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The Civil Service Commission has released the schedules for the Philippine Civil Service Examination Paper

and out of their Notice of Assignment. To use this system, examinees should log on to the CSC website and go to the (j) "Divestment" is the transfer of title or disposal of interest in property by voluntarily, completely and actually
Pencil Test for the year 2012. Below are the details. Examination Announcement webpage, or type the following path: depriving or dispossessing oneself of his right or title to it in favor of a person or persons other than his spouse and
ANNOUNCEMENT in the address bar
of their browser. relatives as defined in this Act.
The CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION (CSC) announces the conduct of the 2012 Career Service Professional Examination If applicants still do not know their school assignment or cannot access the Online Notice of School Assignment
and Career Service Subprofessional Examination
Paper and Pencil Test (PPT) to establish a register of eligibles one (1) week before the examination day, they should inquire their school assignment from the CSC Regional/Field (k) "Relatives" refers to any and all persons related to a public official or employee within the fourth civil degree of
from which certification and appointment to the second and first level positions in the civil service shall be made, Office where they filed their application. consanguinity or affinity, including bilas, inso and balae.
provided said eligibles meet the qualifications and other requirements of the positions. H. WHAT TO BRING ON EXAMINATION DAY
DATE OF EXAMINATION DATE OF FILING OF APPLICATION Applicants should bring the following on examination day:
1. Application Receipt or Notice of School Section 4. Norms of Conduct of Public Officials and Employees. - (A) Every public official and employee shall
May 27, 2012 January 17, 2012 to April 12, 2012 Assignment
2. Lead Pencil/s (No. 1 or 2) and eraser/s
3. Ball Pen (Black or Blue)
4. The same valid ID card/s observe the following as standards of personal conduct in the discharge and execution of official duties:
October 21, 2012 May 28, 2012 to September 6, 2012 presented during the application stage (i.e. Driver’s License, SSS ID, GSIS ID, Philhealth ID, current Company/Office
Acceptance of applications shall be on a FIRST-COME, FIRST-SERVED basis. Applications may no longer be accepted ID, current School ID, Postal ID, BIR ID, Barangay ID, Voter’s ID, Valid Passport, or Police Clearance) (a) Commitment to public interest. - Public officials and employees shall always uphold the public interest over and
before the deadline if the target number of applicants has already been reached by the CSC Regional/Field Offices. N O I D , N O E X AM above personal interest. All government resources and powers of their respective offices must be employed and
A. EXAMINATION CENTERS / REGIONAL TESTING CENTERS: IMPORTANT REMINDERS: Failure to take the examination on your scheduled date shall mean forfeiture of your used efficiently, effectively, honestly and economically, particularly to avoid wastage in public funds and revenues.
FOR MAY 27, 2012 CS PROFESSIONAL AND SUBPROFESSIONAL EXAM, The testing centers are the examination fee and slot. No request for re-scheduling is allowed. All personal belongings including cellular
Regional Office No. I San Fernando City, La Union
Regional Office No. II Tuguegarao City, phones, calculators, books, and all other electronic gadgets and printed materials must be surrendered to the (b) Professionalism. - Public officials and employees shall perform and discharge their duties with the highest
Regional Office No. III City of San Fernando, Pampanga, Cabanatuan City
Regional Office No. IV Batangas Room Examiners. Firearms, if any, must also be surrendered to the security guard/designated firearm custodian at degree of excellence, professionalism, intelligence and skill. They shall enter public service with utmost devotion
Regional Office No. V Legazpi City
Regional Office No. VI Iloilo City
Regional Office No. VII Cebu City
Regional the entrance gate of the testing center. Proper attire should be worn on examination day. NOT IN and dedication to duty. They shall endeavor to discourage wrong perceptions of their roles as dispensers or
Office No. VIII Tacloban City
Regional Office No. IX Zamboanga City, Pagadian City, Dipolog City
Regional Office SANDO/SHORTS/SLIPPERS. peddlers of undue patronage.
No. X Cagayan de Oro City
Regional Office No. XI Davao City
Regional Office No. XII Cotabato City
Regional Office WARNING
No. NCR Quezon City, Manila, CAR Baguio City, Bangued, Abra, Bontoc, Mountain Province, Sta. Marcela, The Civil Service Commission uses a highly reliable system to detect cheats. Any form of cheating in any civil (c) Justness and sincerity. - Public officials and employees shall remain true to the people at all times. They must
Regional Office No. CARAGA Butuan City
Regional Office No. ARMM Cotabato City, Iligan City service examination shall be considered a violation of Republic Act No. 9416 (Anti-Cheating Law), and any person act with justness and sincerity and shall not discriminate against anyone, especially the poor and the
FOR OCTOBER 21, 2012 CS PROFESSIONAL AND SUBPROFESSIONAL EXAM, The testing centers are the found guilty shall be administratively and criminally liable. Those found ADMINISTRATIVELY LIABLE shall suffer the underprivileged. They shall at all times respect the rights of others, and shall refrain from doing acts contrary to
Regional Office No. I San Fernando City, La Union
Regional Office No. II Tuguegarao City, following penalties: For those in the GOVERNMENT SERVICE, dismissal from the service with all the accessory law, good morals, good customs, public policy, public order, public safety and public interest. They shall not
Regional Office No. III City of San Fernando, Pampanga
Regional Office No. IV Batangas City
Regional penalties of forfeiture of government benefits, cancellation of eligibility, bar from taking any government dispense or extend undue favors on account of their office to their relatives whether by consanguinity or affinity
Office No. V Legazpi City
Regional Office No. VI Iloilo City
Regional Office No. VII Cebu City
Regional Office No. VIII examination, and perpetual disqualification from re-entering government service. except with respect to appointments of such relatives to positions considered strictly confidential or as members
Tacloban City
Regional Office No. IX Zamboanga City, Pagadian City, Dipolog City
Regional Office No. X Cagayan de For PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS, perpetual bar from entering government service and from taking any government of their personal staff whose terms are coterminous with theirs.
Oro City
Regional Office No. XI Davao City
Regional Office No. XII Cotabato City
Regional Office No. NCR Quezon examination. Those found CRIMINALLY LIABLE shall be meted out the penalty of imprisonment of not less than six
City, Manila
Regional Office No. CAR Baguio City, Lagawe, Ifugao, Tabuk, Kalinga
Regional Office No. CARAGA (6) years and one (1) day but not more than twelve (12) years and a fine of not less than Fifty Thousand Pesos (d) Political neutrality. - Public officials and employees shall provide service to everyone without unfair
Butuan City
Regional Office No. ARMM Cotabato City, Iligan City (Php50,000.00) with the appropriate accessory penalties. discrimination and regardless of party affiliation or preference.
 Additional Testing Centers shall be opened. Please visit the CSC website by end of January 2012.
Click here for Republic of the Philippines
updated list of testing centers. If you have any questions please contact the respective CSC Regional Office in your Congress of the Philippines (e) Responsiveness to the public. - Public officials and employees shall extend prompt, courteous, and adequate
area. Metro Manila service to the public. Unless otherwise provided by law or when required by the public interest, public officials and
B. SCOPE OF THE EXAMINATIONS employees shall provide information of their policies and procedures in clear and understandable language, ensure
1. For Career Service Professional – In English and Filipino; vocabulary, grammar and correct usage, paragraph Eighth Congress openness of information, public consultations and hearings whenever appropriate, encourage suggestions, simplify
organization, reading
comprehension, analogy, logic, and numerical reasoning. and systematize policy, rules and procedures, avoid red tape and develop an understanding and appreciation of
2. For Career Service Subprofessional – In English and Filipino; vocabulary, grammar and correct usage, paragraph the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country, especially in the depressed rural and urban areas.
organization, reading comprehension, spelling, clerical operations, and numerical reasoning. Republic Act No. 6713 February 20, 1989
Both Professional and Subprofessional levels of the examination shall have items on General Information, which (f) Nationalism and patriotism. - Public officials and employees shall at all times be loyal to the Republic and to the
shall include the following areas: Philippine Constitution, Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials AN ACT ESTABLISHING A CODE OF CONDUCT AND ETHICAL STANDARDS FOR PUBLIC OFFICIALS AND EMPLOYEES, Filipino people, promote the use of locally produced goods, resources and technology and encourage appreciation
and Employees (R.A. 6713), Peace and Human Rights Issues and Concepts, and Environment Management and TO UPHOLD THE TIME-HONORED PRINCIPLE OF PUBLIC OFFICE BEING A PUBLIC TRUST, GRANTING INCENTIVES and pride of country and people. They shall endeavor to maintain and defend Philippine sovereignty against
To pass the test, the examinees should get a general weighted rating of at least 80.00. (g) Commitment to democracy. - Public officials and employees shall commit themselves to the democratic way of
D. ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:: life and values, maintain the principle of public accountability, and manifest by deeds the supremacy of civilian
Applicants are advised to check carefully whether they meet the admission requirements stated below. Only those authority over the military. They shall at all times uphold the Constitution and put loyalty to country above loyalty
who meet the admission requirements should apply for the examination. Approval of applications may be recalled Section 1. Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and to persons or party.
any time upon discovery of applicant’s disqualification. Accordingly, the examination fees paid shall be forfeited. Employees."
1. Must be at least 18 years of age on the date of filing of application;
- for May 27, 2012 CSE-PPT, applicants must (h) Simple living. - Public officials and employees and their families shall lead modest lives appropriate to their
be born on or before April 12, 1994
- for October 21, 2012 CSE-PPT, applicants must be born on or before Section 2. Declaration of Policies. - It is the policy of the State to promote a high standard of ethics in public positions and income. They shall not indulge in extravagant or ostentatious display of wealth in any form.
September 6, 1994
2. Must be Filipino citizen;
3. Must be of good moral character;
4. Must have not been service. Public officials and employees shall at all times be accountable to the people and shall discharge their
convicted by final judgment of an offense or crime involving moral turpitude, or disgraceful or immoral conduct, duties with utmost responsibility, integrity, competence, and loyalty, act with patriotism and justice, lead modest (B) The Civil Service Commission shall adopt positive measures to promote (1) observance of these standards
dishonesty, examination irregularity, drunkenness or addiction to drugs;
5. Must not been dishonorably lives, and uphold public interest over personal interest. including the dissemination of information programs and workshops authorizing merit increases beyond regular
discharged from military service or dismissed for cause from any civilian positions in the government; and 6. Must progression steps, to a limited number of employees recognized by their office colleagues to be outstanding in
have not taken the same level of CS Examination in less than three (3) months. Section 3. Definition of Terms. - As used in this Act, the term: their observance of ethical standards; and (2) continuing research and experimentation on measures which
a) Applicants with pending administrative and/or criminal cases may take the examination and shall be provide positive motivation to public officials and employees in raising the general level of observance of these
conferred the eligibility if they successfully pass the same. However, this is without prejudice to the outcome of (a) "Government" includes the National Government, the local governments, and all other instrumentalities, standards.
their pending cases. If they are found guilty of grave offenses, their eligibility shall be forfeited based on the agencies or branches of the Republic of the Philippines including government-owned or controlled corporations,
penalties stated in the decision and pursuant to Section 52 (a) of the Revised Rules on Administrative Cases in the and their Section 5. Duties of Public Officials and Employees. - In the performance of their duties, all public officials and
Civil Service.
b) Those who have already passed the same level of examinations or a comparable level of employees are under obligation
examination given by the Professional Regulation Commission, as well as passers of Board/Bar examinations, and (b) "Public Officials" includes elective and appointive officials and employees, permanent or temporary, whether in
those who graduated with honors need not apply. the career or non-career service, including military and police personnel, whether or not they receive (a) Act promptly on letters and requests. - All public officials and employees shall, within fifteen (15) working days
E. APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS compensation, regardless of amount. from receipt thereof, respond to letters, telegrams or other means of communications sent by the public. The
1. Fully accomplished Application Form (CS Form No. 100, Revised 2012). The spaces for “Signature of Applicant” reply must contain the action taken on the request.
and “Right Thumbmark” on the form should be left blank. These shall be accomplished in the presence of the CSC (c) "Gift" refers to a thing or a right to dispose of gratuitously, or any act or liberality, in favor of another who
processor. accepts it, and shall include a simulated sale or an ostensibly onerous disposition thereof. It shall not include an (b) Submit annual performance reports. - All heads or other responsible officers of offices and agencies of the
2. Four (4) copies of identical I.D. pictures with specifications, as follows:
a. Philippine Passport size (4.5 cm x 3.5 unsolicited gift of nominal or insignificant value not given in anticipation of, or in exchange for, a favor from a government and of government-owned or controlled corporations shall, within forty-five (45) working days from
cm or 1.8 inches x 1.4 inches)
b. Colored, with white background
c. Taken within three (3) months prior to filing of public official or employee. the end of the year, render a performance report of the agency or office or corporation concerned. Such report
d. Printed on good quality photo paper
e. In standard close-up shot (from shoulder level up with the shall be open and available to the public within regular office hours.
head and face occupying at least 80% of the picture and with the name tag positioned at approximately 1 inch or (d) "Receiving any gift" includes the act of accepting directly or indirectly, a gift from a person other than a
2.54 cm below the chin)
f. In bare face (with no eyeglasses or any accessories that may cover the facial member of his family or relative as defined in this Act, even on the occasion of a family celebration or national (c) Process documents and papers expeditiously. - All official papers and documents must be processed and
g. Showing left and right ears
h. Taken in full-face view directly facing the camera
i. With neutral facial festivity like Christmas, if the value of the gift is neither nominal nor insignificant, or the gift is given in anticipation completed within a reasonable time from the preparation thereof and must contain, as far as practicable, not
expression, and both eyes open
j. With full and handwritten (not computer-generated) name tag in the format: of, or in exchange for, a favor. more than three (3) signatories therein. In the absence of duly authorized signatories, the official next-in-rank or
First Name, Middle Initial, Last Name, and Extension Name (if any), and signature over printed name officer in charge shall sign for and in their behalf.
(e) "Loan" covers both simple loan and commodatum as well as guarantees, financing arrangements or
3. Original and photocopy of any valid ID containing applicant’s clear picture, date of birth, signature, and signature accommodations intended to ensure its approval. (d) Act immediately on the public's personal transactions. - All public officials and employees must attend to
of the authorized head of the issuing agency such as Driver’s License, SSS ID, GSIS ID, Philhealth ID, current anyone who wants to avail himself of the services of their offices and must, at all times, act promptly and
Company/Office ID, current School ID, Postal ID, BIR ID, Barangay ID, Voter’s ID, Valid Passport, or Police Clearance (f) "Substantial stockholder" means any person who owns, directly or indirectly, shares of stock sufficient to elect a expeditiously.
(Note: Any other ID not included in the list shall NOT be accepted) director of a corporation. This term shall also apply to the parties to a voting trust.
IDs with lacking information, particularly the applicant’s date of birth, SHOULD be supported by NSO-issued Birth (e) Make documents accessible to the public. - All public documents must be made accessible to, and readily
Certificate or Birth Certificate authenticated/issued by the Local Civil Registrar (LCR). (g) "Family of public officials or employees" means their spouses and unmarried children under eighteen (18) years available for inspection by, the public within reasonable working hours.
4. Examination fee of Five Hundred Pesos (Php 500.00). of age.
F. WHERE TO GET AND FILE APPLICATION FORMS Section 6. System of Incentives and Rewards. - A system of annual incentives and rewards is hereby established in
Application forms are available at any CSC Regional/Field Offices. The same may be downloaded from the CSC (h) "Person" includes natural and juridical persons unless the context indicates otherwise. order to motivate and inspire public servants to uphold the highest standards of ethics. For this purpose, a
website: Application forms may be reproduced in legal size bond paper provided the same Committee on Awards to Outstanding Public Officials and Employees is hereby created composed of the following:
format is followed. Applicants may file their applications in any of the CSC Regional/Field Offices.
Applicants are (i) "Conflict of interest" arises when a public official or employee is a member of a board, an officer, or a the Ombudsman and Chairman of the Civil Service Commission as Co-Chairmen, and the Chairman of the
advised to be in proper attire. NOT in sando/shorts/slippers. substantial stockholder of a private corporation or owner or has a substantial interest in a business, and the Commission on Audit, and two government employees to be appointed by the President, as members.
G. EXAMINATION PERMITS interest of such corporation or business, or his rights or duties therein, may be opposed to or affected by the
Qualified applicants shall be notified of their places of examination (school assignment) through an Application faithful performance of official duty. It shall be the task of this Committee to conduct a periodic, continuing review of the performance of public officials
Receipt or a Notice of Assignment. They can also use the Online Notice of School Assignment (ONSA) to get a print- and employees, in all the branches and agencies of Government and establish a system of annual incentives and

transmit all cases for prosecution arising from violations of this Act to the proper authorities for appropriate law. If the violation is punishable by a heavier penalty under another law.This Act shall take effect after thirty (30) days following the completion of its publication in the Official Gazette or in two (2) national newspapers of general circulation. (B) Identification and disclosure of relatives. assumption. promote the common good. consultant. Thereafter. or give undue advantage to anyone. broker.Public officials and employees have an obligation to accomplish and submit NATIONAL TERRITORY declarations under oath of. in ARTICLE II writing. to persons covered by this Act. and employees. defined in Republic Act No. equality. with the Civil Service law. are complete. or a fine not exceeding five thousand pesos (P5. including its territorial sea. adopts the generally accepted respective offices are concerned. Commission. (a) Financial and material interest. retirement. regardless of whether or not he holds office or employment in a casual. among other things. The individual to whom an opinion is rendered. including the Bureau of Internal Revenue. shall be made available for Section 15. Provisions for More Stringent Standards. respectively. with the national office of the Ombudsman. subject to the approval of the Secretary of Justice. 1989. the necessary authority in favor of the Section 7. In the event a determination is made that a statement is all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction. counsel. paid vacations and the like. with the Clerk of Court of the Supreme Court. to render any opinion interpreting this Act. Effectivity. in order to build a just and humane society. outside the Philippine (such as allowances. acquisition costs. such sum as may be needed for its continued the public.rewards to the end that due recognition is given to public officials and employees of outstanding merit on the basis of the standards set forth in this Act. interest arises. . love. The Ombudsman shall likewise take steps to protect citizens who denounce acts or omissions of public officials and (4) Officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain. to the best of his knowledge and information. person a penalty in any amount not to exceed twenty-five thousand pesos (P25. and living in their households. or executive officials with the Office of the President. its improvements. in the discretion of the court of scholarship grants.000). It shall or nominee in any private enterprise regulated. except those necessary corrective action. and the like. directorships in government-owned or controlled corporations. or both. of Assets. cash on hand or in banks. holdover.(a) The designated Committees of both Houses of the Congress . do ordain and The same rule shall apply where the public official or employee is a partner in a partnership. if possible. the insular shelves. freedom. (c) all other assets such as investments. transaction with their office.000). . Approved. . Department and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. implementation shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. action: Provided. local and foreign (b) on or before April 30. gratuity. Liabilities and Net Worth and the Disclosure of Business Interests and Financial Connections shall be filed by: Section 12.(a) Any public official or employee. with the Deputy Ombudsman in their respective regions. Section 11. (c) Disclosure and/or misuse of confidential information. Divestment. . warranted in accordance with law. such (c) Private individuals who participate in conspiracy as co-principals. Promulgation of Rules and Regulations. citations. Appropriations. food. fluvial and not so filed. transportation. the sovereign Filipino people. directly or they are filed as required by law. after issuance of the opinion acts in good faith in accordance with it shall not be subject to any sanction (b) personal property and acquisition cost. (e) all business interests and financial connections.It shall be the duty of every public official or employee to identify Section 14. is not vacant. form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. Review and Compliance Procedure. agent. Husband and wife who are both public officials or employees may file the required statements jointly or purpose prohibited by Section 8 (D) of this Act. justice. provided. . conserve The Ombudsman shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of this subsection. regardless of their breadth and who serve in an honorary capacity. the following shall constitute prohibited acts and documents as may show their assets. (2) Such statements shall be made available for copying or reproduction after ten (10) working days from the time (d) Solicitation or acceptance of gifts.(1) Any and all statements filed under this Act. except in the case of subparagraph (b) (2) above. the following: the years of service and the The documents must be filed: shall be punished with a fine not exceeding the equivalent of six (6) months' salary or suspension not exceeding quality and consistency of performance. including guidelines for individuals who render free voluntary service to the Government. manner the appropriations of the Civil Service Commission. course of their official duties or in connection with any operation being regulated by. Congress shall have the power within their respective jurisdictions.In addition to acts and omissions of public officials and employees Ombudsman to obtain from all appropriate government agencies. As to gifts or grants from foreign governments. and amity with all nations. or removal depending on the gravity of the offense after due notice and hearing by the appropriate quality of a certain achievement. In case there is no next higher position or it (c) within thirty (30) days after separation from the service. These prohibitions shall continue to apply for a period of one (1) year after resignation. and lodging) of more than nominal value if such PREAMBLE acceptance is appropriate or consistent with the interests of the Philippines. and develop our patrimony. promulgate this Constitution. democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth. If another sanction (b) Outside employment and other activities related thereto. with all the islands and waters embraced therein. and PRINCIPLES who. (i) The acceptance and retention by a public official or employee of a gift of nominal value tendered and received as a souvenir or mark of courtesy. submitted on time. employee. and. and connecting the islands of the archipelago. with the Office of the President. manage or accept employment as officer. cooperation.Nothing in this Act shall be construed to derogate from any practice his profession in connection with any matter before the office he used to be with. the year when they first assumed any office in the employees and shall be tried jointly with them. the statement may be destroyed unless needed in an ongoing investigation.It shall be unlawful for any person to obtain or use any statement filed under this Act for: THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE (ii) The acceptance by a public official or employee of a gift in the nature of a scholarship or fellowship grant or (a) any purpose contrary to morals or public policy.Public officials and employees shall not solicit or accept. the subsoil. and five (5) years. . accomplices or accessories. or separation those below said ranks.Public officials and employees shall not. (1) To further their private interests. Penalties. trustee Commission shall have the primary responsibility for the administration and enforcement of this Act. any gift. . 8 or 9 of this Act shall be punishable with imprisonment not exceeding the form of bonuses. Government. They shall likewise be automatically promoted to the next higher competent jurisdiction. Repealing Clause. control.All public officials and employees. . provided in this Act. or any regulation prescribed by any body or agency. Section 8. . . circumstance is declared invalid. DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES (a) real property. and permitted by the head of office. The requirement of divestment shall not apply to those who serve the Government in an honorary capacity nor to ARTICLE I laborers and casual or temporary workers. decrees and orders or parts thereof inconsistent herewith. and any other individual involved in a similar factual situation. reproduction and mailing of such statement. however.The sum necessary for the effective implementation of this Act shall be taken from confidential or classified information officially known to them by reason of their office and not made available to and disclose. with the Secretaries of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy. their assets. assessed value and current fair market value. and employees which are in violation of this Act. Separability Clause. and secure to ourselves and our posterity. are deemed indirectly. in which case the one. equality. 3019. between. and from public office. favor. or any transaction which may (3) Any person requesting a copy of a statement shall be required to pay a reasonable fee to cover the cost of be affected by the functions of their office. Liabilities and Net Worth and a Disclosure of Business Interests and Financial Connections and those of (b) In order to carry out their responsibilities under this Act. permanent or regular capacity. provisions of this Act. Prohibited Acts and Transactions. as amended. entertainment. the remainder of the Act or the application of such provision to other persons or (2) To prejudice the public interest. imploring the aid of Almighty God. and peace. . After such period. which provides for more stringent standards for its official year prohibition shall likewise apply. Section 9. laborers and casual or temporary workers. and. The Court in which such action is brought may assess against such separately. even if no criminal prosecution is instituted against him. the unique and exemplary one (1) year. That it may institute such administrative actions and disciplinary measures as may be (2) Senators and Congressmen. . within thirty (30) days from the date of their assumption of office. disqualification to hold public office. justice. the designated Committees of both Houses of their spouses and unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age living in their households. the latter shall apply. . body or agency. Section 17. the appropriate Committee shall so inform the reporting individual and direct him to take the aerial domains. and are in proper form. in the case of the Executive principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace. that Justices. unless the same provide for a heavier penalty. . the Congress consents to: (4) Any statement filed under this Act shall be available to the public for a period of ten (10) years after receipt of the statement. . directly or indirectly. supervised or licensed by their office unless expressly allowed by (1) Constitutional and national elective officials. his relatives in the Government in the form. The (b) Any violation hereof proven in a proper administrative proceeding shall be sufficient cause for removal or Committee on Awards shall adopt its own rules to govern the conduct of its activities. Statements and Disclosure. The Civil Service Commission is hereby authorized to promulgate rules and regulations necessary to carry out the (3) Recommend any person to any position in a private enterprise which has a regular or pending official (3) Regional and local officials and employees. scientific or cultural exchange programs subject to national security requirements. and other submarine areas.The Civil Service (1) Own. the blessings of independence and including pertinent reporting and disclosure requirements. assumption of office and/or divest himself of his shareholdings or interest within sixty (60) days from such and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations. (A) Statements of Assets and Liabilities and Financial Disclosure. he shall be prosecuted under government officials and employees of the year to be announced in public ceremonies honoring them may take the latter statute. incumbency shall not: The Statements of Assets. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. but the professional concerned cannot Section 13. and the risks or temptations inherent in the work. (c) The heads of other offices shall perform the duties stated in subsections (a) and (b) hereof insofar as their Section 2. the level of salary. When a conflict of branch or agency to which he belongs.If any provision of this Act or the application of such provision to any person or inspection at reasonable hours. such practice will not conflict or tend to conflict with their official functions.A public official or employee shall avoid conflicts of interest at all times. loan or anything of monetary value from any person in the repealed or modified accordingly. (D) Prohibited acts. Administration and Enforcement of this Act. or (Full Text) (b) any commercial purpose other than by news and communications media for dissemination to the general (iii) The acceptance by a public official or employee of travel grants or expenses for travel taking place entirely public. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. with the Deputy Ombudsman in their respective regions. consisting of its terrestrial. shall file under oath their Statement dimensions. (d) liabilities. bonds. in violation of this Act. . liabilities. subject in each instance to the approval by affirmative vote of the majority The two documents shall contain information on the following: of the particular House concerned. or (C) Accessibility of documents. freedom. Section 1. Judges. circumstances shall not be affected by such declaration. and also their business interests and financial officials or employees. said position shall be included in the budget of the office in the next General Appropriations Act. the seabed. Section 16. including. . shall be subject to the same penal liabilities as the public officials or transactions of any public official and employee and are hereby declared to be unlawful: connections in previous years.Public officials and employees during their hereunder or under any other law is heavier. and all national House of Congress to discipline its Members for disorderly behavior. stocks. dismissal of a public official or employee. he shall resign from his position in any private business enterprise within thirty (30) days from his We. The waters around. with the Court Administrator. as well as the cost of certification. and the public has the right to know. have any (d) The official or employee concerned may bring an action against any person who obtains or uses a report for any financial or material interest in any transaction requiring the approval of their office. position with the commensurate salary suitable to their qualifications. . either: and frequency prescribed by the Civil Service Commission. liabilities. net worth and financial Section 10.All laws. Nothing in this Act shall be construed to restrict or prohibit any educational. committing any violation of this Act The conferment of awards shall take into account. or REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES medical treatment. . with public now prescribed in the Constitution and existing laws. net worth. of every year thereafter. Violations of Sections 7. Incentives and rewards to (a) within thirty (30) days after assumption of office. in the case of the Judicial Department. February 20. . the obscurity of the position. temporary.Public officials and employees shall not use or divulge. All public officials and employees required under this section to file the aforestated documents shall also execute. (5) All other public officials and employees. and business interests including those of their spouses and of unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age shall establish procedures for the review of statements to determine whether said statements which have been The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago. Nothing in this provision shall be construed as a deprivation of the right of each (2) Engage in the private practice of their profession unless authorized by the Constitution or law.

youth. (1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed. or (2) The party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per centum of the total number of representatives administrative bodies. Section 1. (1) The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than two hundred and fifty members. or Section 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their any person by reason of poverty. national security. and Section 4. or degrading punishment against any prisoner or detainee or the Philippines and. It shall protect the rights of workers and Section 13. a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected. The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building. force. territorial integrity. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in (3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. The term of office of the Senators shall be six years and shall commence. arts. or each province. SUFFRAGE autonomous social institution. against him. The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective (2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have city with a population of at least two hundred fifty thousand. No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and. Section 14. Section 1. of the seats allocated to party-list representatives shall be filled. and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs. under conditions Section 3. peasant. other persons. or public health. (1) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations. liberty. associations. encourages private enterprise. as prescribed by law. government research data used as basis for policy development. ARTICLE III Section 6. adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from except upon lawful order of the court. as well as to Section 4. except the religious sector. and such other sectors as may be Section 26. public safety. at all times. provides for it. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. Neither (4) Within three years following the return of every census. except BILL OF RIGHTS use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law. However. compact. to meet the witnesses face to face. before conviction. in the fulfillment thereof. other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage. rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices. All persons. unless. Section 9. the State adopts and implements a policy of full Section 19. Section 18. indigenous cultural communities. is at least thirty-five years of age. The right of the people to be secure in their persons. Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election. The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform. supreme over the military. shall death penalty be imposed. The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. who shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned among the provinces. These rights cannot be waived except The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without the assistance of before the law of women and men. Access to independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social official records. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. one-half Section 25. when the public safety requires it. national territory. promote full employment. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. culture. psychological. at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election. Until then. or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used among them. or decisions. The Senate shall be composed of twenty-four Senators who shall be elected at large by the qualified Section 18. The following are citizens of the Philippines: [1] Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution. papers. dynasties as may be defined by law. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service and prohibit political provided by law. and effects against unreasonable Section 21. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an Section 21. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law. rebellion. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. and to have interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term of which he was elected. against him. Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship. and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. for at least six months immediately preceding the election. intellectual. Section 24. physical. a registered voter. The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall consist of a Senate Section 17. unless otherwise fixed by law. been duly convicted. on the day of the Section 19. Section 1. unless otherwise provided by provides incentives to needed investments. at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election. No literacy. who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age STATE POLICIES Section 5. Section 10. compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. referendum. impartial. services. violence. of national unity and development. to have a speedy. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and. conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the protector of the people and the State. and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election. limitations as may be provided by law. as provided by law. promote their welfare. The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for a term of three years which shall begin. under the law. of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. (2) In all criminal prosecutions. accelerate social progress. Section 15. as may be provided by law. all citizens may be required. trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused: Provided. science and technology. the paramount forever be allowed. of Filipino mothers. The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector. [3] Those born before January 17. Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens. and their families. Section 2. shall be afforded the citizen. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and Section 10. able to read and write. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech. is at least twenty-five years of age. Section 11. for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes. and public trial. [4] Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. or property without due process of law. on the day of the election. and the right to self- determination. Section 22. The maintenance of peace and order. or the right of [2] Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines. No Senator shall serve for more than two enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born citizen of the (2) The employment of physical. Section 16. or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework after arraignment. ARTICLE V Section 12. and those who. the party-list representatives. who are at the development of moral character shall receive the support of the Government. Section 28. subject to such they are deemed. The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic Section 9. and promotion of the (2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is Section 3. No . and on the Section 23. women. For three consecutive terms after the ratification of this Constitution. houses. ARTICLE VI Section 16. In its relations with other states. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. as far as practicable. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and Section 2. proceeding. including those employed in the public and private sectors. and. If an act is punished by a Section 3. as may be provided by law. notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or basis of a uniform and progressive ratio. and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts. without discrimination or preference. able to read and write. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments. The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development. shall Section 7. Section 12. they shall be allowed to vote under existing laws and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot. the court. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and Section 7. shall. The State shall encourage non-governmental. the protection of life. Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law. Civilian authority is. Section 5. regional. and who shall have resided in the Philippines for at least one year. solitary. a rising standard of living. shall have at least one measures against graft and corruption. the Congress hereafter legislative districts based on the standards provided in this section. (1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of ARTICLE IV provided by law. or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. Section 4. Section 7. that he has been duly Section 5. community-based. The right of the people. and sports to foster (4) The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as compensation to the and a House of Representatives. and the Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants. military or civil service. Each Section 27. spiritual. to have renounced it. paragraph (3). to render personal. he must be provided with one. be bailable by sufficient sureties. The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. (1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad. unless by their act or omission. liberty. moral. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. The State shall give priority to education. including those under the party list. The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a nationalism. The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. property. Section 22. Section 20. No person shall be deprived of life. except to the extent reserved to the people by the provision on initiative and patriotism and nationalism. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law. CITIZENSHIP Section 5. or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. Section 1. urban poor. incommunicado. and in the place Section 11. by selection or election from Section 17. or of the press. The Philippines. guilt is strong. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after same act. and property. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with nuclear weapons in its territory. Section 6. and sectoral parties or organizations. the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved. Section 2. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired Section 2. (1) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce. Section 3. If the Section 14. and promote total human liberation and development. degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of voters of the Philippines. Excessive bail shall not be required. 1973. and shall ensure the fundamental equality person cannot afford the services of counsel. unless otherwise provided by law. transactions. and social well-being. nor cruel. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial. be denied the equal protection of the laws. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable. and shall law. or sectoral organizations that Section 15. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. contiguous. representative. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to wherein they propose to vote. The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent national economy effectively controlled by suspended. election. quasi-judicial. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law. and no search warrant or law and an ordinance. and a resident of the Filipinos. consideration shall be national sovereignty. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion. and an improved quality of life for all. to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation consecutive terms. cities. Section 6. threat. and The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship. least eighteen years of age. the Congress shall make a reapportionment of public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest. shall be elected through a party-list promote the welfare of the nation. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness (2) No torture. Secret detention places. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform Section 8. or when public safety or order requires otherwise. consistent with the national interest. against him. Section 4. and adjacent territory. system of registered national. the labor. The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. of expression. Section 8. in writing and in the presence of counsel. (3) Each legislative district shall comprise. to form unions. as provided by law. intimidation. of majority. national interest. nor shall any person Section 20.

The President and the Vice-President shall be elected by direct vote of the people for a term of six years controlled corporation. by the end of any fiscal year. be authorized to augment any item in the general appropriations law for until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session. who shall be chosen on the basis of proportional representation from the date of receipt thereof. (1) The rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable. and from time to time publish the same. Where no President and Vice-President shall have been chosen or shall have qualified. or any subdivision. or use. The form. open all the certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session. but in case two or more shall have an parts as may. The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be preserved and be open to the public in the Congress. as the case may be. (1) The Congress. and the heads of office at any time. the Vice President-elect shall act as President until a President shall have its Chairman or a majority of all its Members. There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the Senate. after The Supreme Court. Section 2. to the other House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered. when the Congress. Voluntary minister. No increase in said compensation shall take basis of proportional representation from the political parties and parties or organizations registered under the of taxation. province or city. unless Senate. to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a exceptions therefrom. The President or Acting President] of the Philippines. or the Acting Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members. If. paid. but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not object. sectarian institution. execute its laws. upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law. and exclusively used for religious. authorize the President. a different date is fixed by law. revenue or tariff bills. and subject to such limitations Section 7. Section 30. elected by each House on the Section 28. length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of the service for the full term for which (6) Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only for public purposes to be he was elected. and. (3) Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings. it. voting separately. shall not exceed sixty days. No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be enacted. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the certificates of canvass. and if approved by sole judge of all contests relating to the election. or to any penal institution. Unless otherwise provided by law. and the Senate and the House of Representatives approving such increase. or its subsidiary. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may personally appear as counsel before any appropriations for other departments and agencies. the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall Section 19. the Congress shall have failed to pass the general appropriations bill for the second Monday of May. questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee Section 24. which shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the day of the election and shall end at noon office of the Government for his pecuniary benefit or where he may be called upon to act on account of his office. the request of either House. No law shall be passed increasing the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as provided in this fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed by law. otherwise. church. bills authorizing increase of the public debt. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in voter. or system of religion. it shall be sent. The rights of persons appearing in. No Member shall be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters thereof. however. and the yeas and nays on any question shall. shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election. or tariff to every man. import and export quotas. non-profit and the Speaker. The salaries of the President and Vice-President shall be Chairman. and twelve Members of the House of Representatives. Neither shall he be some particular appropriation therein. the President of the succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same Section 15. the Congress may. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. with. Section 3. The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives. the regular election of the Senators and the Members of the House of Senate or the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least three days before their scheduled appearance. applied. upon assumption of office." [In case of affirmation. In all such cases. but the Senator or Member of the House of Representatives Constitution without its advice and concurrence. Before they enter on the execution of their office. not later than thirty days after the day of the election. or dignitary as such. vote of all its respective Members. The President shall not be eligible for any re-election. The Commission shall rule by a majority vote of all the Members. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the full term of all the Members of the (2) In times of war or other national emergency. for a limited Section 32. such powers shall cease upon the or part thereof passed by the Congress or local legislative body after the registration of a petition therefor signed Section 11. When the security balance. The salaries of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives shall be determined by law. excepting such when the President certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment to meet a public calamity or emergency. sitting en banc. directly or indirectly. suspend or expel a Member. denomination. it shall become a law as if he had signed it. at the call of cemeteries. affected by. the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. at least forty years of age on the day of the election. of the State or the public interest so requires and the President so states in writing. voting separately. make a EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT full disclosure of their financial and business interests. (4) No law granting any tax exemption shall be passed without the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of If at the beginning of the term of the President. (2) No bill passed by either House shall become a law unless it has passed three readings on separate days. or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled. the appearance shall be Section 9. A Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall. before it becomes a law. he shall veto it and return the same with his objections to the House than three days. revenue. the Vice President-elect shall become President. but a smaller number may adjourn from day ensuing fiscal year. . The Congress shall. whereby the people can directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject any act or law declared national policy. as early as possible. Section 23. If the purpose for which a special fund was created has been fulfilled or abandoned. or of any qualified. The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected. They shall notify the House concerned of a potential conflict Section 25. after the Senate and the House of Representatives shall have been organized with the election of the President (3) Charitable institutions. and the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members. actually. for the House of Representatives. preserve and defend its Constitution. by at least ten per centum of the total number of registered voters. qualifications of the President or Vice-President. if any. The Congress shall evolve a progressive system determined by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure. Each House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary. So help me God. the President of the Senate shall. directly. The not receive during their tenure any other emolument from the Government or any other source. court of justice or before the Electoral Tribunals. and a resident of the Philippines the Government. and manner of preparation of the budget shall Section 1. returns. Written questions shall be submitted to the President of the (3) All money collected on any tax levied for a special purpose shall be treated as a special fund and paid out for Section 8. exclusive of Saturdays. and other duties or imposts within the framework of the national development program of the Government. The executive power shall be vested in the President of the Philippines. and shall be supported by funds by the Government. shall be transmitted to the Congress. If he The Congress shall promulgate its rules for the canvassing of the certificates. (1) The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the President for the operation of interest that may arise from the filing of a proposed legislation of which they are authors. be entered in the Journal. or quasi-judicial and other administrative bodies. priest. affect national security. or employed. Sundays. including any government-owned or actually available as certified by the National Treasurer. or support of any sect. In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of Representatives. by a majority supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law. Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions. The Electoral Tribunals and the Commission on Appointments shall be constituted within thirty days have qualified. do justice senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman. shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives. Upon receipt of the Section 26. Such appointment requires no confirmation. or instrumentality thereof. in all offenses punishable by not more next adjournment thereof. by law. nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. authorize the President to fix within specified limits. The President shall have an official residence. period and subject to such restrictions as it may prescribe. The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the together with the objections. appear before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their departments. with the consent of the President. The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees may conduct inquiries (2) No public money or property shall be appropriated. but the Senate may ARTICLE VII propose or concur with amendments. shall be transferred to the general funds of the Government. shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war. a registered Section 13. as ex officio Section 6. minister. such inquiries shall be respected. the regular election for President and Vice-President shall be held on the (7) If. or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation. returns. bills of local thereof. of the same date. where it originated. No Vice-President shall serve for more than two successive terms. to discharge such powers and functions as are herein conferred upon charitable. by law. The President-elect and the Vice President-elect shall assume office at the beginning of their terms. printed copies thereof in its final form have been distributed to its Members three days before its passage. Section 29. The chairman of the Commission shall not vote. (1) No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation made by law. be prescribed by law. its Speaker. A penalty of suspension. the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Section 14. The Vice-President may be appointed as a Member of the Cabinet. except when such priest. and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. which shall enter the objections at large in its Journal and proceed to reconsider it. and under such penalties. The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session. mosques. Section 12. proceedings. Section 31. in case of his inability. directed to the President of the Senate. of the Government as specified in the budget. benefit. tariff rates. and improvements. the President of the Senate or. He shall not intervene in any matter before any therein. the President. No person who has (5) No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations. and qualifications of their respective Members. in its judgment. and shall continue to be in session for such number of days as it may determine Constitutional Commissions may. Section 10. or upon leprosarium. tonnage and wharfage dues. at the request Upon the last reading of a bill. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall. or any subdivision.Member of the House of Representatives shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. the Vice-President. and all lands. Each two-thirds of all the Members of that House. directly or indirectly. including government-owned or (2) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general appropriations bill unless it relates specifically to for at least ten years immediately preceding such election. one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the of one-fifth of the Members present. otherwise. be privileged from arrest while the Congress is in session. provide for a system of initiative and referendum. Section 27. and the vote thereon shall be taken equal and highest number of votes. and such books shall be audited by the Commission on Audit which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each Member. no amendment thereto shall be allowed. imposed. the President-elect shall have died or shall have become Section 20. twelve Senators. and private bills. and the remaining six shall be Members of the Senate or the House of The President shall communicate his veto of any bill to the House where it originated within thirty days after the Representatives. with title thereof. If a President shall not have been chosen. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any The President may call a special session at any time. without the consent of the other. other religious teacher. (2) A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business. as the rules of each House shall provide. President shall take the following oath or affirmation: designated by the Chief Justice. except (4) Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings. and in the same manner. by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress. last bill. All appropriation. There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same qualifications and term of office and be elected which he was elected. sentence will be omitted]. He may be removed from office in the same manner as the (3) The procedure in approving appropriations for the Congress shall strictly follow the procedure for approving President. and canvass the votes. during his term without forfeiting his seat. or instrumentality thereof. during his term of office. (5) Neither House during the sessions of the Congress shall. (1). but may cover matters related thereto. preacher. If the President-elect fails to qualify. a special election may be called to conducted in executive session. Each House shall also keep a Record of its immediately thereafter. duly certified by the board of canvassers of each House may provide. permanently disabled. been chosen and qualified. the Speaker of the Section 21. Section 17. Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within thirty session days of the Congress from their (2) The Congress may. six years thereafter. punish its Members for disorderly behavior. by law. able to read and write. and the yeas and nays entered in the Journal. and legal holidays. adjourn for more approves the same he shall sign it. Any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to the appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for appropriation to which it relates. submission. The returns of every election for President and Vice-President. their respective offices from savings in other items of their respective appropriations. (2) The President shall have the power to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation. accordance with law. as such shall remain in force and effect until the general appropriations bill is passed by the Congress. two-thirds of all the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill. and may promulgate its rules for the purpose. be interested financially in any contract with. or government orphanage or renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his Section 22. They shall party-list system represented therein. the votes of each House shall Section 5. the President. effect until after the expiration of the term of the incumbent during which such increase was approved. Section 16. The heads of departments may. Section 18. application. All Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives shall. controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. or in any franchise or special privilege granted (4) A special appropriations bill shall specify the purpose for which it is intended. and the names of the Members voting for or against shall be entered in its Journal. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session. "I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President [or Vice- political parties and the parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. buildings. Unless otherwise provided by law. preacher. service for the full term for which he was elected. except in case of a tie. and restrictions as it may impose. it shall become a law. three of whom shall be Justices of the Supreme Court to be be determined by yeas or nays. or to be raised by a corresponding revenue proposal Section 4. content. the Representatives shall be held on the second Monday of May. agency. Members of both Houses of the Congress. such purpose only. agency. and such reconsideration. upon their own initiative. thus elected shall serve only for the unexpired term. be presented to the President. as the President. churches and personages or convents appurtenant thereto. or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces. shall act as President until a President or a Vice-President shall have been chosen and in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. of which every legislative district must be than six years imprisonment. the general appropriations law for the preceding fiscal year shall be deemed re-enacted and to day and may compel the attendance of absent Members in such manner. Neither shall he.

with the consent of the Commission on Appointments. or boards. No treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by at least two. The Supreme Court may review. a budget of expenditures and sources of financing. shall President and Vice-President occurs. Section 20. The Congress may. (1) No person shall be appointed Member of the Supreme Court or any lower collegiate court unless he Constitution. appoint the from the occurrence thereof. the President of the Senate or. Such temporary elected. and independence. extend such proclamation or suspension for a period to be (c) All cases in which the jurisdiction of any lower court is in issue. or as otherwise provided in this Constitution. their subsidiaries. in case of death. instruction. modify. President shall become the President to serve the unexpired term. The Supreme Court shall provide in its annual budget the appropriations for the Council. The Supreme Court shall have the following powers: mentioned in the next preceding paragraph. he may. and habeas corpus. or dissented. appointment of other officers lower in rank in the President alone. privileged. commutations. Whenever a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of the Section 8. Section 13. and basis of the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or the procedure in all courts. participate in any business. majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon. unless revoked by the elected Section 12. No special The suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall apply only to persons judicially charged for is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the Congress. permanent disability. Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases. the President shall nominate a Vice-President from among the Members of the Senate and the House of in accordance with its rules without need of a call. or resignation of the President. or officers of the armed collegiate courts. and shall not diminish. otherwise. removal from office. shall be decided en banc: Provided. but no person may be appointed judge Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. within thirty days from the end of every quarter of the calendar year. instructions. deemed certified under paragraph 2. In case of death. Section 12. Section 4. For that purpose. or resignation of both the President and Vice-President. Undersecretaries. must state the reason therefor. international or executive agreement. current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of paragraph 4. pleading. the Chief Justice as ex officio Chairman. within thirty days from the opening of every regular session (4) The regular Members of the Council shall receive such emoluments as may be determined by the Supreme after it is required to assemble. proclamations. Whenever there is a vacancy in the Office of the Vice-President during the term for which he was The Congress. The President shall nominate and. chairmen or heads of bureaus or offices. from existing and proposed revenue measures. They shall strictly avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office. approval on third reading by the Congress. ambassadors. The during his tenure. prescribe. Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any corpus. assessment. submit to the (2) The regular members of the Council shall be appointed by the President for a term of four years with the Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists. whether voluntary or (3) Cases or matters heard by a division shall be decided or resolved with the concurrence of a majority of the compulsory. martial law. from office. (5) The Council shall have the principal function of recommending appointees to the Judiciary. the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board. thereon. Section 13. (e) All cases in which only an error or question of law is involved. Representatives who shall assume office upon confirmation by a majority vote of all the Members of both Houses (4) Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage of justice. permanent disability. and containing other matters as may be provided by law. or affirm on appeal or certiorari. He may also appear other functions and duties as the Supreme Court may assign to it. the admission to the practice of law. as the law or the Rules of Court may provide. when the President transmits to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Monetary Board shall. Section 11. but such appointments shall be effective only until disapproved by the Commission on Appointments Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon. impost. the President shall submit a report in person or in writing to the Congress. The Thereafter. The before it at any other time. and qualified. without the concurrence of at least three of such Members. or modify substantive rights. or operation of presidential decrees. he shall reassume the powers and duties of his Congress a complete report of its decision on applications for loans to be contracted or guaranteed by the consent of the Commission on Appointments. convene (3) Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations as public interest may require. Section 6. within twenty-four hours following such proclamation or suspension. and pardons. Article V1 of this Section 7. and in no case Section 15. The Congress shall have the power to define. The same requirements shall be observed by all lower heads of the executive departments. vest the en banc. if the invasion or rebellion shall persist and public safety requires it. in the same manner. During the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. Vice-President. or directly connected with. Section 18. Appropriations for the Judiciary may not be reduced by the any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative functions. The President shall have control of all the executive departments. The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established financially interested in any contract with. by a vote of at least a majority of all its Members in regular or special session. and over Section 8. which revocation shall not be set aside by the President. suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under final judgments and orders of lower courts in: inability. Except in cases of impeachment. and must promulgate its decision thereon within thirty days from its filing. including government-owned or controlled corporations or Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are lower courts. members of the Cabinet in charge of national security and foreign relations and the Chief of Staff of the Armed Section 9. shall be fixed by law. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of the lower courts shall be appointed by the President Forces of the Philippines. within ten days after receipt of the last written declaration. and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government. decision or resolution. be appointed as Members of the Constitutional Commissions. determined by the Congress. Meanwhile. commissions. A Member of the Supreme Court must be at least forty years of age. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety days record of the case and served upon the parties. nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over Court. the representative of the private sector for one year. or in the heads of departments. The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines and whenever it 1) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors. order. including those involving the constitutionality. Section 26. permanent disability.The Congress shall. voting separately. and election shall be called if the vacancy occurs within eighteen months before the date of the next presidential rebellion or offenses inherent in. Two months immediately before the next presidential elections and up to the end of his term. unless reduced by the Supreme Court. not. increase. or regulation is in question. or order their dismissal by a vote or as Secretaries. writ of habeas corpus. and a representative of the Congress as ex officio duties of his office. in the courts. shall. by law. In case of invasion or rebellion. (3) The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be the Secretary ex officio of the Council and shall keep a record of its need of call. He shall serve until the President or the Vice-President shall have been elected President. Section 10. nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas (6) Appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the Civil Service Law. Within forty-eight hours from the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the (a) All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty. No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts provided for by law. a representative of the Integrated Bar. or special privilege granted by the Government or by law. (1) A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby created under the supervision of the Supreme Court composed of of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and Congress. and apportion the jurisdiction of the various Supreme Court en banc shall have the power to discipline judges of lower courts. shall be decided with the concurrence of a agencies. determines by a two-thirds vote of both Houses. (1) All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Constitution must be decided or resolved within or until the next adjournment of the Congress. the Vice. Section 3. the integrated bar. rendered en banc or in division may be modified or reversed except by the court sitting en banc. During their continuance in office. for a period not exceeding (2) Review. Appointments extended by an Acting President shall remain effective. Any Members who took no part. that the as the basis of the general appropriations bill. The President shall address the Congress at the opening of its regular session. and the law on which it is based. ARTICLE VIII from a list of at least three nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council for every vacancy. or proclamation or suspension. the public shall be informed of the state of his health. and of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives. after conviction by final judgment. their written declaration that the President is foreign debt. and offices. must have been for fifteen years or more. Section 2. thirds of all the Members of the Senate. Section 5. the Congress shall convene. the Congress may. (3) A Member of the Judiciary must be a person of proven competence. A certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the banc or in its discretion. a retired Member of the Supreme Court. the President shall continue exercising the powers and duties of his office. within forty-eight hours. voting jointly. and all other cases which under the Rules of Court are required to be heard Section 14. Section 19. a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the election. The Members of the Supreme Court and of other courts established by law shall not be designated to President. or in any franchise. and until thereof unless he is a citizen of the Philippines and a member of the Philippine Bar. It may sit en Court. or law. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise heard by the Supreme Court en banc. orders. if not in session. provide for the manner in which one who is to act as President shall be selected until a Section 17. In case of serious illness of the President. and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this (2) All cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty. the professor of law for three years. The Congress. and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President. President shall have been elected and qualified. forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain. if it is not in session. and remit fines and forfeitures. invasion. unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. legally demandable and enforceable. including receipts Court. the representative of the office. their salary shall not be decreased. invasion or petitions for certiorari. that no doctrine or principle of law laid down by the court in a decision twelve months for all lower collegiate courts. the Vice-President shall act as President. Philippines. within twelve days Section 22. directly or indirectly. shall be automatically and Section 15. or instrumentality thereof. and legal assistance to the under- Section 10. In case of death. The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. if not in session. should a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit within five days to the President Government or government-owned and controlled corporations which would have the effect of increasing the Integrated Bar shall serve for four years. The salary of the Chief Justice and of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court. international or executive agreement. other public ministers and consuls. They shall For the lower courts. He shall ensure President or a Vice-President shall have qualified. or the Office of the Ombudsman. No law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary when it undermines the security of tenure of its Members. law. permanent disability. may revoke such (b) All cases involving the legality of any tax. The Congress shall. a regularly released. he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary. When the required number is not obtained. The President may contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with a representative of the private sector. a professor of law. and. agency. Article V1 of this Constitution and shall become law upon its civilians where civil courts are able to function. and their deputies or assistants shall not. Section 14. Upon the initiative of the thereto. ordinances. mandamus. the President shall issue the appointments within ninety days from the submission of the list. Section 25. the case twenty-four months from date of submission for the Supreme Court. Rules of days. or abstained from a Section 16. and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. proclamation. . after approval. quo warranto. of the Congress. shall then act as President until the President or Vice. reprieves. and three months for all other lower courts. proceedings. provide who shall serve as President in case of death. or seven Members. probity. reverse. by law. ordinance. The conclusions of the Supreme Court in any case submitted to it for decision en banc or in division President or Acting President shall not make appointments. The President shall submit to the Congress. which shall be Constitution. shall not be denied access to the President during such illness. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall hold office during good behavior The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree of the President shall not. or any penalty imposed in relation The Congress shall. (d) All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher. in accordance with its rules and without Section 21. (1) The Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate Justices. including government-owned or courts but may not deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section 5 hereof. It may exercise such Section 23. the Members of the Cabinet. nor supplant the functioning of the civil procedure of special courts and quasi-judicial bodies shall remain effective unless disapproved by the Supreme forty-five days nor later than sixty days from the time of such call. the Speaker of the House of Representatives. of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. he may call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence. assignment shall not exceed six months without the consent of the judge concerned. when the public safety requires it. revise. legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year and. the Secretary of Justice. integrity. The President. voting separately. or. If the Congress. hold any other office or employment during their tenure. and of judges of any subdivision. resignation of the Acting President. and other regulations. Of the Members first appointed. five. practice any other profession. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT unless otherwise provided in this Constitution. in division of three. within ninety days from his assumption or reassumption of office. any person thus arrested or detained shall be Section 11. at ten o'clock in the morning of the third day after the vacancy in the offices of the extension thereof. prohibition. The bill calling such special election shall be courts or legislative assemblies. practice. or be Section 1. Whenever the President transmits to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of judicially charged within three days. the President may grant President as Acting President. until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. The Supreme Court shall have administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof. convene in accordance with its rules without need of a call and within seven be uniform for all courts of the same grade. the Congress shall decide the issue. the sufficiency of the factual (5) Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights. application. removal rebellion. Section 9. the Vice-President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting Members. in case of his sixty days. (2) The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of lower courts. enact a law calling for a special election to elect a President and a Vice-President to be held not earlier than A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution. other public ministers and consuls. or toll. otherwise he shall be released. the retired Justice for two years. during said tenure. or inability of the officials that the laws be faithfully executed. presidential decree. No petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court shall be refused due course or denied without stating the legal basis therefor. such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice. becomes necessary. bureaus. Such appointments need no confirmation. except temporary appointments to executive positions shall be reached in consultation before the case is assigned to a Member for the writing of the opinion of the when continued vacancies therein will prejudice public service or endanger public safety. in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen. President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. The convening of the Congress cannot be suspended nor the special election postponed. by law. and President.

(6) File. Of those first appointed. and the last Members for three years. after sufficient publication. or in any franchise or privilege granted by the Government. and malpractices. Section 8. COMMON PROVISIONS Section 1. unless specifically authorized by law. It shall strengthen the merit and rewards system. as determined by law. or organizations or coalitions registered under the party-list system. cities. or indirect compensation. or highly technical. Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular and special ARTICLE IX C. In no case may be prescribed by law. initiative. may be affected by the functions of his office. office in the Government or any Government-owned or controlled corporations or in any of their subsidiaries. initiatives. Section 10. emolument. or suspension of sentence for violation of election laws. and all other matters relating to the organization and election cases shall be heard and decided in division. and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds. discrimination. without additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Commission. efficiency. or title of any kind from any foreign government. except for those registered under the party-list system as provided in this Constitution. or unconscionable expenditures or uses of government funds and properties. election. political parties. the election period shall commence ninety as may have been incurred in consequence thereof. Section 6. subject to the limitations in this Article. . and non-governmental entities subject hold office for seven years. the Commission may within sixty days from the date of its submission for decision or resolution. offenses. No member of a Constitutional Commission shall. or involving elective barangay officials decided by government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters. final orders. an annual (2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political parties. or ruling of each Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party (4) Deputize. where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate. audit. once approved. within the time fixed by law. Political parties. rules. fees and charges subject to such guidelines and limitations as the Congress may provide. all grants. report covering the financial condition and operation of the Government. the Chairman shall or candidates related to elections. and credible elections. for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free. which shall be independent. double. as are necessary and appropriate to correct the for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading. (b) autonomous Section 6. in any electioneering or partisan political campaign. Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position. appointment and removal. where appropriate. or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution. or other similar within said period. Provinces courtesy in the civil service. There shall be autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras as (3) No officer or employee of the civil service shall be removed or suspended except for cause provided by law. returns. plebiscite. and nuisance candidacies. instrumentalities. or memorandum required by the rules of the number and location of polling places. or coalition shall be valid. executory. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS elections. when accepted. provincial. or the imposition of any hereinafter provided. and referendum. automatically released to them. Section 1. including government-owned or controlled corporations or reappointment. The Constitutional Commissions. allocate among the different local government units their powers. shall be an instrumentalities. Section 5. referendum. and recommend measures necessary to improve their effectiveness and efficiency. (4) No officer or employee in the civil service shall engage. office. At no time shall all Members of the interested. Each Commission shall perform such other functions as may be provided by law. Section 4. or instrumentalities. shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. (3) Upon the expiration of the corresponding period. during his tenure. in any contract with. media of communication or with respect to component cities and municipalities. or rulings of the Commission on election contests involving elective municipal and barangay (d) such non-governmental entities receiving subsidy or equity. except those involving the right to vote. and recalls. responsiveness. fees. at their goals through violence or unlawful means. In no case (2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission their subsidiaries. Such rules. orderly. Certified Public Accountants with not less than ten years of auditing experience. and city officials. including automatically and regularly released. orderly. including government-owned or controlled corporations. the Government. as the central personnel agency of the Government. as far as (7) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election spending. and position during his tenure. agencies. However. Such functions. and Section 4. other disciplinary action. petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters. law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the within thirty days from receipt of a copy thereof. and shall promulgate its rules of responsibilities. their positions. Section 2. taking into regulations shall be granted by the President without the favorable recommendation of the Commission. other office or employment in the Government or any subdivision. career service and adopt measures to promote morale. and. Section 2. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and. and provide for the qualifications. and resources. any decision. (8) Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized. boards of election inspectors. in any way. shall not diminish. extravagant. and must not have been candidates supported by any foreign government shall likewise be refused registration. All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this campaigns and forums among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free. shall establish a be decided by the Commission en banc. a certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice or the Section 7. The territorial and political subdivisions shall enjoy local autonomy. It shall submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on its personnel programs. nor accept without the consent of the Congress. its directive. agency or instrumentality thereof. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. appointment of election officials and inspectors. on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. and cities and municipalities with respect to component development programs for all levels and ranks. The Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions: reappointment. and appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving elective in trust by. all questions affecting elections. or indirect compensation. at the time of their appointment. prosecute cases of violations of election laws. and must not have been candidates for any any business which. 2. including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters. from or through the offices shall be final. be appointed to any or memorandum required by the Rules of Court or by the court itself. order. The certification shall state why a decision or resolution has not been rendered or issued represented in the voters' registration boards. brief. at least thirty-five years of age. progressiveness. preserve the vouchers and other supporting papers pertaining thereto. directly or indirectly. Government. Their approved annual appropriations shall be elective regional. brief. primarily confidential. requirements. Section 5. its subdivisions. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in two divisions. (6) Temporary employees of the Government shall be given such protection as may be provided by law. plebiscite. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the during their tenure. constitute interference in national affairs. for such period as may be provided by law. and before any of its offices. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it or state colleges and universities. at the time of their appointment. or members of the Philippine Bar employment. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION (5) Register. double. in addition to other excessive. and accredit citizens' arms of the Section 1. at least thirty-five years of age. (1) The civil service shall be administered by the Civil Service Commission composed of a Chairman and Commission on Elections. Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and Section 16. who shall be Commission on Elections. organizations. No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Government or its subsidiaries in any guise two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and. or recall. special privileges. owned or held Section 5. the Chairman shall hold office for seven years. provided that motions for reconsideration of decisions shall operation of the local units. for determination. by where propaganda materials shall be posted. deficiencies. shall be released automatically upon certification by the Chairman of the Commission. and the qualifications required for. a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election. or barangays. including determination of the adopt such measures. and credible elections. in the national taxes which shall be account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to. and on a post. The salary of the Chairman and the Commissioners shall be fixed by law and shall not be decreased Sec. shall decide or resolve the case or matter submitted thereto days before the day of election and shall end thirty days thereafter. offenses. and barangays. Section 9. supervise or regulate the enjoyment or utilization of all Section 4. No pardon. for violation or disregard of.(2) A case or matter shall be deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading. honest. No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to any public office or presiding judge shall forthwith be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case or matter. with the concurrence of the President. LOCAL GOVERNMENT (2) Appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and fitness to be determined. and settle all (2) Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections. and registration of voters. agencies. Neither shall he engage in the practice of any profession or in the active management or control of (2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with law. submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on the operations and activities of the Judiciary. procedure in order to expedite disposition of election cases. bodies. unnecessary. shall be members of the Philippine Bar natural-born citizens of the Philippines and. and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public information. and the Commission on Audit. It shall submit such reappointment. Section 6. and auditing rules and regulations. shall be provided in the regular or special appropriations and. The Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials and Section 5. including the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Local government units shall have a just share. two Members for five years. peaceful. integrity. The Commission may. Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members. (c) other government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries.audit basis: (a) constitutional trial courts of limited jurisdiction. Section 3. or coalitions which. Section 3. The Commission shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. (1) The Commission on Audit shall have the power. (1) There shall be a Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners. the court. The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress. plebiscites. No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional. establish the techniques and methods required therefor. subdivisions. for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization with effective mechanisms (5) The right to self-organization shall not be denied to government employees. and on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. and expenditures or uses of funds and property. competitive examination. upon a verified complaint. (1) There shall be a Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and six Commissioners who shall D. must present their platform or program of government. However. and duty to examine. initiative. predecessor. coalitions. (9) Submit to the President and the Congress. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. organizations. supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure equal opportunity. directly or indirectly. or any of its subdivisions. Constitution. hold office for seven years. within thirty days from the opening of each regular session of the Congress. including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters. commissions and offices that have been granted fiscal autonomy under this Constitution. or decision. any of its subdivisions. boards of canvassers. or pertaining to. directly or indirectly. A case or matter is deemed submitted (3) Decide. organization. term. of recall. including temporary or special pre-audit. A free and open party system shall be allowed to evolve according to the free choice of the people. or which are whatever. to define the scope of honest. three Members shall elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. (1) The civil service embraces all branches. in addition to other penalties that to its audit. or modify substantive rights. referenda. and recall. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. preceding elections. increase. Section 3. Commission or by the Commission itself. including the Chairman. The Congress shall enact a local government code which shall provide for a more responsive and initiative. consistent with the basic policy of local autonomy. one Commissioner for five years. (1) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election. however. and qualifications of all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of. they shall be entitled to appoint poll watchers in accordance with law. and promulgate accounting Section 8.proclamation controversies. or instrumentalities. except to positions which are policy-determining. Government. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases. including (4) Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period. and another Commissioner for three years. referendum. are the Civil Service Commission. agencies. including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular. subject to the provisions of this Article. Of those first appointed. municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction. B. nor shall he be financially on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. a majority thereof. without prejudice to such responsibility Government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. integrate all human resources franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities. All such salaries. parole. The Civil Service Commission. The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces. any case or matter brought before it or equity. Those which seek to achieve Section 3. Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered. Pensions or gratuities shall not be considered as additional. constituting election frauds. without Section. no appointive official shall hold any bodies. peaceful. from the jurisdiction of the Commission on Audit. Section 11. with proven capacity for public administration. Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of revenues and to levy taxes. shall not be served upon the parties. least thirty-five years of age. shall ensure that the acts of their component units are within the scope of their prescribed powers and accountability. including pre. and the other Commissioner for three years. and not appealable. without further delay. A. amnesty. The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision over local governments. without Commission belong to the same profession. during the election period. Section 2. which are required by law or the granting institution to submit to such audit as a condition of subsidy Section 7. and equal rates therefor. Section 7. and. or on its own initiative. order. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law. at the time of their appointment. other reports as may be required by law. Section 1. malpractices. However. Section 8. its audit and examination. Section 4. Such taxes. Section 6. 3. and employees. and agencies of the investigate and. within one year after such election. or any investment of public funds. instrumentality thereof. or disobedience to. the holders of a college degree. hold any other office or who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years. No candidate who has lost in any election shall. agency. including any government-owned or controlled corporation or its subsidiary. municipalities. powers and functions and duties of local officials. No votes cast in favor of a political party. including limitation of places GENERAL PROVISIONS practicable. and must not have been candidates for any elective positions in the immediately Section 1. including acts or omissions Government. It shall keep the general accounts of the Government and. Of those first appointed. The Supreme Court shall. a Commissioner for five years. or concessions granted by the Government or any subdivision. ARTICLE X Section 2. Decisions. any present. authority. for public information Section 4. (2) The Commission shall have exclusive authority. shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. and charges shall accrue exclusively to the local governments.

The President may enter into agreements with foreign-owned corporations involving either technical or financial (2) Creation of sources of revenues. calendared for consideration by the House within ten session days from receipt thereof. culpable violation of the Constitution. censure. and tourism development. functions. the State shall promote the development and use (5) Regional urban and rural planning development. However. and representatives from non-governmental organizations within the regions for purposes of administrative decentralization to strengthen Section 4. All other public officers and employees may be removed from office as provided by law. A people. The resolution shall be be provided by law. Section 7. other high crimes. exploration. maintained. or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of of Article 1X-A of this Constitution. fisheries. (7) Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than removal from office and disqualification to Section 18. services. Section 14. (6) Publicize matters covered by its investigation when circumstances so warrant and with due prudence. The right of the State to recover properties unlawfully acquired by public officials or employees. developed. shall be independent of the province. and the Constitutional set forth in Section 10 hereof. With the exception of agricultural lands. Constitutional Commissions. . Within its territorial jurisdiction and subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national laws. nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. prevent. consolidate or coordinate their efforts. It shall continue to function and exercise its powers as now or hereafter may be provided by law. and responsibilities not granted by this Constitution or by law to the autonomous on the Office of the Ombudsman created under this Constitution. at all times. or other form of financial accommodation for any business purpose may be granted. resolution with the Articles of Impeachment of the Committee.Section 7. or personal. (2) A verified complaint for impeachment may be filed by any Member of the House of Representatives or by any (7) Determine the causes of inefficiency. The organic acts shall likewise provide for special courts with State. When the President of the Philippines is on trial. divided. and other relevant characteristics within the framework of this Section 6. minerals. (7) Educational policies. guaranty. responsibilities. all forces of participation of the regional consultative commission composed of representatives appointed by the President Philippine Bar. joint venture. The Office of the Ombudsman shall have the following powers. be entitled to their own local executive and legislative assemblies. municipality. trial. and subject to such limitations as may be provided by of agrarian reform. and trial by the Senate shall forthwith proceed. in the region. family. and similar collective regions shall be vested in the National Government. The State may directly undertake such activities. for ten years or more. unjust. The shall be three years and no such official shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. but shall not vote. Section 4. improper. any public official or employee of the Government. and other mineral oils (3) Ancestral domain and natural resources. merged. measures to prohibit logging in endangered forests and watershed areas. laches. based on real contributions to the economic (4) Personal. after hearing. the component cities within a province. and which are Constitution and the national sovereignty as well as territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines. instrumentality thereof. by law. treason. and property law jurisdiction consistent with the provisions of this Constitution and national laws. declaration shall be disclosed to the public in the manner provided by law. the Members of the Supreme Court. notify the complainants of the action taken and the result thereof. according to the Civil Service Law. or override its contrary resolution. The goals of the national economy are a more equitable distribution of opportunities. All lands of the public domain. and component cities whose charters prohibit purpose. beneficial use may be the measure and limit of the grant. development. and corruption in the Government and citizen upon a resolution or endorsement by any Member thereof. composed of the Ombudsman to be wealth. Public office is a public trust. be accountable to the Taking into account the requirements of conservation. original charter. all other natural resources shall not be alienated. it may determine. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines. No loan. and shall. including corporations. or it may enter into co-production. by any government-owned or controlled bank or financial institution to the President. shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership. shall not be deprived of their right concurrence of two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate. lakes. except those conferred In the pursuit of these goals. and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of the representative of the constituent political units. Legislative bodies of local governments shall have sectoral representation as may be prescribed by law. The first Congress elected under this Constitution shall. recommend his removal. the same shall constitute the Articles of Impeachment. No person shall be convicted without the Commissions and other constitutional offices. directly or indirectly. development. Section 17. which shall be included in the Order of Business make recommendations for their elimination and the observance of high standards of ethics and efficiency. or acquire not more than twelve ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS (3) Direct the officer concerned to take appropriate action against a public official or employee at fault. any act or omission of any public official. office or agency. whose capital is owned by such citizens. Private corporations or defense and security of the regions shall be the responsibility of the National Government. pertinent records and documents. and property relations. and members of the Section 2. by law. suspension. during his tenure shall be dealt with by law. (3) A vote of at least one-third of all the Members of the House shall be necessary either to affirm a favorable automatically and regularly released. the Vice-President. and thirty days from its execution. The organic act shall define the basic structure of government The Ombudsman must have. by purchase. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall serve for a term of seven years without reappointment. Agricultural lands of the public domain may be further classified by law according to the uses to which they agencies which shall be organized. law. except in accordance with the criteria established in the local government code and subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected. (4) In case the verified complaint or resolution of impeachment is filed by at least one-third of all the Members of Section 16. Voluntary renunciation Committee. and other natural resources are owned by from a list of nominees from multi-sectoral bodies. The subdivision. appointed by the Ombudsman. if necessary. held. homestead. and punishment. and exclusive economic organization of both Houses. they shall be subject to the same disqualifications and prohibitions as provided for in Section 2 production-sharing agreements with Filipino citizens. act with patriotism and justice. and must not have been candidates for any elective office in the immediately preceding election. A public officer or employee shall. and officers of the armed forces with general or flag rank. The President. of the zone. and hold any office under the Republic of the Philippines. the cooperative fish farming. and from a list of three nominees for every vacancy thereafter. or inefficient. The term of office of elective local officials. The officials and employees of the Office of the Ombudsman. the Members of the Cabinet. agency or according to the general terms and conditions provided by law. Section 1. The voters of Justice of the Supreme Court shall preside. such forest lands and national parks shall be betrayal of public trust. to perform and expedite any act or duty required by law. with priority to subsistence fishermen and fish. and reserve its use and enjoyment exclusively to Filipino citizens. Local governments shall be entitled to an equitable share in the proceeds of the utilization and Section 3. The jurisdiction of the metropolitan authority year. determine. regional heads of departments and other government offices. in the manner provided by law. and appropriate action. shall not be qualified to run for any office in the election immediately succeeding their cessation from office. including government-owned or controlled corporations. boundary substantially altered. The Congress may. or leased and the conditions therefor. flora and fauna. and Mindanao. whose charters contain no such prohibition. within ten session days. or to stop. respectively. serve them with utmost responsibility. The President shall provide for regional development councils or other similar bodies composed of (8) The Congress shall promulgate its rules on impeachment to effectively carry out the purpose of this section. Section 14. except by law. submit a declaration under oath of his assets. mismanagement. Public officers and employees owe the State and this Constitution allegiance at all times and any public Section 13. full term for which he was elected. the Senators shall be on oath or affirmation. as determined by law. provided that only provinces. marking clearly their boundaries on the ground. water supply fisheries. in appropriate cases. during their tenure. Citizens of the Philippines may lease not more than five hundred hectares. (1) Administrative organization. Cities that are highly urbanized. and report any irregularity to the Commission on Audit for Constitutional Commissions. ecology. as protectors of the people. The vote of Section 15. pass the organic acts for the autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Section 10. abolished. to vote for elective provincial officials. the Chief President. fraud. There shall be created autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordilleras consisting of separate Deputy for the military establishment may likewise be appointed. The for the region consisting of the executive department and legislative assembly. and hectares thereof. The Office of the Ombudsman shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. except barangay officials. or estoppel. when such act or omission appears to be illegal. (1) The House of Representatives shall have the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be appointed by the President from a list of at least six In cases of water rights for irrigation. and the Ombudsman may be removed from office on impeachment for. The Ombudsman and his Deputies. in any appropriate case. allow small-scale utilization of natural resources by Filipino citizens. Thereafter. them or from their nominees or transferees. both of which shall be elective and Philippines. from Section 10. forests or timber. privileged. and efficiency. shall be agrarian reform. the Congress. development of the national wealth within their respective areas. All powers. and referred to the proper Committee within three session days thereafter. constituent units in a plebiscite called for the purpose. The component cities and municipalities shall retain their basic autonomy and shall (5) No impeachment proceedings shall be initiated against the same official more than once within a period of one Commissions. mineral lands and national Section 21. the Vice-President. Cordilleras. other than the Deputies. There is hereby created the independent Office of the Ombudsman. or parks. wildlife. The President shall exercise general supervision over autonomous regions to ensure that laws are unfair foreign competition and trade practices. Public officers and employees must. and other mineral oils. Section 19. graft and corruption. Its approved annual appropriations shall be Section 9. including sharing the same with the inhabitants by way of direct benefits. or industrial uses other than the development of voting favorably in such plebiscite shall be included in the autonomous region. that will thereby be created shall be limited to basic services requiring coordination. at least forty years old. petroleum. bribery. the size of lands of the public domain which may be lead modest lives. Section 3. The Congress shall. for a period not exceeding ARTICLE XI abuse or impropriety in the performance of duties. and by a majority vote of all its Members. or any subdivision. cities. and under such terms and conditions as may be provided by law. petroleum. cooperatives. and utilization of minerals. waters. and geographic areas Section 9. the Supreme Court. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall have the rank of Chairman and Members. In such agreements. renewable for not more than twenty-five years. potential energy. family. water power. integrity. together with the corresponding resolution. municipalities. Section 8. Local government units may group themselves. and to examine. one overall Deputy and at least one Deputy each for Luzon. and organic act of autonomous regions shall provide for legislative powers over: Section 11. and at the time of Section 18. but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and officer or employee who seeks to change his citizenship or acquire the status of an immigrant of another country resources for purposes commonly beneficial to them in accordance with law. and geographical areas sharing common and distinctive historical and cultural The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and heritage. Section 13. the specific limits of forest lands and national conviction of. Private enterprises. the Section 11. When sitting for that required by law. or prosecution. subject to a plebiscite as Vice-President. city. functions. loyalty. all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum Section 17. as well as of any government-owned or controlled corporation with may be devoted. the Members of the Cabinet. The preservation of peace and order within the regions shall be the responsibility of the local police (2) Direct. the Members of the the disbursement or use of public funds or properties. and subject to the requirements people. subject to prosecution. faithfully executed. the Ombudsman. shall submit its report to the House within (8) Promulgate its rules of procedure and exercise such other powers or perform such functions or duties as may of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the sixty session days from such referral. growth and general welfare of the country. They lagoons. as well as Section 20. to furnish it with copies of documents relating to contracts or transactions entered into by his office involving acquired. employee. by law. the Constitutional their voters from voting for provincial elective officials. and ensure compliance therewith. (9) Such other matters as may be authorized by law for the promotion of the general welfare of the people of the (1) Investigate on its own. demotion. Visayas. Section 8. and net worth. coal. Such appointments shall require no confirmation. upon assumption of office and as often thereafter as may be (6) The Senate shall have the sole power to try and decide all cases of impeachment. social. of recognized probity and independence. or on complaint by any person. or any parks. in any form or manner against public officials or employees of the Government. opportunity to develop. liabilities. Alienable lands of the public domain shall be limited to agricultural lands. forest or timber. supervised. Section 12. All vacancies shall be filled within three months after they occur. been a judge or engaged in the practice of law in the the State. The existing Tanodbayan shall hereafter be known as the Office of the Special Prosecutor. the Congress shall determine. and (4) Direct the officer concerned. or its each Member shall be recorded. within eighteen months from the time of The State shall protect the nation's marine wealth in its archipelagic waters. or grant. twenty-five years. and duties: The President shall notify the Congress of every contract entered into in accordance with this provision. and utilized in accordance with applicable laws. economic and social structures. region. The creation of the autonomous region shall be effective when approved by majority of the votes cast by the renewable for not more than twenty-five years. organizations. through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources. according to law. especially the under- Section 15. and not to exceed one thousand hectares in area. The present anti-graft court known as the Sandiganbayan shall continue to function and exercise its NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PATRIMONY the autonomy of the units therein and to accelerate the economic and social growth and development of the units jurisdiction as now or hereafter may be provided by law. and AUTONOMOUS REGIONS Section 5. shall not be barred by prescription. or to any firm or entity in which they have controlling interest. red tape. and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all. bays. the State shall protect Filipino enterprises against Section 16. the Supreme Court. a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the known as Tanodbayan. (5) Request any government agency for assistance and information necessary in the discharge of its conserved and may not be increased nor diminished. upon complaint or at its own instance. and they shall receive the same salary which shall not be decreased during their term of office. cities.workers in rivers. within (8) Preservation and development of the cultural heritage. (6) Economic. Section 2. Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural. fine. The Congress may. ARTICLE XII local government officials. as soon as possible. agency or instrumentality thereof. shall act promptly on complaints filed assistance for large-scale exploration. and development. income. the House. The Congress shall enact an organic act for each autonomous region with the assistance and their appointment. In the case of the Section 12. the Congress. create special metropolitan political subdivisions. territorial sea. or barangay may be created. The Congress shall provide for such period as but not by impeachment. provinces. During their tenure. Such agreements may be for a period not exceeding twenty-five years. No province. Section 1. which shall be determined by law. competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. by law. and correct any associations may not hold such alienable lands of the public domain except by lease. of local scientific and technical resources.

a privately-owned public utility or business affected with public interest. and research. The protection Section 15. limiting the natural rights of parents to rear their children. Philippines. banking. instruments used as payment for their lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice. domestic materials and locally produced human rights. The State shall promote the preferential use of Filipino labor. Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwelling demolished. and the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands. The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers. adequate. subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the Congress certificate. SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS shall have the right to own. subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national development policies and Section 21. the members of whose HEALTH needs of the people and society. People's organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the public Section 8. Section 14. Section 4. and subject to the (3) Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of human rights of all persons within the Philippines. the State shall respect the right of small well as Filipinos residing abroad. or equity considerations. Section 19. The State shall. The State shall pursue a trade policy that serves the general welfare and utilizes all forms and domain under lease or concession suitable to agriculture. (5) Establish a continuing program of research. their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through individuals. by law. organization. women. No combinations Section 2. as franchise or right be granted except under the condition that it shall be subject to amendment. all forms of human rights violations involving civil and accordance with its national goals and priorities. Financial Section 19. units. and support a complete. WOMEN The Congress may provide for the applicability of customary laws governing property rights or relations in Section 22. taking into ARTICLE XIII account their maternal functions. the National Economic and Development Authority shall function as the concerted activities. high-level technical manpower and skilled workers and craftsmen in all to them in the manner provided by law. responsive to the country's health needs and which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools. the State may. political rights. establish and operate vital industries and. arrangements of exchange on the basis of equality and reciprocity. They shall also participate in policy and decision-making (2) The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and four Members who must be natural-born citizens of the processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law. and structure. to the authority. Section 12. in cooperation with the private sector. promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all. The State shall recognize the right of farmers. independent planning agency of the government. to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research. LABOR social. self-development. the State shall share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns to investments. The State shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system and undertake (3) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants. including the right to strike in accordance with law. and peaceful Until the Congress provides otherwise. and patriotism. education. preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources. except in accordance Section 1. in the interest of national welfare or defense. on its own or on complaint by any party. subject to prior rights. assistance. economic. or their families. The Congress shall create an agency to promote the viability and growth of cooperatives as shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion. officers of such corporation or association must be citizens of the Philippines. The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform program private corporations. Information on foreign loans obtained or guaranteed by the Government shall be made available to the and self-reliance. They shall be entitled to security of Section 17. The State shall. marketing. receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. The State shall. and shall enforce their mutual compliance (3) Until this Commission is constituted. goods. and privatization of public sector enterprises. authority of the Commission. and concessions covering the national economy and patrimony. victims of violations of human rights. and all the executive and managing and other independent farmers' organizations to participate in the planning. and their integration into the mainstream of society. Section 16. Government-owned or controlled corporations may be created or established by special to promote industrialization. law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions. in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources. privileged. promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable Section 6. and adopt measures that help make them competitive. reduce social. HUMAN RIGHTS It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization. public. elementary education is compulsory for all children of shall have supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers as may be provided by There shall be priority for the needs of the under-privileged. The State shall encourage equity participation in landowners. The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic opportunities based interest and with identifiable leadership. good. and basic services to under-privileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlement areas. as well as cooperatives. organized and unorganized.Section 5. The State shall also protect. and information to enhance respect for the primacy of Section 12. and operate economic enterprises. professionals. The State shall establish a special agency for disabled person for their rehabilitation. and other services. In determining retention limits. To this end. tenure. sick. at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. develop. and remove cultural Section 15. In the implementation of such program the State EDUCATION upon payment of just compensation. maintain. In the grant of rights. undertake. (7) Monitor the Philippine Government's compliance with international treaty obligations on human rights. It shall also CULTURE AND SPORTS Section 18. program. whose capital is wholly owned by Filipinos. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 7 of this Article. The term of office and other qualifications and Section 10. The State may. and marketing (9) Request the assistance of any department. (1) There is hereby created an independent office called the Commission on Human Rights. Section 18. continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make available at affordable cost. and other incentives Until the Congress otherwise provides. governing board must be natural-born Filipino citizens. when the public interest so requires. especially of local communities. and for the common good. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. bureau. and integrated system of education relevant to the Section 20. a natural-born citizen of the Philippines who Section 2. the Central Bank of the Philippines operating under existing laws. national interest and subject to criminal and civil sanctions. to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. and shall with law and in a just and humane manner. developmental. prisons. membership. No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be undertaken without adequate consultation with them and the communities where they are to be relocated. and local government establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms. both inland and offshore. Acts which circumvent or negate any of the provisions of this Article shall be considered inimical to the determining the ownership and extent of ancestral domain. and political inequalities. or detention facilities. The State school age. expansion and growth. or authorization be exclusive in character or for a longer period than fifty years. reserve to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations at least sixty per centum The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and employers and the preferential of whose capital is owned by such citizens. and a living wage. . production. and cite for contempt for violations thereof in granted except to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations organized under the laws of the farmworkers. The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall (2) Establish and maintain. The Congress shall establish an independent central monetary authority. and implement continuing integrated and coordinated programs and policies for Section 3. To this end. of known probity. homestead rights of small settlers. the State shall encourage and undertake the accordance with the Rules of Court. adequate financial. or payment of just compensation. The State. including lands of the public (6) Recommend to Congress effective measures to promote human rights and to provide for compensation to Section 13. and landowners. humane conditions of work. The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship. exercise its present functions and powers. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen. by law. URBAN LAND REFORM AND HOUSING Section 17. The Congress shall enact measures that will encourage the formation and operation of enterprises therewith to foster industrial peace. Neither shall any such may prescribe. the State shall regulate the acquisition. The sustained development of a reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino scientists. after consultations with the appropriate public agencies. recognizing the right of labor to its just (4) The approved annual appropriations of the Commission shall be automatically and regularly released. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels. facilitate the which shall. programs. and similar collective organizations. The State may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which shall be distributed entrepreneurs. The Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and functions: The State shall regulate and exercise authority over foreign investments within its national jurisdiction and in AGRARIAN AND NATURAL RESOURCES REFORM (1) Investigate. and adequate financial. nor shall such franchise. or associations qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public domain. The use of property bears a social function. disabled. (8) Grant immunity from prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose possession of documents or other fields shall be promoted by the State. and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research. The authority shall provide policy direction in the areas of money. including conciliation. in the case of other (2) Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure. In times of national emergency. Section 1. Section 14. during the ARTICLE XIV emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it. on freedom of initiative and self-reliance. privileges. as may be provided by law. Individuals and private groups. It endeavor to make essential goods. collective bargaining and negotiations. The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of any public Section 5. the existing Presidential Committee on Human Rights shall continue to investments. operated by the Government. and national development. and provide for preventive measures and legal aid services to the under- repeal by the Congress when the common good so requires. The State shall regulate or prohibit monopolies when the public interest so requires. Philippines and a majority of whom shall be members of the Bar. The Congress may establish an independent economic and planning agency headed by the President. production. The State shall: in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed. and children. peaceful and lawful means. whenever applicable in accordance with law. within the democratic framework. use. or regulation of Section 8. especially to the under- function as the central monetary authority. The State shall respect the role of independent people's organizations to enable the people to pursue Section 7. save in cases prescribed by law. Foreign loans may only be incurred in accordance with law and the regulation of the monetary Section 13. by law. health and other social services available to all the people at affordable cost. Section 16. the majority of whom shall come from the private sector. integrity. and conserve such resources. and economic decision-making shall not be abridged. to own directly or collectively the lands they till or. corporations. The State shall encourage appropriate technology and regulate its transfer evidence is necessary or convenient to determine the truth in any investigation conducted by it or under its for the national benefit. recommend to Congress. subsidies. managers. economic. has lost his Philippine citizenship may be a transferee of private lands. including corporations. certain areas of use of voluntary modes in settling disputes. (1) Establish. alteration. and all economic agents shall contribute to the common them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation. or agency in the performance of its functions. provide for the formation. Section 7. The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing. political. manpower development. employment creation. establish. Fishworkers shall (10) Appoint its officers and employees in accordance with law. and cultural well-being. problems. utility enterprise shall be limited to their proportionate share in its capital. or any other form of authorization for the operation of a public utility shall be regular farmworkers who are landless. The Congress may provide for other cases of violations of human rights that should fall within the charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the test of economic viability. no private lands shall be transferred or conveyed except to inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good. certificate. Section 6. except by general law. Section 10. social. shall protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to their ancestral lands to ensure their authority. take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. The Congress shall. taking into account ecological. privileged whose human rights have been violated or need protection. and credit. and disposition of property and its increments. subject to limitations provided by law. office. farmworkers. when the national disabilities of the Members of the Commission shall be provided by law. student loan programs. various private sectors. public utilities by the general public. decent housing EDUCATION. shall appropriate health. shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers. ARTS. taking into account its recommendations. and protect. The Congress shall not. undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and Section 11. temporarily take over or direct the operation of any Section 9. No franchise. and instruments for social justice and economic development. local and overseas. ownership. or such higher percentage as Congress may prescribe. just distribution of all agricultural lands. and management of the (4) Exercise visitorial powers over jails. and to give preference to qualified Filipinos. Without may be prescribed by law. a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. cooperatives. They shall also be subject to such other qualifications and disabilities as Section 11. The right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of Section 9. It shall provide support The practice of all professions in the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino citizens. and other support services. organization. elderly. The State shall afford full protection to labor. Save in cases of hereditary succession. (11) Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law. The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity. upon recommendation of the economic and planning agency. transfer to public ownership utilities and other private enterprises to be shall respect the rights of small property owners. subject to the duty of the State to ROLE AND RIGHTS OF PEOPLE'S ORGANIZATIONS promote distributive justice and to intervene when the common good so demands. interest dictates.

their surviving spouses and orphans. The Congress may provide for incentives. including training for international competitions. The first local elections shall be held on a date to be determined by the President. honored by the people and recognized by law. athletic clubs and other sectors. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. Section 12. call a constitutional convention. and The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of capacity to a civilian position in the Government. and community. Any amendment to. As it evolves. other than those established by religious groups and mission boards. (1) All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula. (4) The right of families or family associations to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and (2) A constitutional convention. wholly-owned and managed by such citizens. (1) The right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions and the demands of academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State. all grants. coordinate. as an inviolable social institution. The Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of representatives of various (7) The tour of duty of the Chief of Staff of the armed forces shall not exceed three years. district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters therein. priority to research and development. or by a Section 16. No member of the military shall engage. THE FAMILY Section 5. to foster self-discipline. SPORTS Section 11. For purposes of communication and instruction. the disabled. (1) All members of the armed forces shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this TRANSITORY PROVISIONS LANGUAGE Constitution. existence of such institutions. for such period as of information into. which shall be national in scope and civilian in (3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians. Section 2. to be administered and controlled by a national police commission. and The Congress shall provide for the implementation of the exercise of this right. No amendment under Section 14.(1) The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational technological capabilities. endowments. The State shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists. (2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism. shall be owned be provided to deserving science students. teach the rights and duties of Section 9. ARTICLE XVI once every five years thereafter. or revision of. Section 3. develop moral character and personal discipline. . or other forms of incentives shall (2) Educational institutions. is the foundation of the family and shall be protected by the State. programs that affect them. as well as self-learning. foster love of humanity. Section 11. including restrictions on dividends and provisions for (2) All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with (2) The advertising industry is impressed with public interest. (2) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning. The State shall conserve. Arts and letters shall enjoy the patronage of the State. except to vote. Section 3. subject to fair. vocational efficiency. The flag of the Philippines shall be red. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate Section 19. under the protection of the State which may regulate its disposition. and all the executive and managing officers of such entities must be its solidarity and actively promote its total development. and (4) No member of the armed forces in the active service shall. ARTICLE XVIII (2) The State shall encourage and support researches and studies on the arts and culture. directly or indirectly. technologists. respect. or contributions used actually. in the utilization of natural resources. enrichment. and promote researches for the development. public venues. approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong. Funds shall be provided therefor Section 4. in programs of basic and applied scientific research. requires. encourage regions and disciplines which shall undertake. be appointed or designated in any out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs. this Constitution may be proposed by: retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job (3) The right of the family to a family living wage and income. in times of war citizenship. and indigenous learning systems. unless otherwise provided by law. 1987. for may be provided by law. educational system. The first elections of Members of the Congress under this Constitution shall be held on the second Section 6. Section 12. Section 1. in system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions. and amateur sports. The Senators. and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national culture this section shall be authorized within five years following the ratification of this Constitution nor oftener than based on the principle of unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression. It shall encourage the widest participation of private groups. The State shall provide immediate and adequate care. Section 1. The State shall foster the preservation. military training and serve as may be provided by law. exploitation and other conditions prejudicial to their development. researchers. The Congress may. Arabic. and other forms of assistance to war education. based organizations in the generation and utilization of science and technology. The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen armed force which shall undergo on Elections of the sufficiency of the petition. concern of the State. and protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to which shall all be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals. however. critical and creative thinking. innovation. The State may not be sued without its consent. by a vote of two-thirds of all its Members. and respect for Monday of May. require increased Filipino equity participation in all educational institutions. (5) Laws on retirement of military officers shall not allow extension of their service. speech and of the press. white. Accordingly. Section 5. cooperatives or associations. ARTICLE XV Only Filipino citizens or corporations or associations at least seventy per centum of the capital of which is owned directly. upon a vote of three-fourths of all its Members. AMENDMENTS OR REVISIONS (2) The right of children to assistance. (4) Subject to conditions prescribed by law. or a national seal. independent. Proprietary educational institutions. their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law. The Congress may. at any time. The Congress may create a consultative body to advise the President on policies affecting indigenous (3) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study. Section 2. a national anthem. or to (3) All revenues and assets of non-stock. submit to the electorate the question of calling such a convention. products. or satisfaction and fulfillment. by law. The State shall. The State shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for the Section 9. and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax. enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. until otherwise provided by law. and special protection from all forms of (5) The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and neglect. and other skills. broaden scientific and technological knowledge. it shall strengthen proportionate share in the capital thereof. including government-owned or controlled corporations or any instruction therein. promote. and their application to the country's productive systems and national life. including those cooperatively owned. and services. Section 2. and due consideration shall be given them in the disposition of agricultural lands of the public domain and. grants-in-aid. inventors. responsible parenthood. informal. teamwork. The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines. (5) Provide adult citizens. Marriage. it shall be further developed and (2) The State shall strengthen the patriotic spirit and nationalist consciousness of the military. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of take effect only upon its ratification by the people in a national referendum. donations. of which every legislative programs of social security. including tax deductions. The State shall establish and maintain one police force. traditions. appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country. and to science and technology Section 7. All the country's artistic and historic wealth constitutes the cultural treasure of the nation and shall be Section 1. and shall be regulated by law for the protection of reinvestment. No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition therein shall be allowed. in accordance with a policy that respects the freedom of established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and. other foreign temporary residents. Any amendment under Section 2 hereof shall be valid when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite Section 18. 1992. reasonable. citizens of the Philippines. and specially gifted Section 8. and other gifted emergence of communication structures suitable to the needs and aspirations of the nation and the balanced flow than one-third of the enrollment in any school. public which shall be held not earlier than sixty days nor later than ninety days after the certification by the Commission or private cultural entities. benefits. particularly when beneficial to the people. (1) The State shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the educational system. both the government and the private sectors. or revision of. and self-reliant scientific and veterans and veterans of military campaigns. and promote vocational efficiency. The family has the duty to care for its elderly members but the State may also do so through just upon a petition of at least twelve per centum of the total number of registered voters. may likewise be entitled to such exemptions. invention. non-profit educational institutions used actually. scholarships. English. and institutions. scientists. (1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs. which may be simultaneous with Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate. religion shall be allowed to be taught to their SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY character. and Spanish. consumers and the promotion of the general welfare. Amendments to this Constitution may likewise be directly proposed by the people through initiative ARTS AND CULTURE Section 4. league competitions. Scholarships. Section 2. the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and. directly. respect for human rights. and exclusively corporations. Such law shall by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty days nor later than ninety preserve and develop their cultures. adopt a new name for the country.(4) Encourage non-formal. strengthen ethical and spiritual values. It shall support indigenous. history. out of. inventors. Section 6. GENERAL PROVISIONS Section 3. Section 3. admission and academic requirements. The State shall provide the policy environment for the full development of Filipino capability and the No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more Section 13. local governments. propagation. review to increase the pensions and other benefits due to retirees of solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which citizens. of their subsidiaries. this Constitution under Section 1 hereof shall be valid when ratified Section 17. the majority of the members of which shall come from such communities. abuse. with a sun and three stars. Constitution shall serve until noon of June 30. artists. and other Section 4. the President may extend such tour of duty. including proper care and nutrition. Section 8. for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. provinces and cities as far as practicable. The State shall protect consumers from trade malpractices and from substandard or hazardous national benefit. or other national emergency declared by the Congress. and traditions of the people. days after the approval of such amendment or revision. from time to time. and The Congress shall regulate or prohibit monopolies in commercial mass media when the public interest so excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. The State recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation. This Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and shall be translated into major regional (6) The officers and men of the regular force of the armed forces shall be recruited proportionately from all languages. cruelty. The authority of local executives children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or over the police units in their jurisdiction shall be provided by law. The State shall give to the Government. Section 15. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools citizens to their intellectual property and creations. is owned by such citizens. The State shall defend: ARTICLE XVII (4) The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. national plans and policies. without additional cost Section 10. as consecrated and majority vote of all its Members. subject to the limitations provided by law. and across the country. Non-teaching academic and non. by such citizens shall be allowed to engage in the advertising industry. Members of the House of Representatives. Section 10. and out-of-school youth with training in civics. Section 1. and equitable cultural communities. and the local officials first elected under this Section 7. Section 4. the Government shall take steps to the election of the Members of the Congress. grants and other incentives. (1) The ownership and management of mass media shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines. and (1) The Congress. and preservation of Filipino and other languages. and blue. and their utilization. It shall include the election of all Members of the city or municipal initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the (3) Professionalism in the armed forces and adequate remuneration and benefits of its members shall be a prime councils in the Metropolitan Manila area. as well as artistic creations. appropriate. (1) the State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of entities in such industry shall be limited to their planning in the development of educational policies and programs. to encourage private participation appropriate cases. It shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of the State. Any amendment to. people's rights in the performance of their duty. However. The State shall recognize. Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. popularize the nation's historical and cultural heritage and resources. and community cultural centers. training. Science and technology are essential for national development and progress. in any partisan political activity. The armed forces shall be insulated from partisan politics. The Congress may.

Quesada MARIKINA. Santo Section 16. adopt a systematic Adopted: Miguel up to point where Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard eastward to City boundary between Manila and Quezon plan to expedite the decision or resolution of cases or matters pending in the Supreme Court or the lower courts Cityl.P. which is mouth of Estero de San Miguel going eastward to Mendiola Bridge. All existing treaties or international agreements which have not been ratified shall not be renewed or force established in this Constitution. Recto Section 8. Jr. Extension to Estero de San Lazaro. and accordingly signed on between Pasay and Manila down to Roxas Boulevard up to edge of reclaimed areas westward to Manila Bay. All properties. Vicente B. letters of instructions. the first twelve obtaining the highest number of votes shall serve Section 23. two (2) . Villegas PATEROS and TAGUIG. Sienna. hereby extended to noon of June 30. Second District: Municipalities of ORDINANCE Badoc. records. Estero de Pandacan.S. Domingo. Section 13. Fourth District: Barangays Nos. Vice-President San Jose. Concepcion Hilario G. This Constitution shall take effect immediately upon its ratification by a majority of the votes cast in a Boulevard up to point Estero de San Miguel where Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard spans Estero de San Miguel. Salvacion. Quirino 3-A. Kamuning Silangan. Damayan. The Congress shall provide efficacious procedures and adequate remedies for the reversion to the State of all lands of the public domain and real rights connected therewith which were acquired in violation of the Flerida Ruth P. Valencia. 1-146. repealed. San Isidro. Central.From majority of the votes cast by the people in a national referendum held for that purpose. In no case shall any Member serve longer than seven years including service before the Ahmad Domocao Alonto Jose D. Section 11 of Article XV1 of this Constitution shall have APPORTIONING THE SEATS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CONGRESS OF THE PHILIPPINES TO THE for six years and the remaining twelve for three years. Nineteen hundred and eighty-six at the Plenary Hall. 3 dated March 25. subsidiaries.Estero de San Miguel up to component municipalities are reverted to the mother province. Marilag. the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court. one (1) Constitution or the public land laws.City boundary between Manila and Section 6. Marcos. For purposes of the election of Members of the House of Representatives of the First Congress of the Section 3. Tandang Sora. 1986 and the reorganization following the Yusuf R. from its ratification. Philam. Dona Imelda. Attested by : REGION I Section 21. Rosales employees of the National Government. when the applicable period lapses after such Hills. had been accepted. Dingras. cities. and Section 27. Until the Congress provides otherwise. Sto. SW & W .First District: Barangays Nos. Libis. Teacher's East. Gascon Serafin V. Holy Spirit. Old Capital Site. the corresponding judicial action or proceeding shall be filed within six months Avenue eastward to Estero de San Miguel ending at Pasig River. and Botocan. Floor Leader Unang Sigaw. one (1) free public secondary education. northward to Antipolo Street. S . Carasi. Section 22. before the ratification of this Constitution. Adams.City boundary between Manila and Quezon City Section 10. West Triangle.Manila Bay northward to City boundary Section 26. Nineteen hundred and eighty-six. ratification of this Constitution. NE . and the Chairmen of the Constitutional Ma. the Members of the Christian S. San Nicolas. when the Congress so requires. Nagkaisang Nayon. The legal effect of the lapse. Pasong Putik. with the City of Baguio.First District: Laoag City and the Municipalities of Bacarra. of the applicable period for the QUEZON CITY. San Antonio. Batac. The order and the list of boundary between Manila and Caloocan. and other executive Philippines under the Constitution proposed by the 1986 Constitutional Commission and subsequent elections. ratification of this Constitution shall be entitled to appropriate separation pay and to retirement and other Adolfo S. Burgos. Sta. one (1) Section 20. Cruz. Obrero. Romero ABRA. Cecilia Munoz Palma spanning Estero de Pandacan. Talipapa. Bonifacio Street extending southward to Dimasalang. as herein provided.City boundary up to point city boundary of Manila. Baesa. one (1) House of Representatives. Balingasa. shall be determined by the Village. Bahay Toro. Silangan. Bangui. and the Members of the Constitutional Commissions. Lucia. and Solsona. Manga. National Government Center. and Eulogio R. N . Section 1. No transfer or disposition of such lands or real Secretary-General BENGUET. for distribution to the beneficiaries of the agrarian reform program.Manila-San Juan- prior to the effectivity of this Constitution. thence southward to Claro M. S . Bungad. Romulo Decoroso R. or revoked. San Martin. Damar. the President may fill by appointment from a list of nominees by the respective Claro M. Apolonio Samson. until otherwise provided by law. ratification. and Dumalneg. Bernas Florangel Rosario Braid CALOOCAN CITY. Rodrigo MAKATI. All paramilitary forces including Civilian Home Defense Forces not consistent with the citizen armed among the provinces. Sixth District: Barangays Nos. Section 15 of Article VIII of this Constitution shall apply to Project 6. following line along Estero de San Section 12. Padilla Paang Bundok. the Congress may corner Antipolo Street and Rizal Avenue on southern side of Railroad Tracks extending westward to Estero de San extend such period. 1992. may be defined by law. de Castro Jose C. tendered in line with the existing Roberto R. Wilfrido V. Second District: all the Municipalities of rights shall be allowed until after the lapse of one year from the ratification of this Constitution. San Juan and Quezon City. northward to Section 9.First District: Baguio City.Starting from point Quezon City. 587-648. Florenz D. one (1) Section 18. Escopa 4. Tatalon. instrumentalities. converted into the regular force. U. Dona Aurora. Section 25. Alicia. Nayong Kanluran. Pasuquin. E . 1992.P. two hundred four thousand pesos each. East Kamias. Jamir Jose B. Masagana. K. Quririno 2 B. Espiritu. A sequestration or freeze order shall be issued only upon showing of a prima facie case. the Vice-President.City boundary between Manila and Makati up to Estero de Tripa de Gallina. Teresita. Sarrat. Authority to be composed of the heads of all local government units comprising the Metropolitan Manila area. Don Manuel. NE . Kalusugan. Immaculate Concepcion. Natividad SAN JUAN and MANDALUYONG. Jr. Davide. Quirino 3-B.City boundary between the sequestered or frozen properties shall forthwith be registered with the proper court. one (1) Jose Luis Martin C. In lieu Jose F. SE . Nueva Era. Philippines except under a treaty duly concurred in by the Senate and. Capri. executive orders. Aguinaldo. five years from its ratification to comply on a graduated and proportionate basis with the minimum Filipino DIFFERENT LEGISLATIVE DISTRICTS IN PROVINCES AND CITIES AND THE METROPOLITAN MANILA AREA ownership requirement therein. one (1) Lorenzo M. 649-828 N . N-City Boundary between Manila and Caloocan. SE - Monday of May. This provision also applies to career officers whose resignation. for purposes of synchronization of elections. the Senators.First District : Barangays Del Monte. Bagong Silangan. Milagrosa. Azcuna Teodoro C. All of Caloocan North EDSA. Kamuning. Tan Gregorio J. Uka office or body to which its powers.Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard up to V. Malaya. Rodriguez. the Government shall expropriate idle or abandoned agricultural lands as ILOCOS NORTE. two hundred forty thousand pesos each. one Blas F. E . within one year after the ratification of this Constitution. Roxas. Socorro. Manresa. A sub-province shall continue to exist and operate until it is converted into a regular province or until its boundary between Manila and Caloocan. the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Recto Avenue westward to bridge spanning Section 7. Colayco All of Caloocan South EDSA. one (1) PARANAQUE. foreign military bases. Supreme Court as soon as practicable. Career civil service employees separated from the service not for cause but as a result of the Nino. Section 14. Second District: Barangays Fairview. Napoleon G. Second District: 118 Barangays. For those issued after such ratification. and other assets of any office or body abolished Christine O. the President of the Senate. San Isidro Labrador. Paltok. decrees. 3 dated March 25. U. Currimao. N.Quezon Boulevard. judiciary acts. Monica. Escopa 3. Mariana. South Triangle. NE . Assistant Floor Leader Assistant Floor Leader Kaunlaran. Cirilo A. ratification of this Constitution. Garcia PASAY CITY. by the Commissioners whose signatures are hereunder affixed. W . The six-year term of the incumbent President and Vice-President elected in the February 7. M. Balumbato. A similar plan shall be adopted for all special courts and quasi-judicial Mandaluyong-Makati boundaries up to Tejeron Street.City boundary Section 11. Bagumbayan. eastward to Rizal Avenue Extension. Culiat. SE . Laurel. Dona Josefa. S . Cristo. Calderon Bagumbayan.Tejeron Street to Pedro Gil Street up to bridge bodies. Bengzon. Ugong Norte. Amoranto. then President northward on Paz M. Tingson LAS PINAS and MUNTINGLUPA. Pinahan. from convened. Fourth District: Barangays Bagong Lipunan. From point Claro M. Ramon Magsaysay. extended without the concurrence of at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate. Section 24. reorganization pursuant to Proclamation No. including government-owned or controlled corporations and their Crispino M.586 SW . the Commission on Elections. Monsod Teodulo C. Nieva Jose N. Nolledo Commissions.Del Pan Street northward up to Claro M. Until a law is passed. troops. the President shall receive an annual salary of three hundred Alberto M. Santol. Recto Avenue to Quezon Boulevard. Tayuman Street up to the Railroad Tracks along Dagupan Street. The incumbent Members of the Civil Service Commission. with Laog City. . at the option of the employees. two (2) .A. term thereunder. the President may constitute the Metropolitan Manila the ratification of this Constitution. Vasra. unless they are Zobel Dioquino. Aquino San Vicente. All courts existing at the time of the ratification of this Constitution shall continue to exercise their up to Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard. West Kamias. Veterans decision or resolution of the cases or matters submitted for adjudication by the courts. Kristong Hari. Village. Teresa F. Private armies and other armed groups not recognized by duly constituted authority shall be until otherwise provided by law. E . thence to Del Pan Street. Laging Handa. Manila Bay up to mouth of Pasig River. W . However. one (1) hundred eighty thousand pesos each. and the Barangays E. Teacher's West. Damayang Lagi. San Agustin.Ramon Magsaysay jurisdiction. Dimasalang up to boundary between Manila and Quezon City. they may be considered for employment in the Government or in any of Joaquin G. 3 dated March 25. Sta. Paoay. Quirino 2 C. benefits accruing to them under the laws of general application in force at the time of their separation. and Bagong Pag-asa. Horseshoe. Sauyo. Pagud-Pagud.Estero de Pandacan up to Pedro Gil Street to Tejeron Street up to boundary of Manila The foregoing proposed Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines was approved by the Constitutional and Makati. The sequestration or freeze order is deemed automatically lifted if no judicial action or proceeding is commenced Mendiola Bridge. equipment. as certified by the President. its subdivisions.From end of Rizal Avenue Extension extending southward to Railroad Tracks at Antipolo Street. W - years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office or are removed for cause. Payatas. or facilities shall not be allowed in the election is.Mouth of Pasig River inland to point Paz M. 268-394. After the expiration in 1991 of the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the United METROPOLITAN MANILA AREA Section 5. Until otherwise provided by the Congress. the fifteenth day of October. W . and Matandang Balara. Peter. 1986 between Manila and Caloocan.Mouth of Estero de San Miguel at Pasig River. or agencies. Ople Minda Luz M. one (1) or reorganized under Proclamation No. the seats reserved for sectoral representation in paragraph (2). Recto within six months from the issuance thereof. Vintar. S. Sta. ratified by a MANILA. Masambong. Mapa Street. Suarez PASIG. Rama Novaliches Proper. Ambrosio B. Tagumpay. SE . Pasong Tamo. The incumbent Members of the Judiciary shall continue in office until they reach the age of seventy Commission of 1986 on the twelfth day of October. de los Reyes. Quirino sooner removed for cause or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office or appointed to a new 2 A. Sta. The first Congress shall give priority to the determination of the period for the full implementation of VALENZUELA. Loyola Heights. Recto Avenue extending westward to Manila Bay. Kanluran. to Anda-lucia. Jr. and Sangandaan: Third District : Section 15. All existing laws. The authority to issue sequestration or freeze orders under Proclamation No. At the earliest possible time. where appropriate. San Roque. Batasan cases or matters filed before the ratification of this Constitution. eastward to The first regular elections for the President and Vice-President under this Constitution shall be held on the second by the other contracting State. Jr. and 829-905 N . Abubakar Felicitas S.Estero de la Reina to Estero de Vitas to Estero Sunog Apog to City sectors. N . Andalucia. Recto at Estero de la Reina. The incumbent President shall continue to exercise legislative powers until the first Congress is in relation to the recovery of ill-gotten wealth shall remain operative for not more than eighteen months after the Caloocan. M. Maambong the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. New Era. MALABON and NAVOTAS.C. At the earliest possible time. The provisions of paragraphs (3) and (4). facilities. Piddig. Commission on Audit shall continue in office for one year after the ratification of this Constitution. Advertising entities affected by paragraph (2). Lourdes. Bagbag. San Bartolome. Sarmiento Jose E. Guanzon Street. Guanzon Street extending to Supreme Court or the Congress. Duyan-Duyan. functions. Regalado Rustico F. Kaligayahan. the judicial action or proceeding shall be commenced westward to Del Pan Bridge. Krus Na Ligas.First District : 70 Barangays. in the national interest. The Supreme Court shall. Sumulong Jaime S. St. Maharlika. For orders issued before Manila and Caloocan. Trenas Lugum L. L. E . Second District: Barangays Nos.Estero de Pandacan going northward to Paz M. Fifth procedural laws not inconsistent with this Constitution shall remain operative unless amended or repealed by the plebiscite held for the purpose and shall supersede all previous Constitutions. District: Barangays Nos. Talayan. the Government shall increase the salary scales of the other officials and Ricardo J. The provisions of the existing Rules of Court. 1986 or this Constitution shall be transferred to the Efrain B. or through corrupt practices. W . shall be dissolved or. Commonwealth. St. proclamations. 147-267. Guingona Section 17. Mariblo. 395 . and issuances not inconsistent with this Constitution shall remain operative until amended. 1986 States of America concerning military bases. Campus. Foz Edmundo G. Recto Avenue. thence to C. Paraiso. Lerum Regalado E. Lazaro. Third District: Barangays Nos. and the Metropolitan Manila Area as follows: Section 4. Villa Maria Clara. Tadeo Section 19. Benguet. Pinagkaisahan. one (1) thousand pesos. Escopa 2. six (6) . Pansol. Katipunan. Pag-ibig sa Nayon. Ponciano L.Of the Senators elected in the elections in 1992. Bennagen thereof. Claro M. southward along Estero de San Lazaro up to corner of C. and responsibilities substantially pertain. buildings. Amihan. the Members thereof shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned dismantled. two (2) . Section 5 of Article V1 of this Constitution. Rigos Francisco A. policy. Escopa 1. Gulod. Rene V. Pinili. four (4) . and recognized as a treaty Estero de Sunog Apog going South to Estero de Vitas up to the bridge spanning Juan Luna Street. Villacorta Bernardo M. Bacani Sikatuna. Paligsahan. Sacred Heart. Guazon Street up to Pasig River to mouth of Estero de San Miguel on Pasig River.

Roxas. Magdalena. Sta. Maribojoc. QUEZON. one (1) REGION VIII IFUGAO. and Unisan. Sampaloc. Sr. Pilar. Third District: Municipalities of Loay. Municipalities of Basey. Talamban. Bustos. Lemery. Second District: Municipalities of Aurora. Kitcharao. Alcala. Labangon. P. San Isidro. two (2) . San Remigio. Ma-ayon. Bacayan. Galimuyod. Cardona. Echague. BATANES. Tejero. Sapian. Camputhaw. Nampicuan. Lapuyan. Nagbukel. Licab. Basak San Nicolas. Mariano Marcos. Tomas. and Bulacan. Naga. Teresa. Sara. C. Second District: Trece Martires City and the Municipalities REGION VII BUKIDNON. Second District: Municipalities of Botolan. Gumaca. Tabango. Batarasa. and San Jose. Pola. Balatan. Dauin.First District : Municipalities of Bacnotan. AKLAN. Quirino. Lantapan. ROMBLON. Pio Duran. and Tanza. Lumban. Fifth District: Municipalities of Abuyog. and Villaba. two (2) . Banilad. Bato. New Panamao. Sugpon. and Remedios Trinidad. and Hinigaran. Sta. San Miguel. Third District: Municipalities of Maasin. Palayan City. Matnog. Second District: Bais City. Gamay. Iba. Calaca. Dimasalang. Third District: Municipalities of NEGROS ORIENTAL. one (1) Asturias. San Miguel. Quezon. and Obando. three (3) . with the Cities of San Carlos. Jaro. Lungus.First District: Municipalities of Talakag. Amlan. Estancia. San Dionisio. Agno. Barauen. Tambulig. three (3) . Lopez. Kumalarang. Maria. Pitogo. Hindang. one (1) CAMARINES SUR. QUIRINO. Umingan. the Municipalities of San Juan. Agdangan. Prieto Diaz. and Basista. Carmen. Catarman. Cabatuan. Siay. Penaranda. SIQUIJOR. Alangalang. Talugtog. Bayawan. Jiabong. Canaman.ILOCOS SUR. Binaliw. Ana. Talisay. Angono. Gen. Guiguinto. Quiot. Alcoy. OCCIDENTAL MINDORO. one (1) Jose City and the Municipalities of Lupao. Tungawan. four (4) .First District: Municipalities of Binan. Bulalakao. Garchitorena. Fourth District: Municipalities of Sigma. four (4) . Dasol. Alicia. Calumpit. Teresita. Orani. Kamagayan. and Alcala. ILOILO CITY. Gen. and Dangcagan. La Libertad. Villasis. Naval. Pulang Bato. and Siruma. BOHOL. and Roxas.First District: Municipalities of Jolo. two (2) . Alegria. Naga. Lucban. Baggao. Baleno. Cauayan. Balagtas. Mutia. Ignacia. and Bingawan. Buenavista. Third District: Municipalities of Maramag. CEBU CITY. Municipalities of Rosales. and Cawayan. Biliran. Sawang Calero. Baybay. Suba Pasil. Baliquian. Guindulman. Tabina. Jagna. Cogon-Ramos. Dagohoy. and Kalayaan. and Remedios T. Leon. Solana. Amulung. Vega. Fourth District: Pinabacadao. San Clemente. Malinao. Orion. Cavite and Trece Martires. Fourth District: Iriga City and the Municipalities of Baao. Oslob. Indang. Dumangas. Santo Domingo. Luuk. and Palompon. Valencia. with the Cities of Dapitan and Dipolog. Calatagan. Cuyo. Mabuhay. Ubay. Mansalay. T. Fourth District: Municipalities fof San Leonardo. Second District: Second Distict: Municipalities Baliuag. Magarao. San Pascual. and Sta. one (1) Isabel. Luna. Payao. and Victoria. Jetafe. with the Cities of Dagupan and San Carlos. Alimodian. San Agustin. Bacong. San Pablo. Cortes. Garcia. REGION IX NUEVA ECIJA. Parian. An Mariano. K. Calabanga. Polilio. and Pilar. ana. Talalora. Rizal. P. Limay. with the Cities of Tacloban and Ormoc. Palo. CAMARINES NORTE. Corpuz. Guihulngan. Talibon. Diplahan. Third District: Municipalities of Valencia. Bago.First District: Municipalities of Guimbal. Lavezares. Burgos. Sigay. Liloy. Labason. Pavia. Pamutan. Pantabangan. Sergio Osmena. one (1) Lupi. Luisiana. Munoz. Ocampo. San LAGUNA. San Miguel. Dauis. Juban. Benito Soliven. Panganto-can. Cabadbaran. Sierra Bullones.First District: Municipalities of Sta. Santo Domingo. Madridejos. Libon. Barbara. and Bocaue. and Pres. and Basay. Placer. San Narciso. Mabini. Parang. Libona. Pilar. Mapanas. San Manuel. Bindoy. Josefina. Second District: San BASILAN. Minalabac. Gonzaga. San Rafael. Lorega. three (3) . Arayat. Second District: Municipalities of Pilar. with Olongapo City. Talusan. and S. one (1) ORIENTAL MINDORO. Maimbung. and Sta. Medellin. Malolos. Masinloc. ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE. Tubigon. San Enrique. San Jose. with Puerto Princesa City. Guadalupe. Pandami. Mauban. Moal. Carreta. Famy.First District: Municipalities of Bolinao. Ipil. one (1) the Municipalities of Sagay and Manapla. Taytay. Casiguran. and Tabogon. Anilao. of Imus. Sto. Nino. Anao. Albano. Penablanca. Pototan. five (5) . Rosario. Gregorio del Pilar. two (2) . with the Cities of Tagaytay. and the Municipalities of Mangaldan. San Ildefonso. Pamplona. including the Cities of Naga and Iriga. Second District: Lucena city and Municipalities of Candelaria. Naic. Jumalig. Angadanan. and Carles. three (3) . Victoria. Pulupandan. Pio V. and Sta. Gapan. Bongabon.First District: Municipalities of Mayantoc. Manukan. Macalelon. Midsalip. Dumaran. Urbiztondo. Pangil. and Manjuyod. Municipalities of San Miguel.First District Municipalities of San Pascual. Concepcion. four (4) . Lope de Nabua. and Tuburan. Claveria. Sto. Carmona. REGION IV NEGROS OCCIDENTAL. Minglanilla. Ragay. Second District: Municipalities of Clarin. Alabat. Lapu-Lapu. Tuy. with the Cities of Cabanatuan. San Fernando. San Mateo. Danao.First District: Municipalities of Agutaya.First District: Olongapo City and the Municipalities of Subic. Loon. Dagami. Maria. Third Matuguinao. MacArcthur. Talavera. Nagcarlan. one (1) of Tuguegarao. and Sibongan. Canlaon. two (2) . Tudela. Gattaran. four (4) . Silang. Enrique B. and La Paz. and Panitan. Rita. Burgos. Mabitac. and Hinobaan. and Socorro. Inopacan. Plaridel. Cabucgayan. AGUSAN DEL NORTE. Guba. Garcia-Hernandez. and Silay. Masantol. Fourth District: Third District: Municipalities of Guinobatan. Ilog. two (2) . Agoncillo. and Rizal. Pinamalayan. Buenavista. Pamplona. and the Municipalities of Mabinay. Tabunan. Second District: Municipalities of Bansud.First District: Municipalities of Del Gallego. Sevilla. Culaba. Malilipot. Olutanga. Santa Cruz. San Joaquin. Nueva Valencia.sanghan. Sikatuna. Cabanglasan. Pasil Abuno. Calape. Aliaga. Godod. Sagun.First District: Municipalities of Nasugbu. Ajuy. Tukuran. Third District: San Pablo City and the Candijay. Laoang. Fourth District: Bago City and the Municipalities of Valladolid. Mapandan. San Sebastian. LA UNION. Gainza. Claveria. Santa Lucia. REGION X Balayan. Samboan. and the Municipalities of Cordova and Consolacion. Mandaue. Corella. and Tiaong. Mendez-Nunez. Tabontabon. Panukulan. Magalona. Second District: Pamplona. Cruz. Ibaan. Allacapan. Punta Princesa. Apalit. CAMIGUIN. Meycauayan. Oas. Duero. Badiangan. and Quezon and Sibulan. El Nido. two (2) . Mayorga. one (1) AGUSAN DEL SUR.First District: Roxas City and the Municipalities of Panay. Padilla. San Narciso. three (3) . Sta. Manolo Fortich. Tagapul-an. San Fernando. Bout-Taup. TARLAC. Taytay. Dolores. three (3) . Second District: Municipalities of Barugo. Aurora. Bauang. and Tayabas. Ermita. San Isidro. Caranglan. R. Perez. and San Guillermo. with the Cities of Bais. Javier. and Polanco. Kalubihan. Nakar. Sta. Bauan. Pugo. Central. Pitogo. Dima. Himamaylan. SORSOGON. Imelda. Jovellar. San Antonio. Padre Municipalities of Vallehermoso. with Tagbilaran City. Tanay. and Dumanjug. Kasambagan.First District: Cavite City and the Municipalities of Bacoor. and Balanga. Daram. Central Proper. Capoocan. Sipocot. six (6) . Kalayaan. San Nicolas. Alaminos. Third District: Municipalities Municipalities of E. Lidlidda. Calinog. Dasmarinas. Santo Tomas. Ayungon. Fourth District: Ormoc city and the Municipalities of Albuera. Lambunao. Naguilian. and SAMAR. RIZAL. Camalaniugan. Calamba.. four (4) . two (2) . Santander. Pagbilao. Daraga. one (1) Tagkawayan. Lemery. Cavinti. BATANGAS.. and Taal. Anda. Basak Pardo. Tanauan. Fourth District: Municipalities of Calauag. and Manaoag. five (5) . Alcantara. Compostela. and Don ZAMBALES. Leyte. Liliw. Candelaria. Pangutaran. Boljoon. Lasam. Third District: Municipalities of Balete. Mallig. and Rosario. Merida. Pag.First District : Municipalities of Hagonoy. Sangay. and Tongkil. Ramos. Laur. MOUNTAIN PROVINCE. Sixth District: Lapu-lapu City. Tanauan. Roxas. San Luis. Binalbagan. Quirino. Bongabong. Malitbog. and Vigan. four (4) . Jimalalud. Panamao. Balamban. Mahaplag. Burgos. Damulog. Caibiran. with Lucena City. Sariaya. Buhi. Liloan. Talisay. Bobon. Burgos. Second District: Legazpi City and the Municipalities of Camalig. Paete. and Zapatera. and Matalom. Santiango. and Murcia. Castilla. Santiago. and CATANDUANES. Mariveles. Paniqui. Valencia. Buenavista. Third District: Toledo City and the Municipalities of Barili. Ballesteros.First District : Angeles City and the Municipalities of Mabalacat and CAPIZ. Victoria. Barbara. Alicia. San Luis. Cruz. Second District: Municipalities of Malay-balay. and La Carlota. Bayambang. Inayawan. Fe. Sambag 1. Carigara.First District: Municipalities of Bacacay. Labangan. Pakil. three (3) . Libmanan. Donsol. and Dinapigui. Balilihan. Macabebe. Plaridel. and Magallanes. Gandara. Magsingal. Maragondon. Dalaguete. Indanan. Municipalities Cordon.First District: Municipalities of Baco. Manito. Mambusao. Tagudin. Abulug. Rita. Magsaysay. Mandanue City. ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR. San Juan. San Pablo. Burgos. Aguilar. including Roxas City. Camaligan.First District: Municipalities of Burdeos. one (1) . Pililla. BULACAN. Busuanga. San Isidro. Mambaling. Sinsin. Fourth District: Dagupan City Cagayancillo. Second District : Naga City NUEVA VIZCAYA. San Gabriel. Jabonga. Magsaysay. Calubian. Nino. San Jacinto. General Trias. Noveleta. Fifth District: Municipalities of Barotac Viejo. two (2) . Third District: Antonio. Piat. Second District: Municipalities of Barcelona. Romualdez. Ramon. Dipolog City and the Municipalities of Katipunan. CAGAYAN. and Tingloy. one (1) Lapinig. and Toledo. Enrile. one (1) Tinambac. San Isidro. BATAAN. Sixth District: Municipalities of Kabankalan. Atimonan. with the City of Butuan. Catubig. Dumaguete City. Sto.First District: Municipalities of Magdalena. Urdaneta.First District: Municipalities of Aparri. Guagua. Poro. with the Cities of Batangas and Lipa. Dimiao. and Morong. Buhisan. Pit-os.First District: Municipalities of Antipolo. Sirao.First District: Canlaon City and the REGION II Catanauan. Nieves. San Manuel. with the Cities of Danao. Escalante. Naguilian. four (4) . Moncada. Tomas. Babatngon. ALBAY. Alaminos. Third District: Municipalities of Almeria. and Pura. and Ternate. and Tiwi. and Los Banos. San Felipe. Santa. Palanas. Pandi. Villareal. Porac. and Calayan. Bonbon. Motiong. Quezon. Catbalogan. two (2) . San Nicolas. MARINDUQUE. PANGASINAN. and Bulan. and San Marcelino. and Kadingilan.First District: San Carlos City and the Municipalities of Toboso. one (1) Municipalities of Malangas. New Bacungan. Lahug. Sta. Rosa. Pambuyan. and Tuao. Rodriguez. two (2) . Bula. Carmen. Pres. and Marcos. and Sibugay. Brooke's Point. Mariano Alvarez. Miagao. and Binangonan. Sogod. one (1) Tapul.First District: Barangays of Adlawon. Ponot. and Sta. and Victoria: Fourth District: Municipalities of Sta. Lallo. Mangatarem. Carcar. Tayug. Sta. Patnanungan. Pahina San Nicolas. Bulacao pardo. Jamindan. Araceli. Pastrana. Lakewood. Bilar. Floridablanca. Camiling. Santiago. Gerona. with Legazpi City. Milagros. Apas. Aringay. Manuel A. Mabini. Calbiga. San Jose. San Vicente. Malabuyoc. Ginatilan. Capas. Juan. Maconacon. Monreal. Presentacion. and Polangui. Magalang. and Zumarraga. Sto. Second District: Municipalities of Alilem. Paombong. Milaor. Fe. and Kalilangan. Antequera. Talipao. Suyo. two (2) . Tubay. Pardo. Fifth District: Municipalities of La Castellana. Narra. Second District: Municipalities of Labrador. Jones. San Antonio. Palayan and San Jose.First District: Dapitan City and the District: Municipalities of San Fernando. General Tinio. Pontevedra. BACOLOD CITY. Tomas. San Catalina. and Jaen. Cabagan.First District: Municipalities of Allen. Lian. Las Navas. Ligao. Third District: Tagaytay City and Sumialo. Dulag. Rizal. Mabini.bantayan. Bagulin. San Antonio. District: Municipalities of Bay. Capul. Concepcion. Kawit. one (1) Third District: Municipalities of Caramoan. Buguey. Calatrava. and Sudipen. San Jose. and Impasugong. Julita. two (2) . Taysan. Palapag. Cervantes. and Tarangnan. Second District: Municipalities of Lubao. Cabangan. Bantayan. Bayog. Linapacan. Third District: San Carlos City. Mexico. Second District: Candaba. Gabaldon. Bautista. Carmen. Coron. three (3) . Sta. three (30 . Third REGION VI SULU. Samal. Municipalities of San Jose del Monte. and Rapu-Rapu. Guimba. Maria. Calamba. Lagonoy. Binmaley. San Margosatubig. Second District: Cadiz City and ZAMBOANGA CITY. Rosario. Cuenca. Siocon. Tisa. and Sto. Sto. Budla-an. Goa. San Teodoro. two (2) . Pontevedra. and Talosa. La Carlota. Malubog. Catigbian. Roxas. Gubat. Taptap. Zamboanguita. Second District: Municipalities of Buenavista. Second District: Municipalities of Sta. San Jose. Sambag 11. Second District: Municipalities of Masbate. Marungas. San Fabian. Rosario. Municipalities of Jordan. Sapangdako. and Mandaon. and Mataas na Kahoy. San Jacinto. and Pila. Gamu. Baclayon. and Vincenzo A. Second Loboc. Batad. Puerto Galera. one (1) Catmon. with Angeles City. Bulusan. Candoni. Iguig. Bani.boal. Barotac Nuevo. Tayasan. Tigaon. Hipodromo. Nasipit. Second District: Municipalities of Dumalinao. Third District: District: Municipalities of Uson. Mina. San Roque. and Zaragoza. KALINGA-APAYAO. Kananga. Kabasalan. and San Miguel. Amadeo. Banayoyo. Hermosa. Sta. Duljo Fatima. Angat. Janiuay. and Pilar. Sison. and Patikul. Pinan. Tigbauan. and Mondragon. Second District: Municipalities of Argao. General Aguinaldo. Anda and Sual. La Libertad. and Sexmoan. and San Fernando. and Roseller Lim. and Ivisan. CEBU. Bogo. Sta. Castillejos. Santol. Balasan. Second District: Municipalities of Dumalag. Tigbao. Second District: Municipalities of Tarlac. Sudlon. Marabut. Sta. Norzagaray. Second District: Barangays of Babag. San Andres. Teresita. Titay.First District: Municipalities of Bantay. MASBATE.First District: Municipalities of Talisay. four (4) . Cabatuan. Sixth District: Quezon. three (3) . Cruz. Bangar. Third President Roxas. San Ildefonso. San Francisco. Balud. Benedicto.First District: Municipalities of Dinalupihan. one (1) REGION V LEYTE. and Tubao. Cuartero. Bugallon. San Dumingag. Gen. Municipalities of Calauan. the Municipalities of Malasiqui. Lila. one (1) PAMPANGA. Wright. Santa Margarita. Cabugao. Fourth District: Municipalities of Passi. Second District. and Sindangan. SOUTHERN LEYTE. Second District: REGION III Municipalities of Silvino Lobos. Sta. Praxedes. Morong. Tumauini. Hinabangan. and NORTHERN SAMAR.First District: Pagadian City and the Municipalities of Duenas. and San Simon. Second District: Municipalities of Agoo. Cuyapo. San Roque. Kibawe. Caba. Second District: Batangas City and the Municipalities of Lobo. one (1) and the Municipalities of Bonbon. the Municipalities of Alfonso. Maria. Aroroy. Pasacao. Tanjay. Third District: Municipalities of Reina Tabaco. Gutalac. Cauayan. Lanera. Dao. Third Lucena. Cadiz. Matagob. Dumarao. Bacolor. San Pedro and Sta. Sta. Santa Maria. Sto. San Fernando. Fourth District : Lipa City and Sipalay. Third District: Silay City and the Municipalities of Victorias. Cabiao. Luna. San Emilio. Lusaran.First District: Calbayog City and the Municipalities of almagro. Irosin. with Calbayog City. and Majayjay. Badian. Balaoan. Sta. Alonguinsan. Cataingan. Maripipi. Pulilan. Bato. Igbaras. Pahina Lingayen. Siaton. La Paz. Asingan. Magallanes. Palauig. Capitol Site. Bacon. Divilican. Hilongos. Magallanes. Cogon Pardo. Mercedes. Binalonan. Dingle. and PALAWAN. Salcedo. one (1) AURORA. and Palanan. Kinasang-an Pardo. Second District: Municipalities of Siasi. Infanta. Busay. ANTIQUE. and Dumaguete. and Toong.First District: Municipalities of Sorsogon. Bien Unido. and the Municipalities of General Natividad. one (1) CAVITE. Pozorrubio. San Vicente. Infanta. Abucay. District: Municipalities of Bamban. with San Pablo City. Cmbinocot. Bagac. District: Cabanatuan City. San Isidro. Esperanza. EASTERN SAMAR. Fifth District: Municipalities of Second District: Puerto Princesa City and the Municipalities of Aborlan. with Pagadian City. one (1) TAWI-TAWI. Tunga. Cabuyao. Natividad. and Quezon. Mahayag. Sanchez Mira. Laoac. Baungon. six (6) . Tampilisan. Luz. and Banate. Inabangan. Calasiao. Paril. San Antonio. Minalin. Calapan. and Jala-Jala. Rizal. Ilagan. Tomas. San Mateo. Trinidad. Agsungot. Municipalities of Sibutad. Oton. San Enrique. Culuang. Biri. Tinago. San Jorge. San Quintin. Kitaotao. Sta. six (6) . Caoayan. Pata.First District: Tagbilaran City and the Municipalities of Alburquerque. Fifth District: Danao City and the Municipalities of Borbon. Catalina. Leganes. Day-as. Kawayan. Garcia. Siayan. Mulanay. Molave. and Sibuco. Luna. Baras. Sinait. Fourth District: Municipalities of Tabuelan. Don Carlos.First District: Butuan City and the Municipality of Las Laurel. and Pili. Zarraga. Gloria. Rosa. Cabusao. Buug. Candon. Mabini. San Francisco. Sta. Daan. Guinayangan. and Third District: Municipalities of Salug. Real. Dinas. Tapaz. Mobo. ILOILO. San Nicolas. Ronda. San Esteban. San Fernando. Marilao. San Jose de Buan. Siniloan. Alicia. Balabac. Siraway. Sagbayan.taling. Alitagtag. Isabela. San Vicente. Moises Padilla. Mabolo. Pinamungajan.First District: Tacloban City and the municipalities of ISABELA. Balungao. San Manuel. Batuan. Rafael. Panglao. Malvar. Narvacan. Tubungan. Kalunasan. Pagsanjan. Cainta. Domingo. Naujan. Batuan.

Decoroso R. Matanog and Upi. Binidayan. Jose D. Jamir Jose B. Mawab. Maasim. Tagum. Rene V. Pres. is geographically located shall be correspondingly adjusted by the Commission on offices.First District: Municipalities of Bayabas. the following RBA framework was designed as a work in progress which ideally aims at the total Balabagan. Capalong. claim holder for San Miguel. Abubakar economic Felicitas S. and Lala. Maco. Carmen. Datu Piang. Second District: Municipalities of San Vicente. Natividad The RBA Framework in Development and Governance Saguiaran. and Opol. Need for Rights-Based Governance and Development Management Cecilia Munoz Palma CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY. one (1) Jaime S. Hilario G. Bacolod Grande. Dinaig. Digos. Barira. both at the CHRP Central and Regional Offices will apply the convergence of human rights and Christine O. government agencies. Second District: Municipalities of Kiblawan. Datu Paglas. Sultan Gumander. The Philippine government and all its branches. Second District: Baloi. Makilala. Salvador. Francisco A. the CHRP shall perform the following different roles in the application of the RBA: Kolambugan. Bacauag. and Padada. and the Municipalities of Bonifacio. Caraga. San Benito. programs and projects with human rights Santos. Plaridel. and Tagbina. Naawan. Buldon. Tadeo All offices. Malimono. concepts. and Baguio. and Vice-President Basilisa. Second District: Municipalities of Tantangan. Lingig. OF THE Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) and Don Mariano Marcos. and Tupi. Malabang. Tubajon. Sison. Poona-Bayabao. national and international standards and norms and Buhangin. Dapa. Suarez Function of Regional Offices in RBA Lorenzo M. Second District: Municipalities of Pagalunga. Jose Luis Martin C. two (2) . Eulogio R. Midsayap. Uka The 15 Regional Offices of the CHRP shall be responsible for the orientation of the local councils. Norala. Secretary General Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) MISAMIS OCCIDENTAL. Kabuntalan. Malapatan. Madamba. Maambong Tangkal. Clarin. L. Jose Abad a) Express linkage of any or all governance functions. Assistant Floor Leader signed treaties/instruments. Sultan sa Barongis. three (3) . Tangub City. Maganoy. and MEMBERS Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Jimenez. Sta. Buadiposo-Buntong. regional population has so increased. Kinogitan. Manticao. Carmen. Nunungan. Florenz D. Poona-Piagapo. Baganga. Surallah. Sultan Rustico F.First District: Municipalities of Sta. duty or obligation to comply with all the obligations in the ratified or Corella. x x x Flerida Ruth P. Salay. two (2) . Villegas Society on the RBA. Nieva Taraka. Bislig. Aleosan. Attested: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 8. Mainit. with Gingoog City. local planners. standards and principles of the international Napoleon G. Jr. and Balingasag.Ramain. both under the Philippine Constitution and the United Nation LANAO DEL NORTE. Maria. LGUs .First District: Municipalities of Magsaysay. according to the standards setforth in paragraph (3). Being a State Party means that the Philippine New Bataan. it essentially integrates the norms. Second District: Municipalities of Mati. Maigo. S. Banga.First District: Marawi City and the Municipalities of Marantao.First District: Districts of Adolfo S. and Lianga. and Tarragona. Edmundo G. K. Marogong. Aquino political DAVAO CITY. non-government organizations and other members of the Civil more than two hundred fifty thousand shall be entitiled in the immediately following election to at least one Bernardo M.First District: Cotabato City and the Municipalities of Parang. or any city whose population may hereafter increase to Wilfrido V. Tubod. San Isidro. Alubijid. programs and delivery processes of governance and Ponciano L. Romulo development and governance processes at the strategic development planning. Ditsaan . policies. Section 5 of Article VI of the Constitution. Banisilan. Jose F. Loreto. Bayang and Calanogas. Placer. Bansalan. Second District: Municipalities of Vicente B. Villacorta leagues of local officials. Guingona Role of Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines (CHRP) in RBA Application REGION XII Alberto M. Second District: Ozamiz City. SOUTH COTABATO. Initao. District: Municipalities of Claveria. two (2) . Banaybanay. Madalum. three (3) . budgeting. d) Applying the concepts of state obligations. This brings to the fore the importance of consciously and deliberately mainstreaming human rights standards in SURIGAO DEL NORTE. 1986 Philippine State Obligations to Implement Human Rights Standards Article XIII The Philippine is a state party to about 23 international human rights instruments under the UN system. and Malungon. two (2) .First District: Iligan City. Cortes. Pualas. Bumbaran. San Agustin. Sapad. Matanao. Matungao. Third District: Districts of Toril. Foz people's rights entitlements and progressive organizational/institutional planning. with General Santos City. Tudela. Libertad. Montevista. Tingson development concerns using human rights criteria and standards. Ople private sector. Lumbayanague. Second District: Surigao City and the Municipalities of San Francisco. Don Marcelino. and Kaputian. two (2) . Rationale for RBA The CHRP mandate under Article XIII 18. Teodulo C. Trenas Lugum L. one (1) President The realization of human rights is the goal of all development efforts. Cateel. with the City of Surigao. Pigkawayan. Flerida Ruth P. and Lake Sebu. Hinatuan. instrumentalities and Samal. Gitagum. Jr. Second District: Districts of Teodoro C. Balingoan.First District: Gingoog City and the Municipalities of Magsaysay. x x x President 7. (2) . Sinacaban. Yusuf R. El Salvador. Pantar. Sumulong SULTAN KUDARAT. program. Munai. Rama human rights system into plans. heads and faculty of academic institutions. institutions will be able to comply with its obligations as it applies the RBA in governance and development. Malita. Second District: Municipalities of Balindong. Roberto R. Ozamiz and Tangub. whose Attested by : The advocacy should include provision of RBA orientations to RDC Committees. Jasaan. Pagayawan. Jose N. Governance manages development. Masiu and Tamparan. Pilar. Talaya. Linamon. Panabo. Cantilan. Wao. its integration into the development plans. states among others the following powers and functions: Adopted: October 15. and shall take effect upon its On Applying the Rights-Based Approach (RBA) to Development and Governance Advisory of the Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines ratification by a majority of the votes cast in such plebiscite. Tubaran. Lugait. Calderon RBA works in governance and development by facilitating the linkage between human rights and governance Assistant Floor Leader and development through the following: DAVAO DEL SUR. Sapang Dalaga. Lupon. Romero International Covenant on Economic. Jr. Teresa F. Binuangan. Hagonoy. and San Mariano. Compostela. Rodrigo and state obligations and normative content of every right are applied systematically and methodically to Ricardo J. Sulop. General Luna. The number of Members apportioned to the province out of which such new province was created or where the city. Tandag. As the national human rights institution. Bengzon. administrative issuances. Colayco fiscal planning. Pikit. Karomatan. Antipas. Second 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES poor and vulnerable sectors of our society could be realized under the development process. Mabini. and Baroy. Cagwit. Lumba-Bayabao. Panaon. Third District: Municipalities of Alabel. and Magpet. Tagana-an. Any province that may hereafter be created. Section 3. Medina. Kauswagan. Tugbok. etc. and shall be submitted to a plebiscite simultaneously with such Constitution.First District: Oroquieta City and Convention Against Torture (CAT) the Municipalities of Baliangao. two (2) . Lanuza. Kudarat. It is a continuing commitment that should extend beyond 2004 Elections but such adjustment shall not be made within one hundred and twenty days before the election. Rigos The total convergence means that human rights framework and principles /concepts of rights entitlements Buluan. Magsaysay. Glan. Azcuna administrative Poblacion and Talomo.First District: General Santos City. herein made. de Castro decision-making. Romero until all duty holder agencies and individuals are oriented on the RBA to development and governance and will be Secretary-General applying RBA in their agency planning. Tiboli. and Governor Generoso. San Isidro. Alegria. agencies. project and enterprise development. Garcia and situation diagnosis. Monsod LANAO DEL SUR. DAVAO ORIENTAL. Ma. Minda Luz M. Sugbongcogon. Ganassi. Carrascal. Jr. Monitor the Philippine Government's compliance with international treaty obligations on human rights. Bubong. New Ahmad Domocao Alonto government has the primary responsibility. Bennagen development. Davide.First District: Municipalities of Moncayo. Section 4. Manay. Tagoloan. Cagdianao. Bunawan. Cirilo A. with Marawi City. Padilla development and governance. service delivery levels. development and Maitum. Rosales administrative functions. WHICH DRAFTED THE It is through the observance of these human rights standards that expanding choices and opportunities of the Talisayan. The Rights Based Approach (RBA for short) is a mainstreaming process to link human rights to development. review. and Pantukan. Burgos. Regalado E. Madrid. Jose C. Jose E. Sta. Regalado MAGUINDANAO. Malalag. audit and problem Barobo. Kiamba. Efrain B. Nino. Tubod. Butig. Kapatagan. policy and legislation. Libjo. Roxas Tulunan. Quesada convergence of human rights into development. Carme. Christian S. and Ampatuan. Second District: Municipalities of Kidapawan. and Paquibato. Del Ambrosio B. Third District: Municipalities of Sto. Asuncion. Concepcion. and Saranggani. Lerum system. de los Reyes. REGION XI Floor Leader The RBA is founded on the UN Declaration on the Right to Development and on the various international DAVAO DEL NORTE. Gascon Serafin V. Blas F. and Claver. Calamba. Pantao-Ragat. providing advisory functions on the RBA at the local level and monitoring and evaluation of the Member or such number of Members as it may be entitled to on the basis of the number of its inhabitants and progress of the RBA implementation at the local level. Libungan. Bernas Polomolok. Nolledo As a result of consultations conducted by CHRP with government institutions. This Ordinance shall be appended to the Constitution proposed by the 1986 Constitutional Commission.First District: Municipalities of Carmen. Tampakan. Lumbatan. with the Cities of Oroquieta. Piagapo. two (2) . The Commission on Elections is hereby empowered to make minor adjustments of the reapportionment Gregorio J. Florangel Rosario Braid c) Programmatically applying national and international human rights standards and norms into governance Koronadal.First District: Municipalities of Boston. Nabunturan. Tomas. legislation. Sarmiento Mlang. with Iligan City. Cruz. programs. Kapatagan. Concepcion SURIGAO DEL SUR. Laguindingan. Gigaquit. Bacolod. NORTH COTABATO. Kapai. Matalam. Socorro. Babak. Molundo. Villanueva. Calinan. Kabacan. Dinagat. three (3) . South Upi. two (2) . Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) . Sto. and Alamada. and the Municipalities of Joaquin G. CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families [CON COM] UN Declaration on the Right to Development (RTD) MISAMIS ORIENTAL. Tan development through a conceptualization and operationalization of their individual functions along human Section 2. Marihatag. Laurel. with Cotabato City. Aloran.C. Tagoloan. civil society organizations and the Tugaya. Maguing. Monica. Crispino M. two (2) . policy formulation and development. Lagonglong. Tagoloan. Tago. Bacani b) Translating in operational terms HR principles. Cecilia Munoz Palma Among these instruments are the following core human rights instruments: 6. duty holder for both state and non-state actors. policies and processes of development. programming and policy formulation review. Lopez Jaena. As an approach to development. human rights instruments to which the Philippines is a state party.

application of RBA in development and governance in their respective jurisdictions and as duty holders of specific human rights through any or a combination or all of the following activities: " The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. (Justice Malcolm. Further. Court of Appeals. something which • Creatively craft an RBA best practice in their agency or office to serve as model in the contributions of the "A permit to hold a public assembly shall not be necessary where the meeting is to be held in a private place. Offices). "Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association" Indeed. The right to liberty. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions. This is what separates the civilized world from the barbaric one. the justice system and the courts of law will serve no purpose. The only limitation is that political leaders on matters involving public concern and interest for the protection of their civil. were discharging their official functions when This maxim sums up the totality of every man’s duty and responsibility to society in general. has conducted investigations relating to • Trainors or resource speakers for the conduct of RBA orientations and application workshops. These summary executions without due process of law has no place in a cultured "No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech. ANAKPAWIS. But the power of local officials in this regard is merely one of regulation. and This is in reference with ordinances passed by key cities and municipalities in Metro Manila pertaining to the injuries are inflicted on them in the course of dispersal then should the PNP or other officers be held accountable Since time immemorial. The Commission on Human Rights. and at the same time most abused and exploited. Thus. as duty holders through its attached ii . budgeting and policy formulation or The right to life is the supreme right from which no derogation is permitted even in time of public emergency review in their respective agencies or offices. other rights violated are the freedom of expression On the No Permit. Universal For this purpose. for the commission of Human Rights violations? not of men. Philippine Constitutional To this end. our hands and we will be ruled by chaos and anarchy. the facts as found by the be observed for the rightful relationship between human beings and the stability of the social order. Any unjustified and shed light and furnish details on the incident for fear of their own lives. or of public health or morals. than the “right to life. these methods or means of dispersal shall be effected. Hence. any expenses in the conduct of the RBA orientation shall be charged to the account Further. Anak Pawis. their functions ceased to be official the moment they exceeded their authority. convenience.” The precepts of the law are these. safety. most enshrined and most fought for in all of the international community. it may Again. political and Henceforth. Thus Article 19 of the " Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. but these shall only be such as are provided by ON THE KILLINGS OF MEMBERS OF BAYAN MUNA. and not for the assembly which threatens the life of the nation ( Article 4. No other right is most basic. in the form resulting to liability. • RBA user friendly materials to supplement or enrich knowledge gained from RBA orientations and workshops.” agency/office: create a clear and present danger to public order. On the basis of the investigation reports (38 reported killings and harassment gathered from the CHR Regional • Other technical assistance or consultancy services to enable or capacitate the agency or officeapplying RBA in there must be proof of such weight and sufficiency to satisfy the clear and present danger test. his due. office or agency in the performance of its functions. on the other hand. includes “the right to exist and the right to be free from office or even Civil Society Organizations ( CSOs ) who desire to conduct RBA orientations and apply RBA in their Denial of the permit may be justified only upon clear and convincing evidence that the public assembly will arbitrary personal restraint or deprivation. To justify such a limitation.” Not even those who possess power has been given the unbridled right to use (or abuse) it. 39). not to injure another and to give each one his due. Quezon City. worse if the and impart information and ideas of all kinds. safety. It transferring residence in order to avoid whatever repercussions the incident may cause them. innocence unless proven guilty.” and The military and police forces were deployed to ensure that the rally would be peaceful and orderly as well as A chapter on Human Relations was formulated in the New Civil Code. herein public officials. Decision may be reached within 24 hours. is required.” (Ibid. regional departments. or through any other media of his choice. this right includes freedom to hold opinions the incident occurred. BP 880 otherwise known as the Public Assembly Act of 1985 . Although the military officers and personnel. its supreme ideal. it was ruled in the case of Primicias vs. Every human being has the inherent right to life. Bagatsing . it will not be long when the democracy fought for by our heroes slip of art. allowed to use truncheons and tear gas on the protesters provided that maximum tolerance is exercised before No amount of reason will justify the indiscriminate killings committed by any person. it shall be the duty of all CHRP Regional Offices to provide the following to any regional agency or Law. No Rally Policy and association which are foundations of democracy. . pp. In fact.) on Civil and Political Rights wherein the following articles are enshrined is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant. Likewise." against our helpless brothers especially those who belong to Bayan Muna. morals or health. shall find application where it was ruled that: thereof. it may be inferred that "any abuse of 2. bureau. Some of the investigations have been closed for monitoring due to various reasons such as. in accordance with the RBA framework and tools. to wit: when his acts are wholly without authority. this runs counter to the constitutional guarantee of presumption of and relative with the danger which they seek to prevent . Not even membership to any group or organization is reason enough to Article III . otherwise the permit shall be deemed granted. The right against discrimination is likewise breached. in the future. programming. alterum non laedere. A stop must be responsibilities. the written application shall be filed with the mayor's office at least 5 days before the scheduled The right to life includes the right of an individual to his body in its completeness. GABRIELLA and OTHER ALLIED ORGANIZATIONS placed on this series summary execution committed by those who think they are above the law. receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. whether or not the assembly or rally was effected with permit. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this Under Article 6 of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. may be said therefore that the citizens are merely "utilizing the weapons afforded them by the Constitution. sex. review to attend the RBA Orientation. to the end that law may approach Moreover." In the absence of imminent danger to public order. itself. the ultimate liability does not pertain to the government. "If the assembly is to be held in a public place. then party defendants. For respect of the rights or reputations of others. makes it imperative that everyone duly respect. but also to prevent arbitrary killing by their own security forces.9. For the protection of national security or of public order. much more by the military. unfortunately has become all too frequent and leads too often to arbitrary deprivation of life. our country has always adhered to the principle that “ours is a government of laws and "NO PERMIT. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article carries with it special duties and The conduct of an inquiry specifically relating to this issue could not be on a more better time. 220 SCRA 124. This court has made it quite clear that even a high position in the government does not confer a license to These guides for human conduct should run as golden threads through society.). then the PNP may be held liable its purposes must not be contrary to law. The Constitution itself guarantees this right to association. may be tempted to take the law into their own hands. to present some basic principles that are to Article 20 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: to guarantee the safety of the very people that they are duty-bound to protect. 320-321). as part of its compliance with state obligations under the human rights treaties and punish deprivation of life by criminal acts. that is. The reasonableness of the means employed shall depend against the ordinary and helpless citizen. budgeting and for policy formulation and/or review in their respective government. public order." Aside from the rights to life. or the right of the people world. In line with the ruling of this court in Shauf vs. on complaints received and on its own. the Commission supports the Constitutional right of every citizen to peaceably assemble to seek limited to. legislation and policy formulation and protection of the rights and freedoms of others." The International Human Rights Committee considers that States parties should take measures not only to prevent CHRP Regional office. but not jurisdiction or chosen level of application. this right shall include freedom to seek. its consequent filing in court and lack of information due to refusal of witnesses and family members to Quezon City. Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution provides: on the circumstances present during the protest because the allowed means of dispersal must be in consonance justify this kind of summary execution. Ibid. not • Submit a periodic report as may be asked by the CHRP on RBA application in their agency/office. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference. " ( Article 21 of the ICCPR ) deprived of his life. 20 September 2004. Gabriella and other allied 1. the rights of others (Report of the Code Commission. some have even gone to the extent of unreasonable form of curtailment of this freedom shall amount to a violation of the guaranteed human rights. program budgeting. The lawmaker trial court showed that they fired at the unruly crowd to disperse the latter. morals or health. the burden of showing the existence of a clear and present danger that would justify an adverse action on the application of the permit lies on the mayor as the licensing authority. 23 June 2004 redress of their grievances through rallies provided it will not prejudice the public welfare. Bayan Muna is a duly registered political party and the killing of any person by reason of his membership to the This constitutes the fundamental and basic right of every citizen to air their insights to authorities and same is illegal and inhuman. Gabriella and other allied organizations. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression. 3. The case of Republic vs. liberty and security of persons. Action on the application shall be communicated within 24 hours to the applicant. civil or administrative. offices or agencies including all LGUs . convenience." (Article 19 of the Declaration of Human Rights). the untrammeled enjoyment of their basic human rights. The right to assemble is guaranteed by the Bill of Rights and is not subject to prior restraint. signed/ratified by the Philippine government. a permit for the use of such place.” This simply means that no one is abovethe law. effect the dispersal. Civil Code provides: without interference and to seek. may it be criminal. regardless of frontiers. Anak Pawis. 80 Phil 71 and subsequently in the case of Reyes vs. “nemo est supra legis. the CHRP calls upon all branches of government. Violations of these law and are necessary: kind deserves the most severe punishment to serve as deterrent against those who. may be held liable for damages. live honestly." Immunity from suit cannot institutionalize irresponsibility and non-accountability nor grant a privileged “Every person must in the exercise of his rights and in the performance of his duties. peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for redress of grievances." the systematic killings committed against unsuspecting victims including members of Bayan Muna. nationality Government Cooperation Office of the CHRP before all national government offices to the active and effective and and any other kind of discrimination. most of the perpetrators are perceived to belong to the military and/or paramilitary arms of the development planning. Sandoval. No one may take the law into their own hands. give everyone status not claimed by any other official of the Republic. or in a freedom park. suum cuique tribuere. extend to the use of God-given faculties which make life enjoyable. i . the said Chapter is calculated “to indicate certain norms that spring from the fountain of good conscience. programming. organizations. However. NO RALLY POLICY". or of the press. Bayan Muna’s registration with the COMELEC showed not only its economic rights. for the commission of any human rights violation on account of the unreasonableness of the manner employed to regularity but also its legality. xxx” of the conducting agency/institution. may be validly required. and DepEd to extend assistance upon appropriate representation of the This right precedes from the inherent right to human dignity of every person regardless of race. based from the foregoing decision of the Supreme Court . Philippine government to the goal of total convergence of human rights and development in keeping with the in the campus of a government-owned or operated educational institution. act with justice. 191 SCRA 713. Where a permit human rights treaty obligations. free from dismemberment and meeting and shall be acted upon within two days. Another point of controversy raised is: In the event that the protesters are not armed with permits. Otherwise. liberty and security of persons” ( Article 3. the Government of the Republic of the Philippines as a state party to the International Covenant persecute or recklessly injure another. Fugoso . the military must be the protectors of the State and its citizens and not the oppressors and violators not be conditioned upon the prior issuance of a permit or authorization from government authorities. As a support to the human rights institution and in compliance with human rights obligations. p. Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: While the Republic in this case is sued by name." killings were done by the government itself. honeste vivere. in writing or in print. who may appeal the same to the appropriate court. “Juris praecepta sunt hec. which is the sway and dominance of justice. It is the stand of the Commission that such policy is a blatant violation of the Constitutional right of every The Commission stands on the affirmative for the reason that although dispersal units of the PNP are citizen to peaceably assemble and to seek or air grievances which may be expressed through rallies. This right shall be protected by law. and Therefore. 125 SCRA 553 that: • Conscientiously apply the RBA in development planning. No one shall be arbitrarily those with official functions in development planning. through its prohibition. Request the assistance of any department. the protection of public health or morals or the “1. bureaus. and observe honesty and good faith. receive authority committed by the dispersal units in the exercise of their functions shall amount to human rights violation If this arbitrary taking of precious lives would continue without being restrained by the government. having The Commission on Human Rights totally detests these inhuman practice of summary execution committed been found to have acted beyond the scope of their authority. then the use of these means of dispersal is clear violation of human rights. either orally. SUCs and all education regulating ICCPR) institutions such as CHED. of expression. right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the • Actively conduct RBA orientation in their respective agency/office in which the key officials most especially interests of national security or public safety. TESDA. No less than the International Bill of Rights promotes respect for the rights to freedom of expression and "An officer cannot shelter himself by the plea that he is a public agent acting under the color of his office freedom of peaceful assembly and association. it is stated that: States parties should also take specific measures to prevent the disappearance of individuals.

The peanuts. immediate indictment of the responsible elements of the military. Sultan Kudarat. torture. This miserable plight of our cultural minorities is further bolstered by the so-called “Stavenhagen Report” Article 3 ON HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS COMMITTED BY THE CAFGU AND OTHER PARA-MILITARY GROUPS AGAINST submitted by Mr. 1990 contains the following guidelines: among their relatives who are not affected by the armed conflict. The Stavenhagen Report the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Cotabato in the course of the intense fighting between government troops and the MILF. law enforcement officials shall respect and protect human dignity and maintain The basic human rights issues involved are the right to life. as members of indigenous communities are Principle 4 supply was almost not available and food rations from the concerned government line agencies were non. abduction. Aside from reported that these are not regularly trained military units and that their objective was to control the political and Ensure that assistance and medical aid are rendered to any injured or affected persons at the earliest possible investigating and providing legal assistance. Rodolfo Stavenhagen. the fisher folks agencies concerned with the monitoring of these indigenous peoples. at all times. internally displaced people and Muslims. The coercion. Sometimes they asked for food. Among the relevant With this in mind. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector insurgency. Remedios Trinidad. and massacres. all in Mt. supreme over the military. instigate or tolerate any act of torture or other cruel. Several International Instruments addresses this At the national level. this office was informed that the Battalion Commander was already international law as part of the law of the land. greener pasture or scamper for their family’s safety from the ensuing firefight between the lawless armed Article 2 elements and the government armed forces. such as arbitrary detention. consistent with the high degree of responsibility required by their Forces may be tempted to feign and simulate the truth or to put the law into their own hands in order to protect profession. resulting in the delay of their agricultural calendar. we ask that these law enforcers furnish deployed in the following areas: Aurora Province . Principle 5 were reportedly harassed. in their cultural life. the International Covenant on Civil and Anakpawis. especially the PNP. demolition of houses. the police or the so-called paramilitaries.” In Region IX. unlawful arrest. by serving the community 1986 Philippine Constitution is the “protection of the people and the State” (Section 3. Communities resist development the children.498 persons. after their houses were forcibly entered into. individuals/groups. liberty. health and uphold the human rights of all persons. The instant case was already referred to the Office of the Military Ombudsman. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the Protector of the People and the State The world community. who visited the Philippines in INDIGENOUS PEOPLES December. the rights to life. children and the elderly suffered poor health condition. Some of the natives were forced to admit that they were NPAs for fear of death. the continuing internal armed conflict hostilities resulted in wanton and indiscriminate killings. destruction of property. and if there is nothing. the following were pronounced as basic principles to be observed: regarding these killings and to report violations covering the same. During the dialogue. and the elderlies. Racial Discrimination. physical assaults. Pikit. Bontoc and Belwang and Betwagan in Sadanag. specifically under Section 11 of our Constitution. under Article II. due process.” and show loyalty to their ranks. However. Nabuclod. should prima facie case exist. The Under-Secretary Exercise restraint in such use and act in proportion to the seriousness of the offense and the legitimate objective trees for a couple of minutes after which they leave again. in his report said: resulted in child labor due to the need to augment the family income for subsistence. Further. Furthermore. inhuman or in the past years. multiple incidents of harassment and illegal arrest issue in order to prevent human rights violations especially to those members of the community who are the least declared national principles.583 families or 39. Special Rapporteur of the United Nations. the Region also conducted dialogues among the concerned parties and social life of local communities. because of these reasons. food. illegal detentions. youth. IPs are often victims also to forced recruitment of CAFGUs/NPAs and tribal forces Political Rights. Thus. we say again that their paramount duty is to the welfare of the citizens of the State Thus. Surigao security of persons. have terrorized the residents of the town. In the areas of armed conflict. The victims of The Report includes details of the information gathered and those submitted by various non-governmental to justify any departure from these basic principles. within the framework of national programme to demilitarize indigenous the imminent threat of death or serious injury. which occasionally carry out military activities when the need arises. illegally detained and take maximum caution to protect indigenous peoples’ rights during its military operations. community structures and cultural values. in carrying out their duty. liberty. Stavenhagen. equal protection before the law. Article 1 Sadly. the IPs Whenever the lawful use of force and firearms is unavoidable. illegally arrested and detained by the military soldiers. the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel. Bulacan. One case is that in Datalbao. the most pressing human rights issue is the armed conflict between the government forces and the any other public emergency as a justification of torture or other cruel. They asked that CAFGU’s be removed from their communities Principle 8 because they do not carry out any beneficial activity. and by protecting all persons against illegal acts. Mr. The rights against discrimination of any and all kinds. internal political instability or In Region XII. rural dwellers migrate to the urban centers to find a place in the sun or for a and to the rule of law. and respect and preserve human life.” Indigenous resistance and protest are frequently countered by military force involving the General Assembly on August 27. relieved. inhuman or Unfortunately. The B’laan village in the said area has already been indigenous peoples were created by a tactic whereby the military actually chooses the community leaders (Datu) Ensure that relatives or close friends of the injured or affected person are notified at the earliest possible moment. food blockades. apply non-violent means before abused. a threat to national security. privacy.” intentional lethal use of firearms may only be made when strictly unavoidable in order to protect life. Special mention must be made of CAFGUs set up by the army in numerous indigenous municipalities. resorting to the use of force and firearms.’’ and militarization. the reported offenders belong to their ranks. unlawful seizures and searches. beans and rice have been left unharvested and rotting in their fields. and education of the children and youth was disrupted. has rapidly increased follows: rights to ancestral domains. killings of community representatives. no justification will rationalize these indiscriminate killings against members of Bayan Muna. international humanitarian standards. under the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officialsadopted as early as December 17. The basic issues and/or human rights violations surrounding the indigenous peoples were found as Indigenous Peoples. indigenous peoples Minimize damage and injury. In the Caraga Region. Cultural and “Civilian authority is. declared as “Zone of Peace. members of the military. among others. lodged a complaint for harassment and grave threats against the Battalion Commander of the 62 nd IBPA. rape. to which the Philippines is a signatory. We remind them.” “The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. and only when less extreme means are insufficient to achieve these objectives. social unrest and economic instability. Dalican and caused by irregular military units or paramilitary groups. to prevent the perpetration of a particularly serious crime involving three of their rice granaries have been forcibly entered and ransacked by the Philippine Army Units operating in peoples’ territories. Issues such “Law enforcement officials shall at all times fulfill the duty imposed upon them by law. the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials adopted by of about 6. Their properties were looted torture and threats. Some houses were burned in Barangay numerous human rights abuses. On the other hand. economic empowerment was limited. Among the or without any promise of achieving the intended result.” Municipalities of Pikit and Pagalungan. Military men are . however. known as the Buliok Complex situated in the “These activities (economic development activities such as but not limited to quarrying and mining) are often punishment. This is not The International Bill of Human Rights consisting of. working animals and harvest. as far as possible. Floridablanca and Porac. Water militarization of indigenous area is a grave human rights problem. dialogue and ceasefire agreement and lack of security for evacuees result in more IP international instruments are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. For over a month. In the context of the armed conflict that still accessible. and Doña copies of the said investigations to the Commission on Human Rights. the unit is now based in Catbalogan. inter alia. to arrest a person presenting such a danger and resisting their authority. The sectors affected are carried out without their prior. nor may any law enforcement official invoke superior orders or exceptional The Report stated that: circumstances such as a state of war or a threat of war. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Women. no less than the Philippine Constitution enshrines. 1979 We call on the government. as the law stipulates. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national the CAFGU Active Agents (CAAs).” Introduction/ The Philippine Situation The said report gave an account of the current situation and condition of the indigenous peoples in the Philippines . slavery. Pampanga. everyone deserves equal protection and treatment before the law. They may use force and firearms only if other means remain ineffective The areas particularly affected are that of Sultan Kudarat. More specifically. the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Quezon City. whether you belong to the minority or the so-called territory. problems identified are the exploitation of the IPs ancestral domain perpetrated by some unscrupulous When indigenous peoples were involved in counter-insurgency operations they suffered indiscriminate firing. Further. This deserves our utmost attention. that their primary duty under the The Indigenous Peoples in the provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte are situated no differently. adopts the generally accepted principles of investigation but through its intervention. able to protect themselves. Galigayanan. Such incidents have been reported in various parts of the country. province of North Cotabatao and Maguindanao. Finally. arbitrary arrest are likewise protected. While the Armed as war conflicts between the lawless armed elements and the government armed forces prevail. such as Civilian Armed Forces Geographical Units (CAFGUs). as part of the recommendations. Section 3 In Region IV. the Special Rapporteur urges that CAFGUs be withdrawn Law enforcement officials shall not use firearms against persons except in self-defense or defense of others against Guinaang. “No law enforcement official may inflict. free and informed consent. indigenous communities and organizations are often victimized and their human rights Law enforcement officials. the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid. the following as its Group harmed civilians in Bontoc and Sadangan towns wherein. a delegation of 40 persons from Barangays Mainit. The B’laan natives of Sition Lam-alis dispossession and destruction of their property.” in order to manipulate and control the community. 8 July 2005 . a specific area in Southern Tagalog. the complainants said that their carabaos died due to bombings and more of their cows and carabaos are missing. CHR is still in the process of completing its degrading treatment or punishment. 2002 specifically for the purpose of knowing the situation of the Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines . whose semi- The villagers admitted though that once a month. the DND and the AFP. In any event. It was gathered that there was displacement projects that destroy their traditional economy. the military blames the NPA of killing farmers and rebel returnees. . under the same Article II. not to mention the paramilitary units called Social Rights. They also complained that old men pasturing their livestock were fired upon. the NPA guerillas pass by their village but only to rest under the military activities often tend to divide local communities and set one group against another. and forced recruitment by the armed General Principles people lost their livelihood and others lost their livestocks. these atrocities were the most vulnerable sectors of society – women and children. in accordance with her escape. persecution. women. the Philippines . “Law enforcement officials may use force only when strictly necessary and to the extent required for the performance of their duty. Samar . Allegedly. recommending armed forces. “In the performance of their duty. shall. evacuation and displacement. the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. There was inadequate Special Provisions delivery of basic health services and protection. The natives were accused of being NPA guerillas. Reports from the Cordillera Peoples’ Alliance (CPA) claim that operations of the 54 th IB and the Reconnaisance recognizes the possibility of abuse coming from the military ranks. to conduct the necessary investigations The militarization of some areas contributes to the increase in number of human rights violation. Charges of militarization have been hurled against the military such as the rights of all persons without discrimination of any kind. complained to their mayor that from indigenous areas altogether. residents International Instruments Relating to Human Rights and the Proper Deportment of law Enforcement Officials were forced to stay at home. The affected areas stopped going to school. some awareness activities on the rights of Indigenous Peoples. it is stated that. dignity. harassment. law enforcement officials shall: built a bunkhouse for the rebels. Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. They reported that divisions among moment. Gabriella and other allied organizations whose groups are considered legitimate under Philippine Laws. a process described as In the same vein. they just leave. clearly mandates all member states to respect the human of the people and the State. Section 4 The rights enshrined in the abovementioned International Bill of Rights are. Some stayed in the government centers and others sought shelter “development aggression. Columbio. Principle 9 “Given the severity of the various alleged human rights abuses and the divisive effects on indigenous communities In the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). xxx” del Sur. torture or to cruel. prevails in the countryside. four (4) battalions of the AFP were deployed in the area. inhuman or degrading treatment or Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in Liguasan March Area. of movement and to freely participate ‘The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. the peasants. kidnapping and threats. Article II). while acknowledging each State’s necessity of maintaining a strong national military arm. the Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government of the Philippines grave threat to life. security.” and education. The human rights in question are identified and protected by national and international law. under the same Article of the Constitution. or to prevent his or the area. degrading treatment or punishment. of National Defense informed the Special Rapporteur that these units should be considered as reserve units of the to be achieved. interrogated and their belongings searched on the suspicion that they were NPA supporters. It also Accordingly. water housing. To counter the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights and the International Convention on Economic. has been a hotbed of insurgency and of social unrest. Exceptional circumstances such as internal political instability or any other public emergency may not be invoked ambuscades. as recorded in the Regional Offices of the Commission on Human Rights. Province . the measures being undertaken by the government in protecting their rights as well as specific recommendations Article 5 The number of human rights violations committed by the military and paramilitary groups specifically against our therefor. Maguindanao and Saranggani Provinces. the because there are mountain ranges where the NPA rebels take refuge from attacks by the military. in disregard of the latter’s traditional customs. Failure of peace talks.” celebrated case of the killing of Eden Marcellana and Eddie Gumanoy where the suspected killers were alleged civilized society. a member of the Indigenous Peoples group who is also a barangay captain of Lanuza. sometimes accused of rebellion or engaging in “terrorist” activity. The school children in the forces. ‘‘development aggression.

Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself of the right of derogation shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the present covenant. even in a state of emergency. This is of paramount importance for the system of protection for human rights under the ICCPR. Section Done in Quezon City. Sec. provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination solely on the ground of race. servitude. notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity (ICCPR Art. Servitude refers to other forms of . especially those necessary to protect public safety. Materials and Commentary 2000. order. A further communication shall be made through the same intermediary on the date on which it terminates such derogation. Thus. sex. (ICCPR Art 2. While it allows the unilateral derogation from a part of its obligations thereto. These rights must be in the context of Violations must be reported and properly addressed. it must be subject to a specific regime of safeguards where the restoration of a state of normalcy must be the predominant objective. Article 16 Recognition of everyone as a person before the law (a person’s humanity must be legally recognized). 20 adopted at its 44 th Session. everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by If we don’t give the protection and respect due our indigenous people today. slave trade.137 The 1987 Constitution created an independent Commission on Human Rights with the mandate to ensure that the Human Rights Committee General Comment No. observance. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which provides: The use of force by law enforcement officials should be exceptional. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms. The Proclamation cited unrestrained political opposition “engaged in a concerted and systematic conspiracy. to bring down the duly-constituted Government elected in May 2004. practice and teaching. 8 (par. Death Penalty for the most serious of crimes. On Friday. Government must consider primordial. freedom only do so much. Like all civilians. in worship. in the exercise of this mandate. Philippines on this 27 th day of February 2006. inhuman. In particular. commutation. the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation. over a broad front. The Philippine Government is legally obligated to comply with its provisions. no justification or extenuating circumstances may be invoked to excuse torture. political or other opinion. forced or compulsory labor: Slavery occurs where one human being owns another that the former can exploit latter with impunity. However. Violators must accordingly be punished. Violations of their human rights offered himself voluntarily. no delay in abolition of the Death Penalty.” 12 September 2005 . is highly called for. 2). Sec. cruel. no medical or scientific experimentation without valid consent. the indigenous peoples fall prey to violations in the government’s efforts to put a stop to terrorism Article 15 The principle of legality in the field of criminal law: prohibition of retroactive criminal laws. The protection of their human rights should be Article 11 Prohibition of imprisonment because of inability to fulfill a contractual obligation: no imprisonment for the principal consideration akin to respecting the nation’s identity and the Filipino’s being. no execution for pregnant women. property. 2. A review of the military operations. The sufferance of our brethren are by no means measurable because of oppressive acts except in accordance with law or nullum crimen sine lege. degrading punishment or treatment: all persons deprived of their liberty must be treated with humanity and respect for dignity or human person. 4 of the Constitution which provides that “the defense and preservation of the democratic institutions and the State is the primary duty of Government. we are only to blame if they will no law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of longer be there to receive our protection in the future. 1987 Philippine Constitution) The Commission. The Commission on Human Rights urges the Philippine government to manifest its commitments by demonstrating its compliance to the obligations set forth in the said Covenant. rights. x x x” Recognizing that there are indeed situations when a state is allowed to derogate from a part of its obligation to the ICCPR.” Joseph. issues this advisory to remind the Government and the general public of the pertinent provisions of human rights treaties to which the Philippines is a state party. the Philippines ratified on 23 January 1987 the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. color. no imposition for death sentence for minors. such as race. 1). to manifest individually or in community with others in public or private. 29. as follows: “xxx Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant. the principle of proportionality of must be “x x x observed and that the use of firearms be considered as an extreme measure. the ICCPR proscribes (or prohibits) derogation from the following rights: Article 6 The Right to life: No arbitrary deprivation of life. Schultz and Castan. Article 4 provides: In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation. sex. no punishment under extremely vague laws. duty to protect persons from killings by non-state actors. language. This calls for national action. aggravate their condition and endanger their respected recognition transcending to the Filipino national cultural heritage. Sec. 3a). and the existence of which is officially proclaimed. the Commission on Human Rights as well as the other non-governmental organizations can Article 18 Freedom of thought conscience and religion (freedom to adopt a religion or belief of his choice. 1992 state indeed “values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect of human rights. Force or Compulsory Labor defined as ‘all work or service which is extracted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which he has not The current state of affairs of our indigenous peoples is already appalling as it is. Safeguards must be set in place in order to protect the human rights of our indigenous peoples. CAFGU activities must be monitored and evaluated. pp 109 . This simply has no place in a civilized society. national or social origin. 24 February 2006 President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo issued Proclamation No. No derogation from articles 6.Recommendations egregious economic exploitation or dominance or ‘slavery – like practices. 1017 Declaring a State of National Emergency. health or morals or fundamental rights and freedoms of others). conducted in the mountains and by the CAFGUs. In plain language. of the provisions from which it has derogated and of the reasons by which it was actuated. The fundamental rights of the Filipino People cannot be overemphasized. private law civil obligations due to ‘inability’ which indicates incapability rather than unwillingness. Article 8 Prohibition of slavery. no crime and insurgency. duty to investigate state killings. All sectors must cooperate in order to obviate the violations committed against our brothers. degrading treatment or punishment. freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs subject only to limitations prescribed by law and are We call on the Armed Forces to help in realizing this objective. inhuman. through the intermediary of the Secretary General of the United Nations. To ensure that any person whose rights or freedom as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy. 7. no punishment except in accordance with law or nulla amounting to their being marginalized as a sector of our society and resulting to the violations of their human peona sine lege. 16 and 18 may be made under this provision. 1&2). The Commission on Human Rights totally abhors this practice. 15. the measure of derogation must be of an exceptional “ON THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE DECLARATION OF THE STATE OF NATIONAL EMERGENCY” and temporary measure.” (Article II. Section 11. right to seek pardon. color. It is stressed that indigenous peoples are human beings.” and invokes Article 2. birth or other status. meeting the just requirements of morality. Article 7 Prohibition of torture or cruel. the fundamental rights of the Filipino People. language. duty to punish offenders for state killings. without distinction of any kind. religion. public order and the general welfare in a democratic society (Art. 11. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases. religion or social origin.