to the original GPROC. The GPROC provides the processing platform for the BSC. software tasks can be distributed across GPROCs to provide greater capacity. The GPROC3/GPROC3-2 is a high performance direct replacement for GPROC2s and GPROC1s. one GPROC3-2 is required in order to support each HSP MTL. GPROC functions and types GPROCs are assigned functions and are then known by their function names.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Generic processor (GPROC) Generic processor (GPROC) GPROC nomenclature For the purposes of this manual only and to avoid confusion between different versions of the generic processor (GPROC). The processing requirement of a particular BSC determines the selection and quantity of each GPROC device type. GPROC3 and GPROC3-2.OML (X. The GPROC is the basic building block of a distributed architecture. Although every GPROC of the same type (1. There are a limited number of defined task groupings in the BSC. when a group of tasks are assigned to a GPROC. which result in the naming of four unique GPROC device types for the BSC. or 3) is similar from a hardware standpoint. GPROC3-2 specifically refers to the GPROC3 phase2. In GSR9. The possible general task groupings or functions for assignment to GPROCs are: • • • BSC common control functions. depends upon the configuration and capacity requirements of the BSC. By using multiple GPROCs. This section describes the BSC GPROC types and their functions. GPROC is used in this manual as a non-specific term referring to both GPROC2. This allows for any combination of GPROC types to be installed except in the BSP slots where a GPROC3/GPROC3-2 is required. The set of tasks that a GPROC is assigned. it is considered to be a unique GPROC device type or function in the BSC configuration management scheme. GPROC2 specifically refers to the GPROC2. GPROC3s/GPROC3-2s cannot be used with software versions earlier than GSR7.25) including statistics gathering. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-49 . MSC link protocol (C7).

2 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC2 or GPROC3 or GPROC3. GSL. GPROC3-2 is required for hosting HSP MTL LCF in BSC. Otherwise. BSS Layer 3 call processing (BSSAP) and BTS link protocol. Link Control Function (LCF). Cell broadcast centre link (CBL). The defined GPROC devices and functions for the BSC are as follows (also see Table 6-13): At a combined BSC BTS site.Generic processor (GPROC) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules • • • • • • • • SMLC link protocol (C7).2 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC2 or GPROC3 or GPROC3. 68P02900W21-S 6-50 01 Feb 2007 .2 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC2 or GPROC3 or GPROC3.2 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC3 or GPROC3-2 When the enhanced BSC capacity feature and AMR (and/or GSM half rate) are used together. Table 6-13 defines the GPROC types/functions for different software releases. Base Site Control Processor (BSP). the BTF and DHP are additional GPROC function and type in the network element. it is mandatory for a GPROC3/GPROC3-2 to be installed in the BSP slot at the BSC. LAPD-type GDS link protocol. replacing a GPROC2 with a GPROC3/GPROC3-2 in the BSP slot is at the discretion of the user. a GPROC3/GPROC3-2 is mandatory in the BSP capable slots. {28337}For GSR9. Code Storage Facility Processor (CSFP). Operations and Maintenance Function (OMF). RSL (LAPD). From GSR8. Table 6-13 GPROC type/function Software Release BSP MTL-LCF LMTLLCF RSL-LCF OMF CSFP GSR7 GSR 8 onwards GSR9 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC3 GPROC3 or GPROC3-2 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC2 or GPROC3 GPROC2 or GPROC3 or GPROC3.

and OML link (X. only GPROC3/GPROC3_2 can be used as CSFP. It also runs the GSLs for GPRS signaling between the BSC and PCU. It also runs the GSLs for GPRS signaling between the BSC and PCU.25 control links to the OMC-R signaling link) communications links. • • BSC types The BSC is configured as one of two types. It is not mandatory for any function. A GPROC3/GPROC3-2 is required in the BSP slots. when compared with GPROC2. It is not mandatory for any function. the type is determined by the GPROCs present. {28337} A GPROC3-2 is required for supporting each HSP MTL. The GPROC3/GPROC3-2 can be used as board level replacement for GPROC2 and GPROC1 at a BTS. The GPROC3/GPROC3-2 can be used as board level replacement for GPROC2 at the RXCDR. o Link control processor (LCF) Running the radio-signaling link (RSL) and layer 3 processing or MTL/LMTL (C7 signaling link) communications links. • BSC type 1 o Master GPROC Running the base site control processor (BSP) and carrying out operations and maintenance functionalities. In GSR9. o o 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-51 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Generic processor (GPROC) GPROC3/GPROC3-2 planning assumptions The following assumptions are made regarding planning GPROC3 and GPROC3-2 usage: • • • • • GPROC3/GPROC3-2 processing performance is improved. Replacement is not mandatory for these functions. including statistics collection. The only difference is that an operator sees lower processor utilizations. The GPROC3/GPROC3-2 can be used for other board functions besides BSP in the BSC only as a board level replacement. • BSC type 2 o Master GPROC Running the BSP LCF OMF Running the O&M. The GPROC3 does not provide any capacity and performance improvements in terms of number of links or sites supported.

• Each BSC needs: o o o o o o One master GPROC3/GPROC3-2 (BSP). For GSR9. LCFs to support the RSL and control of the BTSs.25 control links to the OMC-R). including statistics collection. An optional dedicated CSFP. One redundant master GPROC3/GPROC3-2 (BSP). LCFs to support the GSLs for GPRS signaling between the BSC and PCU. o o Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the GPROC complement: • BSP limitation From GSR8. • Optional GPROCs include: o o o • • A maximum of eight GPROCs can be supported in a BSU shelf. it is mandatory to deploy GPROC3s/GPROC3-2 in any potential BSP slot in the site. For redundancy. and OML link (X. slot 20 and 24 in shelf 0 and slot 20 in shelf 1). One dedicated LCF for LMTL (if LCS is enabled and the BSS LCS architecture is supported). At least one redundant pool GPROC (covers LCFs).Generic processor (GPROC) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules • BSC type 2 o Master GPROC Running the BSP LCF OMF Running the O&M. each BSC should be equipped with a redundant BSP controller and an additional GPROC3/GPROC3-2 to provide redundancy for the signaling LCFs. both active and standby (that is. each shelf should have a minimum of two GPROCs to provide redundancy within that shelf. it is mandatory to deploy GPROC3/GPROC32 for CSFP. Some LCFs for MTLs. One OMF (if it is a type 2 BSC). see Link control function . Where multiple shelves exist. 68P02900W21-S 6-52 01 Feb 2007 .

GSL handling should be distributed among the LCFs that terminate RSLs. All RSLs (LAPD links) for the BTSs terminate on the same GPROC. A single GPROC can support up to 12 GSLs. and if GPROC_slots is set to 24 then at the most 23 RSLs may exist. so if return loops are used. This is set by the GPROC max_gsls parameter. If GPROC_slots is set to 16 then at the most 15 RSLs may exist which would support up to 7 BTS sites. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-53 . However. when the links are running at high load. A maximum of 31 BTS sites can be controlled by a single LCF. However. the use of more than 23 links per board is not recommended. either rebalancing of sites on the available LCF GPROCs at the BSC is required or additional LCF GPROCs are required to be equipped at the BSC to process the traffic load. • Setting GPROC_slots = 24 allows for additional LAPD links up to the recommended maximum without the timeslot under-utilization associated with a GPROC_slots setting of 32. The planning rules for LCFs using GPROCs are: • A single GPROC supports two MTLs each working at 20% link utilization. For optimum performance. meaning that the 641st non-emergency call is rejected (80% x 800 = 640 active calls). A single GPROC3-2 supports one HSP MTL working at 20% link utilization. One link is reserved for each board (for GPROC test purposes) so the number of available serial links is 15. The current values are 16. the actual number of MTLs supported per LCF depends on the Erlangs supported per LCF and MTL for that particular call model. The default value is 80. A single GPROC LCF can process up to 800 active calls if the ssm_critical_overload_ threshold is set to 100. HSP MTL can only be supported by GPROC3-2.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Generic processor (GPROC) Link control function The following factors should be considered when planning the number of LCFs: • • • • MTLs are assigned to dedicate LCFs. If any LCF does not satisfy the criteria. supporting up to 11 BTS sites.) • Combining MTL and RSL processing on a single GPROC is not recommended. Up to 25 LCFs can be supported. then the maximum number of BTS sites is 15 (if GPROC_slots = 32). (See Load balancing in the previous section. 24 or 32 with 16 being the default value. if the link utilization is higher. The link utilization of a RSL should not exceed 25%. 23 or 31. the GPROC experiences some performance problems when terminating 31 links. Hence. Refer to Technical Description: BSS Command Reference (68P02901W23) for further details. • • • • • The number of serial links per GPROC must be determined. LMTLs are handled by one dedicated LCF.

It is recommended to equip an OMF. If a dedicated GPROC is to exist for the CSFP. One of the major functions offloaded from the BSP is the central statistics process. OMF GPROC required The BSC type 2 configuration offloads many of the O&M functions and control of the interface to the OMC-R from the BSP. The operator can then download the new software load or database and execute a CSFP swap. GPROC redundancy BSP redundancy A failure of the BSP GPROC3/GPROC3-2 causes a system outage. If the BSC is equipped with a redundant BSP GPROC3/GPROC3-2. it is mandatory to deploy GPROC3/GPROC3-2 for CSFP. the BSC would be inoperable. Once the swap has been completed and verified as successful. This reduces the outage time from 10 to 20 minutes to less than 2 minutes. Horizonmacro or M-Cell BTSs are connected to the BSC. and when the CSFP functionality is no longer needed the device can be converted back into its previous device. If the BSC is not equipped with a redundant BSP and the BSP GPROC3/GPROC3-2 was to fail. the operator can return the CSFP back to the previous redundant or pooled device type through a separate command from the OMC-R. The BSC Reset Management feature is enabled by default. When software is upgraded from GSR8 to GSR9. this link can exist on the same LCF as that used to control BTSs. This functionality allows an operator who already has either a redundant BSP/BTP or a pooled GPROC3-2 in service to execute a command from the OMC-R to borrow the device and convert it into a CSFP. This method is implemented using the configure_csfp command and works as follows: The system can borrow certain devices and temporarily convert them into a CSFP. the system restarts under the control of the redundant BSP GPROC3s. When Horizon II macro. an additional GPROC is required.Generic processor (GPROC) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Cell broadcast link The cell broadcast link (CBL) connects the BSC to the cell broadcast centre. The CSFP allows preloading of a new software release while the BSS is operational. The BSS supports a method whereby a dedicated CSFP GPROC is not required. This feature provides fast switchover between master and redundant BSP processors in the event of a BSP failure. The devices the system can borrow are a redundant BSP/BTP or a pooled GPROC3-2. For typical applications (less than ten messages per second). 68P02900W21-S 6-54 01 Feb 2007 . a dedicated CSFP is required at the BSC and a second dedicated CSFP should be equipped for redundancy. The CBL should not be controlled by an LCF MTL (a GPROC controlling an MTL). See Technical Description: BSS Command Reference (68P02901W23) for more details on the configure_csfp command. Code storage facility processor The BSS supports a GPROC acting as the code storage facility processor (CSFP).

This priority scheme allows the operator to arrange functions in the order of importance. Functions with lower IDs are brought into service before functions with higher IDs. that function is pre-empted. This can only be supported on GPROC 3-2. The order of function type is OMF first. the order is GPROC3 > GPROC2 > GPROC3-2. the order is GPROC3-2 > GPROC3 > GPROC2. Standard LCF (LCF when configured with max_mtls = 0. Value=1: Function level pre-emption.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Generic processor (GPROC) Pooled GPROCs for LCF and OMF redundancy The BSS supports pooled GPROCs for LCF and OMF redundancy. that function is pre-empted. service on lower priority GPROC should be terminated. 1 or 2). In the case of a pre-empted LCF. it selects the GPROC based on the following order: o o {FR28398}If the Increased Network Capacity Feature is unrestricted. BTF When GPROC pre-emption occurs. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-55 . OMF can pre-empt LCF. with the introduction of HSP MTL. The priority order is as given below: • OMF: When OMF needs to pre-empt or camp on other GPROCs. the lower priority function is pre-empted by the higher priority function. If a function of lower priority is running on a GPROC. {FR28398} If the Increased Network Capacity feature is restricted. This can be MTL LCF or LCF for SITEs. OMF cannot pre-empt LCF. GPROC pre-emption The GPROC pre-emption function searches for a Busy-Unlocked (B-U) GPROC running a lower priority function when a GPROC hosting a higher priority function goes out of service and there are no EnabledUnlocked (E-U) GPROCs to host the higher priority function. The operator can configure the pre-emption algorithm using a database element as follows: chg_element pool_gproc_pre_emption <value> 0 Value=0: No pre-emption. If a function of lower priority is running on a GPROC. Assign lowest priority to LCF which serves least traffic. Value=2: Intra function level pre-emption. LCF second and BTF third. GPROC type is considered more important than the LCF ID. Equip HSP MTL LCF before other Standard LCF. the system software automatically activates a spare GPROC from the GPROC pool to replace the failed GPROC. the LCF with the highest function ID is pre-empted. • • • HSP LCF (LCF when configured with max_mtls = 31). following are suggested for GPROC planning: • • • Equip redundant GPROC for pooled GPROC. then the function tables are searched for a lower priority LCF to pre-empt. The default value is 1. If such a GPROC is found. From GSR9. if an LCF or the OMF GPROC were to fail. If a GPROC running an LCF goes out of service and there is no lower priority function type (for example BTF) running on a pool GPROC. In order to minimize service interruption. the pre-emption algorithm is altered. The BSS uses the function type and function ID to determine the order in which functions are brought into service. By equipping additional GPROCs for spares. The function with the lower ID is of higher priority than that of the function with the higher ID.

Table 6-14 BSS configurations and their availability BSC Configurations Availability Act/Sby BSP. and RSL-LCF pool. 1 GPROC3-2 for MTL-LCF and 2 GPROC2 for the other functions. the number of BSP GPROC3s/GPROC3-2 the number of LCF GPROCs. Simplex CSFP. The table lists Availability predictions for three distinct redundant alternatives for a huge BSC configuration. 3+0 MTL-LCF. MTL_LCF. that is. The CSFP. GPROC redundancy for BSP (1+1). both the MTL-LCF and RSL-LCF pool have their own extra GPROC boards to provide the best resilience to the pool. the number of CSFP GPROC3s/GPROC3-2. Hence. Simplex LMTL (3) 99.Generic processor (GPROC) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Recommendations for High-Availability: • • • To reach high availability. Act/Sby LMTL (1) Act/Sby BSP. To achieve medium availability. 68P02900W21-S 6-56 01 Feb 2007 . Alternative (3) represents the worst-case scenario were the only redundant component is the BSP. Simplex OML. LMTL. LMTL. RSL_LCF (N+1) and other functions (OMF. These extra boards are kept active and load-balance their respective pool load. 3+1 MTL-LCF. LMTL) (N+1) are recommended. OML. RSL_LCF. CSFP. Act/Sby OML. Where Is NGPROC B L C R the total number of GPROCs required. (N+1) are recommended. Act/Sby CSFP. Because of the MTL-LCF computational requirements. The worst cases and lowest availability is only one GPROC spare for BSP redundancy. Act/Sby LMTL (2) Act/Sby BSP. four spare GPROC boards are required in this configuration: 1 GPROC3/GPROC3-2 for BSP. this common spare board should be a GPROC3-2 board.9974% 99. MTL-LCF pool. OMF. OML. and LMTL active/standby configurations share a common spare. 19:1 RSL-LCF. Alternative (1) offers the best availability and relies on resource pools with over provisioning for both LCF functionalities. CSFP.9921% GPROC planning actions Determine the number of GPROCs required. 3:1 MTL-LCF. Act/Sby CSFP. Act/Sby OML. the number of pool GPROCs (for redundancy). 19+0 RSL-LCF. 19+1 RSL-LCF. Alternative (2) represents an intermediate solution were a common spare is provided as backup of the CSFP. MTL_LCF (N+1).9978% 99. GPROC redundancy for BSP(1+1).

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-57 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Generic processor (GPROC) If dedicated GPROCs are required for either the CSFP or OMF functions then they should be provisioned separately.

If this capability (called circuit pooling) is not present. thus yielding a reduction factor of less than eight. the reduction factor for the half rate calls becomes eight. An RXU shelf can support up to 16 GDP/XCDR/EGDP/GDP2s and typically provides a better solution of the transcoding function for larger commercial systems. board replacement). The existing RXU shelf has only one E1 per transcoder slot. The EGDP can also terminate one Abis E1 link. it can replace one or both of the GDPs in the EGDP configuration. When circuit pooling is available in an AMR enabled system. GSM HR. Refer to the section Overview of remote transcoder planning in Chapter 7. then some equipment combinations can result in non-optimal behavior. half rate is used only for part of the time. this limitation is due to power constraints. It sends the BSC a preference-ordered list. thus reducing the number of MSIs boards required (see EGDP provisioning). This results in an overall reduction in capacity — equivalent to 30 channels per GDP pair. Due to the ability of the GDP2 to function as a GDP. therefore the GDP2 cannot be used to its full capacity in the existing RXU shelf (the GDP2 supports only 30 channels when used in the RXU shelf). enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used). The MSC recommends a particular codec type or types to be used on a call-by-call basis. 68P02900W21-S 6-58 01 Feb 2007 . both AMR capable (EGDP/GDP2) and nonAMR capable (XCDR/GDP) equipment can be used. GDP2s or EGDPs should be used exclusively to prevent downgrading or blocking of calls. Use of an EGDP is practical only when used in conjunction with AMR. six of which contain a transcoder (XCDR). Due to the additional transcoding requirements of AMR. The GDP2 is used to 60 channel capacity in the BSU shelf. An EGDP is a new development of the GDP board. To offer 30 channels of enhanced transcoding using the same E1 span line to the MSC. EFR. based on such factors as MS capabilities and user configuration. used to support AMR. It can also function as a replacement for the GDP. the number of links between the RXCDR and the BSC is reduced to approximately one quarter (less when half rate is employed under the conditions described) of the number of links between the RXCDR and the MSC. RXCDR planning steps and rules. FR. The GDP2 can process 60 channels of FR.Transcoding Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Transcoding Introduction Transcoding reduces the number of cellular subscriber voice/data trunks required by a factor of four. and Phase 2 data services and is capable of terminating two E1 links from the MSC. When the MSC is capable of choosing the MSC-RXCDR trunk (CIC) based upon the preferred codec type. This is not an optimal use of the GDP2 and is most likely to occur in emergency situations (for example. each of the 15 DSPs on the GDP board is only capable of supporting the transcoding function for a single channel of GSM speech (AMR. each providing half of the transcoding resources. and EFR) and Phase 2 data services. If circuit pooling is not present. generic digital processor (GDP). and when used in the new RXU3 shelf and BSSC3 cabinet (within the RXCDR. The EGDP does not support GSM half rate. When (AMR or GSM) half rate is in use and 8 kbit/s subrate switching is available and (for AMR only) the 7. AMR. As a result. enhanced GDPs are equipped as pairs. a mix of transcoding equipment can be used. In most configurations. enhanced digital processor (EGDP). If transcoding takes place at the switch using an RXCDR. it is not considered in the planning procedures.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is not included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set. The capacity of one BSU shelf is 12 MSI slots. or generic digital processor 2 (GDP2).

• • • The primary GDP of an EGDP terminates the E1 interface to the MSC. EFR. and GDP2s can co-exist in a shelf. See EGDP provisioning. there must be sufficient GDP2 and EGDP equipment available to handle the expected AMR traffic. circuit pooling is most effective when choosing AMR CICs (EGDP. However. most mobile are expected to be GSM half rate capable. calls on non-GSM HR capable CICs remain on a full rate channel. The GDP2 can process 60 channels of FR. Since a CIC is not tied to any particular voice channel. A GDP can process 30 voice channels (E1). and the remaining CICs for nonAMR capable mobiles. GDP2) for AMR capable mobiles. Ideally. uplink/downlink volume control and is capable of terminating one E1 link from the MSC. For a non-AMR capable mobile the MSC would first select a CIC attached to a GDP. EGDPs. for AMR capable mobiles the MSC would first select a CIC attached to an EGDP. enhanced Full Rate speech (EFR). due to the early introduction into the standards of GSM half rate. GSM HR. An EGDP consists of a pair of GDP cards. GDPs.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Transcoding When AMR is employed and both XCDR/GDPs and EGDP/GDP2s are present (and circuit pooling is present at the MSC). • 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-59 . Each EGDP can process 30 channels of GSM FR. • GSM HR is not supported on an EGDP. A safety factor of no less than 20% is recommended (20% allows for some variation in the actual number and allows for a period of growth in AMR capable MS penetration before having to add more AMR transcoding ability). GDP2) exist. EFR. Lack of an available AMR circuit could cause a call to be downgraded to another codec type or possibly blocked. as there is no way to predict which mobiles require GSM half rate. AMR (FR and HR). followed by one attached to a GDP2. a primary and a secondary. followed by one attached to a GDP2. The selection of the proper CIC (circuit pool) is dependent upon the capability of the connected MSC. circuit pooling is rendered ineffective. The proportion of AMR capable transcoding circuits versus non-AMR capable transcoding circuits should be no less than the proportion of AMR capable MSs versus non-AMR capable MSs. It can also function as a replacement for the GDP. a similar situation exists. XCDRs. GSM half rate speech (GSM HR). AMR (FR and HR) speech and Phase 2 data services. supports GSM Full Rate speech (GSM FR). uplink/downlink volume control and is capable of terminating one E1 link from the MSC. GDP2) and GSM half rate transcoding equipment (GDP. The secondary GDP of an EGDP terminates an E1 interface to the BTS. and Phase 2 data services and is capable of terminating two E1 links from the MSC. When GSM half rate and AMR are both in use and a combination of AMR transcoding equipment (EGDP. Without this upgrade. GDP/XCDR/EGDP/GDP2 planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the GDP/XCDR/EGDP/GDP2 complement: • • A XCDR can process 30 voice channels (E1). It becomes necessary to update all transcoding to support GSM HR in order to guarantee GSM half rate can be used when needed. When GSM half rate is employed and a mix of XCDRs and GDP/GDP2s are present. supports GSM FR. Each AMR half rate call needs one (AMR) transcoder circuit. and terminates one E1 link from the MSC.

Transcoding Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules • • The proportion of AMR-capable circuits (GDP2/EGDP) to non AMR-capable circuits (XCDR/GDP) should be sufficient to handle the expected AMR traffic. Figure 6-2 and Figure 6-3 show the EGDP used in configurations with and without the additional E1 termination in use respectively. This reduces the need for MSIs and makes more efficient use of the available TDM timeslots. if the OML goes through the MSC. The A-interface must terminate on the XCDR/GDP/EGDP (either the primary or secondary) /GDP2. Figure 6-2 EGDP configuration with the additional E1 termination in use 68P02900W21-S 6-60 01 Feb 2007 . • • EGDP provisioning The secondary GDP of an EGDP can use the E1 connection to terminate an Abis link. An XCDR card is incompatible with a GPROC3/GPROC3-2 in the BSP slots. which must be taken into account in site (MSI) planning. XCDRs must be replaced with GDP/GDP2s. The (secondary) GDP has one E1 interface (instead of two for an MSI). The master MSI slot(s) should always be populated to enable communication with the OMC-R. The master MSI slot contains an XCDR/GDP/EGDP (see NOTE) /GDP2.

This text should be read in conjunction with the BSS planning diagram. Figure 6-1. N = C2M+ T/30 N = C2M + (C64k+X+T)/31 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-61 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Transcoding Figure 6-3 EGDP configuration without the additional E1 termination in use Planning actions for transcoding at the BSC Planning transcoding at the BSC must always be performed as it determines the number of E1 links for the A interface. Using E1 links The minimum number of E1 links required for the A-interface is the greater of the two calculations that follow (fractional values should be rounded up to the next integer value).

the number of GDP2s. The following formula is used to determine the percentage of AMR capable circuits: %AMRcircuits = GDP 2 * 60 + EGDP * 30 * 100 GDP 2 * 60 + EGDP * 30 + XCDR * 30 + GDP * 30 Count primary and secondary EGDPs as one EGDP in the equation.25 control links to the OMC-R) through the MSC. If necessary. the number of 64kbit/s MTL links (C7 signaling links) to the MSC. Each GDP2 can terminate two E1 links (when used in a BSU or RXU3 shelf (enhanced capacity mode must be enabled within the RXCDR to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used)). Each XCDR/GDP/EGDP can terminate one E1 link.Transcoding Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules 2M MTL and 64kbit/s MTL cannot be supported simultaneously. Verify that the number of AMR circuits is sufficient to handle the expected AMR traffic. adjust the number of EGDP/GDP2s. 68P02900W21-S 6-62 01 Feb 2007 . the number of XCDR/GDP/EGDPs. the number of trunks between the MSC and the BSC (see Figure 6-1). Where Is N C64k C2M X T the minimum number of E1 links required. the number of HSP MTL (if HSP MTL feature is unrestricted) to the MSC the number of OML links (X. The equipment can be mixed within the following calculation: N = X GE + 2 * G2 Where Is N XGE G2 the minimum number of E1 links required.

The impact of this mode of connection on the RXCDR can be found in Chapter 7. A MSI card is compliant with G703 (1998). they can go to another network element for concentration. the master slot should be filled with a XCDR/GDP/EGDP (primary or secondary)/GDP2. If the OML links go directly to the MSC. Both the modes impact E1 planning in BSC. The master MSI slot(s) should always be populated to enable communication with OMC-R. the E1 links used to carry HSP MTL should be taken into account. An MSI can interface only E1 links.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Multiple serial interface (MSI) Multiple serial interface (MSI) Introduction A multiple serial interface provides the interface for the links between a BSSC cabinet and other network entities in the BSS. Redundancy for the MSI depends on the provisioning of redundant E1 links connected to the site. MSI planning actions If local transcoding is used then the NBSC-RXCDR element in the following equations can be ignored. • • • Each E1 link provides 31 usable 64 kbit/s channels. else the slot should be filled with an MSI. which terminates the E1 link carrying the OML link to the OMC-R. the E1 links go to the MSC through the RXCDR. {28337} When the HSP MTL feature is unrestricted. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the transcoder complement: • Each MSI can interface two E1 links. otherwise refer to Chapter 7. the MSI with OML can be configured with priority in the database to make sure that the MSI is available in either single rate or enhanced capacity mode. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-63 . There are two connected modes. RXCDR planning steps and rules for the determination of the NBSCRXCDR element. These E1 links do not require to go directly to the OMC-R. In the first connection mode. In the second connection mode. the E1 links go to the MSC directly. {22169} With the introduction of the 96 MSI feature. BSC to BTS and BSC to RXCDR.

68P02900W21-S 6-64 01 Feb 2007 .Multiple serial interface (MSI) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules With E1 links Determine the number of MSIs required. Without LCS: N MSI = (∑ N BSC − BTS + N BSC − RXCDR + N GDS− TRAU + N GSL − E1 ) 2 With LCS for BSS-based LCS architecture: N MSI = (∑ N BSC − BTS + N BSC − RXCDR + N BSC −SMLC + N GDS−TRAU + N GSL − E1 ) 2 The BSC-SMLC signaling link LMTL terminates only on an E1.

12 and 13. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-65 . Redundancy for PSI2 depends on the provisioning of redundant Ethernet links connected with PXP in PCU. The standard backplane connections can be used. • • PSI2 planning actions The number of PSI2 cards required is dependent on planning of the PXP boards in PCU (Refer to Chapter 8).System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Packet Subrate Interface (PSI2) Packet Subrate Interface (PSI2) Introduction The PSI2 card introduced in GSR9 is used to connect BSC to PCU with Ethernet connectivity. A PSI2 can support 64 to 320 usable 64kbit/s TDM channels. The physical interface from the card is a 1000BASE-T over 4 pairs of copper wire. respectively. There are up to 12 PSI2 cards in a BSC site. They occupy MSI slots 6. This same connection can be operated in 100BASE-TX mode of operation as well.7. with a PBIB or PT43 board replacing the BIB or T43 board. at the top of the cabinet. The new interconnect board (PBIB or PT43) at the top of the BSC cabinet allows a single RJ45 Ethernet connection instead of 2 span lines for one of the supported MSI positions. Every PSI2/PXP pair provides an Ethernet link. which can carry both GSL and GSD TRAU simultaneously. Planning consideration The following factors should be considered when planning the equipage of PSI2 cards: • • Each PSI2 connects PXP in PCU with Ethernet link. Each BSC cage can be typically equipped with 2 PSI2 cards when KSW and KSWXs are used and 3 PSI2 cads when DSW2 and DSWX are used.

Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2) Introduction The kiloport switch (KSW) card provides digital switching for the TDM highway of the BSC. 68P02900W21-S 6-66 01 Feb 2007 . giving a total switching capacity of 32768 x 8 kbits/s ports. giving a total switching capacity of 65536 x 8 kbits/s ports. the DSW2 can further switch 16384 x 8 kbit/s ports which can be expanded by adding up to three additional DSW2s. 24 or 16 timeslots. The devices in a BSC that need TDM timeslots are: o o o • • • • • • • GPROC1 = 16 timeslots. duplicate all KSWs/DSW2s. the DSW2 has a capacity of 2048 x 64 kbit/s ports or 8192 x 16 kbit/s ports. A mix of KSWs and DSW2s needs that the DSW2s are not operated in the enhanced capacity mode. The double kiloport switch (DSW2) is an enhanced version of the KSW. When operating in extended subrate switching mode and enhanced capacity mode. has a capacity of 1024 x 64 kbit/s ports or 4096 x 16 kbit/s ports. GDP or XCDR (or GDP2 acting as a GDP replacement) = 16 timeslots. GPROC2 or GPROC3. which can be expanded by adding up to three additional KSW/DSW2s. The KSW. the DSW2 can further switch 8192 x 8 kbit/s ports which can be expanded by adding up to three additional DSW2s. When operating in extended subrate switching mode (but not enhanced capacity mode). Eight (64 kbit/s) timeslots per KSW/DSW2 are reserved by the system for test purposes and are not available for use. In mixed configurations (KSWs and DSW2s). For redundancy. which can be expanded by adding up to three additional DSW2s. KSWs can be redundant to DSW2s and vice-versa.giving a total switching capacity of 8192 x 64 kbit/s ports or 32768 x 16 kbit/s ports. GPROC3-2= 32. When operating in enhanced capacity mode. or that each DSW2 in enhanced capacity mode uses no more than 2040 ports (8 ports are used internally). Use of 8 kbit/s subrate switching can reduce backhaul costs when used in conjunction with the AMR or GSM half rate feature.giving a total switching capacity of 4096 x 64 kbit/s ports or 16384 x 16 kbit/s ports. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the KSW/DSW2 complement: • • A minimum of one KSW/DSW2 is required for each BSC site. Verify that each KSW or DSW2 that is not in enhanced capacity mode uses no more than 1016 ports. which supports twice the number of ports (enhanced capacity mode). or DSW2 not in enhanced capacity mode. as well as extended subrate switch capability of 8 kbit/s (extended subrate switching capability).

When the PXP works at prp_fanout_mode2.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2) o o o o EGDP = 96 timeslots. the GDP2 is a special case. groups of 16 (the first 16 or last 16) can be allocated within a block. which is related to the timeslot allocation policy employed. a group of 16 and another 8 out of an additional block. has 352 timeslots allocated to DRIMs. if there is an odd number of GDP2s then 8 timeslots are unusable. MSI = 64 timeslots. The tdm_ts_blocks is a database parameter used to set the number of TDM timeslots blocks. 16. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-67 . t = tdm_ts_blocks *32). As each device needs at a minimum 16 timeslots. irrespective of the number of DRIMs equipped. Any BSC site. Generally. the number of GPROCs. The remaining 8 timeslots (within the block of 16) can only be used by another GDP2. this does not have any significant effect on timeslot planning. the number of MSI. Hence. When the PXP (the partner of PSI2) works at prp_fanout_mode 1 (refer to PXP planning considerations in Chapter 8). 5 blocks are recommended for GPRS and 9 blocks for EGPRS. 24 or 32 (depending on the value of the gproc_slots database parameter). Timeslots are grouped in 32 blocks of 32 timeslots each. the number of EGDPs. GDP2 = 24 timeslots. • There is one additional consideration with regard to timeslot usage. The number of TDM timeslots is given by: N=(G*n)+(RGDPXCDR*16)+(REGDP *96)+(RGDP2*24)+(M*64)+(RPSI2T * t) Where Is • N G n RGDPXCDR REGDP RGDP2 M RPSI2T the number of timeslots required. 3 blocks are recommended for GPRS and 5 blocks are recommended for EGPRS. One block contains 32 TDM timeslots. the number of GDP/XCDRs. However. the number of PSI2s 64 to 320 (depending on the value of the tdm_ts_blocks database parameter. the number of GDP2s. which contains a DRIM. as it needs 24 timeslots. PSI2 = tdm_ts_blocks timeslots *32 (64 ~ 320 timeslots).

the number of GDP/XCDRs. the number of MSI. the TDM highways of each shelf do not merge into a common unique TDM highway across all shelves. a KSW/DSW2 in one shelf cannot serve boards in other expansion shelves. the number of GPROCs. an additional MSI board CANNOT be added even if an MSI slot is free at each shelf. For example. that is. 16. 68P02900W21-S 6-68 01 Feb 2007 . the number of GDP2s. t = tdm_ts_blocks *32) RGDPXCDR REGDP RGDP2 M RPSI2T t Each KSW/DSW2 has to serve the boards in its shelf and the boards of any extension shelf connected to its shelf by its TDM highway of 1016 available timeslots (or 2040 when operating in enhanced capacity mode). in the case of a BSC consisting of two shelves each having 32 unused timeslots per KSW/DSW2 free. 64~320 (depending on the value of the tdm_ts_blocks database parameter. 24 or 32 (depending on the value of the gproc_slots database parameter). In case of multiple expansion shelves. the number of GDP2s. (but one GPROC per shelf can be added if one GPROC slot per shelf is free).Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules KSW/DSW2 planning actions Calculate the minimum number of KSWs/DSW2s required per BSC: • • Use this formula when enhanced capacity mode is not enabled: N=(G*n)+(RGDPXCDR *16)+(REGDP *96)+(RGDP2*24)+(M*64)+(RPSI2T * t)/1016 Use this formula when enhanced capacity mode is enabled: N=(G*n)+(RGDPXCDR *16)+(REGDP *96)+(RGDP2*24)+(M*64)+(RPSI2T *t)/2040 Where Is N G n the number of KSWs/DSW2s required. the number of EGDPs.

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-69 . Refer to Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2) for information on how to determine timeslot usage. It increases the number of timeslots to that of the additional KSW/DSW2. Shelves containing a KSW/DSW2 are called expansion shelves. MSIs and XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s required. An expansion shelf adds an additional TDM highway. A BSU shelf can support up to six XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s (reducing the number of MSI boards appropriately). both the primary and the secondary must be counted. Extension shelves are those. which do not contain a primary KSW/DSW2. an additional BSU shelf is required. An XCDR card is incompatible with a GPROC3/GPROC3-2 in the BSP slots. The following capacities depend on timeslot usage. XCDRs must be replaced with GDP/GDP2s. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the number of BSU shelves: • • Each BSU shelf supports up to eight GPROCs. An extension shelf extends the TDM highway. If the number of these exceeds the number of slots available.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSU shelves BSU shelves Introduction The number of BSU shelves is normally a function of the number of GPROCs. o o • • • A BSU shelf can support up to 12 MSI boards. Each expansion shelf is allocated to a single KSW/DSW2 and extension shelves are differentiated by the presence of the KSW/DSW2. It is limited to the same number of (aggregate) timeslots as the shelf containing the KSW/DSW2. • • For EGDPs.

the number of PSI2 cards. the number of GDP2s in the shelf. the number of MSIs in the shelf. For EGDPs. the number of GPROCs. the number of EGDPs in the shelf. (G*n)+(RGDPXCDR *16)+(REGDP *96)+(RGDP2*24)+(M*64)+(RPSI2* t) <=1016 Where Is G n RGDPXCDR REGDP RGDP2 M RPSI2T the number of GPROCs in the shelf. t = tdm_ts_blocks *32). The number of BSU shelves required is the highest value result of the following three calculations (fractional values should be rounded up to the next integer value): BS = G 8 M+R BS = 12 R BS = 6 Or Bs = (M+R+P)/12 when PSI2 cards used in BSC cage Where Is Bs G M R P the minimum number of BSU shelves required. The number of timeslots equipped to each shelf must be verified.BSU shelves Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules BSU shelf planning actions Determine the number of BSU shelves required. 24 or 32 (depending on the value of the gproc_slots database parameter). both the primary and the secondary EGDPs must be counted. the number of GDP/XCDRs in the shelf. the number of PSI2s 64~320 (depending on the value of the tdm_ts_blocks database parameter. 68P02900W21-S 6-70 01 Feb 2007 . the number of MSIs. 16. This verification procedure is like Planning considerations (the KSW/DSW2 timeslot validation prevents a shelf from exceeding the timeslot limit) and is repeated here for completeness. the number of XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s (see NOTE).

• 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-71 . Without {FR22169}: Although the BSC can support a maximum of 56 MSIs and each of up to 4 BSU shelves can support 12 MSIs. or an additional shelf or shelves is required. and GDPs and PSI2s can be adjusted. • • • • The number of shelves should be larger if an attempt to reduce the number of KSWs/DSW2s is made.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning BSU shelves When enhanced capacity mode is not enabled (non-extension shelf): (G*n)+(Rgdpxcdr*16)+(Regdp*96)+(Rgdp2*24)+(M*64)+(RPSI2* t)<=1016 When enhanced capacity mode is enabled (extension shelf): (G*n)+(Rgdpxcdr*16)+(Regdp*96)+(Rgdp2*24)+(M*64)+(RPSI2* t)<=1024 If the result of the equation exceeds the value quoted. The maximum number of cabinets at a site = 8. GPROCs. adding one extension shelf does not provide additional capacity for the extra 8 MSIs. With {FR22169}: The BSC can support 96 MSIs with 12 MSIs in each of the 8 cages. The maximum number of shelves at a site = 8. the configuration of MSIs. Horizon and M-Cell sites need only a cabinet to be equipped and not a shelf.

however they should always be used with like pairs. for example DSWXs with DSWXs and KSWXs with KSWXs.Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and double kiloport switch extender (DSWX) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and double kiloport switch extender (DSWX) Introduction The KSWX extends the TDM highway of a BSU to other BSUs and supplies clock signals to all shelves in multi-shelf configurations. For redundancy. KSWX/DSWXL (Local) are used in shelves that have KSWs/DSW2s to drive the clock bus in that shelf and in shelves that do not have KSWs/DSW2s to drive both the local TDM highway and the clock bus in that shelf. Operation in enhanced capacity mode needs the use of all DSWXs (and DSW2s). DSWXs are not required to pair with DSW2s when extended subrate switching mode is used (KSWXs can be used). It is necessary when enhanced capacity mode (2048 timeslots capacity) is used. nine per KSW/DSW2. duplicate all KSWX/DSWX boards (needs redundant KSW/DSW2). • • • • Five of the redundant KSWX/DSWX slots are also CLKX slots. when expansion or extension is not required). 68P02900W21-S 6-72 01 Feb 2007 . KSWXs and DSWXs can both be used. The maximum number of KSWX/DSWX slots per shelf is 18. The DSWX performs the same function as the KSWX when used in the BSU. The KSWX is required whenever a network element expands beyond a single shelf. KSWX/DSWXR (Remote) is required in shelves with KSWs/DSW2s to drive the TDM highway in shelves that do not have KSWs/DSW2s. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the KSWX/DSWX complement: • • KSWXs/DSWXs are not required in a single shelf configuration (that is. KSWXs/DSWXs are used in three modes: o o o • KSWX/DSWXE (Expansion) is required to interconnect the KSWs/DSW2s for sites with multiple KSWs/DSW2s. In mixed configurations (KSWXs and DSWXs). KSWXs can be redundant to DSWXs and vice-versa.

NKX = NKXE + NKXR + NKXL NKXE = K * (K-1) NKXR = SE When SE = 0. which are used to extend/expand the TDM highway from one BSU to another BSU.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and double kiloport switch extender (DSWX) The fiber optic cables. KSWX/DSWX planning actions The number of KSWXs/DSWXs required is the sum of the KSWX/DSWXE. the number of extension shelves. NKXL = K + SE Where Is NKX NKXE NKXR K SE For example: the number of KSWXs/DSWXs required. the number of KSWX/DSWXE. KSWX/DSWXL and KSWX/DSWXR. Table 6-15 KSWX/DSWX (non-redundant) Extension shelves KSW/DSW2 (non redundant) 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 3 5 7 9 4 6 8 10 12 9 11 13 15 17 16 18 20 22 24 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-73 . must be of the same length to limit the risk of TDM highway extension/expansion errors. the number of non-redundant KSWs/DSW2s. the number of KSWX/DSWXR. NKXL = 0 When SE > 0.

Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and double kiloport switch extender (DSWX) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Table 6-16 KSWX/DSWX (redundant) Extension shelves KSW/DSW2 (redundant) 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 0 6 10 14 18 8 12 16 20 24 18 22 26 30 34 32 36 40 44 48 68P02900W21-S 6-74 01 Feb 2007 .

GCLK planning actions Determine the number of GCLKs required. add a second GCLK at each BSC in the same shelf as the first GCLK. The maximum number of GCLK slots per shelf is two. For redundancy. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the GCLK complement: • • • One GCLK is required at each BSC. GCLKs = 1 + 1 redundant 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-75 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Generic clock (GCLK) Generic clock (GCLK) Introduction The generic clock (GCLK) generates all the timing reference signals required by a BSU.

rounding up to the next integer. redundancy factor (1 if redundancy is required (recommended). Fiber optic cables that extending clock reference signals from the parent shelf to all other shelves and itself at a site must be of the same length to maintain site synchronization integrity. CLKX planning actions Determine the number of CLKXs required. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the CLKX complement: • • • • • • • • One CLKX is required in the first BSU shelf. 0 for no redundancy). ⎛E⎞ N CLKX = ROUNDUP ⎜ ⎟ * (1 + R F ) ⎝6⎠ Where Is NCLKX ROUND UP E RF the number of CLKXs required. (The CLKX uses six of the redundant KSWX slots. allowing each GCLK to support up to 18 shelves (LAN extension allows only fourteen shelves in a single network element).Clock extender (CLKX) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Clock extender (CLKX) Introduction A clock extender (CLKX) board provides expansion of GCLK timing to more than one BSU. 68P02900W21-S 6-76 01 Feb 2007 . the number of expansion/extension shelves. There are three CLKX slots for each GCLK. The maximum number of CLKX slots per shelf is six. There are three CLKX slots for each GCLK. a KSWX/DSWXL is required to distribute the clocks in the master and each of the expansion/extension shelves. allowing each GCLK to support up to 18 shelves (LAN extension allows only fourteen shelves in a single network element).) With a CLKX. which contains the GCLK when expanding beyond the shelf occurs. duplicate each CLKX (needs a redundant GCLK). For redundancy. Each CLKX can supply the GCLK signals to six shelves.

Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the LANX complement: • • • One LANX is supplied in each shelf. NLANX = NBSU * (1+ RF) BSU ≤ 14 Where Is NLANX NBSU RF the number of LANXs required. 0 for no redundancy). LANX planning actions Determine the number of LANXs required. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-77 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Local area network extender (LANX) Local area network extender (LANX) Introduction The LANX provides a LAN interconnection for communications between all GPROCs at a site. redundancy factor (1 if redundancy is required (recommended). For full redundancy add one LANX for each shelf. the number of BSU shelves. The LANX can support a maximum network size of 14 shelves.

PIX planning actions Select the number of PIXs required.Parallel interface extender (PIX) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Parallel interface extender (PIX) Introduction The PIX board provides eight inputs and four outputs for site alarms. PIX ≤ 2 * number of BSUs or PIX ≤ 8 68P02900W21-S 6-78 01 Feb 2007 . The maximum number of PIX board slots per site is eight. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the PIX complement: • • The maximum number of PIX board slots per shelf is two.

T43/PT43) Line interface boards (BIB/PBIB. The PBIB and PT43 are used when PSI2s exist in BSC cage. provide impedance matching for E1 links. Each BIB/T43 can interface six E1links to specific slots on one shelf. T43/PT43) Introduction The line interfaces.37 V (peak pulse) line. but in the BSU configuration this additional connectivity is not needed. A maximum of 8 Ethernet links can be connected to a BSSC cabinet. Up to four (P)BIBs or (P)T43s per shelf can be mounted on a BSSC2 cabinet. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-79 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Line interface boards (BIB/PBIB. balanced-line interface board (BIB) and T43 board (T43). o o o o A maximum of 24 E1 links can be connected to a BSU shelf. A BSSC3 cabinet can have up to seven (P)BIBs or (P)T43s per shelf mounted. Use a T43 Board (T43) or PT43 board to match a single ended unbalanced 75 ohm (E1 2.048 Mbit/s) or balanced 110-ohm 3 V (peak pulse) line. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the line interface complement: • • • • • • Use a BIB or PBIB to match a balanced 120-ohm (E1 2.048 Mbit/s) 2. • The number of E1links is reduced by 2 times the number of Ethernet links provisioned. A BSSC2 cabinet with two BSU shelves can interface a maximum of 48 E1 links. The PBIB and PT43 provide an Ethernet link in addition to impedance matching for E1links. A maximum of 4 Ethernet links can be connected to a BSU shelf. Each PBIB/PT43 can interface four E1 links and one Ethernet link to specific slots on one shelf. They are at the top of the BSC cabinet and replace 2 span lines with a single RJ45 connection for Ethernet.

T43/PT43) Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules (P)BIB/(P)T43 planning actions The following planning actions are required: • • • • • • • Determine the number and type of link (E1) to be driven. Minimum number of MSIs = (Number of E1 /2).Line interface boards (BIB/PBIB. 68P02900W21-S 6-80 01 Feb 2007 . Determine the number of Ethernet links to be driven. Number of PBIB/PT43 = number of PSI2s. Determine the number of (P)BIBs or (P)T43s required.2*number of PSI2s)/3. Determine the split between BIB/T43 and PBIB/PT43 boards required. Minimum number of BIB/T43= (number of MSIs .

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-81 . In this manual. or EPSM for each shelf.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Digital shelf power supply Digital shelf power supply Introduction A BSSC2 or BSSC3 cabinet can be supplied to operate from a +27 V dc or -48 V/-60 V dc power source. Two IPSM2s are required for each shelf in the BSSC3 (-48 V/-60 V dc). Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the PSU complement: • • • • • Two DPSMs are required for each shelf in the BSSC. For redundancy. add one DPSM. BSSC is a generic term that means both BSSC2 and/or BSSC3. IPSM. Two EPSMs are required for each shelf in the BSSC (+27 V dc). Two IPSMs are required for each shelf in the BSSC2 (-48 V/-60 V dc). 0 for no redundancy). Power supply planning actions Determine the number of PSUs required. PSUs = 2 * Number of BSUs + RF * Number of BSUs Where: RF is the redundancy factor (1 if redundancy is required (recommended).

With the NVM board installed. The NVM board uses slot 26 in the BSU shelf 0 (master) of the BSC. NVM planning actions The NVM board is optional.Non Volatile Memory (NVM) board Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules Non Volatile Memory (NVM) board Introduction The optional non volatile memory board provides the BSC with an improved recovery facility following a total power loss. data is retrieved from the NVM board rather than from the OMC-R during recovery from a total power loss. 68P02900W21-S 6-82 01 Feb 2007 . Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the NVM complement: • • • Only one NVM board can be installed at the BSC. which is an unused slot. The appropriate software required to support the NVM board must be loaded at the OMC-R and downloaded to the BSC.

For the two calculations. The number of XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s ≤ 6 * number of shelves. • • • • • • The number of BTS sites ≤ 100 The number of BTS cells ≤ 250 RSLs ≤ 250 Carriers ≤ 384 LCFs ≤ 25 Erlangs ≤ 3000 • If the Huge BSC feature is enabled. PSI2s and XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s ≤ 12 * number of shelves. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 6-83 . The number of KSWX/DSWXs. Each BSSC cabinet supports two BSU shelves. the EGDP consists of a primary and a secondary board. LANXs. CLKXs. and GPROCs is correct. • If the Enhanced BSC feature is enabled. carriers ≤ 512. the number of BTS sites ≤ 140 and carriers ≤ 750. The number of PSI2s <= 4 per shelf and 12 per site. The number of MSI. If necessary. Each extension shelf supports extension of a single KSW/DSW2. verify that: • • • • • • • The number of shelves is greater than one eighth of the number of GPROC modules. add extra BSU shelves.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Verifying the number of BSU shelves and BSSC cabinets Verifying the number of BSU shelves and BSSC cabinets Verification After planning is complete. Each non-redundant KSW/DSW2 has its own shelf.

Verifying the number of BSU shelves and BSSC cabinets Chapter 6: BSC planning steps and rules 68P02900W21-S 6-84 01 Feb 2007 .

components and features. and BSS system architecture. T43) Digital shelf power supply Non volatile memory (NVM) board Verify the number of RXU shelves and BSSC cabinets 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 7-1 .Chapter 7 RXCDR planning steps and rules This chapter provides an overview of the manual. BSS planning methodology. It also provides information on various elements of BSS. This chapter describes the planning steps and rules for the RXCDR in the following sections: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Overview of remote transcoder planning RXCDR to BSC connectivity RXCDR to BSC links RXCDR to MSC links Generic processor (GPROC) Transcoding Multiple serial interface (MSI) Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2) RXU shelves Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and double kiloport switch extender (DSWX) Generic clock (GCLK) Clock extender (CLKX) LAN extender (LANX) Parallel interface extender (PIX) Line interfaces (BIB.

Plan the number of KSWs/DSW2s and timeslots required by referring to the section Kiloport switch (KSW) and double kiloport switch (DSW2). Plan the number of GPROCs required by referring to the section Generic processor (GPROC). Plan the number of E1 links between the RXCDR and MSC sites by referring to the section RXCDR to MSC links. Plan the number of RXU shelves by referring to the section RXU shelves. Plan the number of XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s required by referring to the section Transcoding. • • The use of E1 links The use of balanced or unbalanced E1 Outline of planning steps Follow Procedure 7-1 to plan an RXCDR.Overview of remote transcoder planning Chapter 7: RXCDR planning steps and rules Overview of remote transcoder planning Introduction The following information is required to plan the equipage of an RXCDR: • • • • BSC traffic requirements Number of trunks (including redundancy) from the MSC Each RXCDR can support multiple BSCs The sum of the MSIs and the XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s for each BSC define the number of slots required at the RXCDR Each EGDP comprises two GDP cards. Continued 68P02900W21-S 7-2 01 Feb 2007 . Procedure 7-1 Planning an RXCDR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Plan the number of links between the XCDR and BSC sites by referring to the section Overview of remote transcoder planning. Plan the number of MSIs required by referring to the section Multiple serial interface (MSI).

Plan the power requirements by referring to the section Digital shelf power supply. Plan the number of CLKXs required by referring to the section Clock extender (CLKX). Plan the number of BIB or T43s required by referring to the section Line interfaces (BIB.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Overview of remote transcoder planning Procedure 7-1 Planning an RXCDR (Continued) 8 Plan the number of KSWXs/DSWXs required by referring to the section Kiloport switch extender (KSWX) and double kiloport switch extender (DSWX). Plan the number of LANXs required by referring to the section LAN extender (LANX). 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 7-3 . Plan the number of GCLKs required by referring to the section Generic clock (GCLK). Decide whether an NVM board is required by referring to the section Non volatile memory (NVM) board. Verify the planning process by referring to the section Verify the number of RXU shelves and BSSC cabinets. Plan the number of PIXs required by referring to the section Parallel interface extender (PIX). T43).

Table 7-1 RXCDR maximum capacities Item GSR6 GSR7 GSR8 GSR9 RXCDR per BSC XBLs GPROCs per shelf CIC OMLs 10 20 2 2400 1 10 20 2 2400 1 * 10 20 2 2400 1 * 10 20 2 2400* 1 *: Increased to 4800 CICs when AMR (and/or GSM half rate) are both enabled.RXCDR system capacity Chapter 7: RXCDR planning steps and rules RXCDR system capacity System capacity summary Table 7-1 provides a summary of RXCDR maximum capacities. 68P02900W21-S 7-4 01 Feb 2007 .

68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 7-5 . For example.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning RXCDR to BSC connectivity RXCDR to BSC connectivity Introduction A single BSC can have multiple RXCDRs connected to it and vice-versa. System size. or the communication path between BSC and RXCDR results in loss of capacity but not a complete failure of the serving BSC. The level of connectivity is determined by the operator. in a four BSC. Failure of an RXCDR. capacity. care should be taken when distributing the functions across multiple RXCDRs. GDP2s). Refer to the section Determining the number of XBLs required for further details. This is useful for the following reasons: • • In some configurations. optimally the cards are distributed equally among the RXCDRs. Excess RXCDR capacity should not be wasted. Each BSC should connect to four RXCDRs. the RXCDR call (CIC) capacity is greater than that of a BSC. For optimum redundancy. Capacity Each BSC can connect to up to ten RXCDRs and vice-versa. Larger BSCs should not be connected to only one RXCDR. AMR). With the introduction of advanced transcoding capabilities (that is. The level of connectivity is constrained by the number of XBLs (limit of 20 at each BSC and RXCDR) that can be supported. four RXCDR configuration where all are interconnected and there are a limited number of transcoder cards capable of AMR (for example. each RXCDR should have an appropriate mix of transcoder capability. and cost are the major influences on the selected configuration.

The dynamic allocation is referred to as Enhanced Auto Connect mode. which includes (AMR or GSM) capable mobile penetration. One is the E1 links go to MSC by RXCDR. the E1 links used to carry HSP MTL require to be accounted. thus yielding a reduction factor of less than eight. the reduction factor for the half rate calls becomes eight. There are two connected modes. 68P02900W21-S 7-6 01 Feb 2007 .95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is not included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set. When HSP MTL feature {28337} is unrestricted. Whenever the number of CICs exceeds the number of 16 kbit/s trunks between the RXCDR and BSC. This dynamic allocation is performed across a trunked interface between the BSC and a remote transcoder (RXCDR).95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set. the efficiency can be increased by reducing the number of terrestrial resources between the BSC and RXCDR. In most configurations. This interface is called the Ater interface. there is a possibility that a call assignment may fail because of resource shortage. (for AMR only) the 7. 4 x 64 kbit/s circuits/RTF for a (AMR or GSM) HR RTF and 8 kbit/s switching is not provisioned. This is possible only if the BSC can dynamically allocate a timeslot to a CIC.RXCDR to BSC links Chapter 7: RXCDR planning steps and rules RXCDR to BSC links Introduction Refer to Figure 6-1 for the RXCDR to BSC links. Another is the E1 links go to MSC directly. Therefore. The number of links between the RXCDR and the BSC is reduced to approximately one quarter of the number of links between the RXCDR and the MSC when 16 kbit/s backhaul is used. ensure the accuracy of half rate usage estimations. 8 kbit/s subrate switching is available and (for AMR only) the 7. The number depends on a combination of factors. or. and 8 kbit/s subrate switching is in use. half rate is likely to be used only a part of the time.95 kbit/s half rate codec mode is not included in the Half Rate Active Codec Set. When (AMR or GSM) half rate is in use. there is no impact on RXCDR planning. 8 kbit/s backhaul can be used when (AMR or GSM) half rate is in use. the 7. For the first connected mode. and MSC preferences. It is recommended that a safety factor of at least 20% is factored into any half rate usage estimate (20% allows for some variation in the actual number). The number of E1 links between the RXCDR and the BSCs is the number required to support the A-interface from the RXCDR to the BSC. whether forced half rate usage is enabled and/or tied in with congestion. If a percentage of the active calls is assumed to be half rate. MSIs are required to terminate HSP MTL at RXCDR (A HSP MTL from MSC is terminated at one port of an MSI and nailed to BSC from another MSI port) whereas for the second connected mode (E1 links go from BSC to MSC directly).

number of 64kbit/s C7 signaling links to the MSC. C2M is 0 in the equation. HSP MTL and 64kbit/s MTL can not be supported simultaneously. number of 16 kbit/s XBL links. percentage in decimal (for example. 0. If HSP MTLs are deployed and they pass through RXCDR: NBSC-RXCDR = C2M+ {C64k + X+B64+[T*(1-PHR)+B16]/4 + (T*PHR)/8} / 3 Where Is NBSC-RXCDR C64k C2M X B64 T PHR B16 minimum number of E1 links required. number of trunks between the MSC and the BSC (Refer to Figure 6-1). 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 7-7 .System Information: BSS Equipment Planning RXCDR to BSC links E1 interconnect planning actions Determine the number of E1 links required. Each E1 link carries up to 120 (240 at half rate) trunks with a signaling link or 124 (248 at half rate) trunks without a signaling link. number of OML links (X. PHR is zero if Enhanced Auto Connect mode is not in use. number of HSP MTLs to the BSC. If HSP MTLs go to MSC directly (not through RXCDR). number of 64 kbit/s XBL links.25 control links to the OMC-R) through the RXCDR. Redundant E1 links carrying extra trunks can be added.35) of expected half rate usage(meeting the criteria stated previously). • • The half rate numbers are only possible with all calls using half rate.

number of HSP MTL links. E1 interconnect planning actions Determine the number of E1 links required.25 control links to the OMC-R) through the MSC. • {28337} When HSP MTL feature is used and the E1 links go to MSC by RXCDR. number of OML links (X. number of trunks between the MSC and the BSC (See Figure 6-1). The minimum number of E1 links required for the A-interface is the greater of the two following calculations (fractional values should be rounded up to the next integer value): NRXCDR-MSC = C2M + T/30 NRXCDR-MSC = C2M + (C64k+ X+ T)/31 Where Is NRXCDR-MSC C64k C2M X T minimum number of E1 links required. MSIs are required to terminate HSP MTL at RXCDR. HSP MTL and 64kbit/s MTL cannot be supported simultaneously.RXCDR to MSC links Chapter 7: RXCDR planning steps and rules RXCDR to MSC links Introduction The number of E1 links between the RXCDR and the MSC is the number required to support the A-interface from the RXCDR to the MSC. there is no impact on RXCDR planning and C2M is 0 in the equation. If the HSP MTLs go from the BSC to the MSC directly. number of 64kbit/s C7 signaling links to the MSC. • 68P02900W21-S 7-8 01 Feb 2007 .

This allows for any combination of GPROC types to be installed.System Information: BSS Equipment Planning Generic processor (GPROC) Generic processor (GPROC) GPROC nomenclature In this manual. GPROC3s/GPROC3-2s cannot be used with software versions earlier than GSR7. The GPROC3/GPROC3-2 is a high performance direct replacement for GPROC2s and GPROC1s. A maximum of two GPROCs per shelf are supported: One BSP GPROC One GPROC that can be configured as a redundant BSP GPROC or as a CSFP GPROC For RXCDR. 68P02900W21-S 01 Feb 2007 7-9 . the different versions of the Generic Processor are as follows: • • • • GPROC2: Refers to GPROC2 GPROC3: Refers to GPROC3 GPROC3-2: Refers to GPROC3 phase 2 GPROC: Refers to both GPROC2 and GPROC3/GPROC3-2 Introduction Generic processor (GPROC) boards are used throughout the Motorola BSS as a control processor. Planning considerations The following factors should be considered when planning the GPROC complement at the RXCDR: • • • • Each shelf needs at least one GPROC board. along with one for redundancy. both GPROC2 and GPROC3s/GPROC3-2s can be in the BSP slots.

When circuit pooling is available in an AMR enabled system. 68P02900W21-S 7-10 01 Feb 2007 . GDP2s or EGDPs should be used exclusively to prevent downgrading or blocking of calls. The number of links between the RXCDR and the BSC is reduced to approximately one quarter (less when half rate is employed under the conditions described ) of the number of links between the RXCDR and the MSC. each providing half of the transcoding resources. both AMR-capable (EGDP/GDP2) and non -AMR-capable (XCDR/GDP) equipment are used. When the MSC is capable of selecting the MSC-RXCDR trunk (CIC) based upon the preferred codec type. it is not considered in the planning procedures. The GDP2 can function as GDP and hence it can replace one or both the GDPs in the EGDP configuration. enhanced capacity mode must be enabled to access the second E1 when GDP2s are used. EFR. thus yielding a reduction factor of less than eight. and EFR) and Phase 2 data services. When (AMR or GSM) half rate is in use and 8 kbit/s subrate switching is available [and the 7. The GDP2 can process 60 channels of FR. Use of an EGDP is practical only when used in conjunction with AMR. based on factors such as MS capabilities and user configuration. It can also function as a replacement for the GDP. which is equivalent to 30 channels per GDP pair. GSM HR and Phase 2 data services and is capable of terminating two E1 links from the MSC.Transcoding Chapter 7: RXCDR planning steps and rules Transcoding Introduction Transcoders (XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s) provide the interface for the E1 links between the MSC and the BSC. This results in an overall reduction in transcoding shelf capacity. This is not an optimal use of the GDP2 and occurs in emergency situations (for example. some equipment combinations can result in non-optimal behavior. EGDPs are equipped as pairs. The EGDP can also terminate one Ater E1 link. thus reducing the number of MSI boards required (See EGDP provisioning). In most configurations. The XCDR/GDP/EGDP/GDP2s perform the transcoding/rate adaptation function. The EGDP does not support GSM half rate. To offer 30 channels of enhanced transcoding using the same E1 span line to the MSC. Due to the additional transcoding requirements of AMR. An EGDP is a new configuration o