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Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of

Bachelors of Technology in Electronics & communication Engineering

Under the Guidance of Er. Gaganpreet Singh

Submitted by Navjeet Singh 7320407922

Department of Electronics & communication Engineering
Swami Vivekanand Institute of Engineering & Technology Ramnagar, Banur


“The successful completion of any task would be incomplete without accomplishing the people who made it all possible and whose constant guidance and encouragement secured us the success” This seems to be a fitting moment for me to express my heartfelt gratitude towards all those who helped me tirelessly and patiently in my training work. It gives me a great sense of pleasure to present this report on my Two month industrial training. Training in an organization like A TRAFFIC LIGHT which is fuelled by the individuals with so much zest & energy, teaming up to form a formidable force, was in itself a true learning experience which is going to help us immensely in our career. To begin with, I express my sincere thanks to Mr. Gagandeep Singh Walia(Managing Director).)to my training coordinators for allowing me to avail all the available amenities in the division. They kept faith in me and made me an active member of my team. I am thankful to them for sharing their vast resource of knowledge and experience with me. Last but not the least I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my teammates, who with their thought provoking views, veracity and whole hearted co-operation supported me throughout the duration of the training. I am thankful to The Institution of Electronics and
Telecommunication Engineers (IETE) for giving me an opportunity to undertake my Two

Months Industrial Training.


Telcoma Technologies Pvt. Ltd (ISO 9001:2008 Certified) is a provider of Telecommunication and IT based solutions, including software, equipment and systems integration services. Telcoma Technologies develops and provides products, solutions, and professional services primarily for Telecommunications/IT companies.
The business paradigm of Telcoma Technologies includes the following areas –

Network Solutions Next Generation Networks Wireless Broadband Service Data Transmission Mobile Networks Value-added Systems and Intelligent Networks Network Deployment and Integration New Technologies

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Customized software development
Telcoma Technologies develops customized software solutions for its clients. Our expertise includes Java programming, Apple iPhone/Google Android applications, PHP/MySQL, Ajax and Ruby on Rails.

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Telcoma Technologies has completed many web projects catering to niche segment of internet fraternity, which include social networking sites, content management portals, dynamic websites, multimedia rich interactive websites with Flash and Intranet based solutions for Business

Automation. The sites and portals generate a run-of-the-network traffic and a significant business every month for our clients

Corporate Training and IT/Telecom Education
Telcoma Technologies has also launched various initiatives in the area of corporate training and IT education introducing the emerging technologies training solutions at affordable price. The team at Telcoma Technologies is well-qualified and strongly motivated and committed to providing the high level of personal service and customer satisfaction. All processes within Telcoma Technologies are aligned towards the highest quality standards and formally certified to ISO 9001:2008. We "Believe in the Best", be it people, products or services. Our approach to everything emanates from this corporate philosophy. With every new day the quest for acquiring new competencies continues. Forever searching, experimenting, innovating, learning, moving ahead with our sincere efforts and dedication, shaping the future, and challenging our competencies to create new opportunities, is a never-ending proces

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Personality Development
The company recently collaborated with IIPM, Mohali for overall personality development and communication skills

ORGANIZATION PROFILE Company Name: Faculty Members: Telcoma Technologies. Mr.Gagandeep Singh Walia Mr. Pawanjeet singh Mr.Kapil Bhutani Mrs.Rashi Gupta. Telcoma Technologies pvt. limited SCO 123, Phase 3B2, Mohali. Phone: 0172-4010731, 09814145471 Web: info@telcoma

Company Address: Contact: Website: Email:

firsthand experience for working in the actual environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. I was entrusted with project DRIVE TEST. GSM FUNDAMENTALS . And all the credit goes to organization TELCOMA TECHNOLOGIES PVT. which increased my sphere of telecom knowledge to a great extent. LIMITED – which in true self made the telecom revolution happen. working on which had finally made me step into the ongoing telecom revolution and gradually become a part of it. Excellence is an attitude that whole of the human race is born with. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. it is impossible to keep pace with the emerging trends. I had the opportunity to have a real experience. A well planned properly executed and evaluated Industrial Training helps a lot in inculcating a professional attitude. During this period. I was entrusted with a real life project. the students get the real.PREFACE With the ongoing telecom revolution where the innovations are taking place at the blink of an eye.

the task force was formed. it is very important to know the services. ETSI included GSM in its domain. close to 150 countries had adopted GSM for cellular adaptation Frequency Bands This GSM system is a frequency and time division system. In 1986. the first deployment started. and in 1992. Each physical channel is characterized by a carrier frequency and a time slot number. In 1991. . the specification of the standard was completed. Analog cellular systems were developed for a single application that is voice and in a manner similar to analog access to PSTN.Brief History The Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is an ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute) standard for 2G pan European digital cellular with international roaming. For DCS – 1800. 124 radio carriers have been defined and assigned in two sub-bands of 25 MHz each in the 890 – 915 MHz and 935-960 MHz ranges with channel width of 200 kHz (these sub-bands are always referred as downlink as well as uplink respectively. The main purpose of the group was to develop a 2G standard to resolve the roaming problem in the six existing different 1G analog systems in Europe. and by 2001. which the system supports or provides. thirty two operators in 22 countries adopted the GSM standard. Each carrier (a total channel width of 200 KHz) is divided into frames of 8 time slots. In 1989. there are two sub bands of 75 MHz in the 1710 – 1785 MHz and 1805 – 1880 MHz ranges GSM Services To study any system. and in 1987 a memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed. For the primary band in the GSM 900 system. other data services such as fax and voice-band modems were defined as overlay services on top of the analog voice service. By the year 1993. GSM system frequencies include two bands at 900 MHZ and 1800 MHz commonly referred to as the GSM 900 and DCS 1800 systems. GSM is an integrated voice-data service that provides a number of services beyond cellular telephone. we will see this concept in detailed in “ channel concepts” later in this module).

These services are considered as revenue generating features. These services are telephony. 2. The GSM system provides a greater subscriber capacity than analogue systems. that is. the lower layers and the frame format of the standard should specify how these transmission would be implemented over the air-interface Supplementary services GSM supports a wide range of supplementary (complementary and is not mandatory) services. telex. eight conversations per 200 kHz channel pair (a pair comprising one transmit channel and one receive channel).These services are divided into three major categories. They are Teleservices. These services belong to both telephony as well as data services. Traditional bearer services include a variety of asynchronous and synchronous data access to PSTN/ISDN and packet switched public data network. a Carrier to Interference Ratio (C/I) level of 12 dB is achieved. These are not stand-alone services but they are services that . short messages. Features of GSM 1. 4. This allows increased geographic reuse by permitting a reduction in the number of cells in the reuse pattern.Digital channel coding and the modulation used makes the signal resistant to interference from cells where the same frequencies are re-used (co-channel interference). as opposed to the 18 dB typical with analogue cellular. To implement bearer services. The upper most layer of the protocol stack of the standard should be specified so that it could communicate with protocols used in these applications. Teleservices It provide communication between two end user applications according to a standard protocol. speech calls. emergency. and videotext. Bearer services and supplementary services. GSM allows 25 kHz per user. 3. group 3 facsimile. Bearer services It provide capabilities to transmit information among user network interfaces.

3. 7. Barring of incoming calls : This service exists with two conditions: barring of all incoming calls and barring of incoming calls when roaming outside the home PLMN. Advice of charge. if it is busy or if there is no reply. calls are forwarded without any condition that is the MS will be treated as a passive device. connected line identification. This functionality is applicable to all GSM telecommunications services using a circuit switched connection. closed user group. multiple communication (like conferencing. . Multiparty service : This service enables a mobile subscriber to establish a multiparty conversation. While unconditional call forwarding is active. calling line identification. There are two types of Aoc information: one provides the subscriber with an estimate of the bill and one that can be used for immediate charging purposes. up to five ongoing calls can be included in one conversation). 2. Call hold: This service enables the subscriber to interrupt an ongoing call and then subsequently reestablish the call. Barring of outgoing calls : This function makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing calls. operator determined call barring etc. 5. call waiting. The subscriber can answer. The important supplementary services are:- 1. call barring. That is the subscriber can establish multiple conversations at a time (max five). These services are call forwarding. 6. Call forwarding : gives the subscriber the ability to forward incoming calls to another number (either to the same network or even other network) with conditional or unconditional. call hold. Call waiting : This service enables the mobile subscriber to be notified of an incoming call during a conversation. The conditions are when the MS is not reachable.supplement a bearer or teleservice. reject or ignore the incoming call. 4. Advice of Charge (AoC): This service provides the mobile subscriber with an estimate of the call charges.

8. These restriction services enable the calling party to restrict the presentation. Calling line identification (CLI) presentation/restriction: These services supply the called party with the ISDN number of the calling party. INTEGRATION OF BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS) . The restriction overrides the presentation. Microwave . ZTE University univ.Antenna 1/2 Clamp 7/16 Din Connector 1/2 Jumper Tower Top Amplifier 7/8“ Cable 7/8“ Cable Grounding Machine house 1/2“ Jumper EMP Grounding clip Grounding bar Cabinet The information contained in the file is solely property of ZTE corporation. Any kind of disclosing without permission is prohibited.zte.

Feeder and Jumper Cables Mount. Mechnical Tilt and GSM antenna .

Electrical Tilt .

if we have planned to mount an antenna at a height of 30 meters and the height of the building selected is 18 meters. It includes right height.e. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PROJECT AREA BTS Cabin/Shelter/Room AC GSM Antenna System BTS Mains Power Panel MW MINILINK DC Power Supply Unit Battery Backup Abis BASE STATION LAYOUT . TX and RX frequency of the microwave antenna. so we have to built an tower of (30mts -18mts) 12 meters.Feeder and jumper cable When a new site is to be installed. The site is installed mainly on top of the building so that the total height may be achieved by subtracting the height of the building from the total height from where the antenna is to be installed i. firstly the right place for the site is planned by the planning department.

Shelter . He checks the jumpers coming from antennas very carefully.DC Generator(DG) 3. we use 3 to 4 stairs for getting into the shelter conveniently.All the hardware installation (Tower. Zeppelin etc). The shelter is mounted over this by metal nails.Tower (including antenna) Shelter : For the shelter. When they complete their job. DG. A site mainly consists of following: 1. After he is completely satisfied.) during site installation is done by different vendors (NOKIA. The Back side of the shelter has an AC exhaust fans mounted over by two metal nails.Shelter 2. BTS. Shelter AC. As the shelter is at a height of one and a half feet. the O&M Engineer comes and checks whether the installations are done properly or not. we use four cemented base which is raised from ground to a height approximately one and a half feet with two metal rails running over this base. Kirloskar. he starts his job of integrating the site . Antennas.

240 V. The jumper cables are connected from top of BTS &hen connected to the feeder cable which is routed through the cable tray on to the top of the tower. . the GSM and the microwave antenna are installed on top of the tower using moulds. firstly a concrete square wall of 3 -4 feet is made.e. The thickness is such that it can withhold the weight of the antenna. It is used in case of power breakdown. then further connected by the jumper to the antenna.Diesel Generator : It is one of the important components used in a site. There are basically two types of towers : 1.Roof Top(RT) towers . The specifications of the DG are : AC generator: 50Hz 1500 RPM. it stops automatically. The two antennas i. 10 KVA or 15KVA or 25KVA DC Generator Tower For constructing the tower. It is painted by orange and white color as it the standard for any antenna using microwave frequency. in that case it starts automatically and when the mains are ok.

Ground Based towers.2. Ground Base Tower . The main advantage of Roof Tower (RT) tower is that it reduces the height of the tower and therefore not only reduces the material required for constructing the tower but automatically saves the time required to erect a tower as well as reduces the cost required for construction.

The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a set of recommendations and specifications for a digital cellular telephone network (known as a Public Land Mobile Network. 2. 4. 3. using a digital radio interface between the cellular network and the mobile subscriber equipment.GSM networks are digital and can cater for high system capacities. or PLMN).Roof Top Tower GSM BASICS Introduction to GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) INTRODUCTION 1. and are an extension of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).These recommendations ensure the compatibility of equipment from different GSM manufacturers. . and interconnectivity between different administrations. including operation across international boundaries.They are consistent with the world-wide digitization of the telephone network.

3. as opposed to the 18 dB typical with analogue cellular. It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership.GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) Definition : Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. eight conversations per 200 kHz channel pair (a pair comprising one transmit channel and one receive channel). AUDIO QUALITY 1. a Carrier to Interference Ratio (C/I) level of 12 dB is achieved. 2. This allows increased geographic reuse by permitting a reduction in the number of cells in the reuse pattern. Since GSM is a digital technology. 3. Digital transmission of speech and high performance digital signal processors provides good quality speech transmission. FEATURES OF GSM INCREASED CAPACITY 1. that is. 4. GSM allows 25 kHz per user. In regions of interference or noise-limited operation the speech quality is noticeably better than analogue. 2. The GSM system provides a greater subscriber capacity than analogue systems. IMPROVED SECURITY AND CONFIDENTIALITY . GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz.Digital channel coding and the modulation used makes the signal resistant to interference from cells where the same frequencies are re-used (co-channel interference). the signals passed over a digital air interface can be protected against errors by using better error detection and correction techniques.

. In a GSM system the mobile station and the subscriber are identified separately. GSM offers high speech and data confidentiality. ENHANCED RANGE OF SERVICES 1. 3. SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION 1. The subscriber is identified by means of a smart card known as a SIM. This number is stored in a standard database and whenever a call is made the equipment can be checked to see if it has been reported stolen.1.. Short Message Service for point ot point transmission of text message. The GSM system provides for high degree of confidentiality for the subscriber. 3. This data is passed on the Network which then uses sophisticated algorithms to determine the need of handover. Calls are encoded and ciphered when sent over air. 3. 2. 2. 2. Speech services for normal telephony. The mobile equipment can be identified independently from the mobile subscriber. GSM uses Mobile assisted handover technique.Subscriber authentication can be performed by the system to check if a subscriber is a valid subscriber or not. This enables the subscriber to use different mobile equipment while retaining the same subscriber number. The mobile has an identity number hard coded into it when it is manufactured. 2. CLEANER HANDOVERS 1. The mobile itself carries out the signal strength and quality measurement of its server and signal strength measurement of its neighbors.

The same RF carrier can be used for many conversations in several different cells at the same time. Supplementary services like number identification. Hence the subscriber is able to move around and become fully mobile.8 Kb/s and 9. There are total 124 carriers in GSM ( additional 50 carriers are available if EGSM band is used). 3. Message like traffic information or advertising can be transmitted. CELLULAR TELEPHONY 1.6 Kb/s. Some typical repeat patterns are 4/12. call forwarding. The radio carriers available are allocated according to a regular pattern which repeats over the whole coverage area. Information between the mobile unit and the cellular network uses radio communication. . A cellular telephone system links mobile subscribers into the public telephone system or to another cellular subscriber. Each carrier has 8 timeslots and if 7 can be used for traffic then a maximum of 868 (124 X 7) calls can be made. 4. FREQUENCY REUSE 1. 7/21 etc.3. Fax and data services are provided. 6. 4. The pattern to be used depends on traffic requirement and spectrum availability. This is not enough and hence frequencies have to be reused. Data rates available are 2. 2. Cell broadcast for transmission of text message from the cell to all MS in its coverage area. 4. 5. 5.4 Kb/s. call barring. 2. charging display etc can be provided.

The service area in which mobile communication is to be provided is divided into regions called cells. Every telephone network needs a specific structure to route incoming calls to the correct exchange and then on to the subscriber. Each cell has the equipment to transmit and receive calls from any subscriber located within the borders of its radio coverage area. this structure is very important because the subscribers are mobile.3. that’s why we have only 10-25MHz dedicated to wireless communication. In a mobile network. 4. Genius idea lead to division of the whole geographical area to relatively small cells. Radio Cell Mobile subscriber WHY CELLULAR: Radio spectrum is very limited. Each cell has its own antenna (base station). which is not rational and commercially not profitable to develop network for such small number of mobile subscribers. . and all base stations are interconnected using microwave or cable communication. Such narrow bandwidth allows 100-400 channels of reasonable quality. and each cell may reuse the same frequencies by reducing power of transmission.

a paging message is broadcast to all cells belonging to a specific LA. has been provided with a number of frequencies. In a complete network the number of cells is large. for example. the available frequencies must be reused. Neighbouring cells can’t have the same frequency. The system uses LA to search for subscribers in active state. depending on traffic load. Each operator licensed to run a cellular network. Different cells are identified by a unique number called Cell Global Identity (CGI). There are a limited number of frequencies available within the frequency band specified for cellular systems. LOCATION AREA The Location Area (LA) is defined as a group of cells. A cell has one or several frequencies. . To cover a country. The same frequency cannot be used in neighboring cells due to interference.CELL A cell is the basic unit of a cellular system and is defined as the area where radio coverage is given by one base station. When there is a call for a mobile station.

Network Areas PLMN SERVICE AREA The Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is a geographical area served by one network operator and is defined as the area in which an operator offers radio coverage and possibility to access its network. Different location areas can be identified by the system using the Location Area Identity (LAI). To route a call to an MS. . MSC and VLR are always implemented in the same node in all Ericsson GSM networks. thus the area is often called MSC/VLR Service Area. Location Areas MSC/VLR SERVICE AREA The mobile station is registered in a database called Visitor Location Register (VLR). A MSC/VLR Service Area is made up of a number of LAs. the subscriber’s MSC service area is also recorded and monitored. It represents the geographical part of the network that is covered by one MSC.A LA is the part of the network in which a mobile station may move around freely without reporting its location to the network.

these areas include cells. The GSM service area increases as more operators sign contract agreeing to work together.PLMN Service Area GSM SERVICE AREA The GSM service area is the entire geographic areas in which a subscriber can gain access to the GSM network. location areas (LAs). As shown in Figure. . and public land mobile network (PLMN) areas. MSC/VLR service areas.

The GSM network can be divided into four main parts: 1.Mobile Station (MS). 2.Base Station Subsystem (BSS). 3.The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). 4.Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS).

Mobile Station
A Mobile Station consists of two main elements: 1.The mobile equipment or terminal. 2.The Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).

There are different types of terminals/mobile equipment distinguished principally by their power and application: 1.The `fixed' terminals are the ones installed in cars. Their maximum allowed output power is 20 W. 2.The GSM portable terminals can also be installed in vehicles. Their maximum allowed output power is 8W. 3.The handheld terminals have experienced the biggest success thanks to their weight and volume, which are continuously decreasing. These terminals can emit up to 2 W. The evolution of technologies allows decreasing the maximum allowed power to 0.8W.

The MS includes radio equipment and the man machine interface (MMI) that a subscribe needs in order to access the services provided by the GSM PLMN. MS can be installed in Vehicles or can be portable or handheld stations. The MS may include provisions for data communication as well as voice. A mobile transmits and receives message to and from the GSM system over the air interface to establish and continue connections through the system. Different type of MSs can provide different type of data interfaces. To provide a common model for describing these different MS configuration, ”reference configuration” for MS, similar to those defined for ISDN land stations, has been defined. Each MS is identified by an IMEI that is permanently stored in the mobile unit. Upon request, the MS sends this number over the signaling channel to the MSC. The IMEI can be used to identify mobile units that are reported stolen or operating incorrectly.

Just as the IMEI identities the mobile equipment, other numbers are used to identity the mobile subscriber. Different subscriber identities are used in different phases of call setup. The Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) is the number that the calling party dials in order to reach the subscriber. It is used by the land network to route calls toward an appropriate MSC. The international mobile subscribe identity (IMSI) is the primary function of the subscriber within the mobile network and is permanently assigned to him. The GSM system can also assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) to identity a mobile. This number can be periodically changed by the system and protect the subscriber from being identified by those attempting to monitor the radio channel.

Functions of MS
The primary functions of MS are to transmit and receive voice and data over the air interface of the GSM system. MS performs the signal processing function of digitizing, encoding, error protecting, encrypting, and modulating the transmitted signals. It also performs the inverse functions on the received signals from the BS. In order to transmit voice and data signals, the mobile must be in synchronization with the system so that the messages are the transmitted and received by the mobile at the correct instant. To achieve this, the MS automatically tunes and synchronizes to the frequency and TDMA timeslot specified by the BSC. This message is received over a dedicated timeslot several times within a multiframe period of 51 frames. The exact synchronization will also include adjusting the timing advance to compensate for varying distance of the mobile from the BTS. MS keeps the GSM network informed of its location during both national and international roaming, even when it is inactive. This enables the System to page in its present LA. Finally, the MS can store and display short received alphanumeric messages on the liquid crystal display (LCD) that is used to show call dialing and status in formation. These messages are limited to 160 characters in length (varies from mobile to mobile).

Power Levels
These are five different categories of mobile telephone units specified by the European GSM system: 20W, 8W, 5W, 2W, and 0.8W. These correspond to 43-dBm, 39-dBm, 37-dBm, 33-dBm,

and 29-dBm power levels. The 20-W and 8-W units (peak power) are either for vehicle-mounted or portable station use. The MS power is adjustable in 2-dB steps from its nominal value down to 20mW (13 dBm). This is done automatically under remote control from the BTS, which monitors the received power and adjusts the MS transmitter to the minimum power setting necessary for reliable transmission.


The SIM is a smart card that identifies the terminal. By inserting the SIM card into the terminal, the user can have access to all the subscribed services. Without the SIM card, the terminal is not operational. The SIM card is protected by a four-digit Personal Identification Number (PIN). In order to identify the subscriber to the system, the SIM card contains some parameters of the user such as its International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). Another advantage of the SIM card is the mobility of the users. In fact, the only element that personalizes a terminal is the SIM card. Therefore, the user can have access to its subscribed services in any terminal using its SIM card.

Equipment identification
The purpose of equipment identification is to ensure that no stolen or otherwise unauthorized mobiles are used in the network. To this end, every mobile is provided with a tamper-proof equipment number in the manufacturing process, in GSM an international mobile equipment

identity (IMEI). During the set-up phase, the MSC can request this number from the mobile and then send it on for checking in the network element called EIR (in GSM). If the number is barred or unknown, the set-up attempt is rejected.

Subscriber identity confidentiality
Subscriber identity confidentiality means that the operator tries to protect the user's telephone number (the IMSI) from unauthorized tapping. A temporary mobile subscriber number (TMSI in GSM) is used in the dialogue between the mobile and the network, except for the first contact attempt in a set-up phase. The MSC gives the mobile a random TMSI for each set-up.

It identifies the current location of the subscriber. LAI=MNC+MCC+LAC Where: MCC= Mobile Country Code MNC= Mobile Network Code (2 digit). Identifies the GSM PLMN in that country and takes the same value as the MNC in IMSI. LAC= Location Area Code (max. 16 bits). Identifies a location area within a GSM PLMN Network & enabling 65536 different location areas to be defined in one GSM PLMN. SUBSCRIBER AUTHENTICATION KEY (Ki) It is used to authenticate the SIM card.

It is used to unlock the MS. If one enters the wrong PIN three times it will lock the SIM. The SIM can be protected by use of PIN password.

In case of PIN, the PUK is needed for unlocking the SIM again. PUK is numeric only, with eight digits. If a correct PUK is entered, an indication is given to the user. After 10 consecutive incorrect entries the SIM is blocked. Either the IMSI or the MSISDN Number may access the subscriber data. Some of the parameters like IAI will be continuously updated to reflect the current location of the subscriber. The SIM is capable of storing additional information such as accumulated call charges. This information will be accessible to the customer via handset key entry.

Its transmitting power defines the size of a cell. The BTS comprises the radio equipment such as transceivers and antennas which are needed to serve each cell of the network. Control functions 3. Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) The BSS connects the Mobile Station and the NSS. Transmission unit 2. BTS has 4 functional parts: 1. Network Planning 4. A BTS is usually placed in the centre of a cell.The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) or Base Station. The BSS can be divided into two parts: 1. 2. TRX . Network Switching System (NSS) & Base Station Subsystem (BSS) 3. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) The BTS controls the radio interface to the MS. It is in charge of the transmission and reception.The Base Station Controller (BSC). Each BTS has between one and sixteen transceivers depending on the density of users in the cell. Operation Maintenance & controlling (OMC) 5.TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT HIERARCHY TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT OPERATION AND MAINTENENCE (O&M) NETWORK PLANNING OPERATION MAINTAINENCE & CONTROLLING (OMC) NSS & BSS Technical department has four main streams: 1.

Operation and maintenance 2. in doing so. depending on the type of BTS this could mean from one integrated unit to up to four individual plug-in units. create different types of transmission configuration possibilities.Transmission unit The task of the transmission unit is to connect the BTS to the Abis interface and. It also downloads the software and configuration information received from the BSC or the MMI to other processors. b. . 2.Operation and maintenance The O&M processor controls and supervises the operation of all BTS units alone or in cooperation with other processors. a. External alarms and controls That being said. All of the Nokia BTSs have integrated transmission units. which it manages. which can be used to monitor environmental conditions at the BTS site as well as monitor the state of units. It stores SW as well as downloads SW to the other units. An example of external alarm might be an intruder alarm or a smoke detector. External alarms and controls External alarms and controls are programmable interfaces to other devices in the BTS . Transmission units are monitored by the operation and maintenance unit by means of an internal Q1 bus. which do not have a processor of their own. Certain Talk-family models offer additional integrated radio relay links.4. Frequency hopping control 4. It is the main interface for local O&M and controls and supervises the other units as well as delivers all status information to the BSC by means of the O&M signalling link .Control functions Control functions can be split into four individual functions: 1. Combiner 1. Master clock function 3.

One of the most important functions relative to O&M is to download the software and configuration information received from the main O&M processor to its slave processors (DSPs). we could also mention channel equalisation. Relative to the other functions of the TRX. adaptive frame alignment. Functionality of the BSC The BSC manages a variety of tasks ranging from channel administration to short messaging service. The following BSC functionalities consist of basic and optional functionalities. In terms of telecommunication control. .Transceiver (TRX) The TRX can also contain a varying number of plug-in units depending on the type of BTS. The TRX can basically be thought of in terms of two functional parts: the base band part and the radio part.C. Air-interface measurements and short messages. all of these are in fact performed in the TRX. These functionalities and options are described in more detail in BSS feature descriptions. RACH channel detection and measurements as TRX functions. handovers. TRX software is also designed to handle a number of signalling scenarios including call set-up and release. which is supported by all of the BTS products. we can apply many of the functions examined in the previous section directly to the TRX. Frequency hopping control The frequency hopping control processor controls the frequency hopping functions of the BTS by calculating the frequency hopping algorithm and controls the transceivers through a specific parallel bus. TX power control. The functions of the TRX can be divided into two categories: O&M and telecommunication control. Furthermore the BSC provides interfaces to other network elements. It is important to remember that in the uplink direction the mobile will perform the same functions as well as digitising and speech coding. Apart from digitising and source coding. The main functionalities are explained in brief below. The radio part can also be split into a transmitter part(Tx) and a receiver part(Rx). The Rx part may also be configured to support antenna diversity . speech coding being performed in the transcoder. 3.

channel release .Management of PCCCH/PBCCH for (E)GRPS C. half rate and high speed circuit switched data B. concept support for flexible channel assignments. This function can be subdivided into the following tasks: .paging . for example. Allocation of traffic channels between the BSC and the BTSs 3. Indication of blocking on the A interface channels between the BSC and the MSC 2. Management of frequency hopping: The BSC is in charge of frequency hopping management which enables effective use of radio resources and enhanced voice quality for a GSM subscriber.Management of traffic channels (TCH) and stand-alone dedicated control channels (SDCCH).resource management .channel management .General functionalities supervision .random access . . 2. Management of radio channels 1. how many traffic channels and signalling channels can be used in the BSS.access grant .channel allocation . Management of terrestrial channels 1. Management of broadcast control channels (BCCH) and common control channels (CCCH).Management of channel configurations. that is. This function can be subdivided into the following tasks: . This is done in connection with radio network configuration.power control 3. Pool support for A interface circuits 4.

consisting of one connection per Transceiver Unit (TRX) and BTS Operation and Maintenance Unit (OMU). inter-cell.1. 32 or 64 kbit/s permanent point-to-point LAPD signalling connections. which means that the mobile stays in the area of the BSC but moves from one cell to another c. the BSC offers various possibilities for the operator: • modification of the parameters of the BSC and the BTS • modification of the radio network parameters • configuration of the BSC hardware • administration of the BSC equipment . intra-cell (both intra-TRX and inter-TRX). Intra-BSC. TCSM2 and BTS Operation During normal operation. Such a handover can be one of the following three types: a. which means that the mobile moves into the area of another BSC Management of signalling channels between the BSC and the BTSs The BSC supervises all 16. Inter-BSC. Maintenance The BSC offers the possibility for the following maintenance procedures: • Fault localization for the BSC • Reconfiguration of the BSC • Reconfiguration support to the BTS • Updating of the software in the BSC. Handovers The frequency of the mobile is changed in connection with handovers which are executed and controlled by the BSC. Intra-BSC. both outgoing and incoming. which means that the handover takes place within the area controlled by the BSC and the mobile stays in the same cell b.

The MSC sets up and releases the end-to-end connection. private networks and other mobile networks. public data networks.Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriberrelatedfunctions. There are various different names for MSCs in different contexts which reflects their complex role in the network. in contrast with earlier analogue services. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems such as Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Explanation The Mobile Switching Center or MSC is the primary service delivery node for GSM. fax and data information is sent directly digitally encoded to the MSC. responsible for handling voice calls and SMS as well as other services (such as conference calls. In the GSM mobile phone system. but doing different things at different times. handles mobility and hand-over requirements during the call and takes care of charging and real time pre-paid account monitoring. The different components of the NSS are described below: Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC) The MSC performs the telephony switching functions for the mobile network. Only at the MSC is this re-coded into an "analogue" signal . all of these terms though could refer to the same MSC. FAX and circuit switched data). .

The HLR for obtaining data about the SIM and MSISDN 2. The UTRAN which handles the radio communication with 3G mobile phones. The Base Station Subsystem which handles the radio communication with 2G and 2. Other GSM Core Network Elements connected to the MSC The MSC connects to the following elements: 1. which guarantees more optimal placement of network elements within the network. and GSM services to the mobile phones roaming within the area that it serves. These MSCs will then be the Gateway MSC for many of the calls they handle. 3. The Visited MSC is the MSC where a customer is currently located. All mobile to mobile calls and PSTN to mobile calls are routed through a GMSC. It also interfaces with the Public Switched Telephone Network.A Gateway MSC is the MSC that determines which visited MSC the subscriber who is being called is currently located.5G mobile phones. Mobile Switching Centre Server (MSS) The Mobile Switching Centre Server or MSC Server is a soft switch variant of Mobile Switching Centre. The VLR associated with this MSC will have the subscriber's data in it. some manufacturers design dedicated high capacity MSCs which do not have any BSSes connected to them. The term is only valid in the context of one call since any MSC may provide both the gateway function and the Visited MSC function. The Target MSC is the MSC toward which a Handover should take place. which provides circuit-switched calling. The VLR for determining where other mobile subscribers are located. The Anchor MSC is the MSC from which a handover has been initiated. MSC Server functionality enables split between control (signalling) and user plane (bearer in network element called as Media Gateway). . mobility management. however. 4.

The primary MSISDN is the number used for making and receiving voice calls and SMS. Subscriber location information. GSM services that the subscriber has requested or been given 2. Examples of other data stored in the HLR against an IMSI record are: 1. 6. Delivering calls to subscribers as they arrive based on information from the VLR . The HLR stores details of every SIM card issued by the mobile phone operator. Subscriber identity. 7. Subscriber authentication information. Subscriber supplementary services. 5. Each MSISDN is also a primary key to the HLR record. The 'Home Location Register' or HLR is a central database that contains details of each mobile phone subscriber that is authorized to use the GSM core network.Tasks of the MSC include 1. Generating billing information. 2. but it is possible for a SIM to have other secondary MSISDNs associated with it for fax and data calls. There is one logical HLR per PLMN. 3. Arranging handovers from BSC to BSC. 4. It acts as a permanent store for a person’s subscription information until that subscription is canceled. The next important items of data associated with the SIM are the MSISDNs. Delivering SMSs from subscribers to the SMSC and vice versa. GPRS settings to allow the subscriber to access packet services . Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is a centralized network database that stores and manages all mobile subscriptions belonging to a specific operator. 4. although there may be multiple physical platforms. 2. Carrying out handovers from this MSC to another. 3. The information stored includes: 1. Supporting supplementary services such as conference calls or call hold. which are the telephone numbers used by mobile phones to make and receive calls. Connecting outgoing calls to other mobile subscribers or the PSTN. Each SIM has a unique identifier called an IMSI which is the primary key to each HLR record.

Send the subscriber data to a VLR or SGSN when a subscriber first roams there. The action of a user of moving from one LA to another is followed by the HLR with a Location area update while retrieving information from BSS as BSIC (cell identifier). Current Location of subscriber (VLR and SGSN) 4. The VLR for handling requests from mobile phones to attach to the network 3. Broker between the GMSC or SMSC and the subscriber's current VLR in order to allow incoming calls or text messages to be delivered. 5. The VLR temporarily stores subscription information so that the MSC can service all the subscribers currently visiting that MSC service area. Procedures implemented The main function of the HLR is to manage the fact that SIMs and phones move around a lot. The HLR connects to the following elements: 1. The SMSC for handling incoming SMS 4. there is one VLR for each MSC in a network. The Gateway MSC (G-MSC) for handling incoming calls 2. Call divert settings applicable for each associated MSISDN. . The HLR data is stored for as long as a subscriber remains with the mobile phone operator. Visitor Location Register (VLR) The VLR database contains information about all the mobile subscribers currently located in the MSC service area. The voice mail system for delivering notifications to the mobile phone that a message is waiting. The HLR is a system which directly receives and processes MAP transactions and messages from elements in the GSM network. Thus. Remove subscriber data from the previous VLR when a subscriber has roamed away from it. which are identified with a LAC. The following procedures are implemented to deal with this: Manage the mobility of subscribers by means of updating their position in administrative areas called 'location areas'. The VLR can be regarded as a distributed HLR as it holds a copy of the HLR information stored about the subscriber.3. for example. the Location Update messages received as mobile phones roam around.

This Ki is never transmitted between the AUC and SIM. There is an additional form of identification check performed on the serial number of the mobile phone described in the EIR section below. The AUC is a database connected to the HLR which provides it with the authentication parameters and ciphering keys used to ensure network security.) between the mobile phone and the GSM core network. SMS. but this is not relevant to the AUC processing. Other GSM Core Network Elements connected to the AUC The AUC connects to the following elements: . The AUC does not engage directly in the authentication process. When the subscriber makes a call. the HLR is allowed to manage the SIM and services described above. If the authentication fails. etc. Proper implementation of security in and around the AUC is a key part of an operator's strategy to avoid SIM cloning. but instead generates data known as triplets for the MSC to use during the procedure. The HLR sends a copy of the information to the VLR and updates its own location information. An encryption key is also generated that is subsequently used to encrypt all wireless communications (voice. the VLR connected to that MSC requests information about the subscriber from the subscriber’s HLR. Authentication Center (AUC) AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world. Once the authentication is successful. then no services are possible from that particular combination of SIM card and mobile phone operator attempted. The 'Authentication Centre' or AUC is a function to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the GSM core network (typically when the phone is powered on). the VLR will already have the information required for call set-up. The security of the process depends upon a shared secret between the AUC and the SIM called the Ki. The Ki is securely burned into the SIM during manufacture and is also securely replicated onto the AUC. but is combined with the IMSI to produce a challenge/response for identification purposes and an encryption key called Kc for use in over the air communications.When a subscriber roams into a new MSC service area.

This ensures that same keys and challenge responses are not used twice for a particular mobile. the MSC sends the RAND part of the triplet to the SIM. When the MSC asks the AUC for a new set of triplets for a particular IMSI. The numbers (RAND.The MSC which requests a new batch of triplet data for an IMSI after the previous data have been used. When a particular IMSI requests access to the GSM core network. This RAND is then combined with the Ki to produce two numbers as follows: The Ki and RAND are fed into the A3 algorithm and a number known as Signed response or SRES is calculated. After successful authentication. the AUC first generates a random number known as RAND. Of course. SRES. KC) form the triplet sent back to the MSC. The Ki and RAND are fed into the A8 algorithm and a session key called Kc is calculated. Algorithm id (the standard algorithms are called A3 or A8. Procedures implemented The AUC stores the following data for each IMSI: 1. The SIM then feeds this number and the Ki (which is burned onto the SIM) into the A3 algorithm as appropriate and an SRES is calculated and sent back to the MSC. but an operator may choose a proprietary one). the mobile phone can generate the Kc itself by feeding the same RAND supplied during authentication and the Ki into the A8 algorithm. then the mobile is allowed to attach and proceed with GSM services. The Ki 2. the MSC sends the encryption key Kc to the Base Station Controller (BSC) so that all communications can be encrypted and decrypted. . If this SRES matches with the SRES in the triplet (which it should if it is a valid SIM).

which includes location updating type normal. The MM and CM functions are located in the MSC. maintain and terminate circuit switched connections across a GSM PLMN and other networks to which the PLMN is connected. it is by no means crack proof. Therefore a new set of security methods was designed for 3G phones. a. In the BTS most of the RR messages are handled as transparent message. Radio Resource Management (RR) In the MS. However some of them must be interpreted by the BTS. Mobility Management: The following functions are being carried out by this Mobility management MM sub layer. Connection Management (CM) b.The AUC is usually collocated with the HLR. Whilst the procedure is secure for most everyday use. They are a. Radio Interface Radio interface is the interface between the MS and the RBS. They are Physical Layer (Layer1). This interface has three layers (OSI). location update type periodic registration and location updating type IMSI attach. The basic functions of this layer are to establish. although this is not necessary. Data Link Layer (Layer2) and Network Layer (Layer3) Network Layer (Layer3): This layer provides the Mobile Network Signaling (MNS) service to the user application. All the functions regarding the location of the MS. Also it supports functions for supplementary services and short message service This layer consists of three-sub layer which are basically protocol control entities. The RR function resides mainly in the BSC. It is also called as Um interface. . entities from all three sub layers are present however on the network side there is a distribution of the signaling functions between different network equipment. Mobility Management (MM) c.

recovery from lack of coverage in idle mode. These procedures are authentication. . maintain and release a dedicated connection between the MS and the network. This includes handover procedures. More particularly.. the RR sub layer sends system information to the busy MS. c. Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The EIR is also used for security purposes. a terminal which does not respect the specifications concerning the output RF power). it contains a list of all valid terminals. It is also used to indicate to the network a change in class mark.It provides the user identity procedures. On the uplink. Radio Resource Management: The main purpose of this sub layer is to establish. The class mark change procedure is used by the MS to provide the system with additional MS class mark information. On the downlink. TMSI reallocation. The network may use the RR ciphering mode-setting procedure for setting the ciphering mode. The EIR allows then to forbid calls from stolen or unauthorized terminals (e.g. when the power capabilities of a hand held MS are changed because the MS is connected to external power in a vehicle. A terminal is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The following are the basic RR functions. It is a register containing information about the mobile equipments. cell selection at power on and cell re-selection in idle mode. the MS transmits measurement reports. For example. IMSI detach and identification of the MS by requesting either IMSI or IMEI.

to form data blocks each 20 ms. The TDMA frame consists of 8 time slots. Traffic and Signaling are sent in bursts of 0.577 ms at intervals of 4. Authentication. Location Update and so on. Authorization. The traffic channels in the Air interface are allocated onto a TDMA frame. Uses TDM sub channels for traffic .z EXPLANATION 1. all time slots are used for traffic channels. Power control. Handover. Time slot 0 and sometimes also time slot 1 can be used for the signaling between the BTS (BSC. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TDMA Frame = 8time slots 2. Generally. MSC) and the MS. or E1 TDM circuit.615 ms. Generally carried by a DS-1. Abis – The interface between the Base Transceiver Station and Base Station Controller. measurement reporting. to conduct call control. This interface uses LAPDm protocol for signaling. Um – The air interface between the MS (Mobile Station) and the BTS. ES-1.

E-Interface b/w MSC-MSC 9. as described above.(TCH). Using 16 kbit/s signaling. only the voice or CS data are transcoded or rate adapted. A – The interface between the BSC and Mobile Switching Center. The capacity of the Abis depends on the type of signaling used between the BSC and the BTS. . When using 64 kbit/s signaling.Gb – Connects the BSS to the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) in the GPRS Core Network. Although there are usually transcoding units between BSC and MSC.25 bits is transmitted in 0.577 milliseconds. It is a 2 Mbit/s interface which can carry up to 96 channels. B-Interface b/w MSC-VLR 7. The 26bit training sequence is used for equalization. LAPD protocol for BTS supervision and telecom signaling. F-Interface b/w MSC-EIR Channel structure A total of 156.833 kbps. the 2 Mbit/s link capacity is 80 traffic channels. There are three other types of burst structure for frame and carrier synchronization and frequency correction. C-Interface b/w MSC-HLR 8. 6. and carries synchronization from the BSC to the BTS and MS. It is a proprietary interface whose name depends on the vendor (for example Ater by Nokia). 5. giving a gross bit rate of 270. The 8. It is used for carrying Traffic channels and the BSSAP user part of the SS7 stack. Ater – The interface between the Base Station Controller and Transcoder. the signaling communication takes place between these two ending points and the transcoder unit doesn't touch the SS7 information.25 bit guard time allows for some propagation time delay in the arrival of bursts. 4. the 2 Mbit/s link capacity is 96 traffic channels. it carries the A interface information from the BSC leaving it untouched. 3.

together with the relay functions . The topmost level is the discrimination mechanism of the BSSAP protocol. The LAPD links are in turn carried by a time slot (usually TS1) on the PCM link connecting a base station to its BSC. frequency channel C0 and time slots TS0 and TS1 on that channel constitute the physical channels. In the interface between a BSC and its MSC. all of which are mapped onto the time slots of the physical channels. The maintenance signals are carried by LAPD links having 62 as the SAPI address for base station maintenance and 63 for maintenance of LAPD. BSC-BTS communication is extensive. Most logical control channels for signaling across the air interface are carried by LAPDm. BSSAP signals are carried by the SCCP in SS7. which distinguishes between signals to be transported between a mobile and the MSC and signals that are to be transported only between the MSC and the BSC. which in turn use PCM channels. Signaling that is also transported across the air interface is carried by links having 0 as the service access point identifier (SAPI) address. while the connectionless service is used in all other cases. Since a BSC is responsible for the maintenance of its base stations. Each cell has a dedicated C0 channel. In both cases. these logical channels are divided into nine types of control channel and two types of traffic channel. All call-related signaling uses SCCP's connection-oriented service. Control channels . In the interface between the base station and the BSC. The physical channels . there are three levels of physical channels.are used to create logical channels through all or part of the access network. SS7 normally uses one or more time slots in a PCM system. all signaling is carried by LAPD links.Physical channels In the air interface. In the air interface.

The GSM system has 11 logical channels Broadcast channels Class BCH channels continuously send information about cell and network parameters to the mobiles. common control channels (CCCH). These channels are shown in the lower part of Figure. A random access channel (RACH) is used by a mobile to answer paging calls and call the network when the mobile initiates set-up. Common control channels Class CCCH channels are used for access to the network. A paging channel (PCH) is used by the network to call terminals.Control channels are divided into three classes. These three channels. based on how and when they are used: broadcast channels (BCH).see below) for continued signaling or some other channel (FACCH . . are common to all mobiles.see below) for handover. There are three types of broadcast channel: A frequency correction channel (FCCH) carries frequency correction information. They are unidirectional (from base station to mobile) and used jointly by all mobiles. and dedicated control channels (DCCH). A broadcast control channel (BCCH) carries cell-specific information. too. An access granted channel (AGCH) is used by the network to allocate a dedicated control channel (SDCCH . A synchronization channel (SCH) carries frame synchronization information and information for identifying the base station.

A slow associated control channel (SACCH) is a locating channel that the mobile uses to continuously report received signal strength in the visited cell and from surrounding cells. This channel is also used for registration. FACCH and SDCCH are relayed to the BSC via the base station. A stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) is used for signaling during the set-up phase. The signals sent on RACH. Traffic channels A traffic channel (TCH) is used to carry speech and data traffic. These three channels are allocated to individual connections and are always bidirectional. Signals on SACCH.) signaling is used for paging (in the case of a call to a mobile) and for handover. in GSM). Traffic channels are defined using a 26-frame multiframe. BSSAP (discrim. authentication and registration are relayed via SDCCH and then sent to the MSC. Connection handling is performed in both the BSC and the MSC. AGCH and PCH are relayed via the base station and transferred to and from the BSC on LAPD links. Signals related to call handling. however. All control channels except SCH and FCCH use LAPDm. BCF. There is one FACCH for each traffic channel. Between the BSC and the MSC. or group of 26 TDMA frames. that SACCH does not have the signaling capacity required to control handover. authentication and signaling in connection with used for handover operations.All these logical channels are unidirectional: PCH and AGCH from network to mobile and RACH from mobile to network. FACCH is allocated 20 ms of the traffic channel when rapid signaling is required. LAPD links are used for maintenance of base stations (base control function. Note. The listening party does not notice the loss of 20 ms conversation because the receiving unit repeats the last 20 ms. The following comments complete the information given in figure: Between the BSC and base stations. if the MSC is involved in this handover. that is. The length of a 26-frame multiframe is 120 ms. The channel can also be used for controlling the output power of the mobile. Dedicated control channels Class DCCH channels are used for signaling between a mobile and the network before and during a call. which is how the length of a burst period is defined (120 ms divided by 26 frames .only available in conversation state . before traffic channel has been allocated. A fast associated control channel (FACCH) .

there are also half-rate TCHs defined. Out of the 26 frames. Eighth-rate TCHs are also specified.divided by 8 burst periods per frame). instead of 13 kbps).e. TCHs for the uplink and downlink are separated in time by 3 burst periods. thus simplifying the electronics. In addition to these full-rate TCHs. so that the mobile station does not have to transmit and receive simultaneously.. and are used for signaling. speech coding at around 7 kbps. 24 are used for traffic. . they are called Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channels (SDCCH). although they are not yet implemented. In the recommendations. they are (i) Call From MS (Mobile Originated call) (ii) Call to MS (Mobile Terminated call) (i) Call From MS (Mobile Originated Call) Mobile Originated call is possible when the MS is attached with the MSC/VLR and is listening to the system information. 1 is used for the Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) and 1 is currently unused (see Figure). CALL SETUP Call set up can be classified into two major categories. Half-rate TCHs will effectively double the capacity of a system once halfrate speech coders are specified (i.

If the MS is not barred. The BSC assigns a TCH to the call (if there is an idle TCH available) and tells the BTS to activate the channel. MSC verify that the MS doesn’t have services like barring of outgoing calls. The identity of the MS. 7. IMSI is analyzed and the MS is marked as busy in the VLR 3. Authentication is performed 4.1. The MS requests a SDCCH using RACH 2. Between the MSC and the BSC a link is established and a PCM time slot is seized. 8. The MSC sends a request to the BSC to assign a TCH.subscriber side is sent t the MS via the group switch in the MSC. 6. the setup of call proceeds. An alert message is sent to the MS indicating that a ringing tone has been generated on the other side. The MS indicates that it wants to set up a call. This includes the kind of service the MS wants and the B-number. When the B subscriber answers. The BTS sends an acknowledgement when the activation is completed and the BSC orders the MS to switch over to the TCH. The MSC receives a setup message from the MS. 5. Ciphering may be initiated. The BSC informs the MSC when the assignment is complete. the network sends a connect message to the MS indicating that the call is accepted . The ringing tone generated in the exchange on the B. The MS returns a connect acknowledgement which completes the call set-up. Call to MS (Mobile Terminated Call) .

3.(1)  PSTN Transit Exchange (2) GMSC (6a) (3) (5) HLR (6b) MSC/VLR Signaling connection Speech path (4) (7) BSC (8) (8) (9)   (9)  BTS    BTS Figure : Call to MS from PSTN. the GMSC finds out which HLR the subscriber is registered in. The call is routed to the MSC 7. By analyzing the MSISDN. 4. 6a. The HLR contacts the VLR and gets the roaming number. the call is routed to the GMSC in the home PLMN of the called MS. 1. From PSTN. 8. If the call is being made from a PSTN exchange. the exchange analyses the number and decides that the call is for a GSM subscriber 2. The MSC knows which location area the MS is located in and sends a message to the BSCs handling this location area. The HLR forwards the roaming number to the GMSC. With the help of the roaming number. GMSC asks the HLR for information so the call can be routed to the MSC/VLR where the MS is temporarily registered. The number dialed by the calling party is called the Mobile station ISDN number (MSISDN). the GMSC can appropriate MSC. 6b. The BSC distributes the paging message to the BTSs in the LA paging route the call to the . 5.

When the mobile subscriber answers. data. The MSC performs authentication and starts ciphering. . The BSC orders the BTS to activate a TCH and release the SDCCH. the MS sends a connect message. The MSC may send information to the MS about requested services like speech. fax etc. An alerting message is sent from the MS indicate that a ring tone has been generated in the MS.. The MS is ordered to tune to the frequency of the TCH. The BTSs page the MS using IMSI The MS sends a request for a SDCCH when it detects its identity in the paging message. The duplex path for traffic is open now. The ringing tone for the calling subscriber is generated in the MSC. The network completes the through connection path and sends a connection acknowledgement to the MS.9.

This technique is called modulation. one representing 0 and the other representing 1. The multiplexed signal is transmitted over a communication channel. suppose that the frequency varies between two values. one for each message signal or data stream . M 1 Bit duration Phase Modulation AM FM M Amplitude Modulation Frequency Modulation Modulation Signal Multiplexing In telecommunications and computer networks. So the question is how do we transmit digital information in an analogue signal ? It looks difficult. The multiplexing divides the capacity of the low-level communication channel into several higher-level logical channels. in telecommunications.MODULATION GSM is a digital mobile standard But radio frequencies are analogue. several phone calls may be transferred using one wire. but if we think about the values that must be transmitted (0 and 1). For example. The characteristics that can be varied is the frequency. By altering the value of a certain characteristic of frequency at every specified interval (the bit duration). The modulation technique used in GSM is the Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK). multiplexing (known as muxing) is a term used to refer to a process where multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. which may be a physical transmission medium. we can translate an analogue signal into a bit stream in the frequency domain. the amplitude or the phase shift. The aim is to share an expensive resource.

4. in order to:   Maintain the user connection link be transferred. is made in the MS. Variable bit rate digital bit streams may be transferred efficiently over a fixed bandwidth channel by means of statistical multiplexing. These measurements are sent to the BSS for assessment. for example packet mode communication. Packet mode communication is an asynchronous mode time-domain multiplexing. Measurement of radio subsystem downlink performance and signal strengths received from surrounding cells. and recreate the original data stream. Manage traffic distribution accurate and fast 2. and a device that performs the reverse process is called a demultiplexer (DEMUX). HANDOVER HANDOVER: 1. known as demultiplexing. The GSM handover process uses a mobile assisted technique for handovers. transfer them simultaneously over several communication channels. . FDM requires modulation of each signal. A reverse process. which resembles but should not be considered as time-division multiplexing. namely to break one data stream into several streams. can extract the original channels on the receiver side. both either in analog or digital form. Inverse multiplexing (IMUX) has the opposite aim as multiplexing. Digital bit streams can be transferred over an analog channel by means of code-division multiplexing (CDM) techniques such as frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) and directsequence spread spectrum (DSSS). A device that performs the multiplexing is called a multiplexer (MUX). Categories of multiplexing The two most basic forms of multiplexing are time-division multiplexing (TDM) and frequencydivision multiplexing (FDM). The overall handover process is implemented in the MS.BSS & MSC. 3.

Assessment requiring measurement results from other BSS or other information resident in the MSC. 9. Measurements which feed the handover decision algorithm are made at both ends of the radio link. Serving cell downlink received signal level. During the idle time period of the frame. MS END: 1. 2. The BTS measures the uplink link quality. At the MS end. a portion of the TDMA frame is idle while the rest of the frame is used for uplink (BTS receive) and downlink (BTS transmit) timeslots. 3. BTS END: 1. may be perform. . the MS changes radio channel frequency and monitors and measures the signal level of the six best neighbor cells. measurements are continuously signaled. and reports the BSICs and the measurement information to the BSS. Initial assessment of the measurements in conjunction with defined thresholds and handover strategy may be performed in the BSS. 10.5. and MS to BTS site distance. and six best neighbor cells downlink received signal level. 7. The MS RF transmit output power budget is also considered in the handover decision. in the MSC. 8. The MS assists the handover decision process by performing certain measurements. 6. 2. The BSS measures the uplink performance for the MS being served and also assesses the signal strength of interference on its idle traffic channels. MS measurements include:   Serving cell downlink quality (bit error rate (BER) estimate). received signal level. via the associated control channel. to the BSS where the decision for handover is ultimately made. The MS also decodes the Base Station ID Code (BSIC) from the six best neighbor cells. When the MS is engaged in a speech conversation.

5. During the conversation. MS IDLE TIME REPORTING: 1. In this case. The signal strength measurements of the surrounding cells. the MS switches to the BCCH of the surrounding cells and measures its signal strength. the handover is recommended. 4. that is during one timeslot in each frame. 4. handover may be considered due to loading or congestion conditions. This information is evaluated by the BSS for use in deciding when the MS should be handed over to another traffic channel. This reporting is the basis for MS assisted handovers The following measurements is be continuously processed in the BSS: 1. Measurements reported by MS on SACCH    Down link RXLEV Down link RXQUAL Down link neighbor cell RXLEV 2. If the MS can be served by a neighbor cell at a lower power. From a system perspective. the MS only transmits and receives for one eighth of the time. 2. the MSC or BSC tries to balance channel usage among cells. are reported back to the serving cell via the SACCH once in every SACCH multiframe. During its idle time (the remaining seven timeslots). Measurements performed in BSS     Uplink RXLEV Uplink RXQUAL MS-BS distance Interference level in unallocated time slots . 3.3. and the signal strength and quality measurements of the serving cell.

Ranges from 0 to 63.It is used to save the power of the MS.Every SACCH multiframe (480 ms) a new processed value for each of the measurements is calculated.It is the receive quality. Timing Advance . HANDOVER CONDITIONS: Handover is done on five conditions: 1. Power budget . It ranges from 0 to 7 . RXLEV . RXQUAL . RXLEV 4. It varies from -47dBm to -110dBm. Interference 2. Distance or Timing Advance 5. RXQUAL 3.It is the receive level. then the RXQUAL problem is because of interference.If signal level is high and still there is RXQUAL problem. 0 being the best and 7 the worst. . Power Budget Interference .

3. 2. Intra-cell handover is triggered only if the cause is interference. BSC BTS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Call is handed from timeslot 3 to timeslot 5 INTER-BSC HANDOVER HANDOVER TYPES Inter-BSC Handover BSS1 0 MSC BTS1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Call is handed from timeslot 3 of cell1 to timeslot 1 of cell2 . . Both the cells are controlled by the different BSC. Intra-cell handover can be enabled or disabled in a cell.INTRA-CELL HANDOVER 1. BSS2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BTS2 Handover takes place between different cells which are controlled by the different BSC. Handover takes place in the same cell from one timeslot to another timeslot of the same carrier or different carriers (but the same cell).

Handover Priority 1. the mobile station uses the Base Station Identify Code (BSIC). The scheme of BSIC values to be used are normally laid down in a bilateral agreement between the concerned PLMN operators to prevent .Up Link Strength Poor ---. In order to discriminate between cells transmitting the BCCH channels at the same frequency. but is receiving two cells using the same BCCH frequency.Inter cell handover Base Station Identity Code Problem defination A problem could arise when the mobile station in a given position is performing a handover.Inter cell handover 6. The BSIC is broadcast on the SCH (Synchronization Channel) of each cell. However.Inter cell handover 4.Better Cell ---. This can happen when the mobile station is moving along the national borders.Intra cell handover 2.Intra cell handover 3. GOOD C/I handover ---.Inter cell handover 5.Inter cell handover 7.Macro-Micro delay handover ---.Down Link Interference ---.Inter cell handover 8.Down Link Quality Poor ---. Definition of BSIC The BSIC is a local color code that allows a mobile station to distinguish between different neighboring base stations. Many cells bear the same BSIC. where on each side of the border the different PLMN operators have some frequencies in common.Inter cell handover 9. Directed Retry ---.Up Link Interference ---. it is not an unambiguous identification of a base station.Down Link Strength Poor ---.MS-BS Distance exceed TA ---.Intra cell handover 10.Up Link Quality Poor ---.Intra cell handover 11.

Frequency Hopping is a GSM feature which can be enabled or disabled on a per cell basis. Frequency Hopping changes the frequency used by a radio link every new TDMA frame in a regular pattern. when the mobile station moves at a high speed. but does not help much either. Rayleigh fading is location and frequency dependent. Reasons for frequency hopping • Decreasing the probability of interference Frequency Hopping will spread the annoyance of interference over different mobile stations in a particular cell • Suppressing the effect of Rayleigh fading Rayleigh fading (or multipath fading) is caused by different paths followed by the radio signal. Frequency Hopping does not harm. • In GSM. The more frequencies are used in a particular cell. Rayleigh fading can cause coverage holes. the more Frequency Hopping can gain in suppressing the effect of Rayleigh fading. When the mobile station is stationary or moves at a slow speed.FREQUENCY HOPPING The Frequency Hopping function permits the dynamic switching of radio links from one carrier frequency to another. the frequency hopping is implemented through: • Baseband hopping (BH) • • Divert a call to different transceiver on a frame basis Synthesiser hopping (SH) • Fix a call on a transceiver which re-tunes the frequency on a frame basis . However. Frequency Hopping will significantly improve the level of the air-interface performance.

Baseband Hopping (BH)  Number of transceiver units in place equals number of hopping frequencies in the sequence  Each transceiver unit is tuned to a fixed frequency  A call is routed to different transceivers on a frame basis  Hopping spectrum is limited by the number of transceiver units  Combining loss is independent of number transceiver units in place 1. Tuned cavity combiners used 2. BH introducing high EIRP .

Synthesiser Hopping (SH)  Transceivers are tuned to new frequencies on a frame basis  Number of hopping frequencies is not limited by the number of transceivers in place  A call is always routed to a given transceiver  Hybrid combining is required for SH  High carrier numbers reduces EIRP  Air combining is recommended to recover EIRP Key Differences (BH ~ SH)  Both can be used to improve quality or increase capacity  BH’s effectiveness is limited by the number of transceivers equipped  SH can hop over a wide range of frequencies and is independent of number of transceivers equipped .

 Mobile Allocation (MA): Set of frequencies to hop over. Since BCCH carrier radiates continuously without downlink power control. made up by an associated set of frequencies (MA) to hop over and sequence of hopping (HSN). . the synthesiser frequency hopping capability has been made available since the first generation of Motorola’s BTS equipment Frequency Hopping Parameters  Cell Allocation (CA): Refer to all available frequency carriers in a cell.frequency diversity  Enabling aggressive reuse . TSC must be the same as BTS code. one used for BCCH frequency plan and other for hopping frequencies. Planning for frequency hopping The plan depends upon the type of Frequency Hopping system used.63 are pseudo random  Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): used to define initial frequency of hopping.Key Advantages – SH  SH is more effective to provide frequency diversity and interference diversity  Extending coverage area .frequency diversity  Improving quality .  Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): Order used to hop over the frequencies. 1 . The allocation should be consecutive starting from effective frequency carrier 0.interference diversity  Realising the potential benefits to operators. a separate frequency plan is prepared for the BCCH carriers. There are 64 different sequences: 1. There are 64 different sequences:  Hopping Sequence Number (HSN): Order used to hop over the frequencies.  Training Sequence Code (TSC): Used for delay equalization at RX end. frequencies used for BCCH on one cell should not be used as hopping frequencies on other cell. The value of MAIO ranges between 0 to (N-1) where N is the number of frequencies defined in the MA list. Generally the frequency band is divided into two parts. 0 is cyclic 2. MAIO of all channel of one hopping TRX must be identical but of different hopping TRX in same cell must be different. As in case of SFH.  Frequency Hopping Indicator (FHI): Defines a hopping system. Maximum of 63 frequencies can be defined in the MA list.

 The division of frequency band for allocation of BCCH and hopping carriers should be done to maintain reasonable C/I for BCCH carriers as well as to have enough frequencies for hopping.  For non-synchronized sectors MAIO can be the same. Planning of HSN  MA list is same for all the cells of the site. MA list is same for the cells of different sites. MA list is different for the cells HSN is set to 0 PLANNING OF MAIO  The benefits of MAIO planning can be best achieved only in case when sectors having same MA list are synchronized.  In cases where there are large numbers of hits. Conclusions  Frequency hopping is a powerful technique to improve transmission quality and enhance capacity  Synthesiser frequency hopping is a cost effective and flexible means to maximising capacity using Aggressive Reuse  Motorola’s wide scale deployment of frequency hopping networks validated the effectiveness of the frequency hopping . MAIO change can be very effective as it adds the offset in the hopping sequence and hitrate can be reduced.

Once a GSM network is rolled out based on network planning tool prediction. The collected data is processed offline to know the deviation from the prediction as per the interpretation of the pre processing result configuration changes are performed on the network. The nature of network hardly ressembles with the prediction so that the operator or the service provider tasks is to bring the network back as nearest as possible towards the prediction. LIMITED DRIVE TEST It is a method that is adopted to optimized GSM network. Through the systematic process of collecting the air interface data from the already built network status of existing network get recorded. after a few changes the network is brought very near to the prediction then the network is set to optimized .PROJECT WORK AT TELCOMA TECHNOLIES PVT. Analysis the reasons behind all these problems and performed its Rectification. Then further DRIVE TEST is performed to check the modified status . DRIVE TEST PROCESS: POST DRIVE TEST PREDRIVE TEST PARAMETER CHANGES ANALYSIS OF LOG FILE . WHY DRIVE TEST ? • DRIVE TEST is performed to identifies the Network Problem.

.WHAT WE DO IN DRIVE TEST : 1. Baffo cable : It is used to connect handheld GPS with laptop. We mainly used magnetic GPS. Dongle Key 7. DATA COLLECTION:The RF data collected in the drive test is compared with the corresponding planned by post processing tools. ACTION PERFORMED : In this we make changes in the network on the behalf of data analysis to meet our requirements. we analyse data collected which result in reaccomudation of changes or action steps to be taken in network RF parameter. DRIVE TEST is conducted with the aim of collecting data GSM network. External vehicle mounted GPS. But some time handheld GPS is also used. 2. It is used only when we are using handheld GPS instead of magnetic GPS. 4. 3ANALYSIS:. 72 channel (b). Handheld GPS is of two types (a). Laptop with drive test software and GPS connection capability 6.Vehicle (specially preferred diesel vehicle ). 4. Handset that is Drive test mobile phone. DRIVE TEST EQUIPMENTS: 1. Data collected to find and analyze problems in the network 2. 3. 12 channel 5.

Magnetic compass : it is used to check out the sector of site to which we are latched. it is used only when we are performing drive test for more than one operator or for various mode of operation (IDEAL . 2. 9. SWAP Drive Test: This drive test is performed when there is any Updation in existing network. 10. TYPES OF DRIVE TESTS (w. 3. GPRS Drive Test-: Data drive test is done for GPRS and EDGE . It is manly done for checking out the the speed of GPRS and EDGE. . GPS cable.8. DATA) of the single operator at the same time . USB HUB: It is used to connect multiple handsets with a single laptop .r. DEDICATED . CW Drive : It is done at the face Initial network setup.t. area covered): 1.

8.t work to be done in drive test): 1. DRIVE TEST TYPES (w. 7. Network is monitored on a regular basis (B). 2. (A).r. Green Field Drive Test: It is done at the time of New network acceptance Test Drive. 9.4. etc . 5.Then we have to check its orientation and tilt according to the clutter. Initially we have to check that is the site is located at the planned latitude longitude os shifted. Benchmarking Drive Test:It is basically done by comparing performance of observing network with one the best network at that time . Single Call Functionality Test (SCFT):In this type of drive test we basically check three main things . In this we have to check the proper interference range so we come to know about proper frequency planning. 6. important locations. 1. Problem specific drive test 3. 3. Cell coverage analysis drive test ROUTINE DRIVE TEST. Drive test routes to include all the major roads. Routine drive test 2. Frequency Scanning Drive Test: In this kind of DRIVE TEST we check C/I ratio for checking the proper planning of BCCH to avoid overshooting of signal . it is done to check the coverage area of Multiple Operator . Migration drive test : It is used only when location area code that is LAC of a site is changed . Extensive Drive Test:Extensive Drive test is basically used to check maximum coverage strength in each Sector of a particular site. Then we have to check its swap (a) Sector swap (b)cable swap (c)Diversity swap Then we have to finally start our drive test in which we basically Making 10 calls and 5 sms in each site to check all the planned RF parameter and radio parameter.

Neighbor addition . By doing so we will be able to record the various “RF PARAMETER” and we can find the issues in the network. 6. Define the “COM PORTS” for each equipments . 2. Now the mobile connect is in “IDLE” mode and it will show live network parameter . Optimisation to be carried out for any major deviation from the initially planned design PROCEDURE FOR DRIVE TEST: 1. EVENTS WHICH OCCUR DURING DRIVE TEST: 1. Interference 5. Problems reported by statistical analysis. etc (B). 3. May require removing interfering carrier. Data collection and analysis done simultaneously CELL COVERAGE ANALYSIS DRIVE TEST: (A). New cells to come on air are thoroughly drive tested to determine their server and coverage areas (C). Call Quality and Coverage 6. routine drive testing. Routes regularly drive tested and problems further analyzed and solved (D). customer care centre . Call Drops 2. 4. After doing all this now we can export the log file into desired format. List of problematic cells identified and drive tested thoroughly to analyze the problem (C).(C). HO Failures 4. Power Change to BTS. GPRS/EDGE Performance . Attach the equipments starts with dongle key. 5. etc. it is used for version 6 and older. PROBLEM DRIVE TESTING: (A).log extension. Then connect all the driver to the software. Drive on the route to check the coverage of each cell. Click on the record button of the toolbar to start the recording of the “log files”. Call Setup Failures 3. Frequency Plan change. 7. Usually carried out for new planned sites in the network (B). Log files are saves in the .

. click on the file option and then save workspace as (*). subdivisions and compound when accessible.0. This should be priorities whenever conducting a coverage test unless a new site is installed for a specified objective. Firstly drive test is done on the basis of planned network.3 ERICSSION TOOL FOR DRIVE TEST . If there is any new site installed then the planned network will be on priority. then for setting the workspace select the option presentation .TYPES OF ROUTES IN DRIVE TEST . Various window(workspace ) used for showing the performance of drive test are set as follow: 1. 2. and tourist places. 3. 3. malls. PRIMARY ROUTE:It included all the major roads . TEMS 9. 1. Go to option GSM and select various windows as shown below. highways. 2. SECONDARY ROUTE:It include all streets . MISCELLANOUES ROUTES:It include special location like inbuilding.

location area code . mobile network code. GSM radio parameter 3. GSM hopping channel 6. CELL NAME: It tells about the name of the current cell with which our handset is latched . GPS.VARIOUS WINDOWS ADDED ARE : 1. TIME : It tell about the exact time detail of the handset which is connected to the kit. GSM serving + neighbouring 5. 2.GSM current channel . CELL GLOBAL IDENTITY: It gives the complete information of the mobile country code . MAP 7. . Description of current channel window: 1. 2. GSM C/I 4. 3. cell identity.

If value lies between 21 to 25 it comes under good category.4. Number of differ bits corresponds to error bits and results in a range of 0 to 7 RX QUALITY.2%. BIT ERROR RATE:It is the ratio of the number of bits error to the total number of bits transmitted in a given time interval. BAND: It tell about the band used used by the cell to which our handset is latched that whether it is working at GSM900 OR at GSM 1800. 5. 8. This parameter is enable only when our call is on hopping. It depends upon BER and FER. It should be less than 1% in case of voice call and should be less than 5% in case of data call. 11. Tells about starting hopping frequency. BCCH ARFCN: It shows the BCCH frequency which is assigned to the sector to which handset is latched. It lies between 0 to 30. 14. If value lies between 0 to 3 it comes under good category. If value lies between -100 to -110 it comes under very poor category. 3. MODE: It tells about the mode of operation that is whether we are performing DRIVE TEST in IDEAL . RX LEVEL: It shows the received level in terms of dbm that mobile is receiving from the site or it is the received level signal strength. TCH ARFCN: It gives the details of TCH ARFCN on which our call hopps. If value lies between -80 to -90 it comes under average category. 12. . 6. TIME SLOT:It tells about the time slot to which handset is latched. If the value lie between 0 to -15 it comes under very bad category. If value lies between -90 to -100 it comes under poor category. 10. SPEECH QUALITY INDEX(SQI): It is dedicated to reflecting the quality of the speech or it is the sppech quality in cellular network as received by human listener. If value lies between -90 to -100 it comes under poor category. It depend upon the BER(bit error rate ) on the scale. BSIC:IT is combination of network color code (NCC) and base station color code (BCC). If the value lie between -0 to -70 it comes under very good category.Frame eraser rate is represents the percentage of the frames being dropped due to high number of non correcting bit error in the frame. BER is measure for the voice quality in the network. IT tells about the sector with which our handset is latched. 7. DEDICATED or PACKED mode. 13. CHIPHERING : It shows either the security parameter are enable or not. CHANNEL TYPE : IT tells about which type of channel are used during the call. Its values lie between 0 to 7 . 2. SPEECH CODEC: IT shows whether the ongoing call is on half rate or full rate. It should be less than . After channel ha decoded a 456 bits block it is coded again and compared with 456 input bits. 5. The total range defined is between 0 to -120 dbm but ideally we say -48 to -110 dbm . DESCRIPTION OF RADIO PARAMETER WINDOW: 1. If value lies between 16 to 20 it comes under average category. FER(FRAME ERASER RATE). MAIO: Mobile allocation index offset. If value lies between -70 to -80 it comes under good category. 4. If value lies between -90 to -100 it comes under average category. RX QUALITY :It is the continuity of the received signal. 9. CELL GPRS SUPPORT: It tells whether the serving cell is GPRS supportable or not.

NOW SET SECOND WORKSPACE AND NAME IT AS SIGNALLING: . If measurement report is received then its value increase by 2 but if it is not received it is decreased by1. 10.5 sec. 7. 9. DISCONTINUOUS TRANSMISSION :It is defined as the ratio of the number of silent blocks to the total number of block transmitted. MS BEHAVIOUR MODIFIED: This windows shows current setting for the mobile station instance whether handover is disabled or multiband operating enable. RADIO LINK TIME OUT. CARRIER TO INTERFERENCE RATIO : The carrier over interference ratio is the ratio between the signal strength of the current serving cell and signal strength of undesired component. Go to presentation then click on signaling and select following windows as shown below. it shows current value of RLT. More repots 4 . Its values is updated after a time period of every 0. It can be decreased by 1 but increased by 2 according to status of the M R. Layer 2 messages 3. 2. 1. We can set the maximu value as 64 and minimum as 4. Events . 6. 8. TIMING ADVANCE:It gives a value that tells about the distance between MS and BTS if the value is 0 it means MS is in radius of 550 m from the BTS.If value lies between 26 to 30 it comes under very good category. If the value reaches 0 it resulta in normal call drop.This parameter defines the range value of radio link time out . It should be atleast greater than 9. Layer 3 messages 2.

For performing data drive test : Add a new workspace and name it as DATA. GO TO presentation click on GSM then click on DATA SERVICES and the add the following windows as shown below: .

1. GPRS linechart 4. GSM PDP context(packet data) . GSM timeslot 3. GSM data throughput 2.

. 4. Select the tool and then click on the cell to get its complete information. 2. Then click on general and select the CELL FILE LOAD . To check the cell parametric information we have to click option info in the map window. 3. Add the CELL FILES from where it is placed and then press ok. Click on configuration.METHOD FOR LOADING CELL FILE ON MAP WINDOW OF TEMS: 1. 5.

Click on the option GEO SET MANAGER in the map window. Go to the file and save the GEO SET . .It gives the complete information of neighbor defined. CI etc. BSIC. 2.It gives the complete information about the following: (a). (d). MNC. Serving cell that is about the site to which our handset is latched. (b). LAC. It tells about the various parameter of the antenna that is what is direction of the antenna and used antenna is of which beamwidth. Go to map and then click on layer control. 4. 3. It tells about the position of the cell that is it tells the latitude and longitude of cell. (c). It tells about the BCCH. Add the object which we want to open in the map and then click on ok. METHOD FOR SETTING GEO SET OR LOADING MAP IN TEMS: 1.

Drive test to be carried out preferably during peak traffic hours. at least 1000 calls required for good statistical confidence. collect GSM speech and GPRS drive test data together. 3. 5. Call duration to be equal to the average call duration for the network. For a typical metro city. Calls to be made preferably mobile to a fixed number (Test Number). . Routes chosen to be representative of the part of the network under study. 6. 4. If applicable. Non working sites/sector or trx.GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS: 1. ANALYSIS: LOG FILE ANALYSIS 1. 2.

. Capacity problems 8. High interference 7.2. Call drop reaasons Analysis 1: low signal level  Above window shows the problem of low signal level it all happen only when there are few no of site and too many different types of obstacle like hills are present those stop the line of site of the broadcasting signal. handover failure 9. There might be a lot of coverage hole or places with insufficient signal level. Frequency hopping 3. Overshooting sites 4. Ping pong handover 10. coverare holes 5. C/I AND C/A ratio 6.

1st arrow tells about the sudden the sudden increase and decrease in neighbor level and 2nd arrow gives indication of the too frequent handover. Due to terrain or obstacles neighbor may pop with high levels causing the BSC to give wrong handover decision. In this case the call will be handed to neighbor every short period of time .Analysis 2:Sudden appearance of neighbors Above shown windows tells about the problem of sudden appearance and disappearance of neighbor.

Arrow indicate the formation of tunnel due to sudden variation in Rx level . This curve formation is due to tunnel effect causing sudden decrease in Rx level and cause ping pong hand over.Analysis 3:Sudden decrease in Rx level This window tells that there is sudden decrease in Rx level .


.ANALYSIS 4: • It shows that there is Large distance between two sites and very poor Rx level is there through a long distance. It also indicate that the neighboring handover are not defined because Rx level varies from -61 to -80. still there is no handover and Call drops take place a number of times.

Because even after moving for away from the 2nd sector user still latched to the 2nd sector. ACTION TAKEN TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEM 1. Height reduction at HWR005 and HWR008 to prevent . Rectified Hanging GSM at BRD0022. 2. There may be one way handover is defined or may be the defined handover margin was very high (even more than 33db) .Analysis 5:  This window shows that there is cable swap in the site to which it is presently latched. H/W change at HWR0052 to remove CF:2A:8 3.  Can be solved by defining proper handover.

Proper connection should be check time to time. OPTIMIZATION Every live Network needs to be under continuous control to maintain/improve the performance. 4. Down tilt given at GND0012 to avoid overshooting GOLDENS RULES FOR DRIVE TEST: 1. Try to cover all the sectors of the site to check the handover performance. It is keeping anzeye on its growth and modifying it for the future capacity enhancements. Do not drive too much away from the site . Makes long calls for checking handover and other parameter. mobile terminating call and call setup. 9. Overshooting.  Optimization will be continuous process of improving overall network quality. Whather condition have to be kept in mind. 3. .  Finding and correcting an existing problem after site implementation and integration. 5. Also makes shorts calls to check mobile originating. 2.  Meeting the network quality criteria agreed in the contact. 5. 7.4. 6. Optimization is basically the only way to keep track of the network by looking deep into statistics and collecting/analyzing drive test data.. Drive into the site passing through the clutter as well as crossing the clutter. 8. Report all the setup related problem either manually of by filemarks. Try to avoid driving twice on the same roads. The scope will consists of all below. SCOPE OF OPTIMIZATION The optimization is to intend providing the best network quality using available spectrum as efficient as possible.

congestion. TCH drop rate B) Weekly Report: Cell level Performance trend Traffic trend Cell detention Cell accessibility C) Monthly Report: TCH Utilization BSC level Performance trend Processor Loading .  Area of interest is divided in smaller areas called cluster to make optimization and follow up processes easier to handle OPTIMIZATION IS DONE ON THE BASIS OF REPORTS: TYPES OF REPORTS: A) Daily Report: To check cell level Rapid fault identification Parameters like TCH. Optimization cannot reduce the performance of the rest of the network. SDCCH.

THINGS TO INVESTIGATE: 1) Non working sites and TRX 2) Inactive radio network features like freq hopping 3) Disable/Enable GPRS 4) Overshooting sites 5) Coverage hole 6) High interference spots 7) Drop calls 8) Capacity problem 9) Missing neighbors 10) One way neighbors 11) Ping Pong HO 12) HO not defined 13) KPI for accessibility and retainability 14) Equipment performance 15) Faulty installations RECOMMENDATIONS FOR OPTIMIZATION: 1) Defining HO 2) Proposing a new site or new sector or IBS or repeater 3) Proposing antenna azimuth change 4) Proposing antenna tilt change 5) Proposing antenna type change 6) BTS equipment like filter change 7) Retuning of interferal freq 8) BSIC change 9) Adjusting HO margin .

10) Changing power parameter 11) Addition of equipments 12) Addition of TRX cards .