This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
and Pencil Test for the year 2012. Below are the details. ANNOUNCEMENT The CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION (CSC) announces the conduct of the 2012 Career Service Professional Examination and Career Service Subprofessional Examination Paper and Pencil Test (PPT) to establish a register of eligibles from which certification and appointment to the second and first level positions in the civil service shall be made, provided said eligibles meet the qualifications and other requirements of the positions. DATE OF EXAMINATION DATE OF FILING OF APPLICATION May 27, 2012 January 17, 2012 to April 12, 2012 October 21, 2012 May 28, 2012 to September 6, 2012 Acceptance of applications shall be on a FIRST-COME, FIRST-SERVED basis. Applications may no longer be accepted before the deadline if the target number of applicants has already been reached by the CSC Regional/Field Offices. A. EXAMINATION CENTERS / REGIONAL TESTING CENTERS: FOR MAY 27, 2012 CS PROFESSIONAL AND SUBPROFESSIONAL EXAM, The testing centers are the following: Regional Office No. I San Fernando City, La Union Regional Office No. II Tuguegarao City, Cagayan Regional Office No. III City of San Fernando, Pampanga, Cabanatuan City Regional Office No. IV Batangas City Regional Office No. V Legazpi City Regional Office No. VI Iloilo City Regional Office No. VII Cebu City Regional Office No. VIII Tacloban City Regional Office No. IX Zamboanga City, Pagadian City, Dipolog City Regional Office No. X Cagayan de Oro City Regional Office No. XI Davao City Regional Office No. XII Cotabato City Regional Office No. NCR Quezon City, Manila, CAR Baguio City, Bangued, Abra, Bontoc, Mountain Province, Sta. Marcela, Apayao Regional Office No. CARAGA Butuan City Regional Office No. ARMM Cotabato City, Iligan City FOR OCTOBER 21, 2012 CS PROFESSIONAL AND SUBPROFESSIONAL EXAM, The testing centers are the following: Regional Office No. I San Fernando City, La Union Regional Office No. II Tuguegarao City, Cagayan Regional Office No. III City of San Fernando, Pampanga Regional Office No. IV Batangas City Regional Office No. V Legazpi City Regional Office No. VI Iloilo City Regional Office No. VII Cebu City Regional Office No. VIII Tacloban City Regional Office No. IX Zamboanga City, Pagadian City, Dipolog City Regional Office No. X Cagayan de Oro City Regional Office No. XI Davao City Regional Office No. XII Cotabato City Regional Office No. NCR Quezon City, Manila Regional Office No. CAR Baguio City, Lagawe, Ifugao, Tabuk, Kalinga Regional Office No. CARAGA Butuan City Regional Office No. ARMM Cotabato City, Iligan City Additional Testing Centers shall be opened. Please visit the CSC website by end of January 2012. Click here for updated list of testing centers. If you have any questions please contact the respective CSC Regional Office in your area. B. SCOPE OF THE EXAMINATIONS 1. For Career Service Professional – In English and Filipino; vocabulary, grammar and correct usage, paragraph organization, reading comprehension, analogy, logic, and numerical reasoning. 2. For Career Service Subprofessional – In English and Filipino; vocabulary, grammar and correct usage, paragraph organization, reading comprehension, spelling, clerical operations, and numerical reasoning. Both Professional and Subprofessional levels of the examination shall have items on General Information, which shall include the following areas: Philippine Constitution, Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees (R.A. 6713), Peace and Human Rights Issues and Concepts, and Environment Management and Protection. C. PASSING GRADE To pass the test, the examinees should get a general weighted rating of at least 80.00. D. ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS Applicants are advised to check carefully whether they meet the admission requirements stated below. Only those who meet the admission requirements should apply for the examination. Approval of applications may be recalled any time upon discovery of applicant’s disqualification. Accordingly, the examination fees paid shall be forfeited. 1. Must be at least 18 years of age on the date of filing of application; - for May 27, 2012 CSE-PPT, applicants must be born on or before April 12, 1994 - for October 21, 2012 CSE-PPT, applicants must be born on or before September 6, 1994 2. Must be Filipino citizen; 3. Must be of good moral character; 4. Must have not been convicted by final judgment of an offense or crime involving moral turpitude, or disgraceful or immoral conduct, dishonesty, examination irregularity, drunkenness or addiction to drugs; 5. Must not been dishonorably discharged from military service or dismissed for cause from any civilian positions in the government; and 6. Must have not taken the same level of CS Examination in less than three (3) months. NOTES: a) Applicants with pending administrative and/or criminal cases may take the examination and shall be conferred the eligibility if they successfully pass the same. However, this is without prejudice to the outcome of their pending cases. If they are found guilty of grave offenses, their eligibility shall be forfeited based on the penalties stated in the decision and pursuant to Section 52 (a) of the Revised Rules on Administrative Cases in the Civil Service. b) Those who have already passed the same level of examinations or a comparable level of examination given by the Professional Regulation Commission, as well as passers of Board/Bar examinations, and those who graduated with honors need not apply. E. APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS 1. Fully accomplished Application Form (CS Form No. 100, Revised 2012). The spaces for “Signature of Applicant” and “Right Thumbmark” on the form should be left blank. These shall be accomplished in the presence of the CSC processor. 2. Four (4) copies of identical I.D. pictures with specifications, as follows: a. Philippine Passport size (4.5 cm x 3.5 cm or 1.8 inches x 1.4 inches) b. Colored, with white background c. Taken within three (3) months prior to filing of application d. Printed on good quality photo paper e. In standard close-up shot (from shoulder level up with the head and face occupying at least 80% of the picture and with the name tag positioned at approximately 1 inch or 2.54 cm below the chin) f. In bare face (with no eyeglasses or any accessories that may cover the facial features) g. Showing left and right ears h. Taken in full-face view directly facing the camera i. With neutral facial expression, and both eyes open j. With full and handwritten (not computer-generated) name tag in the format: First Name, Middle Initial, Last Name, and Extension Name (if any), and signature over printed name 3. Original and photocopy of any valid ID containing applicant’s clear picture, date of birth, signature, and signature of the authorized head of the issuing agency such as Driver’s License, SSS ID, GSIS ID, Philhealth ID, current Company/Office ID, current School ID, Postal ID, BIR ID, Barangay ID, Voter’s ID, Valid Passport, or Police Clearance (Note: Any other ID not included in the list shall NOT be accepted) IDs with lacking information, particularly the applicant’s date of birth, SHOULD be supported by NSO -issued Birth Certificate or Birth Certificate authenticated/issued by the Local Civil Registrar (LCR). 4. Examination fee of Five Hundred Pesos (Php 500.00). F. WHERE TO GET AND FILE APPLICATION FORMS Application forms are available at any CSC Regional/Field Offices. The same may be downloaded from the CSC website: www.csc.gov.ph. Application forms may be reproduced in legal size bond paper provided the same format is followed. Applicants may file their applications in any of the CSC Regional/Field Offices. Applicants are advised to be in proper attire. NOT in sando/shorts/slippers. G. EXAMINATION PERMITS Qualified applicants shall be notified of their places of examination (school assignment) through an Application Receipt or a Notice of Assignment. They can also use the Online Notice of School Assignment (ONSA) to get a print-
out of their Notice of Assignment. To use this system, examinees should log on to the CSC website and go to the Examination Announcement webpage, or type the following path: http://webapp.csc.gov.ph/ExamAssign/ExamAssign.htm in the address bar of their browser. If applicants still do not know their school assignment or cannot access the Online Notice of School Assignment one (1) week before the examination day, they should inquire their school assignment from the CSC Regional/Field Office where they filed their application. H. WHAT TO BRING ON EXAMINATION DAY Applicants should bring the following on examination day: 1. Application Receipt or Notice of School Assignment 2. Lead Pencil/s (No. 1 or 2) and eraser/s 3. Ball Pen (Black or Blue) 4. The same valid ID card/s presented during the application stage (i.e. Driver’s License, SSS ID, GSIS ID, Philhealth ID, current Company/Office ID, current School ID, Postal ID, BIR ID, Barangay ID, Voter’s ID, Valid Passport, or Police Clearance) N O I D , N O E X AM IMPORTANT REMINDERS: Failure to take the examination on your scheduled date shall mean forfeiture of your examination fee and slot. No request for re-scheduling is allowed. All personal belongings including cellular phones, calculators, books, and all other electronic gadgets and printed materials must be surrendered to the Room Examiners. Firearms, if any, must also be surrendered to the security guard/designated firearm custodian at the entrance gate of the testing center. Proper attire should be worn on examination day. NOT IN SANDO/SHORTS/SLIPPERS. WARNING The Civil Service Commission uses a highly reliable system to detect cheats. Any form of cheating in any civil service examination shall be considered a violation of Republic Act No. 9416 (Anti-Cheating Law), and any person found guilty shall be administratively and criminally liable. Those found ADMINISTRATIVELY LIABLE shall suffer the following penalties: For those in the GOVERNMENT SERVICE, dismissal from the service with all the accessory penalties of forfeiture of government benefits, cancellation of eligibility, bar from taking any government examination, and perpetual disqualification from re-entering government service. For PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS, perpetual bar from entering government service and from taking any government examination. Those found CRIMINALLY LIABLE shall be meted out the penalty of imprisonment of not less than six (6) years and one (1) day but not more than twelve (12) years and a fine of not less than Fifty Thousand Pesos (Php50,000.00) with the appropriate accessory penalties. Republic of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Metro Manila Eighth Congress
(j) "Divestment" is the transfer of title or disposal of interest in property by voluntarily, completely and actually depriving or dispossessing oneself of his right or title to it in favor of a person or persons other than his spouse and relatives as defined in this Act. (k) "Relatives" refers to any and all persons related to a public official or employee within the fourth civil degree of consanguinity or affinity, including bilas, inso and balae. Section 4. Norms of Conduct of Public Officials and Employees. - (A) Every public official and employee shall observe the following as standards of personal conduct in the discharge and execution of official duties: (a) Commitment to public interest. - Public officials and employees shall always uphold the public interest over and above personal interest. All government resources and powers of their respective offices must be employed and used efficiently, effectively, honestly and economically, particularly to avoid wastage in public funds and revenues. (b) Professionalism. - Public officials and employees shall perform and discharge their duties with the highest degree of excellence, professionalism, intelligence and skill. They shall enter public service with utmost devotion and dedication to duty. They shall endeavor to discourage wrong perceptions of their roles as dispensers or peddlers of undue patronage. (c) Justness and sincerity. - Public officials and employees shall remain true to the people at all times. They must act with justness and sincerity and shall not discriminate against anyone, especially the poor and the underprivileged. They shall at all times respect the rights of others, and shall refrain from doing acts contrary to law, good morals, good customs, public policy, public order, public safety and public interest. They shall not dispense or extend undue favors on account of their office to their relatives whether by consanguinity or affinity except with respect to appointments of such relatives to positions considered strictly confidential or as members of their personal staff whose terms are coterminous with theirs. (d) Political neutrality. - Public officials and employees shall provide service to everyone without unfair discrimination and regardless of party affiliation or preference. (e) Responsiveness to the public. - Public officials and employees shall extend prompt, courteous, and adequate service to the public. Unless otherwise provided by law or when required by the public interest, public officials and employees shall provide information of their policies and procedures in clear and understandable language, ensure openness of information, public consultations and hearings whenever appropriate, encourage suggestions, simplify and systematize policy, rules and procedures, avoid red tape and develop an understanding and appreciation of the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country, especially in the depressed rural and urban areas. (f) Nationalism and patriotism. - Public officials and employees shall at all times be loyal to the Republic and to the Filipino people, promote the use of locally produced goods, resources and technology and encourage appreciation and pride of country and people. They shall endeavor to maintain and defend Philippine sovereignty against foreign intrusion. (g) Commitment to democracy. - Public officials and employees shall commit themselves to the democratic way of life and values, maintain the principle of public accountability, and manifest by deeds the supremacy of civilian authority over the military. They shall at all times uphold the Constitution and put loyalty to country above loyalty to persons or party. (h) Simple living. - Public officials and employees and their families shall lead modest lives appropriate to their positions and income. They shall not indulge in extravagant or ostentatious display of wealth in any form. (B) The Civil Service Commission shall adopt positive measures to promote (1) observance of these standards including the dissemination of information programs and workshops authorizing merit increases beyond regular progression steps, to a limited number of employees recognized by their office colleagues to be outstanding in their observance of ethical standards; and (2) continuing research and experimentation on measures which provide positive motivation to public officials and employees in raising the general level of observance of these standards. Section 5. Duties of Public Officials and Employees. - In the performance of their duties, all public officials and employees are under obligation to:lawphi1.net (a) Act promptly on letters and requests. - All public officials and employees shall, within fifteen (15) working days from receipt thereof, respond to letters, telegrams or other means of communications sent by the public. The reply must contain the action taken on the request. (b) Submit annual performance reports. - All heads or other responsible officers of offices and agencies of the government and of government-owned or controlled corporations shall, within forty-five (45) working days from the end of the year, render a performance report of the agency or office or corporation concerned. Such report shall be open and available to the public within regular office hours. (c) Process documents and papers expeditiously. - All official papers and documents must be processed and completed within a reasonable time from the preparation thereof and must contain, as far as practicable, not more than three (3) signatories therein. In the absence of duly authorized signatories, the official next-in-rank or officer in charge shall sign for and in their behalf. (d) Act immediately on the public's personal transactions. - All public officials and employees must attend to anyone who wants to avail himself of the services of their offices and must, at all times, act promptly and expeditiously. (e) Make documents accessible to the public. - All public documents must be made accessible to, and readily available for inspection by, the public within reasonable working hours. Section 6. System of Incentives and Rewards. - A system of annual incentives and rewards is hereby established in order to motivate and inspire public servants to uphold the highest standards of ethics. For this purpose, a Committee on Awards to Outstanding Public Officials and Employees is hereby created composed of the following: the Ombudsman and Chairman of the Civil Service Commission as Co-Chairmen, and the Chairman of the Commission on Audit, and two government employees to be appointed by the President, as members. It shall be the task of this Committee to conduct a periodic, continuing review of the performance of public officials and employees, in all the branches and agencies of Government and establish a system of annual incentives and
Republic Act No. 6713
February 20, 1989
AN ACT ESTABLISHING A CODE OF CONDUCT AND ETHICAL STANDARDS FOR PUBLIC OFFICIALS AND EMPLOYEES, TO UPHOLD THE TIME-HONORED PRINCIPLE OF PUBLIC OFFICE BEING A PUBLIC TRUST, GRANTING INCENTIVES AND REWARDS FOR EXEMPLARY SERVICE, ENUMERATING PROHIBITED ACTS AND TRANSACTIONS AND PROVIDING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATIONS THEREOF AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:: Section 1. Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees." Section 2. Declaration of Policies. - It is the policy of the State to promote a high standard of ethics in public service. Public officials and employees shall at all times be accountable to the people and shall discharge their duties with utmost responsibility, integrity, competence, and loyalty, act with patriotism and justice, lead modest lives, and uphold public interest over personal interest. Section 3. Definition of Terms. - As used in this Act, the term: (a) "Government" includes the National Government, the local governments, and all other instrumentalities, agencies or branches of the Republic of the Philippines including government-owned or controlled corporations, and their subsidiaries.lawphi1.net (b) "Public Officials" includes elective and appointive officials and employees, permanent or temporary, whether in the career or non-career service, including military and police personnel, whether or not they receive compensation, regardless of amount. (c) "Gift" refers to a thing or a right to dispose of gratuitously, or any act or liberality, in favor of another who accepts it, and shall include a simulated sale or an ostensibly onerous disposition thereof. It shall not include an unsolicited gift of nominal or insignificant value not given in anticipation of, or in exchange for, a favor from a public official or employee. (d) "Receiving any gift" includes the act of accepting directly or indirectly, a gift from a person other than a member of his family or relative as defined in this Act, even on the occasion of a family celebration or national festivity like Christmas, if the value of the gift is neither nominal nor insignificant, or the gift is given in anticipation of, or in exchange for, a favor. (e) "Loan" covers both simple loan and commodatum as well as guarantees, financing arrangements or accommodations intended to ensure its approval. (f) "Substantial stockholder" means any person who owns, directly or indirectly, shares of stock sufficient to elect a director of a corporation. This term shall also apply to the parties to a voting trust. (g) "Family of public officials or employees" means their spouses and unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age. (h) "Person" includes natural and juridical persons unless the context indicates otherwise. (i) "Conflict of interest" arises when a public official or employee is a member of a board, an officer, or a substantial stockholder of a private corporation or owner or has a substantial interest in a business, and the interest of such corporation or business, or his rights or duties therein, may be opposed to or affected by the faithful performance of official duty.
the sovereign Filipino people. Divestment. or a fine not exceeding five thousand pesos (P5. with all the islands and waters embraced therein. unless the same provide for a heavier penalty. and (5) All other public officials and employees.Public officials and employees shall not. the level of salary. the following shall constitute prohibited acts and transactions of any public official and employee and are hereby declared to be unlawful: (a) Financial and material interest. with the Office of the President. subject to the approval of the Secretary of Justice. (D) Prohibited acts. confidential or classified information officially known to them by reason of their office and not made available to the public. form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. or (b) any commercial purpose other than by news and communications media for dissemination to the general public. except those who serve in an honorary capacity. the necessary authority in favor of the Ombudsman to obtain from all appropriate government agencies. with the national office of the Ombudsman. If another sanction hereunder or under any other law is heavier. In the event a determination is made that a statement is not so filed. however. conserve and develop our patrimony. liabilities.All laws. except in the case of subparagraph (b) (2) above. Nothing in this Act shall be construed to restrict or prohibit any educational. and peace. and those below said ranks. if possible. These prohibitions shall continue to apply for a period of one (1) year after resignation. and also their business interests and financial connections in previous years. trustee or nominee in any private enterprise regulated. between. consisting of its terrestrial.Public officials and employees shall not use or divulge. The individual to whom an opinion is rendered. their assets. Husband and wife who are both public officials or employees may file the required statements jointly or separately. respectively. shall be made available for inspection at reasonable hours. or give undue advantage to anyone. 3019. or any regulation prescribed by any body or agency. . to the best of his knowledge and information. regardless of whether or not he holds office or employment in a casual. the latter shall apply. in the case of the Executive Department and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. That it may institute such administrative actions and disciplinary measures as may be warranted in accordance with law. gratuity. All public officials and employees required under this section to file the aforestated documents shall also execute. (C) Accessibility of documents. Statements and Disclosure. Section 12. The Ombudsman shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of this subsection. as amended. liabilities. laborers and casual or temporary workers. We. Incentives and rewards to government officials and employees of the year to be announced in public ceremonies honoring them may take the form of bonuses. and the public has the right to know. The Committee on Awards shall adopt its own rules to govern the conduct of its activities. Approved. (b) on or before April 30. THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES (Full Text) PREAMBLE Section 9. have any financial or material interest in any transaction requiring the approval of their office. citations. bonds. February 20. with the Deputy Ombudsman in their respective regions.(1) Any and all statements filed under this Act. his relatives in the Government in the form. Violations of Sections 7. paid vacations and the like.Public officials and employees during their incumbency shall not: (1) Own. promote the common good. committing any violation of this Act shall be punished with a fine not exceeding the equivalent of six (6) months' salary or suspension not exceeding one (1) year.It shall be the duty of every public official or employee to identify and disclose.The Civil Service Commission shall have the primary responsibility for the administration and enforcement of this Act. after issuance of the opinion acts in good faith in accordance with it shall not be subject to any sanction provided in this Act. (2) Engage in the private practice of their profession unless authorized by the Constitution or law. the subsoil. shall be subject to the same penal liabilities as the public officials or employees and shall be tried jointly with them. (4) Any statement filed under this Act shall be available to the public for a period of ten (10) years after receipt of the statement. he shall resign from his position in any private business enterprise within thirty (30) days from his assumption of office and/or divest himself of his shareholdings or interest within sixty (60) days from such assumption. The Statements of Assets. love. (3) Any person requesting a copy of a statement shall be required to pay a reasonable fee to cover the cost of reproduction and mailing of such statement. including. (3) Regional and local officials and employees. Liabilities and Net Worth and the Disclosure of Business Interests and Financial Connections shall be filed by: (1) Constitutional and national elective officials. and permitted by the head of office. acquisition costs. holdover. ARTICLE I NATIONAL TERRITORY . and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations. Administration and Enforcement of this Act. food. as well as the cost of certification. local and foreign scholarship grants. broker. including guidelines for individuals who render free voluntary service to the Government. The Ombudsman shall likewise take steps to protect citizens who denounce acts or omissions of public officials and employees which are in violation of this Act. . cooperation. (B) Identification and disclosure of relatives. ARTICLE II DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES PRINCIPLES Section 1. agent. either: (1) To further their private interests. The documents must be filed: (a) within thirty (30) days after assumption of office.Public officials and employees shall not solicit or accept. favor. freedom. decrees and orders or parts thereof inconsistent herewith. They shall likewise be automatically promoted to the next higher position with the commensurate salary suitable to their qualifications. of every year thereafter. in writing. The waters around. are deemed repealed or modified accordingly. with the Court Administrator. . accomplices or accessories.000). If the violation is punishable by a heavier penalty under another law. Review and Compliance Procedure. . .The sum necessary for the effective implementation of this Act shall be taken from the appropriations of the Civil Service Commission. said position shall be included in the budget of the office in the next General Appropriations Act. . within thirty (30) days from the date of their assumption of office. disqualification to hold public office. . including the Bureau of Internal Revenue. and are in proper form. After such period. Section 11. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. that such practice will not conflict or tend to conflict with their official functions. and secure to ourselves and our posterity. and the risks or temptations inherent in the work. or removal depending on the gravity of the offense after due notice and hearing by the appropriate body or agency. . . the year when they first assumed any office in the Government.If any provision of this Act or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance is declared invalid. (4) Officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain. Separability Clause. the unique and exemplary quality of a certain achievement. (c) Private individuals who participate in conspiracy as co-principals. or any transaction which may be affected by the functions of their office. net worth and financial and business interests including those of their spouses and of unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age living in their households. manner and frequency prescribed by the Civil Service Commission. subject in each instance to the approval by affirmative vote of the majority of the particular House concerned. Penalties. (b) personal property and acquisition cost. (A) Statements of Assets and Liabilities and Financial Disclosure. (b) In order to carry out their responsibilities under this Act. 1989. the seabed. (b) Any violation hereof proven in a proper administrative proceeding shall be sufficient cause for removal or dismissal of a public official or employee. . and connecting the islands of the archipelago. (e) all business interests and financial connections. Section 16. (ii) The acceptance by a public official or employee of a gift in the nature of a scholarship or fellowship grant or medical treatment. provided. in which case the oneyear prohibition shall likewise apply. with the Clerk of Court of the Supreme Court. . (c) Disclosure and/or misuse of confidential information. Provisions for More Stringent Standards.Nothing in this Act shall be construed to derogate from any law. Section 13. Section 14.All public officials and employees. or (2) To prejudice the public interest. the appropriate Committee shall so inform the reporting individual and direct him to take the necessary corrective action. he shall be prosecuted under the latter statute. The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago.Public officials and employees have an obligation to accomplish and submit declarations under oath of. (2) Such statements shall be made available for copying or reproduction after ten (10) working days from the time they are filed as required by law.(a) The designated Committees of both Houses of the Congress shall establish procedures for the review of statements to determine whether said statements which have been submitted on time. branch or agency to which he belongs. shall file under oath their Statement of Assets. . and any other individual involved in a similar factual situation. net worth. (b) Outside employment and other activities related thereto. 8 or 9 of this Act shall be punishable with imprisonment not exceeding five (5) years. Thereafter. . or (iii) The acceptance by a public official or employee of travel grants or expenses for travel taking place entirely outside the Philippine (such as allowances. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them.000). are complete. or (3) Recommend any person to any position in a private enterprise which has a regular or pending official transaction with their office. Section 2. and. temporary. . scientific or cultural exchange programs subject to national security requirements. in order to build a just and humane society. counsel. loan or anything of monetary value from any person in the course of their official duties or in connection with any operation being regulated by. Section 15. the obscurity of the position. and other submarine areas. in the discretion of the court of competent jurisdiction. and who. Prohibited Acts and Transactions. . Appropriations. . or separation from public office. When a conflict of interest arises. freedom. The two documents shall contain information on the following: (a) real property. its improvements. . Justices. Section 8. with the Secretaries of the Senate and the House of Representatives. entertainment. the remainder of the Act or the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected by such declaration. Section 17. supervised or licensed by their office unless expressly allowed by law. with the Deputy Ombudsman in their respective regions. justice. to render any opinion interpreting this Act. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy.rewards to the end that due recognition is given to public officials and employees of outstanding merit on the basis of the standards set forth in this Act. (d) The official or employee concerned may bring an action against any person who obtains or uses a report for any purpose prohibited by Section 8 (D) of this Act. and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction. any gift. directorships in government-owned or controlled corporations. the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth. to persons covered by this Act. the following: the years of service and the quality and consistency of performance.(a) Any public official or employee. Section 10. and all national executive officials with the Office of the President. among other things. such documents as may show their assets. fluvial and aerial domains. such sum as may be needed for its continued implementation shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. The Court in which such action is brought may assess against such person a penalty in any amount not to exceed twenty-five thousand pesos (P25. defined in Republic Act No. consultant. and lodging) of more than nominal value if such acceptance is appropriate or consistent with the interests of the Philippines. imploring the aid of Almighty God. Repealing Clause. The conferment of awards shall take into account. permanent or regular capacity. equality. with public officials or employees. (d) liabilities. The requirement of divestment shall not apply to those who serve the Government in an honorary capacity nor to laborers and casual or temporary workers. employee. directly or indirectly. the insular shelves. including its territorial sea. manage or accept employment as officer. or both.This Act shall take effect after thirty (30) days following the completion of its publication in the Official Gazette or in two (2) national newspapers of general circulation. . and. Liabilities and Net Worth and a Disclosure of Business Interests and Financial Connections and those of their spouses and unmarried children under eighteen (18) years of age living in their households. the statement may be destroyed unless needed in an ongoing investigation. Effectivity. but the professional concerned cannot practice his profession in connection with any matter before the office he used to be with.It shall be unlawful for any person to obtain or use any statement filed under this Act for: (a) any purpose contrary to morals or public policy. . (d) Solicitation or acceptance of gifts. adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace. Promulgation of Rules and Regulations. (c) all other assets such as investments. and (c) within thirty (30) days after separation from the service. It shall transmit all cases for prosecution arising from violations of this Act to the proper authorities for appropriate action: Provided. which provides for more stringent standards for its official and employees. Nothing in this provision shall be construed as a deprivation of the right of each House of Congress to discipline its Members for disorderly behavior. As to gifts or grants from foreign governments. Section 7. . with the Civil Service Commission. do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. The Civil Service Commission is hereby authorized to promulgate rules and regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act. control. regardless of their breadth and dimensions. (2) Senators and Congressmen. justice.A public official or employee shall avoid conflicts of interest at all times. in violation of this Act. equality. The same rule shall apply where the public official or employee is a partner in a partnership. and amity with all nations. directly or indirectly. (c) The heads of other offices shall perform the duties stated in subsections (a) and (b) hereof insofar as their respective offices are concerned. even if no criminal prosecution is instituted against him. including pertinent reporting and disclosure requirements. the Congress consents to: (i) The acceptance and retention by a public official or employee of a gift of nominal value tendered and received as a souvenir or mark of courtesy. Judges. in the case of the Judicial Department. stocks. retirement. assessed value and current fair market value. In case there is no next higher position or it is not vacant. transportation. and the like. the designated Committees of both Houses of Congress shall have the power within their respective jurisdictions.In addition to acts and omissions of public officials and employees now prescribed in the Constitution and existing laws. cash on hand or in banks.
Section 11. Section 8. Section 2. (4) Within three years following the return of every census. compact. Section 2. territorial integrity. including those employed in the public and private sectors. under conditions provided by law. Section 20. (2) In all criminal prosecutions. cities. Section 3. as may be provided by law. The State shall encourage non-governmental. The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent national economy effectively controlled by Filipinos. (3) Each legislative district shall comprise.  Those born before January 17. (1) No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. Section 6. and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election. Section 12. at all times. without discrimination or preference. they are deemed. Section 6. Section 18. as may be provided by law. houses. be bailable by sufficient sureties. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. (1) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations. intellectual. shall be afforded the citizen. at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election. public safety. The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce. or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. unless otherwise fixed by law. or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged. The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development. and adjacent territory. The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building. Neither shall death penalty be imposed. Section 10. The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives. unless by their act or omission. Section 5. the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved. Section 16. to form unions. Section 14.Section 3. (1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. All persons. Section 9. Each city with a population of at least two hundred fifty thousand. Section 20. Section 26. community-based. peasant. incommunicado. after arraignment. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel. The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. women. The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. Section 9. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. in the fulfillment thereof. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3). Section 7. the Congress hereafter provides for it. The Philippines. No STATE POLICIES Section 7. except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong. Section 3. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services. or other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage. the protection of life. (4) The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as compensation to the rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices. The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law. Section 5. Section 16. The Senate shall be composed of twenty-four Senators who shall be elected at large by the qualified voters of the Philippines. No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and. except the religious sector. regional. or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Civilian authority is. of expression. (2) The employment of physical. and the right to selfdetermination. unless otherwise provided by law. Section 24. Section 23. Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens. property. The right of the people to be secure in their persons. or when public safety or order requires otherwise. or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. as far as practicable. (2) No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption. Section 13. The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform. nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. No person shall be deprived of life. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development. he must be provided with one. that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable. consistent with the national interest. and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election. and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Section 10. a registered voter. promote full employment. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel. In its relations with other states. Section 2. national interest. Section 4. or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. (1) The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than two hundred and fifty members. and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men. and such other sectors as may be provided by law.  Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines. or of the press. military or civil service. and  Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. (2) No torture. and public trial. Section 14. (1) Excessive fines shall not be imposed. Secret detention places. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them. one-half of the seats allocated to party-list representatives shall be filled. papers. Section 19. solitary. Section 27. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable. (2) The party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per centum of the total number of representatives including those under the party list. shall have at least one representative. Section 4. who shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned among the provinces. No literacy. or each province. unless. urban poor. Section 17. to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him. (3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him. as provided by law. youth. and their families. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term of which he was elected. is at least thirty-five years of age. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or rebellion. The term of office of the Senators shall be six years and shall commence. before conviction. the Congress shall make a reapportionment of legislative districts based on the standards provided in this section. Section 21. ARTICLE III BILL OF RIGHTS Section 1. is at least twenty-five years of age. Section 25. a rising standard of living. and in the place wherein they propose to vote. The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad. and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism. Section 15. when the public safety requires it. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law. Section 5. they shall be allowed to vote under existing laws and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot. and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable. able to read and write. and provides incentives to needed investments. and. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion. ARTICLE VI THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT Section 1. and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs. No Senator shall serve for more than two consecutive terms. and promote total human liberation and development. Access to official records. or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. 1973. Section 15. Section 11. able to read and write. violence. The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without the assistance of other persons. to meet the witnesses face to face. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security. The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. and an improved quality of life for all. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. impartial. liberty. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial. trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused: Provided. . The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the Government. Section 5. Section 28. The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. psychological. and who shall have resided in the Philippines for at least one year. Section 2. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical. to have renounced it. nor cruel. Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. Section 22. shall be elected through a party-list system of registered national. Section 6. and social well-being. the State adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and. Section 4. or administrative bodies. supreme over the military. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech. of Filipino mothers. No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. as provided by law. (2) Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. and promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy. shall. or decisions. The State shall give priority to education. and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. except to the extent reserved to the people by the provision on initiative and referendum. and on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio. Section 17. Until then. and property. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector. and those who. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare. Excessive bail shall not be required. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law. under the law. as prescribed by law. degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. However. adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory. (1) The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court. Section 21. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. except the party-list representatives. arts. Section 18. for at least six months immediately preceding the election. a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected. and the Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants. Section 22. The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building. or public health. shall forever be allowed. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. accelerate social progress. who are at least eighteen years of age. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism. Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship. threat. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments. The following are citizens of the Philippines:  Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory. associations. ARTICLE V SUFFRAGE Section 1. culture. The maintenance of peace and order. to render personal. The right of the people. unless otherwise provided by law. indigenous cultural communities. the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty. Section 4. contiguous. and sectoral parties or organizations. science and technology. on the day of the election. subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. on the day of the election. For three consecutive terms after the ratification of this Constitution. Section 12. all citizens may be required. Section 19. intimidation. Section 3. ARTICLE IV CITIZENSHIP Section 1. who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority. spiritual. by selection or election from the labor. Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law. or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development. and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. Section 13. Section 8. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights. Section 7. for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes. conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. or property without due process of law. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election. transactions. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship. encourages private enterprise. quasi-judicial. force. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance. to have a speedy. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. moral. or degrading punishment against any prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law. and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel. liberty. The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for a term of three years which shall begin.
or to be raised by a corresponding revenue proposal therein. the Vice-President. a registered voter. Section 23. or where both shall have died or become permanently disabled. If a President shall not have been chosen. or of any priest. the Vice President-elect shall act as President until a President shall have been chosen and qualified. whereby the people can directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject any act or law or part thereof passed by the Congress or local legislative body after the registration of a petition therefor signed by at least ten per centum of the total number of registered voters. and such books shall be audited by the Commission on Audit which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each Member. a special election may be called to fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed by law. benefit. The rights of persons appearing in. or dignitary is assigned to the armed forces. The form. and private bills. The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives. paid. make a full disclosure of their financial and business interests. Section 27. and the yeas and nays entered in the Journal. affect national security. voting separately. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may personally appear as counsel before any court of justice or before the Electoral Tribunals. (2) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general appropriations bill unless it relates specifically to some particular appropriation therein. voting separately. (1) The rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable. two-thirds of all the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill. tonnage and wharfage dues. No person who has succeeded as President and has served as such for more than four years shall be qualified for election to the same office at any time. the appearance shall be conducted in executive session. Section 28. or instrumentality thereof. or employed. nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting. the votes of each House shall be determined by yeas or nays. at the call of its Chairman or a majority of all its Members. No law granting a title of royalty or nobility shall be enacted. bills of local application. or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation. The Congress shall. and twelve Members of the House of Representatives. at least forty years of age on the day of the election. or to any penal institution. directly. the Congress may. the Speaker of the House of Representatives. as such House may provide. except when such priest. and all lands. If. There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the Senate. (2) The Congress may. shall be transferred to the general funds of the Government. shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election. The President shall have an official residence. elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. returns. (4) No law granting any tax exemption shall be passed without the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of the Congress. The Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within thirty session days of the Congress from their submission. churches and personages or convents appurtenant thereto. They shall notify the House concerned of a potential conflict of interest that may arise from the filing of a proposed legislation of which they are authors. and exclusively used for religious. shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war. church. Written questions shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least three days before their scheduled appearance. and other duties or imposts within the framework of the national development program of the Government. Section 25. (5) No law shall be passed authorizing any transfer of appropriations. (2) The President shall have the power to veto any particular item or items in an appropriation. Section 11. revenue or tariff bills. the Speaker of the House of Representatives. as the rules of each House shall provide. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall embrace only one subject which shall be expressed in the title thereof. No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the Government. The salaries of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives shall be determined by law. but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes. If he approves the same he shall sign it. or upon the request of either House. The Commission shall rule by a majority vote of all the Members. authorize the President to fix within specified limits. if any. There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same qualifications and term of office and be elected with. The salaries of the President and Vice-President shall be determined by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure. as early as possible. in its judgment. Any such provision or enactment shall be limited in its operation to the appropriation to which it relates. in case of his inability. and subject to such limitations and restrictions as it may impose. except when the President certifies to the necessity of its immediate enactment to meet a public calamity or emergency. The President-elect and the Vice President-elect shall assume office at the beginning of their terms. (3) All money collected on any tax levied for a special purpose shall be treated as a special fund and paid out for such purpose only. directly or indirectly. for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as it may prescribe. If at the beginning of the term of the President. ARTICLE VII EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT Section 1. directed to the President of the Senate. be presented to the President. (1) The Congress. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected. denomination. returns. upon assumption of office. such inquiries shall be respected. The President and the Vice-President shall be elected by direct vote of the people for a term of six years which shall begin at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following the day of the election and shall end at noon of the same date. preacher. the Vice President-elect shall become President. and the Congress. open all the certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session. Section 24. Section 4. The chairman of the Commission shall not vote. He shall not intervene in any matter before any office of the Government for his pecuniary benefit or where he may be called upon to act on account of his office. and shall continue to be in session for such number of days as it may determine until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session. No law shall be passed increasing the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as provided in this Constitution without its advice and concurrence. The heads of departments may. Section 31. . it shall be sent. and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law. (1) Every bill passed by the Congress shall. Section 3. and may promulgate its rules for the purpose. Section 5. appear before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their departments. When the security of the State or the public interest so requires and the President so states in writing. and qualifications of the President or Vice-President. the balance. the Congress shall have failed to pass the general appropriations bill for the ensuing fiscal year. otherwise. no amendment thereto shall be allowed. (3) Charitable institutions. do justice to every man. to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. revenue. The executive power shall be vested in the President of the Philippines. or any subdivision. sitting en banc. Where no President and Vice-President shall have been chosen or shall have qualified. The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. and the vote thereon shall be taken immediately thereafter. Section 29. Section 2. So help me God. the President of the Senate or.Member of the House of Representatives shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. If the purpose for which a special fund was created has been fulfilled or abandoned. canvass the votes. together with the objections. Section 32. be entered in the Journal. of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters thereof. bills authorizing increase of the public debt. sectarian institution. be authorized to augment any item in the general appropriations law for their respective offices from savings in other items of their respective appropriations. Unless otherwise provided by law. Section 8. If the President-elect fails to qualify. shall be transmitted to the Congress. and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election. The President shall not be eligible for any re-election. No Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee thereof. and the names of the Members voting for or against shall be entered in its Journal. The returns of every election for President and Vice-President. (4) Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings. and the exceptions therefrom. No Vice-President shall serve for more than two successive terms. and in the same manner. and under such penalties. provide for a system of initiative and referendum. The President shall communicate his veto of any bill to the House where it originated within thirty days after the date of receipt thereof. or the Acting President shall take the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President [or VicePresident or Acting President] of the Philippines. or any subdivision. Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected. Section 17. excepting such parts as may. or tariff bill. (2) A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business. Section 7. it shall become a law. or affected by. applied. In all such cases. Such appointment requires no confirmation. agency. minister. when imposed. import and export quotas. except in case of a tie. upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law. Section 6. by a majority vote of all its respective Members. as the case may be. Neither shall he. the Vice President-elect shall act as President until the President-elect shall have qualified. in all offenses punishable by not more than six years imprisonment. (1). Each Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members. without the consent of the other. Section 16. who shall be chosen on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and the parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled. preacher. (6) Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only for public purposes to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law. the regular election of the Senators and the Members of the House of Representatives shall be held on the second Monday of May. or in any franchise or special privilege granted by the Government. which shall enter the objections at large in its Journal and proceed to reconsider it. agency. but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not object. Section 15. or government orphanage or leprosarium. to discharge such powers and functions as are herein conferred upon it. the President. twelve Senators. (3) Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings. content. Section 10. or its subsidiary. shall act as President until a President or a Vice-President shall have been chosen and qualified. to the other House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered. (1) The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the President for the operation of the Government as specified in the budget. after such reconsideration. three of whom shall be Justices of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice. shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives. upon their own initiative. last sentence will be omitted]. one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress. and from time to time publish the same. and improvements. Section 22. other religious teacher. The Congress shall promulgate its rules for the canvassing of the certificates. by law. The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election. Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions. authorize the President. he shall veto it and return the same with his objections to the House where it originated. Before they enter on the execution of their office. (2) In times of war or other national emergency. the President. by law. or instrumentality thereof. but may cover matters related thereto. buildings. tariff rates. and printed copies thereof in its final form have been distributed to its Members three days before its passage. minister. All Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives shall. (7) If. or dignitary as such. (2) No public money or property shall be appropriated. Section 14. mosques. otherwise. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session. as the President. A penalty of suspension. as ex officio Chairman. or system of religion. and shall be supported by funds actually available as certified by the National Treasurer. He may be removed from office in the same manner as the President. The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be preserved and be open to the public in accordance with law. Section 13. The Vice-President may be appointed as a Member of the Cabinet. The Supreme Court. (2) No bill passed by either House shall become a law unless it has passed three readings on separate days. the President of the Senate. but the Senator or Member of the House of Representatives thus elected shall serve only for the unexpired term. Upon the last reading of a bill. Section 20. including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress. Sundays. be privileged from arrest while the Congress is in session. The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session. and the heads of Constitutional Commissions may. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass." [In case of affirmation. for the use. Section 12. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the full term of all the Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives approving such increase. Unless otherwise provided by law. but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may compel the attendance of absent Members in such manner. Section 26. execute its laws. it shall become a law as if he had signed it. able to read and write. unless a different date is fixed by law. such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof. Section 9. by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled. the general appropriations law for the preceding fiscal year shall be deemed re-enacted and shall remain in force and effect until the general appropriations bill is passed by the Congress. or support of any sect. including any government-owned or controlled corporation. non-profit cemeteries. The Congress shall evolve a progressive system of taxation. by the end of any fiscal year. Section 19. All appropriation. actually. Each House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary. exclusive of Saturdays. during his term of office. its Speaker. A Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall. not later than thirty days after the day of the election. and legal holidays. The Electoral Tribunals and the Commission on Appointments shall be constituted within thirty days after the Senate and the House of Representatives shall have been organized with the election of the President and the Speaker. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of the service for the full term for which he was elected. the President of the Senate shall. (4) A special appropriations bill shall specify the purpose for which it is intended. during his term without forfeiting his seat. at the request of one-fifth of the Members present. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the term of the incumbent during which such increase was approved. however. and the remaining six shall be Members of the Senate or the House of Representatives. In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of Representatives. and if approved by two-thirds of all the Members of that House. Each House shall also keep a Record of its proceedings. before it becomes a law. Section 30. with the consent of the President. suspend or expel a Member. punish its Members for disorderly behavior. Section 18. and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected. or quasi-judicial and other administrative bodies. directly or indirectly. adjourn for more than three days. charitable. and the yeas and nays on any question shall. shall not exceed sixty days. preserve and defend its Constitution. the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. (3) The procedure in approving appropriations for the Congress shall strictly follow the procedure for approving appropriations for other departments and agencies. The senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman. Section 21. six years thereafter. the regular election for President and Vice-President shall be held on the second Monday of May. duly certified by the board of canvassers of each province or city. by law. They shall not receive during their tenure any other emolument from the Government or any other source. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. and qualifications of their respective Members. (5) Neither House during the sessions of the Congress shall. and. with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members. The President may call a special session at any time. but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments. (1) No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an appropriation made by law. be interested financially in any contract with.
Article V1 of this Constitution and shall become law upon its approval on third reading by the Congress. Section 6. in case of his inability. final judgments and orders of lower courts in: (a) All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty. (1) A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby created under the supervision of the Supreme Court composed of the Chief Justice as ex officio Chairman. but no person may be appointed judge thereof unless he is a citizen of the Philippines and a member of the Philippine Bar. invasion. in the courts. (3) A Member of the Judiciary must be a person of proven competence. prescribe. within twenty-four hours following such proclamation or suspension. He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of a majority of all the Members of the Congress. The Supreme Court shall have the following powers: 1) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors. The Congress may. or be financially interested in any contract with. permanent disability. Except in cases of impeachment. agencies. suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law. The President shall address the Congress at the opening of its regular session. It may exercise such other functions and duties as the Supreme Court may assign to it. or special privilege granted by the Government or any subdivision. order. prohibition. Section 1. and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. The members of the Cabinet in charge of national security and foreign relations and the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Section 15. and a representative of the private sector. which shall be heard by the Supreme Court en banc. extend such proclamation or suspension for a period to be determined by the Congress. Undersecretaries. Section 15. or directly connected with. may revoke such proclamation or suspension. impost. commissions. Section 23. by law. whether voluntary or compulsory. he may call out such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence. Appointments extended by an Acting President shall remain effective. The President shall be the Commander-in-Chief of all armed forces of the Philippines and whenever it becomes necessary. Whenever the President transmits to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. the President shall issue the appointments within ninety days from the submission of the list. or in the heads of departments. (6) Appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the Civil Service Law. Section 13. or operation of presidential decrees. any person thus arrested or detained shall be judicially charged within three days. and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. provide for the manner in which one who is to act as President shall be selected until a President or a Vice-President shall have qualified. he shall reassume the powers and duties of his office. Upon the initiative of the President. During the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. (2) All cases involving the constitutionality of a treaty. The convening of the Congress cannot be suspended nor the special election postponed. and. permanent disability. It may sit en banc or in its discretion. or abstained from a decision or resolution. orders. He shall serve until the President or the Vice-President shall have been elected and qualified. Section 8. or dissented. during his tenure. Section 18. provide who shall serve as President in case of death. commutations. including those involving the constitutionality. and all other cases which under the Rules of Court are required to be heard en banc. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law. and pardons. a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. the Secretary of Justice. He may also appear before it at any other time. or modify substantive rights. or in any franchise. For that purpose. Vice-President. enact a law calling for a special election to elect a President and a Vice-President to be held not earlier than forty-five days nor later than sixty days from the time of such call. after conviction by final judgment. The bill calling such special election shall be deemed certified under paragraph 2. voting separately. hold any other office or employment during their tenure. Two months immediately before the next presidential elections and up to the end of his term. mandamus. and containing other matters as may be provided by law. revise. Any Members who took no part. Any vacancy shall be filled within ninety days from the occurrence thereof. and habeas corpus. In case of invasion or rebellion. twelve months for all lower collegiate courts. The Congress. The conclusions of the Supreme Court in any case submitted to it for decision en banc or in division shall be reached in consultation before the case is assigned to a Member for the writing of the opinion of the Court. or seven Members. permanent disability. except temporary appointments to executive positions when continued vacancies therein will prejudice public service or endanger public safety. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of lower courts shall hold office during good behavior until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office. and of judges of lower courts. in division of three. but such appointments shall be effective only until disapproved by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Congress. The Congress shall. and shall not diminish. The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. (d) All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua or higher. and be subject to the same restrictions of powers and disqualifications as the Acting President. No law shall be passed reorganizing the Judiciary when it undermines the security of tenure of its Members. in the same manner. or inability of the officials mentioned in the next preceding paragraph. The Congress. The spouse and relatives by consanguinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree of the President shall not. unless revoked by the elected President. or. within ninety days from his assumption or reassumption of office. the Vice-President shall act as President. shall. Section 22. or as otherwise provided in this Constitution. or toll. The same requirements shall be observed by all lower collegiate courts. A certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case and served upon the parties. Within forty-eight hours from the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. international or executive agreement. nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where civil courts are able to function. (1) All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Constitution must be decided or resolved within twenty-four months from date of submission for the Supreme Court. instruction. modify. (4) The regular Members of the Council shall receive such emoluments as may be determined by the Supreme Court. The Members of the Supreme Court and of other courts established by law shall not be designated to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative functions. Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of paragraph 4. Section 7. The President may contract or guarantee foreign loans on behalf of the Republic of the Philippines with the prior concurrence of the Monetary Board. The Supreme Court shall provide in its annual budget the appropriations for the Council. Appropriations for the Judiciary may not be reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year and. or order their dismissal by a vote of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon. the President may grant reprieves. (1) The Supreme Court shall be composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate Justices. Section 9. within ten days after receipt of the last written declaration. by law. assessment. Such rules shall provide a simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of cases. or any penalty imposed in relation thereto. the sufficiency of the factual basis of the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus or the extension thereof. agency. ARTICLE VIII JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT Section 5. (3) Cases or matters heard by a division shall be decided or resolved with the concurrence of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon. within forty-eight hours. shall be decided with the concurrence of a majority of the Members who actually took part in the deliberations on the issues in the case and voted thereon. Whenever there is a vacancy in the Office of the Vice-President during the term for which he was elected. within thirty days from the end of every quarter of the calendar year. Section 12. (b) All cases involving the legality of any tax. shall be automatically and regularly released. and apportion the jurisdiction of the various courts but may not deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases enumerated in Section 5 hereof. if it is not in session. must state the reason therefor. a retired Member of the Supreme Court. or regulation is in question. shall be uniform for all courts of the same grade. Article V1 of this Constitution. and their deputies or assistants shall not. the Congress may. shall be fixed by law. The Congress shall have the power to define. chairmen or heads of bureaus or offices. Section 8. removal from office. in accordance with its rules and without need of call. Meanwhile. the representative of the Integrated Bar shall serve for four years. Section 12. Of the Members first appointed. practice. Section 14. including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. or resignation of the Acting President. the Speaker of the House of Representatives. directly or indirectly. The Supreme Court en banc shall have the power to discipline judges of lower courts. Section 2. otherwise he shall be released. Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable. the President shall nominate a Vice-President from among the Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives who shall assume office upon confirmation by a majority vote of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress. They shall strictly avoid conflict of interest in the conduct of their office. or the Office of the Ombudsman. the integrated bar. . or law. Section 14. law. nor supplant the functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies. reverse. In case of death. in case of death. when the public safety requires it. (4) Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a miscarriage of justice. which revocation shall not be set aside by the President. if not in session. the President shall continue exercising the powers and duties of his office. other public ministers and consuls. Such appointments need no confirmation. No special election shall be called if the vacancy occurs within eighteen months before the date of the next presidential election. and other regulations. Section 17. if not in session. voting jointly. after approval. The Congress shall. In case of death. instructions. The Members of the Supreme Court and judges of the lower courts shall be appointed by the President from a list of at least three nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council for every vacancy. other public ministers and consuls. including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. (e) All cases in which only an error or question of law is involved. probity. If the Congress. and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government. the admission to the practice of law. or as Secretaries. presidential decree. a President or Acting President shall not make appointments. (2) Review. permanent disability. (1) No person shall be appointed Member of the Supreme Court or any lower collegiate court unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. practice any other profession. quo warranto. They shall not. Section 13. invasion or rebellion.The Congress shall. he may. or boards. removal from office. Section 4. be appointed as Members of the Constitutional Commissions. within twelve days after it is required to assemble. in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen. and must promulgate its decision thereon within thirty days from its filing. When the required number is not obtained. or resignation of the President. the public shall be informed of the state of his health. (c) All cases in which the jurisdiction of any lower court is in issue. (5) The Council shall have the principal function of recommending appointees to the Judiciary. by a vote of at least a majority of all its Members in regular or special session. ambassadors. during said tenure. the VicePresident shall become the President to serve the unexpired term. international or executive agreement. Section 25. at ten o'clock in the morning of the third day after the vacancy in the offices of the President and Vice-President occurs. Thereafter. Section 26. The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the Congress. including receipts from existing and proposed revenue measures. During their continuance in office. For the lower courts. Section 20. or affirm on appeal or certiorari. otherwise. a professor of law. and remit fines and forfeitures. convene in accordance with its rules without need of a call and within seven days. (2) The Congress shall prescribe the qualifications of judges of lower courts. Section 10. if the invasion or rebellion shall persist and public safety requires it. and the representative of the private sector for one year. integrity. appoint the heads of the executive departments. proclamation. A Member of the Supreme Court must be at least forty years of age. application. the President shall submit a report in person or in writing to the Congress. unless reduced by the Supreme Court. participate in any business. and offices. vest the appointment of other officers lower in rank in the President alone. as the law or the Rules of Court may provide. voting separately. Section 11. and must have been for fifteen years or more. The salary of the Chief Justice and of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court. shall not be denied access to the President during such illness. (5) Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights. such powers and duties shall be discharged by the VicePresident as Acting President. by law. In case of serious illness of the President. should a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit within five days to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives. (3) Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations as public interest may require. The Supreme Court may review. and a representative of the Congress as ex officio Members. the professor of law for three years. and procedure in all courts. the retired Justice for two years. or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain. the case shall be decided en banc: Provided. the Congress shall decide the issue. The Monetary Board shall. submit to the Congress a complete report of its decision on applications for loans to be contracted or guaranteed by the Government or government-owned and controlled corporations which would have the effect of increasing the foreign debt. shall then act as President until the President or VicePresident shall have been elected and qualified. five. and independence. nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. The Supreme Court shall have administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof. Section 9. The President. Rules of procedure of special courts and quasi-judicial bodies shall remain effective unless disapproved by the Supreme Court. No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressing therein clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based. the President of the Senate or. the Vice-President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution. He shall ensure that the laws be faithfully executed. convene in accordance with its rules without need of a call. increase. Section 3. Whenever a majority of all the Members of the Cabinet transmit to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary. determines by a two-thirds vote of both Houses. a representative of the Integrated Bar. that no doctrine or principle of law laid down by the court in a decision rendered en banc or in division may be modified or reversed except by the court sitting en banc. The President shall submit to the Congress. and over petitions for certiorari. their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. The President shall nominate and. Section 16. (3) The Clerk of the Supreme Court shall be the Secretary ex officio of the Council and shall keep a record of its proceedings. the Members of the Cabinet. Section 19. bureaus. within thirty days from the opening of every regular session as the basis of the general appropriations bill. (2) The regular members of the Council shall be appointed by the President for a term of four years with the consent of the Commission on Appointments. The President shall have control of all the executive departments. with the consent of the Commission on Appointments. a budget of expenditures and sources of financing. their salary shall not be decreased. and in no case without the concurrence of at least three of such Members. the Congress shall convene. that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. No treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by at least twothirds of all the Members of the Senate. ordinance. No petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a decision of the court shall be refused due course or denied without stating the legal basis therefor. ordinances. The suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall apply only to persons judicially charged for rebellion or offenses inherent in. and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution. when the President transmits to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists. Section 10. proclamations. The judicial power shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law. and legal assistance to the underprivileged. or instrumentality thereof. for a period not exceeding sixty days. unless otherwise provided in this Constitution. or resignation of both the President and Vice-President. and three months for all other lower courts. Such temporary assignment shall not exceed six months without the consent of the judge concerned. Section 11. pleading. Section 21.
and another Commissioner for three years. at least thirty-five years of age.audit basis: (a) constitutional bodies. and equal rates therefor. including those for the prevention and disallowance of irregular. (2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. any case or matter brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for decision or resolution. and cities and municipalities with respect to component barangays. including Government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. Section 10. and recommend measures necessary to improve their effectiveness and efficiency. as the central personnel agency of the Government. (2) The Commission shall have exclusive authority. or highly technical. Decisions. orderly. and registration of voters. It shall keep the general accounts of the Government and. Section 8. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with law. including the Armed Forces of the Philippines. for public information campaigns and forums among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free. or involving elective barangay officials decided by trial courts of limited jurisdiction. shall ensure that the acts of their component units are within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions. and qualifications of all elective regional. the election period shall commence ninety days before the day of election and shall end thirty days thereafter. Section 2. Such rules. fees. and recalls. from or through the Government. and appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving elective municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction. or unconscionable expenditures or uses of government funds and properties. subdivisions. or in any franchise or privilege granted by the Government. or members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years. taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to. and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. when accepted. and provide for the qualifications. no appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the Government or any subdivision. double. A case or matter is deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading. The Congress shall enact a local government code which shall provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization with effective mechanisms of recall. Section 6. Section 3. Section 16. boards of election inspectors. and nuisance candidacies. (1) There shall be a Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and six Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and. Section 9. without reappointment. and on a post. or ruling of each Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from receipt of a copy thereof. No pardon. or any of its subdivisions. organizations. peaceful. establish the techniques and methods required therefor. excessive. an annual report covering the financial condition and operation of the Government. to define the scope of its audit and examination. and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations. initiative. including pre. (1) The civil service shall be administered by the Civil Service Commission composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and. in any contract with. Of those first appointed. and referendum. nor shall he be financially interested. all grants. initiatives. Section 4. Certified Public Accountants with not less than ten years of auditing experience.proclamation controversies. including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters. owned or held in trust by. or instrumentality thereof. No law shall be passed exempting any entity of the Government or its subsidiaries in any guise whatever. as determined by law. and not appealable. honest. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION Section 1. It shall submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on its personnel programs. (3) Decide. Such taxes. efficiency. initiative. including the Chairman. salaries. The Commission shall submit to the President and the Congress. and instrumentalities. No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional. The Commission shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. political parties. agencies. or organizations or coalitions registered under the party-list system. All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution. or indirect compensation. (3) No officer or employee of the civil service shall be removed or suspended except for cause provided by law. without further delay. the Chairman shall hold office for seven years. during his tenure. However. Section 2. No member of a Constitutional Commission shall. at the time of their appointment. election. investigate and. 3. including acts or omissions constituting election frauds. Section 4. However. and the qualifications required for. Section 7. except for those registered under the party-list system as provided in this Constitution. plebiscites. agencies. or memorandum required by the rules of the Commission or by the Commission itself. all questions affecting elections. Pensions or gratuities shall not be considered as additional. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election. THE COMMISSION ON AUDIT Section 1. subject to the limitations in this Article. parole. including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters. appointment and removal. responsiveness. and charges shall accrue exclusively to the local governments. commissions and offices that have been granted fiscal autonomy under this Constitution. No candidate who has lost in any election shall. integrate all human resources development programs for all levels and ranks. municipalities. Section 4. No votes cast in favor of a political party. and served upon the parties. any decision. or modify substantive rights. The Constitutional Commissions. except to positions which are policy-determining. increase. and the other Commissioner for three years. as far as practicable. cities. Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of revenues and to levy taxes. within one year after such election. for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free. prosecute cases of violations of election laws. and accredit citizens' arms of the Commission on Elections. with proven capacity for public administration. Section 3. or decision. order. hold any other office or employment. for violation or disregard of. special privileges. one Commissioner for five years. The Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions: (1) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election. the Government. without reappointment. (7) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election spending. brief. Section 4. and (d) such non-governmental entities receiving subsidy or equity. or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution. after sufficient publication. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to any public office or position during his tenure. except those involving the right to vote. the Chairman shall hold office for seven years. However. allocate among the different local government units their powers. boards of canvassers. Section 5. (1) The Commission on Audit shall have the power. shall not diminish. Local government units shall have a just share. and the last Members for three years. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS Section 1. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. (4) Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period. at the time of their appointment. order. agencies. or title of any kind from any foreign government. once approved. (5) The right to self-organization shall not be denied to government employees. fees and charges subject to such guidelines and limitations as the Congress may provide. B. may be affected by the functions of his office. office. The Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials and employees. honest. (9) Submit to the President and the Congress. final orders. and city officials. (c) other government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. COMMON PROVISIONS Section 1. without reappointment. referenda. (1) There shall be a Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners. nor accept without the consent of the Congress. directly or indirectly. (4) Deputize. There shall be autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras as hereinafter provided. are the Civil Service Commission. during the election period. or candidates related to elections. referendum. including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters. including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. . provincial. upon a verified complaint. (2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. within thirty days from the opening of each regular session of the Congress. Such supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure equal opportunity. where appropriate. (2) Appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and fitness to be determined. Funds certified by the Commission as necessary to defray the expenses for holding regular and special elections. Section 6. its subdivisions. or rulings of the Commission on election contests involving elective municipal and barangay offices shall be final. supervise or regulate the enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities. Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members. or concessions granted by the Government or any subdivision. or pertaining to. or instrumentalities. Of those first appointed. or disobedience to. and courtesy in the civil service. two Members for five years. or the imposition of any other disciplinary action. term. The certification shall state why a decision or resolution has not been rendered or issued within said period. unless specifically authorized by law. in any way. shall be an additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Commission. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. (2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. The territorial and political subdivisions shall enjoy local autonomy. emolument. or other similar bodies. extravagant. ARTICLE IX A. ARTICLE X LOCAL GOVERNMENT GENERAL PROVISIONS Section 1. unnecessary. in addition to other requirements. The Civil Service Commission. its directive. agency or instrumentality thereof. Sec. C. law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government. a Commissioner for five years. including government-owned or controlled corporations. Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political parties. or indirect compensation. in any electioneering or partisan political campaign. by competitive examination. preserve the vouchers and other supporting papers pertaining thereto. All such election cases shall be heard and decided in division. Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position. A free and open party system shall be allowed to evolve according to the free choice of the people. (2) Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections. Section 7. shall be released automatically upon certification by the Chairman of the Commission. in addition to other penalties that may be prescribed by law. Section 6. primarily confidential. shall be provided in the regular or special appropriations and. Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and discrimination. The Supreme Court shall. instrumentalities. (1) The civil service embraces all branches. Section 5. returns. Section 8. without prejudice to such responsibility as may have been incurred in consequence thereof. or recall. Section. Those which seek to achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. executory. Each Commission shall perform such other functions as may be provided by law. constitute interference in national affairs. or memorandum required by the Rules of Court or by the court itself. powers and functions and duties of local officials. where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate. plebiscite. Section 11. subject to the provisions of this Article. consistent with the basic policy of local autonomy. authority. offenses. and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. including determination of the number and location of polling places. the court. provided that motions for reconsideration of decisions shall be decided by the Commission en banc. including any government-owned or controlled corporation or its subsidiary. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity. At no time shall all Members of the Commission belong to the same profession. petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters. submit to the President and the Congress an annual report on the operations and activities of the Judiciary. any present. shall establish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale. directly or indirectly. and all other matters relating to the organization and operation of the local units. agency. or coalition shall be valid. double. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor. and malpractices. It shall submit such other reports as may be required by law. a majority thereof. (4) No officer or employee in the civil service shall engage.(2) A case or matter shall be deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading. or suspension of sentence for violation of election laws. or instrumentalities. shall decide or resolve the case or matter submitted thereto for determination. Section 2. initiative. shall not be represented in the voters' registration boards. at least thirty-five years of age. and. their positions. (6) Temporary employees of the Government shall be given such protection as may be provided by law. (8) Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized. however. Section 5. Neither shall he engage in the practice of any profession or in the active management or control of any business which. and expenditures or uses of funds and property. as are necessary and appropriate to correct the deficiencies. and must not have been candidates for any elective positions in the immediately preceding elections. progressiveness. a certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice or the presiding judge shall forthwith be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case or matter. with the concurrence of the President. the Commission on Elections. It shall strengthen the merit and rewards system. appointment of election officials and inspectors. who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and. media of communication or information. and credible elections. organizations. (6) File. organization. integrity. 2. and duty to examine. which shall be independent. and recall. and non-governmental entities subject to its audit. and barangays. holders of a college degree. Provinces with respect to component cities and municipalities. D. at the time of their appointment. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in two divisions. rules. and resources. shall be members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years. offenses. Section 4. peaceful. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law. Section 7. The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision over local governments. and regulations shall be granted by the President without the favorable recommendation of the Commission. audit. and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of. or which are supported by any foreign government shall likewise be refused registration. The salary of the Chairman and the Commissioners shall be fixed by law and shall not be decreased during their tenure. or any investment of public funds. (3) Upon the expiration of the corresponding period. the Commission may adopt such measures. or on its own initiative. must present their platform or program of government. and credible elections. and. Political parties. responsibilities. Section 3. which are required by law or the granting institution to submit to such audit as a condition of subsidy or equity. Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered. for such period as may be provided by law. and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public accountability. at least thirty-five years of age. within the time fixed by law. or coalitions which. including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted. amnesty. three Members shall hold office for seven years. The Commission may. orderly. brief. and agencies of the Government. directly or indirectly. and the Commission on Audit. in the national taxes which shall be automatically released to them. coalitions. (b) autonomous state colleges and universities. Section 2. plebiscite. from the jurisdiction of the Commission on Audit. Section 3. The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces. Section 5. referendum. (5) Register. any of its subdivisions. malpractices. Section 6. they shall be entitled to appoint poll watchers in accordance with law. including temporary or special pre-audit. Section 8. Their approved annual appropriations shall be automatically and regularly released. Of those first appointed. and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds. be appointed to any office in the Government or any Government-owned or controlled corporations or in any of their subsidiaries. and shall promulgate its rules of procedure in order to expedite disposition of election cases. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases.
The President may enter into agreements with foreign-owned corporations involving either technical or financial assistance for large-scale exploration. and other relevant characteristics within the framework of this Constitution and the national sovereignty as well as territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines. in any appropriate case. Section 4. and net worth. been a judge or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. and utilized in accordance with applicable laws. and (9) Such other matters as may be authorized by law for the promotion of the general welfare of the people of the region. A public officer or employee shall. In cases of water rights for irrigation. the Members of the Supreme Court. The President. and other mineral oils according to the general terms and conditions provided by law. The organic acts shall likewise provide for special courts with personal. with priority to subsistence fishermen and fish. or other form of financial accommodation for any business purpose may be granted. The goals of the national economy are a more equitable distribution of opportunities. In the case of the President. The officials and employees of the Office of the Ombudsman. Local governments shall be entitled to an equitable share in the proceeds of the utilization and development of the national wealth within their respective areas. The Congress shall enact an organic act for each autonomous region with the assistance and participation of the regional consultative commission composed of representatives appointed by the President from a list of nominees from multi-sectoral bodies. Agricultural lands of the public domain may be further classified by law according to the uses to which they may be devoted. Section 8. waters. (7) Educational policies. The resolution shall be calendared for consideration by the House within ten session days from receipt thereof. and members of the Philippine Bar. or leased and the conditions therefor. In the pursuit of these goals. and subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. and similar collective organizations. Public officers and employees owe the State and this Constitution allegiance at all times and any public officer or employee who seeks to change his citizenship or acquire the status of an immigrant of another country during his tenure shall be dealt with by law. the State shall protect Filipino enterprises against unfair foreign competition and trade practices. Section 3. The organic act shall define the basic structure of government for the region consisting of the executive department and legislative assembly. improper. Section 7. as well as cooperative fish farming. and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of the State. Section 10. Section 15. as protectors of the people. Section 12. act with patriotism and justice. Visayas. The present anti-graft court known as the Sandiganbayan shall continue to function and exercise its jurisdiction as now or hereafter may be provided by law. by law. During their tenure. and ensure compliance therewith. shall be appointed by the Ombudsman. of the Constitutional Commissions. and subject to the requirements of agrarian reform. held. cities. other high crimes. consolidate or coordinate their efforts. Section 11. but shall not vote. culpable violation of the Constitution. Alienable lands of the public domain shall be limited to agricultural lands. (3) Ancestral domain and natural resources. It shall continue to function and exercise its powers as now or hereafter may be provided by law. and by a majority vote of all its Members. The vote of each Member shall be recorded. within thirty days from its execution. The Congress may. the Senators shall be on oath or affirmation. suspension. the Constitutional Commissions and other constitutional offices. agency or instrumentality thereof. lakes. municipalities. (4) Direct the officer concerned. Section 3. territorial sea. Taking into account the requirements of conservation. whose charters contain no such prohibition. ecology. by any government-owned or controlled bank or financial institution to the President. and wealth. functions. fraud. both of which shall be elective and representative of the constituent political units. homestead. except barangay officials. marking clearly their boundaries on the ground. as soon as possible. the Congress shall determine. any public official or employee of the Government. at least forty years old. shall not be barred by prescription. The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform. The existing Tanodbayan shall hereafter be known as the Office of the Special Prosecutor. and at the time of their appointment. liabilities. water supply fisheries. family. when such act or omission appears to be illegal. Section 17. and reserve its use and enjoyment exclusively to Filipino citizens. Within its territorial jurisdiction and subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national laws. (2) Direct. create special metropolitan political subdivisions. in the manner provided by law. No loan. renewable for not more than twenty-five years. petroleum. or grant. The President shall notify the Congress of every contract entered into in accordance with this provision. Section 5. The voters of component cities within a province. Section 9. Public officers and employees must. Section 9. or acquire not more than twelve hectares thereof. or its boundary substantially altered. and must not have been candidates for any elective office in the immediately preceding election. or betrayal of public trust. and duties: (1) Investigate on its own. for a period not exceeding twenty-five years. All vacancies shall be filled within three months after they occur. The Ombudsman and his Deputies. The preservation of peace and order within the regions shall be the responsibility of the local police agencies which shall be organized. Section 18. and punishment. (3) Direct the officer concerned to take appropriate action against a public official or employee at fault. When the President of the Philippines is on trial. or inefficient. by law. The defense and security of the regions shall be the responsibility of the National Government. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate. renewable for not more than twenty-five years. (5) Request any government agency for assistance and information necessary in the discharge of its responsibilities. and officers of the armed forces with general or flag rank. the Supreme Court. and they shall receive the same salary which shall not be decreased during their term of office. shall act promptly on complaints filed in any form or manner against public officials or employees of the Government. the same shall constitute the Articles of Impeachment. The term of office of elective local officials. except by law. of recognized probity and independence. The Office of the Ombudsman shall have the following powers. (3) A vote of at least one-third of all the Members of the House shall be necessary either to affirm a favorable resolution with the Articles of Impeachment of the Committee. Section 12. and referred to the proper Committee within three session days thereafter. (2) Creation of sources of revenues. and geographic areas voting favorably in such plebiscite shall be included in the autonomous region.Section 7. or override its contrary resolution. Local government units may group themselves. after hearing. Section 19. bays. fine. ARTICLE XI ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS Section 1. composed of the Ombudsman to be known as Tanodbayan. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be appointed by the President from a list of at least six nominees prepared by the Judicial and Bar Council. through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources. one overall Deputy and at least one Deputy each for Luzon. The Ombudsman must have. development. if necessary. and tourism development. the Vice-President. the Members of the Constitutional Commissions. or it may enter into co-production. measures to prohibit logging in endangered forests and watershed areas. according to law. the Members of the Cabinet. (8) Preservation and development of the cultural heritage. and corruption in the Government and make recommendations for their elimination and the observance of high standards of ethics and efficiency. social. joint venture. and the Ombudsman may be removed from office on impeachment for. laches. (6) Publicize matters covered by its investigation when circumstances so warrant and with due prudence. Section 16. provided that only provinces. (4) Personal. AUTONOMOUS REGIONS Section 15. The Congress may. and correct any abuse or impropriety in the performance of duties. minerals. and other mineral oils. treason. or prosecution. Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural. and component cities whose charters prohibit their voters from voting for provincial elective officials. subject to a plebiscite as set forth in Section 10 hereof. Section 4. and property law jurisdiction consistent with the provisions of this Constitution and national laws. (8) The Congress shall promulgate its rules on impeachment to effectively carry out the purpose of this section. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall have the rank of Chairman and Members. all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. or to any firm or entity in which they have controlling interest. (5) No impeachment proceedings shall be initiated against the same official more than once within a period of one year. during their tenure. the Members of the Cabinet. shall be independent of the province. and resources for purposes commonly beneficial to them in accordance with law. Such agreements may be for a period not exceeding twenty-five years. The Office of the Ombudsman shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. and to examine. Section 20. including government-owned or controlled corporations. cooperatives. graft and corruption. as well as of any government-owned or controlled corporation with original charter. and shall. (7) Determine the causes of inefficiency. Such appointments shall require no confirmation. (6) Economic. they shall be subject to the same disqualifications and prohibitions as provided for in Section 2 of Article 1X-A of this Constitution. all other natural resources shall not be alienated. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall serve for a term of seven years without reappointment. Its approved annual appropriations shall be automatically and regularly released. pass the organic acts for the autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras. or barangay may be created. and trial by the Senate shall forthwith proceed. regional heads of departments and other government offices. the size of lands of the public domain which may be acquired. Public office is a public trust. fisheries. abolished. merged. as determined by law. and under such terms and conditions as may be provided by law. upon complaint or at its own instance. and efficiency. and recommend his removal. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected. developed. to furnish it with copies of documents relating to contracts or transactions entered into by his office involving the disbursement or use of public funds or properties. (5) Regional urban and rural planning development. divided. (4) In case the verified complaint or resolution of impeachment is filed by at least one-third of all the Members of the House. income. family. and lead modest lives. unjust. petroleum. or any subdivision. which shall be determined by law. the Vice-President. but not by impeachment. be accountable to the people. integrity. functions. wildlife. . prevent. employee. shall not be deprived of their right to vote for elective provincial officials. submit a declaration under oath of his assets.workers in rivers. according to the Civil Service Law. especially the underprivileged. and conviction of. Section 8. to perform and expedite any act or duty required by law. pertinent records and documents. beneficial use may be the measure and limit of the grant. The jurisdiction of the metropolitan authority that will thereby be created shall be limited to basic services requiring coordination. the Congress. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines. services. and representatives from non-governmental organizations within the regions for purposes of administrative decentralization to strengthen the autonomy of the units therein and to accelerate the economic and social growth and development of the units in the region. economic and social structures. and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all. shall submit its report to the House within sixty session days from such referral. such forest lands and national parks shall be conserved and may not be increased nor diminished. determine. all forces of potential energy. upon assumption of office and as often thereafter as may be required by law. No province. (8) Promulgate its rules of procedure and exercise such other powers or perform such functions or duties as may be provided by law. and utilization of minerals. (2) A verified complaint for impeachment may be filed by any Member of the House of Representatives or by any citizen upon a resolution or endorsement by any Member thereof. mineral lands and national parks. except those conferred on the Office of the Ombudsman created under this Constitution. forest or timber. including corporations. the declaration shall be disclosed to the public in the manner provided by law. Thereafter. or on complaint by any person. but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to prosecution. Private corporations or associations may not hold such alienable lands of the public domain except by lease. Citizens of the Philippines may lease not more than five hundred hectares. by law. All powers. and lagoons. agency or instrumentality thereof. the State shall promote the development and use of local scientific and technical resources. allow small-scale utilization of natural resources by Filipino citizens. With the exception of agricultural lands. or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. demotion. notify the complainants of the action taken and the result thereof. the Supreme Court. Section 18. serve them with utmost responsibility. or industrial uses other than the development of water power. The exploration. The first Congress elected under this Constitution shall. the Congress. cities. forests or timber. directly or indirectly. The State may directly undertake such activities. guaranty. They shall not be qualified to run for any office in the election immediately succeeding their cessation from office. Section 11. Legislative bodies of local governments shall have sectoral representation as may be prescribed by law. (6) The Senate shall have the sole power to try and decide all cases of impeachment. in appropriate cases. Section 6. municipality. or production-sharing agreements with Filipino citizens. which shall be included in the Order of Business within ten session days. Section 17. ARTICLE XII NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PATRIMONY Section 1. All lands of the public domain. or to stop. The creation of the autonomous region shall be effective when approved by majority of the votes cast by the constituent units in a plebiscite called for the purpose. for ten years or more. office or agency. and development. The Congress shall. The President shall exercise general supervision over autonomous regions to ensure that laws are faithfully executed. a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the people. and responsibilities not granted by this Constitution or by law to the autonomous regions shall be vested in the National Government. by law. red tape. shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership. When sitting for that purpose. The Congress shall provide for such period as it may determine. There shall be created autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and in the Cordilleras consisting of provinces. Section 2. development. by purchase. Section 10. and not to exceed one thousand hectares in area. Private enterprises. supervised. and property relations. or estoppel. Section 2. In such agreements. and exclusive economic zone. together with the corresponding resolution. (1) The House of Representatives shall have the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment. and geographical areas sharing common and distinctive historical and cultural heritage. from them or from their nominees or transferees. Section 14. trial. the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall preside. shall be three years and no such official shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. Section 13. loyalty. flora and fauna. and other natural resources are owned by the State. Section 13. The component cities and municipalities shall retain their basic autonomy and shall be entitled to their own local executive and legislative assemblies. Section 16. any act or omission of any public official. the specific limits of forest lands and national parks. the Ombudsman. maintained. The right of the State to recover properties unlawfully acquired by public officials or employees. the Vice-President. bribery. except in accordance with the criteria established in the local government code and subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected. city. and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. coal. A separate Deputy for the military establishment may likewise be appointed. mismanagement. Cities that are highly urbanized. (7) Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than removal from office and disqualification to hold any office under the Republic of the Philippines. and Mindanao. However. within eighteen months from the time of organization of both Houses. respectively. other than the Deputies. based on real contributions to the economic growth and general welfare of the country. and from a list of three nominees for every vacancy thereafter. and the Constitutional Commissions. or any subdivision. The President shall provide for regional development councils or other similar bodies composed of local government officials. censure. The State shall protect the nation's marine wealth in its archipelagic waters. and report any irregularity to the Commission on Audit for appropriate action. There is hereby created the independent Office of the Ombudsman. Section 14. Section 21. The Committee. including sharing the same with the inhabitants by way of direct benefits. All other public officers and employees may be removed from office as provided by law. the organic act of autonomous regions shall provide for legislative powers over: (1) Administrative organization. at all times.
disabled. a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. all forms of human rights violations involving civil and political rights. They shall also participate in policy and decision-making processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law. establish and operate vital industries and. to the preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources. Section 18. by law. in the interest of national welfare or defense. HUMAN RIGHTS Section 17. It shall have supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions. which shall. Government-owned or controlled corporations may be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the test of economic viability. The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers. or equity considerations. the State shall regulate the acquisition. It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research. recognizing the right of labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns to investments. and patriotism. and peaceful concerted activities. the existing Presidential Committee on Human Rights shall continue to exercise its present functions and powers. and local government units. No franchise. The State shall regulate or prohibit monopolies when the public interest so requires. The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance. Section 2. The State may. and (11) Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law. Section 6. The State shall afford full protection to labor. organized and unorganized. by law. The sustained development of a reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino scientists. Section 5. The Congress may provide for the applicability of customary laws governing property rights or relations in determining the ownership and extent of ancestral domain. The State shall establish a special agency for disabled person for their rehabilitation. To this end. The State may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law. reserve to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. and adequate financial. no private lands shall be transferred or conveyed except to individuals. Section 6. Financial instruments used as payment for their lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice. both inland and offshore. and all economic agents shall contribute to the common good. Save in cases of hereditary succession. taking into account ecological. professionals. entrepreneurs. (3) Until this Commission is constituted. corporations. shall function as the central monetary authority. The State shall promote the preferential use of Filipino labor. when the national interest dictates. certificate. high-level technical manpower and skilled workers and craftsmen in all fields shall be promoted by the State. collective bargaining and negotiations. The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions. Section 11. the State may. shall protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to their ancestral lands to ensure their economic. production. and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools. and children. including lands of the public domain under lease or concession suitable to agriculture. The Congress shall establish an independent central monetary authority. Section 10. and political inequalities. production. adequate. and concessions covering the national economy and patrimony. and privatization of public sector enterprises. No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed. Section 18. URBAN LAND REFORM AND HOUSING Section 9. The Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and functions: (1) Investigate. including the right to strike in accordance with law. of known probity. transfer to public ownership utilities and other private enterprises to be operated by the Government. at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately-owned public utility or business affected with public interest. Acts which circumvent or negate any of the provisions of this Article shall be considered inimical to the national interest and subject to criminal and civil sanctions. local and overseas. (2) Establish and maintain. (2) The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and four Members who must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and a majority of whom shall be members of the Bar. The Congress may establish an independent economic and planning agency headed by the President. and landowners. and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all. ownership. and credit. The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods. (9) Request the assistance of any department. HEALTH Section 11. (1) There is hereby created an independent office called the Commission on Human Rights. Neither shall any such franchise or right be granted except under the condition that it shall be subject to amendment. The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform program to promote industrialization. their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through peaceful and lawful means. Information on foreign loans obtained or guaranteed by the Government shall be made available to the public. (2) Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure. and structure. The right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of social. ROLE AND RIGHTS OF PEOPLE'S ORGANIZATIONS Section 1. The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of any public utility enterprise shall be limited to their proportionate share in its capital. Section 13. to own directly or collectively the lands they till or. social. The Congress shall not. LABOR Section 3. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 7 of this Article. adequate financial. especially of local communities. The State shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system and undertake appropriate health. ARTICLE XIII SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS Section 13. or regulation of private corporations. and implement continuing integrated and coordinated programs and policies for national development. Section 12. and other services. responsive to the country's health needs and problems. Section 15. It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization. WOMEN Section 14. taking into account their maternal functions. undertake. Section 7. and cite for contempt for violations thereof in accordance with the Rules of Court. and information to enhance respect for the primacy of human rights. taking into account its recommendations. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion. privileges. Section 15. homestead rights of small settlers. and to expansion and growth. They shall also be subject to such other qualifications and disabilities as may be prescribed by law. The term of office and other qualifications and disabilities of the Members of the Commission shall be provided by law. There shall be priority for the needs of the under-privileged. To this end. in cooperation with the private sector. (4) Exercise visitorial powers over jails. Section 2. whenever applicable in accordance with law. Section 16. ARTS. The Congress may provide for other cases of violations of human rights that should fall within the authority of the Commission. and other support services. The State shall regulate and exercise authority over foreign investments within its national jurisdiction and in accordance with its national goals and priorities. The State shall: (1) Establish. subject to the duty of the State to promote distributive justice and to intervene when the common good so demands. upon payment of just compensation. decent housing and basic services to under-privileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlement areas. Without limiting the natural rights of parents to rear their children. reduce social. especially to the underprivileged. and adopt measures that help make them competitive. and their integration into the mainstream of society. In the implementation of such program the State shall respect the rights of small property owners. and for the common good. except by general law. on its own or on complaint by any party. and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it. the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands. nor shall such franchise. integrity. and subject to the payment of just compensation. and operate economic enterprises. and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation. The authority shall provide policy direction in the areas of money. and economic decision-making shall not be abridged. and other independent farmers' organizations to participate in the planning. (7) Monitor the Philippine Government's compliance with international treaty obligations on human rights. and conserve such resources. Section 17. the National Economic and Development Authority shall function as the independent planning agency of the government. and the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands. certificate. certain areas of investments. and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good. Section 9. The Congress shall. humane conditions of work. The State shall. domestic materials and locally produced goods. The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity. subject to prior rights. In the grant of rights. farmworkers. a natural-born citizen of the Philippines who has lost his Philippine citizenship may be a transferee of private lands. and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research. maintain. including conciliation. Section 10. undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and regular farmworkers who are landless. . after consultations with the appropriate public agencies. The State shall. employment creation. managers. organization. and a living wage. organization. Section 8. (3) Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of human rights of all persons within the Philippines. The State shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers. and support a complete. subject to limitations provided by law.Section 5. women. the Central Bank of the Philippines operating under existing laws. and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society. and cultural well-being. or agency in the performance of its functions. The State shall encourage equity participation in public utilities by the general public. by law. (4) The approved annual appropriations of the Commission shall be automatically and regularly released. Until the Congress provides otherwise. subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national development policies and programs. Foreign loans may only be incurred in accordance with law and the regulation of the monetary authority. (5) Establish a continuing program of research. student loan programs. facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms. alteration. and research. Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. Section 12. and self-reliance. recommend to Congress. save in cases prescribed by law. or authorization be exclusive in character or for a longer period than fifty years. or repeal by the Congress when the common good so requires. or such higher percentage as Congress may prescribe. the State shall respect the right of small landowners. and all the executive and managing officers of such corporation or association must be citizens of the Philippines. Section 7. Section 8. ARTICLE XIV EDUCATION. The use of property bears a social function. the State shall give preference to qualified Filipinos. Section 16. the majority of whom shall come from the private sector. Section 22. and similar collective organizations. a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make available at affordable cost. prisons. office. Section 19. Section 21. Until the Congress otherwise provides. to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. manpower development. political. The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship. cooperatives. The State shall. elementary education is compulsory for all children of school age. develop. except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner. the members of whose governing board must be natural-born Filipino citizens. subsidies. membership. upon recommendation of the economic and planning agency. and provide for preventive measures and legal aid services to the underprivileged whose human rights have been violated or need protection. and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial peace. and disposition of property and its increments. subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the Congress may prescribe. The State shall respect the role of independent people's organizations to enable the people to pursue and protect. in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources. The State. In times of national emergency. The State shall encourage appropriate technology and regulate its transfer for the national benefit. when the public interest so requires. economic. (8) Grant immunity from prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose possession of documents or other evidence is necessary or convenient to determine the truth in any investigation conducted by it or under its authority. developmental. or any other form of authorization for the operation of a public utility shall be granted except to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations organized under the laws of the Philippines. sick. or associations qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public domain. Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwelling demolished. The State shall pursue a trade policy that serves the general welfare and utilizes all forms and arrangements of exchange on the basis of equality and reciprocity. health and other social services available to all the people at affordable cost. or their families. (10) Appoint its officers and employees in accordance with law. The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes. (3) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants. AGRARIAN AND NATURAL RESOURCES REFORM Section 4. Section 20. In determining retention limits. within the democratic framework. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing. CULTURE AND SPORTS EDUCATION Section 1. provide for the formation. various private sectors. It shall also promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. use. The State shall also protect. marketing. as well as cooperatives. The Congress shall create an agency to promote the viability and growth of cooperatives as instruments for social justice and economic development. or detention facilities. bureau. shall have the right to own. elderly. The State shall recognize the right of farmers. as may be provided by law. No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be undertaken without adequate consultation with them and the communities where they are to be relocated. as well as Filipinos residing abroad. They shall be entitled to security of tenure. The practice of all professions in the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino citizens. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. and marketing assistance. Section 19. including corporations. establish. Individuals and private groups. and management of the program. in the case of other farmworkers. education. banking. People's organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the public interest and with identifiable leadership. Section 14. self-development. The Congress shall enact measures that will encourage the formation and operation of enterprises whose capital is wholly owned by Filipinos. (6) Recommend to Congress effective measures to promote human rights and to provide for compensation to victims of violations of human rights. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen.
Any amendment under Section 2 hereof shall be valid when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty days nor later than ninety days after the certification by the Commission on Elections of the sufficiency of the petition. (2) Educational institutions. (2) They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism. Members of the House of Representatives. Arts and letters shall enjoy the patronage of the State. including tax deductions. . (7) The tour of duty of the Chief of Staff of the armed forces shall not exceed three years. (4) Subject to conditions prescribed by law. The authority of local executives over the police units in their jurisdiction shall be provided by law. and respect for people's rights in the performance of their duty. (2) Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in all institutions of higher learning. Section 2. The Congress may create a consultative body to advise the President on policies affecting indigenous cultural communities. in any partisan political activity. their assets shall be disposed of in the manner provided by law. Only Filipino citizens or corporations or associations at least seventy per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens shall be allowed to engage in the advertising industry. and the local officials first elected under this Constitution shall serve until noon of June 30. by law. and (5) Provide adult citizens. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. The State shall. The Congress may. and other forms of assistance to war veterans and veterans of military campaigns. Section 17. The State may not be sued without its consent. in accordance with a policy that respects the freedom of speech and of the press. English. Section 2. The Congress may provide for incentives. Such law shall take effect only upon its ratification by the people in a national referendum. call a constitutional convention. including restrictions on dividends and provisions for reinvestment. cooperatives or associations. and traditions of the people. It shall keep a regular force necessary for the security of the State. No member of the military shall engage. and community cultural centers. (4) The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement. This Constitution shall be promulgated in Filipino and English and shall be translated into major regional languages. and shall be regulated by law for the protection of consumers and the promotion of the general welfare. white. (2) The right of children to assistance.(1) The State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the educational system and shall exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institutions. propagation. shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens. The State shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for the national benefit. and (4) The right of families or family associations to participate in the planning and implementation of policies and programs that affect them. (1) The State shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the educational system. The State shall conserve. (3) All revenues and assets of non-stock. Section 10. Section 11. and communitybased organizations in the generation and utilization of science and technology. cruelty. Section 9. It shall include the election of all Members of the city or municipal councils in the Metropolitan Manila area. invention. league competitions. The Congress may. or revision of. inventors. 1992. or contributions used actually. The Congress shall regulate or prohibit monopolies in commercial mass media when the public interest so requires. Accordingly. Proprietary educational institutions. or revision of. all grants. (2) The advertising industry is impressed with public interest. from time to time. and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. and institutions. and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national culture based on the principle of unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression. (2) The State shall strengthen the patriotic spirit and nationalist consciousness of the military. may likewise be entitled to such exemptions. however. in the utilization of natural resources. history. The Congress may. SPORTS Section 19. The flag of the Philippines shall be red. promote. (1) All members of the armed forces shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution. The State shall protect consumers from trade malpractices and from substandard or hazardous products. The Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of representatives of various regions and disciplines which shall undertake. reasonable. The first elections of Members of the Congress under this Constitution shall be held on the second Monday of May. and promote researches for the development. this Constitution under Section 1 hereof shall be valid when ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite which shall be held not earlier than sixty days nor later than ninety days after the approval of such amendment or revision. ARTICLE XV THE FAMILY Section 1. The State shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists. require increased Filipino equity participation in all educational institutions. (3) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study. out of. researchers. exploitation and other conditions prejudicial to their development. Section 13. grants and other incentives. The State shall give priority to research and development. 1987. The State shall establish and maintain one police force. coordinate. Section 5. and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations. independent. foster love of humanity. Science and technology are essential for national development and progress. scholarships. it shall strengthen its solidarity and actively promote its total development. and popularize the nation's historical and cultural heritage and resources. As it evolves. and out-of-school youth with training in civics. The State recognizes the Filipino family as the foundation of the nation. ARTICLE XVII (1) The right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions and the demands of responsible parenthood. All the country's artistic and historic wealth constitutes the cultural treasure of the nation and shall be under the protection of the State which may regulate its disposition. including government-owned or controlled corporations or any of their subsidiaries. The first local elections shall be held on a date to be determined by the President. directly. and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs. Non-teaching academic and nonacademic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the State. including training for international competitions. training. donations. Section 3. encourage critical and creative thinking. as well as self-learning. Section 8. and blue. unless otherwise provided by law. or to corporations. and to science and technology education. for such period as may be provided by law. and promote vocational efficiency. Section 3. (5) Laws on retirement of military officers shall not allow extension of their service. Section 4. (1) All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula. or a national seal. the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system. (3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians. Section 15. it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. ARTICLE XVI GENERAL PROVISIONS Section 1. as consecrated and honored by the people and recognized by law. which shall all be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals. No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition therein shall be allowed. enrichment. vocational efficiency. until otherwise provided by law. strengthen ethical and spiritual values. to foster self-discipline. Arabic. subject to fair. teach the rights and duties of citizenship. However. Section 16. to encourage private participation in programs of basic and applied scientific research. Scholarships. for other foreign temporary residents. and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from tax. the majority of the members of which shall come from such communities. public or private cultural entities. The family has the duty to care for its elderly members but the State may also do so through just programs of social security. ARTICLE XVIII TRANSITORY PROVISIONS Section 1. which shall be national in scope and civilian in character. non-profit educational institutions used actually. The Congress shall provide for the implementation of the exercise of this right. be appointed or designated in any capacity to a civilian position in the Government. wholly-owned and managed by such citizens. Section 4. The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. (3) Professionalism in the armed forces and adequate remuneration and benefits of its members shall be a prime concern of the State. (5) The State shall assign the highest budgetary priority to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate remuneration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment. and exclusively for educational purposes shall be exempt from taxes and duties. Section 7. and their application to the country's productive systems and national life. which may be simultaneous with the election of the Members of the Congress. The State shall foster the preservation. endowments. The State shall provide the policy environment for the full development of Filipino capability and the emergence of communication structures suitable to the needs and aspirations of the nation and the balanced flow of information into. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of national plans and policies. Section 12. and indigenous learning systems. Section 4. It shall encourage the widest participation of private groups. and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities. Any amendment to. including those cooperatively owned. Section 6. at any time. the President may extend such tour of duty. informal. or other forms of incentives shall be provided to deserving science students. The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines. review to increase the pensions and other benefits due to retirees of both the government and the private sectors. The Senators. inventors. respect. by a vote of two-thirds of all its Members. teamwork. (3) The right of the family to a family living wage and income. ARTS AND CULTURE Section 14. is the foundation of the family and shall be protected by the State. Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis. including proper care and nutrition. and amateur sports. adopt a new name for the country. Section 8. Section 2. particularly when beneficial to the people. Section 18. in appropriate cases. upon a vote of three-fourths of all its Members. For purposes of communication and instruction. and protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to preserve and develop their cultures. Amendments to this Constitution may likewise be directly proposed by the people through initiative upon a petition of at least twelve per centum of the total number of registered voters. as an inviolable social institution. subject to the limitations provided by law. except to vote. (1) The ownership and management of mass media shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines. Section 7. and their utilization. It shall support indigenous. and specially gifted citizens. in times of war or other national emergency declared by the Congress. develop moral character and personal discipline. and across the country. (1) the State shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs. directly or indirectly. innovation. The armed forces shall be insulated from partisan politics. respect for human rights. Any amendment to. The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen armed force which shall undergo military training and serve as may be provided by law. appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country. scientists. (2) The State shall encourage and support researches and studies on the arts and culture. benefits. Section 2. and preservation of Filipino and other languages. grants-in-aid. and special protection from all forms of neglect. and equitable admission and academic requirements. The State shall recognize. as well as artistic creations. Section 9. (1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs. of which every legislative district must be represented by at least three per centum of the registered voters therein. Marriage. other than those established by religious groups and mission boards. traditions. to be administered and controlled by a national police commission. a national anthem. broaden scientific and technological knowledge. Upon the dissolution or cessation of the corporate existence of such institutions. LANGUAGE Section 6. The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of entities in such industry shall be limited to their proportionate share in the capital thereof. or by a majority vote of all its Members. appropriate. with a sun and three stars. and Spanish. The State shall provide immediate and adequate care. their surviving spouses and orphans. without additional cost to the Government. technologists. AMENDMENTS OR REVISIONS Section 1. Section 4. (6) The officers and men of the regular force of the armed forces shall be recruited proportionately from all provinces and cities as far as practicable. religion shall be allowed to be taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards belong. or (2) A constitutional convention. The State shall defend: (4) No member of the armed forces in the active service shall. Section 3. artists. the disabled. and all the executive and managing officers of such entities must be citizens of the Philippines. Section 3. Section 5. this Constitution may be proposed by: (1) The Congress. Section 12. and other public venues. Funds shall be provided therefor and due consideration shall be given them in the disposition of agricultural lands of the public domain and.(4) Encourage non-formal. and other skills. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents and. (2) All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors. local governments. submit to the electorate the question of calling such a convention. Section 11. abuse. directly. the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and. and services. Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate. No amendment under this section shall be authorized within five years following the ratification of this Constitution nor oftener than once every five years thereafter. No educational institution shall be established exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrollment in any school. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Section 10.
Loyola Heights. Manresa. had been accepted. Vasra. N. Section 5 of Article V1 of this Constitution. Colayco Hilario G. the President shall receive an annual salary of three hundred thousand pesos.City boundary between Manila and Makati up to Estero de Tripa de Gallina. Damayang Lagi. Jamir Eulogio R. Batasan Hills. Rama Floor Leader Ahmad Domocao Alonto Assistant Floor Leader Jose D. In no case shall any Member serve longer than seven years including service before the ratification of this Constitution. Commonwealth. southward along Estero de San Lazaro up to corner of C. Tandang Sora. 587-648. The sequestration or freeze order is deemed automatically lifted if no judicial action or proceeding is commenced as herein provided. The incumbent Members of the Judiciary shall continue in office until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office or are removed for cause. hereby extended to noon of June 30. and Matandang Balara.586 SW . Rodriguez. 395 . they may be considered for employment in the Government or in any of its subdivisions. Masambong. Mariblo. A sub-province shall continue to exist and operate until it is converted into a regular province or until its component municipalities are reverted to the mother province. Domingo. Damar. Sta. Paltok.Starting from point which is mouth of Estero de San Miguel going eastward to Mendiola Bridge. Until otherwise provided by the Congress. S . L. Pinili. ILOCOS NORTE. Recto Avenue to Quezon Boulevard. including government-owned or controlled corporations and their subsidiaries. Kaunlaran. Paraiso. Burgos. Nagkaisang Nayon. Bernas Crispino M. or revoked. Aguinaldo. Holy Spirit. Manga. S. San Antonio. Pagud-Pagud. letters of instructions. Nineteen hundred and eighty-six. This Constitution shall take effect immediately upon its ratification by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite held for the purpose and shall supersede all previous Constitutions. W . Advertising entities affected by paragraph (2). Socorro. the Senators. northward to Antipolo Street. 1986 election is.First District : Barangays Del Monte. and 829-905 N . For those issued after such ratification. Lerum Christian S. At the earliest possible time. and the Members of the Constitutional Commissions. where appropriate. Roxas. Section 25. Second District: Barangays Fairview. Gascon Alberto M. Tingson Lugum L. tendered in line with the existing policy. San Agustin. then northward on Paz M. Veterans Village. For purposes of the election of Members of the House of Representatives of the First Congress of the Philippines under the Constitution proposed by the 1986 Constitutional Commission and subsequent elections. W . Until the Congress provides otherwise. A sequestration or freeze order shall be issued only upon showing of a prima facie case. All properties. Libis. Recto Avenue westward to bridge spanning Claro M. two (2) . Talipapa. Section 7. converted into the regular force. Bagumbayan. The incumbent President shall continue to exercise legislative powers until the first Congress is convened. Quirino 3-A. Second District: Municipalities of Badoc. Milagrosa. Espiritu. Sauyo. NE . E . U.Quezon Boulevard. Balingasa. the Commission on Elections. executive orders. Section 23. 649-828 N . Section 24. cities. 1992. SW & W . in the national interest. Section 17.Del Pan Street northward up to Claro M. the President may fill by appointment from a list of nominees by the respective sectors. Carasi. Section 21. and Sangandaan: Third District : Barangays E. Andalucia. Mapa Street. Section 14. Dimasalang up to boundary between Manila and Quezon City. Rosales Jose E. Second District: all the Municipalities of Benguet. The foregoing proposed Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines was approved by the Constitutional Commission of 1986 on the twelfth day of October. de Castro Roberto R. Cruz. two hundred forty thousand pesos each. shall be dissolved or. Monica.City boundary between Pasay and Manila down to Roxas Boulevard up to edge of reclaimed areas westward to Manila Bay.Manila Bay northward to City boundary between Manila and Caloocan. and procedural laws not inconsistent with this Constitution shall remain operative unless amended or repealed by the Supreme Court or the Congress. Maambong Teodulo C. PASAY CITY. S . Rigos Ricardo J. Trenas Wilfrido V. Section 19. Section 3. At the earliest possible time. Monsod Ma. the first twelve obtaining the highest number of votes shall serve for six years and the remaining twelve for three years. Rodrigo Decoroso R. instrumentalities. Mariana. San Roque. at the option of the employees. Dona Aurora. the Vice-President. Piddig. W Manila Bay up to mouth of Pasig River. and Bagong Pag-asa. Nolledo Minda Luz M. E . San Vicente. one (1) SAN JUAN and MANDALUYONG. Foz Jose Luis Martin C. Sta. Fifth District: Barangays Nos. Bagbag. Cristo. Section 26. SE . and until otherwise provided by law. Laging Handa. of the applicable period for the decision or resolution of the cases or matters submitted for adjudication by the courts. Section 15. and recognized as a treaty by the other contracting State. Culiat. 1986 in relation to the recovery of ill-gotten wealth shall remain operative for not more than eighteen months after the ratification of this Constitution. and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.Estero de la Reina to Estero de Vitas to Estero Sunog Apog to City boundary between Manila and Caloocan. Natividad Jose N. N . and the Commission on Audit shall continue in office for one year after the ratification of this Constitution. 1986 or this Constitution shall be transferred to the office or body to which its powers. following line along Estero de San Miguel up to point where Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard eastward to City boundary between Manila and Quezon Cityl. Calderon Assistant Floor Leader Yusuf R. Apolonio Samson. Quririno 2 B. Villa Maria Clara. Section 11. and other assets of any office or body abolished or reorganized under Proclamation No.Mouth of Pasig River inland to point Paz M. Uka Bernardo M. Pasong Putik. one (1) BENGUET. Immaculate Concepcion. and Solsona. two (2) . Paang Bundok. Novaliches Proper. eastward to Rizal Avenue Extension. Third District: Barangays Nos. and accordingly signed on the fifteenth day of October. Obrero. Sarrat. Bonifacio Street extending southward to Dimasalang. This provision also applies to career officers whose resignation. Quesada Rustico F. Salvacion. two hundred four thousand pesos each. St. National Government Center. Recto Avenue. Fourth District: Barangays Nos. two (2) . Garcia Serafin V. San Bartolome. Lourdes.Of the Senators elected in the elections in 1992. Guanzon Street. Jr. the Members of the House of Representatives. East Kamias. Quezon City. Pansol. Pag-ibig sa Nayon. Sumulong Christine O. Recto Extension to Estero de San Lazaro. Teacher's East. Concepcion Vicente B. and the Metropolitan Manila Area as follows: METROPOLITAN MANILA AREA MANILA. or facilities shall not be allowed in the Philippines except under a treaty duly concurred in by the Senate and. and Dumalneg. 1986 and the reorganization following the ratification of this Constitution shall be entitled to appropriate separation pay and to retirement and other benefits accruing to them under the laws of general application in force at the time of their separation. Marcos. San Juan and Quezon City. unless they are sooner removed for cause or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office or appointed to a new term thereunder. one (1) Cecilia Munoz Palma President Ambrosio B. westward to Del Pan Bridge. Kanluran. Paoay. adopt a systematic plan to expedite the decision or resolution of cases or matters pending in the Supreme Court or the lower courts prior to the effectivity of this Constitution. the President may constitute the Metropolitan Manila Authority to be composed of the heads of all local government units comprising the Metropolitan Manila area.City boundary up to point city boundary of Manila. Recto Avenue eastward to Estero de San Miguel ending at Pasig River. All of Caloocan North EDSA. the judicial action or proceeding shall be commenced within six months from the issuance thereof.City boundary between Manila and Caloocan. Villacorta Felicitas S. Sikatuna. Quirino 2 A. Tagumpay. All existing laws. Section 4. Section 27. and Botocan. SE . Kaligayahan. the seats reserved for sectoral representation in paragraph (2). The order and the list of the sequestered or frozen properties shall forthwith be registered with the proper court. thence to C. NE . Joaquin G. facilities. New Era. U. eastward to Tayuman Street up to the Railroad Tracks along Dagupan Street. the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court. when the applicable period lapses after such ratification. The provisions of the existing Rules of Court. Escopa 1. 3 dated March 25. Abubakar Adolfo S. All courts existing at the time of the ratification of this Constitution shall continue to exercise their jurisdiction. Section 5. one (1) PARANAQUE. Bengzon. with the City of Baguio. the Speaker of the House of Representatives. buildings. Amoranto. N . Horseshoe. The six-year term of the incumbent President and Vice-President elected in the February 7. and other executive issuances not inconsistent with this Constitution shall remain operative until amended. Second District: 118 Barangays. Padilla Vice-President Napoleon G. Krus Na Ligas. 268-394. ORDINANCE . M. Payatas. or through corrupt practices. Guingona Jose B. thence to Del Pan Street. Career civil service employees separated from the service not for cause but as a result of the reorganization pursuant to Proclamation No. Nayong Kanluran. Sarmiento Lorenzo M. Section 18. one (1) MARIKINA. Second District: Barangays Nos.Estero de San Miguel up to Mendiola Bridge. San Martin. San Jose. CALOOCAN CITY. de los Reyes. until otherwise provided by law. Dingras. Jr. the Government shall increase the salary scales of the other officials and employees of the National Government. Masagana. Duyan-Duyan. Sienna. Gulod. 1992. San Isidro. E . Tan Efrain B. West Triangle. Dona Imelda.C.Tejeron Street to Pedro Gil Street up to bridge spanning Estero de Pandacan. Pasuquin. as certified by the President. Project 6. Jr.P. San Isidro Labrador. Pinagkaisahan. Sta. Section 16. All of Caloocan South EDSA. records. from corner Antipolo Street and Rizal Avenue on southern side of Railroad Tracks extending westward to Estero de San Lazaro. the Members thereof shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned among the provinces. S . Old Capital Site. Section 10.First District : 70 Barangays. After the expiration in 1991 of the Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America concerning military bases. Sixth District: Barangays Nos. Peter. four (4) . foreign military bases. Section 12. Fourth District: Barangays Bagong Lipunan. Campus. Paligsahan. Zobel Dioquino. Bangui. Kamuning Silangan. Capri.P. ratified by a majority of the votes cast by the people in a national referendum held for that purpose. Nineteen hundred and eighty-six at the Plenary Hall. Unang Sigaw. Sacred Heart. W . Section 8. Recto at Estero de la Reina. the corresponding judicial action or proceeding shall be filed within six months from its ratification. Batac. W . Guanzon Street extending to Estero de Pandacan. Currimao. Valencia. E . equipment. repealed. one (1) VALENZUELA. Philam. Escopa 4. Amihan. For orders issued before the ratification of this Constitution. Silangan. Kamuning. Don Manuel. All existing treaties or international agreements which have not been ratified shall not be renewed or extended without the concurrence of at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate. to Anda-lucia. Sto. shall be determined by the Supreme Court as soon as practicable. Section 20. The Congress shall provide efficacious procedures and adequate remedies for the reversion to the State of all lands of the public domain and real rights connected therewith which were acquired in violation of the Constitution or the public land laws. Katipunan. NE . However. Suarez Jaime S. The authority to issue sequestration or freeze orders under Proclamation No.Mouth of Estero de San Miguel at Pasig River. Talayan. The first regular elections for the President and Vice-President under this Constitution shall be held on the second Monday of May. Tadeo Gregorio J. Balumbato. for distribution to the beneficiaries of the agrarian reform program. thence southward to Claro M. Until a law is passed. Claro M. Escopa 2. Aquino Teodoro C. Escopa 3. or agencies. by the Commissioners whose signatures are hereunder affixed.City boundary between Manila and Quezon City up to Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard. Section 22. Private armies and other armed groups not recognized by duly constituted authority shall be dismantled. Jr. before the ratification of this Constitution. and the Chairmen of the Constitutional Commissions.From Estero de Sunog Apog going South to Estero de Vitas up to the bridge spanning Juan Luna Street. Bagumbayan.From end of Rizal Avenue Extension extending southward to Railroad Tracks at Antipolo Street. Section 9. Villegas Attested by : REGION I Flerida Ruth P. SE . one (1) MAKATI. Damayan. The incumbent Members of the Civil Service Commission. Ople Florenz D. proclamations. West Kamias. with Laog City. Recto Avenue extending westward to Manila Bay. decrees. San Nicolas. Malaya. Sta. when the Congress so requires. The first Congress shall give priority to the determination of the period for the full implementation of free public secondary education. Teresa F. Adopted: APPORTIONING THE SEATS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CONGRESS OF THE PHILIPPINES TO THE DIFFERENT LEGISLATIVE DISTRICTS IN PROVINCES AND CITIES AND THE METROPOLITAN MANILA AREA Section 1. the Government shall expropriate idle or abandoned agricultural lands as may be defined by law.First District: Laoag City and the Municipalities of Bacarra. judiciary acts. Nieva Blas F. Romulo Rene V. K. N-City Boundary between Manila and Caloocan. Teacher's West. South Triangle. for purposes of synchronization of elections. Bahay Toro. M. Marilag. Regalado Cirilo A. No transfer or disposition of such lands or real rights shall be allowed until after the lapse of one year from the ratification of this Constitution. Central.S. Kalusugan.First District: Barangays Nos. 1-146. The legal effect of the lapse. Vintar. one (1) LAS PINAS and MUNTINGLUPA. 3 dated March 25. Regalado E.Estero de Pandacan up to Pedro Gil Street to Tejeron Street up to boundary of Manila and Makati. Village. Section 6. Alicia. six (6) .City boundary between Manila and Caloocan. Bungad. within one year after the ratification of this Constitution. troops. Nueva Era. Kristong Hari. In lieu thereof. Francisco A. Dona Josefa. Laurel. northward to boundary between Manila and Caloocan. one (1) PATEROS and TAGUIG. one (1) MALABON and NAVOTAS. 3 dated March 25.First District: Baguio City. All paramilitary forces including Civilian Home Defense Forces not consistent with the citizen armed force established in this Constitution. 147-267. Section 15 of Article VIII of this Constitution shall apply to cases or matters filed before the ratification of this Constitution. Quirino 3-B. Pasong Tamo. Adams. Romero Secretary-General ABRA. one (1) PASIG. Davide. one hundred eighty thousand pesos each. Ramon Magsaysay. Guazon Street up to Pasig River to mouth of Estero de San Miguel on Pasig River. the Congress may extend such period. SE From point Claro M.A. Section 11 of Article XV1 of this Constitution shall have five years from its ratification to comply on a graduated and proportionate basis with the minimum Filipino ownership requirement therein. Bennagen Florangel Rosario Braid Jose C. The Supreme Court shall. QUEZON CITY.Manila-San JuanMandaluyong-Makati boundaries up to Tejeron Street. Santo Nino. Maharlika. Pinahan. St. Tatalon. Baesa. Bagong Silangan. Azcuna Jose F. Bacani Ponciano L. A similar plan shall be adopted for all special courts and quasi-judicial bodies. Santol.Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard up to point Estero de San Miguel where Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard spans Estero de San Miguel. Ugong Norte. the President of the Senate. Edmundo G. Section 13. and responsibilities substantially pertain. Quirino 2 C. functions. Teresita. The provisions of paragraphs (3) and (4).Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard up to V. Lucia.Estero de Pandacan going northward to Paz M.
Second District: Municipalities of Bay. Second District: Dipolog City and the Municipalities of Katipunan. Moises Padilla. San Rafael. San Isidro. Roxas. one (1) CAMARINES SUR. Santa Lucia. Tejero. San Isidro. Dumarao. and Bulan. Margosatubig. Bago. and Zaragoza. Cabiao. Second District: Municipalities of Labrador. Sumialo. three (3) . Amadeo. Fourth District: Iriga City and the Municipalities of Baao. San Pedro and Sta. Sta. Arayat. and the Municipalities of Cordova and Consolacion. Lapuyan. Solana. Lemery. and Majayjay. Ma-ayon. Parang. Pamutan. Sta. Claveria. and San Manuel.First District: Municipalities of Sorsogon. Ermita. Valencia. Second Distict: Municipalities Baliuag. Don Carlos. two (2) . Maria. Hermosa.First District: Municipalities of Talisay. four (4) . San Clemente. and Binangonan. and Don Mariano Marcos.First District: Dapitan City and the Municipalities of Sibutad. Aurora. Araceli. Buhisan. Natividad. Calubian. Busuanga. four (4) . Lusaran. Ramos. Lian. and Tanza. Bogo. Third District: Toledo City and the Municipalities of Barili. New Panamao. Cabatuan. Canaman. Pola. Amlan. Sipocot. Bonbon. MOUNTAIN PROVINCE. Basak San Nicolas. Macalelon. Fourth District : Lipa City and the Municipalities of San Juan. Naujan. Talusan. three (3) . with the Cities of Danao. Labangan. Kitcharao. Antequera. Penablanca.boal. Inopacan. Calumpit. Second District: Municipalities of E. Coron. Third District: Municipalities of Catanauan. Manolo Fortich. Santo Domingo. Maria. Kitaotao. Anda. CAMARINES NORTE. Siayan. Atimonan. Orion. San Fabian. three (3) . Hilongos. Bagac. one (1) CAGAYAN. Laur. Bato. two (2) . Lumban. one (1) NEGROS OCCIDENTAL. Fourth District: Municipalities of Candaba. Narvacan. Loon. Parian. Candon. Tukuran. and Tubao. Abulug. Sambag 1. Fifth District: Municipalities of La Castellana. Naval. and Remedios T. ILOILO CITY. Magallanes. Cainta. Villareal. Julita. and Sta. Puerto Galera. Linapacan. and the Municipalities of Mabinay. Pres. Balaoan. Balayan. Pio Duran. Leon. SOUTHERN LEYTE. Second District. Morong. Pakil. Asturias. Mandanue City. Manukan. Marilao. Punta Princesa. Buenavista. Plaridel. Culuang. Boljoon. Esperanza. and Matalom. Mapandan. Second District: Trece Martires City and the Municipalities of Imus. two (2) . Bustos. Municipalities of Jordan.. Floridablanca. Teresa. Mauban. Candijay. Sigma. ZAMBOANGA CITY. Gutalac. Suba Pasil. Ginatilan. Siraway. Cavite and Trece Martires.First District: Municipalities of Nasugbu. Mahaplag. Suyo. Nagcarlan. Aguilar. Pozorrubio. two (2) . and the Municipalities of Malasiqui. Talavera. P. Labason. Dangcagan. Balasan. San Narciso. one (1) SULU. Mariano Alvarez. San Vicente. Dalaguete. Sixth District: Lapu-lapu City. Maripipi. Busay. Batuan. Perez. San Isidro. Anilao. Gen. Medellin. Baybay. Himamaylan. and Taal. five (5) .First District: Municipalities of Dinalupihan. Alabat. Benito Soliven. Pinabacadao. Sta. Plaridel. Kumalarang. one (1) . Leyte. Ponot. Kalayaan. Anda and Sual. Dumangas. Sapangdako. Lapu-Lapu. Talugtog. Bula. Goa. Aroroy. and La Paz. San Juan. and Tayabas. one (1) OCCIDENTAL MINDORO. and Carles. Domingo. Pililla. and Tuao. TAWI-TAWI. San Ildefonso. Marungas. Wright. Apalit. Carigara. Binmaley. Sto. Janiuay. Matagob. and Roxas. Second District: Municipalities of Agoo. one (1) REGION V ISABELA. Sr. with the Cities of Tagaytay. Third District: Tagaytay City and the Municipalities of Alfonso. and Sexmoan. three (30 . ZAMBALES. Central Proper. Ipil. Carmona. Masantol. Gumaca. Maria. Sto. Pamplona. La Libertad. Second District: Municipalities of Botolan. Sta. Pontevedra. Paril. Bayambang. Cabadbaran. San Roque. Mangatarem. AGUSAN DEL SUR. Alitagtag. Ballesteros. Ronda. Pardo. Third District: Municipalities of Valencia. Daan. and Dumaguete.First District: Olongapo City and the Municipalities of Subic. Gerona. and Silay. Maragondon. Maconacon. Third District: Municipalities of Balete. Alonguinsan. Bagulin. Lupi. Sta. Dagami. and Sta. with the City of Butuan. and Tiwi. with the Cities of San Carlos. Badian. Estancia. and Sibongan. and Talosa. Mayorga. Pilar. Carmen. Gamay. and Tingloy. Rosa. Calape. Tambulig. Divilican. San Dionisio. Zarraga. Balilihan. Gandara.First District: Municipalities of Binan. Alimodian. Gen. Mabolo. Pinan. Bato. Jetafe. REGION IX BASILAN. Allacapan. San Ildefonso. six (6) . Calasiao. Badiangan. Santa Cruz. Dumaguete City. Lope de Vega. Payao. Second District: San Jose City and the Municipalities of Lupao. Luisiana. Limay. Sixth District: Municipalities of Rosales. Rosario. Jiabong. Libona. Nasipit. and Pilar. Siaton. and Balanga. Luuk. Camiling. three (3) . San Antonio. Second District: Bais City. Sanchez Mira. Ayungon. and Tabogon. and Victoria: Fourth District: Municipalities of Sta. one (1) BATANGAS. Third District: Municipalities of Almeria. San Antonio. Tampilisan. Duljo Fatima. Milaor. Third District: San Carlos City. Sto. four (4) . San Nicolas. Bulalakao. Gloria. Kamagayan. Third District: Municipalities of Tuguegarao. El Nido. and Kalayaan. Sta. Caoayan. Santo Domingo. and Roseller Lim. Cogon-Ramos. Sta. Alicia. Taytay. Hindang. and Sudipen. and Zapatera. Castilla. Calamba. Juban. T. TARLAC. Culaba.First District: Municipalities of Antipolo.First District: Municipalities of Allen. and Sibulan. Paombong. Masinloc. Third District: Cabanatuan City. Second District: Municipalities of Alilem. Molave. San Nicolas. Calinog. and Zumarraga. Villasis. Second District: Municipalities of Tarlac. San Jose de Buan. with the Cities of Dagupan and San Carlos. and Toledo. Fe. San Andres. and Oton. Echague. Third District: Municipalities of Maramag. Catmon. Poro. Guagua. Second District: Barangays of Babag. Manito.First District: Butuan City and the Municipality of Las Nieves. Isabela. Third District: Municipalities of Malangas. and S. Bulacao pardo. Pasacao. one (1) EASTERN SAMAR. San Jacinto. Taytay. Tinago. Lagonoy. Samal. Buenavista. Pototan. Fourth District: Bago City and the Municipalities of Valladolid. Calatrava. Bauang. Naga. Pit-os. Mandaue. Siniloan. Fourth District: Municipalities fof San Leonardo. Monreal. La Paz. Gregorio del Pilar. Lambunao. Compostela. Pangutaran. with the Cities of Cabanatuan. Sta. Liloan. Tuy. Cabatuan. Lidlidda. San Vicente. Second District: Municipalities of Dumalinao. one (1) ANTIQUE. Pavia. Quezon. Sixth District: Municipalities of Kabankalan. PALAWAN. Burgos.First District: Tacloban City and the municipalities of Alangalang. Bacungan. and Pili. Duenas. Cataingan. four (4) . General Trias. Bout-Taup. Roxas. one (1) QUIRINO. Caibiran. Jaro. one (1) PANGASINAN. Mariveles. Merida. Minalabac. Abucay. San Fernando. Fe. Duero. Diplahan. Pila. San Pascual. Midsalip. Malilipot. Alicia. Nueva Valencia. Pasil Abuno. Santa. Calbiga. Calamba. SORSOGON. ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE. San Fernando. Tanay. Mutia. Samboan. Burgos. Burgos. Lemery. Sison. Bacong. San Joaquin. Placer. Third District: Municipalities of Caramoan. Quezon. San Narciso. two (2) . Second District: Municipalities of Clarin. and Marcos. Pamplona. and Los Banos. Pitogo. Cabuyao. Bindoy. Mallig. Alcala. Talibon. Naga. Sierra Bullones. Alicia. Bangar. Tagapul-an. Quirino. one (1) BUKIDNON. Rosario. Nagbukel. La Carlota. Tinambac. Malitbog. Malinao. San Roque. Sangay. Second District: Municipalities of Buenavista. REGION VI AKLAN. and Victoria. Agoncillo. Sibugay. Canlaon. Magsaysay. LAGUNA. Gainza. Mapanas. Second District: Municipalities of Bansud. Paete. and Tuburan. three (3) .First District: Barangays of Adlawon. and Bingawan. with the Cities of Batangas and Lipa. Moal. La Libertad. Sinait. San Pablo. Fifth District: Municipalities of Binalonan. Pagsanjan. Nino. and Bocaue. Mansalay. Luna. Talamban. Trinidad. Catigbian. Madridejos. Angat. Tanauan. Bien Unido. Ragay. Noveleta. Lavezares. Lingayen. one (1) REGION II BATANES.sanghan. Dimasalang. Gamu. Cortes. four (4) . Catubig. and Socorro.First District: Municipalities of Jolo. Sta. two (2) . Calabanga. and Palanan. Pahina Central. Mambaling. Cabucgayan. and Murcia. Fifth District: Municipalities of Barotac Viejo. Inabangan. Tubungan. MASBATE. Ilog. Brooke's Point. Sergio Osmena. Sirao. Burgos. ana. Porac. San Francisco. San Juan. Carreta. six (6) . Garchitorena. Sto. Motiong. Capoocan. San Antonio. Batad. Santander. and Siruma. Tapul. and Nabua. Sta. three (3) . Barauen. Cuartero. Talipao. Dumaran. Rizal. Matuguinao. Mambusao. Magdalena. Tomas. Third District: Municipalities of Uson. Pulilan. and Tiaong. Second District: Municipalities of Silvino Lobos. Minglanilla. Fourth District: Ormoc city and the Municipalities of Albuera. Bobon. Jumalig. Agno. Third District: Municipalities of Bamban. San Catalina. ILOILO. Sikatuna. Libon. Jimalalud. Kalunasan. Tabango. Camputhaw. Sara. Santiango. Pilar. San Jacinto. Third District: Silay City and the Municipalities of Victorias.First District : Municipalities of Hagonoy. Marabut. and Rosario. San Jose. Castillejos. Enrique B. Pangil. and Rapu-Rapu. Corella. Jovellar. Palanas. Guimba. Guihulngan. Roxas. Second District: Municipalities of Lubao. Tanauan. Cauayan. Daraga. and Sto.First District: Municipalities of Sta. with Puerto Princesa City. Candelaria. Agdangan.First District: Municipalities of Aparri. San Remigio. Jabonga. one (1) ORIENTAL MINDORO. Dauin. Mabuhay. Magsaysay. Magdalena. Ocampo. Magsingal. Pitogo. Pandami. Maimbung. and Tubigon. six (6) . REGION IV AURORA. Lahug. Panamao. Cruz. San Emilio. President Roxas. Agsungot. Alaminos. Tabontabon. Ignacia. four (4) . Second District: Cadiz City and the Municipalities of Sagay and Manapla. Bulusan. Santa Margarita. Sagun. San Esteban. Urdaneta. Tagkawayan. and Palompon. LA UNION. Taysan. Carcar. Galimuyod. Labangon. Sta. and Mandaon. Second District : Naga City and the Municipalities of Bonbon. Cabagan. Talisay. Ibaan. Siay. Second District: Municipalities of Barugo. Dingle. one (1) REGION X AGUSAN DEL NORTE. Tabaco. Barbara. Second District: Municipalities of Malay-balay.taling. Kawit. Nakar. Panglao. and Polangui. Tanjay. and Sindangan.First District Municipalities of San Pascual. and Pura. Guiguinto. and Kalilangan.First District: Municipalities of Burdeos. Santiago. one (1) NUEVA VIZCAYA. Mabini. San Fernando. and Panitan. Sinsin. San Isidro. Talisay. Baras. Mabini. and Jaen. and Calayan. Balud. Babatngon. San Agustin. Umingan. Pandi. San Miguel. one (1) REGION III CATANDUANES. NUEVA ECIJA. Angadanan. Balabac. Lucban. Rita. Zamboanguita. Sampaloc. Tungawan. two (2) . Third District: Municipalities of Salug. Manuel A. Third District: Municipalities of Maasin. Baleno. Dao.First District: Roxas City and the Municipalities of Panay. Padilla. Victoria. K. San Vicente. Camaligan. Kananga. and Dinapigui. one (1) Loboc.bantayan. Pugo.. San Antonio. Minalin. and Basay. San Jose. Matnog. Second District: Municipalities of Basey. Sta. Malabuyoc. Binaliw. Jagna. Mabitac. Malvar. Narra. Third District: Municipalities of San Fernando. Lopez. General Aguinaldo. Macabebe. and Sibuco. Cardona. two (2) . Ana. Fourth District: Municipalities of Calauag. Gattaran. with Lucena City. Anao. Garcia-Hernandez. Barbara. Tigaon. Mexico. Tabina. three (3) . San Gabriel. and Quezon RIZAL. Tapaz. Cauayan. Bilar. Angono. Capul. Tabunan. Laurel. Amulung. Escalante. with Olongapo City. and Vigan. San Luis. Tayasan. Pulupandan. Indang. and Sta. KALINGA-APAYAO.First District: Municipalities of Talakag. Lakewood. Garcia. Meycauayan. Apas. San Felipe. Dagohoy. Cuyapo. Cervantes. Cadiz. QUEZON. Baungon. Paniqui. Camalaniugan. Enrile. with Calbayog City. Carmen. Caba. Quiot. Sta. Kalubihan. Daram. four (4) . Catalina. Donsol.First District : Municipalities of Bacnotan. Bantayan. and the Municipalities of General Natividad. P. and Alcala. Panganto-can. Miagao. Josefina. CEBU. Garcia. Second District: Municipalities of Dumalag. Orani.First District: Calbayog City and the Municipalities of almagro. San Jose. Penaranda. Sevilla. Romualdez. and Banate. Tubay. Second District: Puerto Princesa City and the Municipalities of Aborlan. including Roxas City. Cagayancillo. five (5) . Ramon. Imelda. Polilio. and Basista. Second District: Batangas City and the Municipalities of Lobo. Tigbauan. Dasol. Baclayon. Ubay. Fourth District: Municipalities of San Jose del Monte.First District: Municipalities of Bolinao.First District: Canlaon City and the Municipalities of Vallehermoso. Valencia. and San Jose. Las Navas. Aringay. Casiguran. Hipodromo. Gabaldon. Fifth District: Danao City and the Municipalities of Borbon. Luz. Biri. Luna. two (2) . Bacayan. and Jala-Jala. Fifth District: Municipalities of Abuyog. Dulag. Tayug. San Manuel. two (2) . Famy. Second District: Municipalities of Aurora. Igbaras. Sambag 11. San Fernando. Liloy. Talalora. and Impasugong. with Legazpi City. Alcoy. Sagbayan. Lila. C.First District: Municipalities of Agutaya. An Mariano. Milagros. Bayog. Dauis. Mina. Tagudin. Pinamungajan. Inayawan. Fourth District: Municipalities of Passi. Prieto Diaz. Danao. Third District: Municipalities of Loay. Malubog. Second District: Municipalities of Argao. and Polanco. MARINDUQUE. and Morong. and La Carlota. Concepcion. Santiago. Gen. Malolos. Gonzaga. and Toong. Cruz. Rosario. Jones. Isabel. and Remedios Trinidad. Kabasalan. Third District: Municipalities of Guinobatan. Norzagaray. Fourth District: Dagupan City and the Municipalities of Mangaldan. CAMIGUIN. Fourth District: Municipalities Cordon. and Manaoag. and San Miguel. PAMPANGA. Catbalogan. Pagbilao. three (3) . Rizal. and Villaba. Pontevedra. and Ivisan. BACOLOD CITY. Sta. San Enrique. and Lapinig.First District: Pagadian City and the Municipalities of Dumingag. CAVITE. SAMAR. New Lucena. Tudela. and San Marcelino. San Enrique. Moncada. Magallanes. and Patikul. Bauan. Tomas. Carmen. Ligao. Silang. two (2) . Real. Alegria. Licab. two (2) . ROMBLON. Calapan. Pulang Bato. Third District: Municipalities of Reina Mercedes. two (2) . and Obando. Mabini. Laoang. one (1) BATAAN. Bugallon. Bongabong. and Bulacan.First District: Tagbilaran City and the Municipalities of Alburquerque. Day-as. four (4) . Dinas. Santa Maria. Sipalay. Dolores. Bongabon. Ilagan. Claveria. and Pres. Bautista. Magalona. Asingan. with the Cities of Bais. Cuenca.First District: Municipalities of Guimbal. Sigay. and Sta. Oslob. Salcedo. Sogod. Tomas. Dimiao. Barotac Nuevo. Quirino. Maria. San Miguel. Cabangan. Kawayan. Second District: Municipalities of Barcelona. Mendez-Nunez. Naguilian. Third District: Municipalities of San Miguel. San Pablo. Siocon. and Mataas na Kahoy. and Manjuyod.First District: Municipalities of Bantay. Cabanglasan. and Cawayan. Buguey. Naic. Pantabangan. Mahayag. Rita. Calaca. Bacolor.First District : Angeles City and the Municipalities of Mabalacat and Magalang. Guindulman. Second District: Municipalities of Pilar. Indanan. Cmbinocot. Palo. Infanta. Biliran. Taptap. Cabugao.First District: Municipalities of Bacacay. San Miguel. Praxedes. San Sebastian. Sawang Calero. Quezon. Piat. Second District: Municipalities of Siasi. San Francisco. Lasam. Palapag. Iba. including the Cities of Naga and Iriga. and Hinigaran. three (3) . Luna. with the Cities of Dapitan and Dipolog. Mobo. Gapan. Pambuyan. Palauig. Nino. Irosin. and San Simon. Catarman. with Angeles City. Presentacion. Rodriguez. Second District: Municipalities of Masbate. San Jose. Sudlon.First District: San Carlos City and the Municipalities of Toboso. Maribojoc. Damulog. Kibawe. and Batuan. one (1) REGION VIII LEYTE.ILOCOS SUR. Hinabangan. and San Guillermo. and Unisan. Dasmarinas. ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR. Batarasa. Panukulan. and Sugpon. and Tunga. San Luis. with Tagbilaran City. Guinayangan. Banayoyo. Sapian. SIQUIJOR. Tomas. Lallo. and Tarangnan. San Quintin. Fourth District: Municipalities of Tabuelan. IFUGAO. and Tongkil. San Antonio. and Hinobaan. Palayan and San Jose. and Pilar. Cogon Pardo. Basak Pardo. Alcantara. Teresita. Guba. Baggao. Santol. Kasambagan. Infanta. Patnanungan. San Mateo. Buug. Cavinti. Balamban. Teresita. Olutanga. BULACAN. Bani. Baliquian. Ajuy. Budla-an. Benedicto. Urbiztondo. Banilad. Bayawan. Tisa. one (1) NORTHERN SAMAR.First District: Municipalities of Del Gallego. San Mateo. Buhi. NEGROS ORIENTAL. Pastrana. Rizal. Albano. Padre Burgos. and Magallanes. Lantapan. Second District: Legazpi City and the Municipalities of Camalig. Third District: San Pablo City and the Municipalities of Calauan. Cuyo. Mulanay. Capitol Site. Libmanan. and Mondragon. one (1) CAPIZ. one (1) REGION VII BOHOL. two (2) . Balungao. with Pagadian City. Pag. Kinasang-an Pardo. Calatagan. Guadalupe. Sariaya. Sto. Victoria. and Kadingilan. Palayan City. Titay. Laoac. Corpuz. Second District: Municipalities of Sta. Pata. and Vincenzo A. Lanera. Naguilian.First District: Municipalities of Nampicuan. Pinamalayan. Jamindan. Liliw. Munoz. Sto. Cruz. San Rafael. Binalbagan. Bacon. Concepcion. Iguig. Pio V. San Nicolas. Candoni. Alaminos.First District: Cavite City and the Municipalities of Bacoor. Mabini. Gubat. CEBU CITY. Tumauini. ALBAY. Santo Tomas. Javier. Lungus. and Ternate.First District: Municipalities of Mayantoc. with the Cities of Tacloban and Ormoc. Magarao. Cabusao. Second District: Lucena city and Municipalities of Candelaria. Quezon. Balagtas. Pahina San Nicolas. Capas. Tigbao. Leganes. Dima. Aliaga. San Isidro. and Dumanjug. San Jorge. Pamplona. San Teodoro. Balatan. and Rizal. General Tinio. Oas. Sta. MacArcthur. San Manuel. Buenavista.First District: Municipalities of Baco. Caranglan. Lorega. Godod. and San Fernando. with San Pablo City. R. Rosa.
Matanao. Ponciano L. Second District: Municipalities of Balindong. Bislig. regional offices. Sumulong Jaime S. Cirilo A. service delivery levels. Foz Edmundo G. Rodrigo Ricardo J. SULTAN KUDARAT. Jr. Colayco Roberto R. Second District: Municipalities of Kidapawan. non-government organizations and other members of the Civil Society on the RBA. Laguindingan. Samal. with General Santos City. and Opol. Pilar. Surallah.First District: Municipalities of Moncayo. Third District: Municipalities of Alabel. and Tarragona. Maasim. This Ordinance shall be appended to the Constitution proposed by the 1986 Constitutional Commission. Garcia Jose Luis Martin C. Tugaya. Pantao-Ragat. The advocacy should include provision of RBA orientations to RDC Committees. CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY. San Benito. programs and delivery processes of governance and development. Salvador. Hagonoy. The Philippine government and all its branches. local planners. Glan.First District: Districts of Poblacion and Talomo. This brings to the fore the importance of consciously and deliberately mainstreaming human rights standards in development and governance. LGUs . with the Cities of Oroquieta. Initao. Role of Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines (CHRP) in RBA Application As the national human rights institution. two (2) . Aquino Adolfo S.First District: Municipalities of Magsaysay. Gitagum. Mawab. Poona-Bayabao. Plaridel. Capalong. Tampakan. Function of Regional Offices in RBA All offices. As an approach to development. Pualas. Sta. It is a continuing commitment that should extend beyond 2004 until all duty holder agencies and individuals are oriented on the RBA to development and governance and will be applying RBA in their agency planning. Trenas Lugum L. Tubod. administrative issuances. Cagdianao. Nieva Jose N. Tagum. Maambong Christian S. and Jimenez. Matanog and Upi. SOUTH COTABATO. Dinagat. Cortes. and Padada. Teresa F. Sarmiento Jose E. Madrid. Cruz. Norala. Alubijid. Second District: Municipalities of Barobo. Nabunturan. Lupon. de Castro Jose C. Jasaan. Sultan Gumander. etc. Poona-Piagapo. Jose Abad Santos. Lingig. Talaya. The Commission on Elections is hereby empowered to make minor adjustments of the reapportionment herein made.First District: Gingoog City and the Municipalities of Magsaysay. duty holder for both state and non-state actors. Pigkawayan. Jamir Jose B. and Claver. Kolambugan. Kapai. Molundo.First District: Municipalities of Boston. Dinaig. Marogong. d) Applying the concepts of state obligations. Laurel. Tubod. Datu Piang. the CHRP shall perform the following different roles in the application of the RBA: Napoleon G. Sison. San Miguel. The RBA is founded on the UN Declaration on the Right to Development and on the various international human rights instruments to which the Philippines is a state party. Pres. Second District: Municipalities of Tantangan. agencies. and Lianga. Calamba. Tubajon. K. Buluan. Taraka. Asuncion. and Pantukan. Bunawan. Second District: Municipalities of Pagalunga. Malita. Medina. Tingson Efrain B. whose population has so increased.First District: Cotabato City and the Municipalities of Parang. The total convergence means that human rights framework and principles /concepts of rights entitlements and state obligations and normative content of every right are applied systematically and methodically to development and governance processes at the strategic development planning. Natividad Ma. Quesada Florenz D. Bansalan. Tandag. and shall take effect upon its ratification by a majority of the votes cast in such plebiscite. San Agustin.First District: Municipalities of Carmen. and Governor Generoso. Sugbongcogon. Second District: Ozamiz City. . with Iligan City. S. The Rights Based Approach (RBA for short) is a mainstreaming process to link human rights to development. Monica. and Saranggani. Madalum. Nunungan. San Isidro. Balabagan. Davide. Saguiaran. Malimono. Maitum. Second District: Municipalities of Claveria. Monsod Teodulo C. Nino. programs. three (3) . Matalam. two (2) . Aleosan.Secretary General MISAMIS OCCIDENTAL. and Tagbina. Mainit. Clarin. Del Carme. Aloran. Section 4. Bennagen Joaquin G. Bacani Jose F. Second District: Surigao City and the Municipalities of San Francisco. Section 5 of Article VI of the Constitution. Second District: Municipalities of Mati. Marihatag. and Don Mariano Marcos. and San Mariano. (2) . Azcuna Teodoro C. standards and principles of the international human rights system into plans. Lumbayanague. Madamba. Digos. policies and processes of development. budgeting. Tangkal. two (2) . Carmen. Sulop. Ople Minda Luz M. Third District: Districts of Toril. Cateel. national and international standards and norms and its integration into the development plans. Tiboli. policy and legislation. Barira. Naawan. two (2) . NORTH COTABATO. DAVAO CITY. legislation. LANAO DEL SUR.First District: Iligan City. or any city whose population may hereafter increase to more than two hundred fifty thousand shall be entitiled in the immediately following election to at least one Member or such number of Members as it may be entitled to on the basis of the number of its inhabitants and according to the standards setforth in paragraph (3). Sapang Dalaga.First District: Municipalities of Bayabas. Dapa. Mabini. with Marawi City. leagues of local officials. one (1) SURIGAO DEL NORTE. Romero obligations on human rights. El Salvador. Second District: Baloi. administrative functions. providing advisory functions on the RBA at the local level and monitoring and evaluation of the progress of the RBA implementation at the local level. Any province that may hereafter be created. Advisory of the Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines The CHRP mandate under Article XIII 18. Tagoloan. Sapad. Caraga. Carmen. instrumentalities and institutions will be able to comply with its obligations as it applies the RBA in governance and development. Calderon Assistant Floor Leader REGION XII LANAO DEL NORTE. Tadeo Christine O. Padilla Vice-President The realization of human rights is the goal of all development efforts. Hinatuan. Sto. Tomas. and the Municipalities of Bonifacio. two (2) . one (1) Section 2. Piagapo. Babak. and Lake Sebu. Malapatan. audit and problem and situation diagnosis. Jr.First District: Municipalities of Sta. Carrascal. Libungan. Pikit. both under the Philippine Constitution and the United Nation system. policies.Ramain. Talisayan. policy formulation and development. Regalado Rustico F. two (2) . Buadiposo-Buntong. with the City of Surigao. claim holder for people's rights entitlements and progressive organizational/institutional planning. Bacolod Grande. Don Marcelino. Baganga. Wao. MISAMIS ORIENTAL. Sinacaban. Kapatagan. Lerum Regalado E. Kauswagan. Rigos Francisco A. both at the CHRP Central and Regional Offices will apply the convergence of human rights and development through a conceptualization and operationalization of their individual functions along human development concerns using human rights criteria and standards. Tago. Banaybanay. and Lala. Panabo. Jr. and shall be submitted to a plebiscite simultaneously with such Constitution. review. Mlang. program. Need for Rights-Based Governance and Development Management Cecilia Munoz Palma President Ambrosio B. and Ampatuan. Bayang and Calanogas. Karomatan. and Malungon. Libertad. Villacorta Bernardo M. Lugait. civil society organizations and the private sector.First District: Marawi City and the Municipalities of Marantao. Binuangan. Maco. Maganoy. heads and faculty of academic institutions. Pantar. Tangub City. Masiu and Tamparan. Manticao. Balingoan. x x x Attested by : Flerida Ruth P. Maria. Lagonglong. Romero Secretary-General On Applying the Rights-Based Approach (RBA) to Development and Governance Rationale for RBA Philippine State Obligations to Implement Human Rights Standards The Philippine is a state party to about 23 international human rights instruments under the UN system. Compostela. Suarez Lorenzo M. Uka Wilfrido V. Datu Paglas. Jr. programming and policy formulation review. Butig. Bengzon. Nolledo Blas F. Kiamba. Sta. and the Municipalities of Polomolok. DAVAO DEL SUR. government agencies. Second District: Municipalities of Kiblawan. Bacauag. with Gingoog City. Koronadal. three (3) . development and fiscal planning. the following RBA framework was designed as a work in progress which ideally aims at the total convergence of human rights into development. Panaon. Monitor the Philippine Government's compliance with international treaty 8. and Kaputian. Alegria. South Upi. Malalag. Sultan Kudarat. Tubaran. programs and projects with human rights economic political administrative b) Translating in operational terms HR principles. Concepcion Hilario G. Makilala. Lanuza. Manay. Socorro. Munai. Second District: Municipalities of San Vicente. REGION XI DAVAO DEL NORTE. and Magpet. Kabuntalan.First District: Oroquieta City and the Municipalities of Baliangao. two (2) . Tagoloan. Kabacan. concepts. two (2) . Among these instruments are the following core human rights instruments: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) International Covenant on Economic. x x x 7. Lopez Jaena. L. Linamon. Placer. Tugbok. MEMBERS OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION [CON COM] WHICH DRAFTED THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Convention Against Torture (CAT) Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families UN Declaration on the Right to Development (RTD) It is through the observance of these human rights standards that expanding choices and opportunities of the poor and vulnerable sectors of our society could be realized under the development process. RBA works in governance and development by facilitating the linkage between human rights and governance and development through the following: a) Express linkage of any or all governance functions. Loreto. Second District: Districts of Buhangin. Banga. Kinogitan. Tagoloan. de los Reyes. Concepcion. Cantilan. Lumba-Bayabao. Burgos. two (2) . Antipas. Lumbatan. SURIGAO DEL SUR. Rama Floor Leader Ahmad Domocao Alonto Assistant Floor Leader Jose D. New Bataan. Midsayap. Villanueva. and Baguio. and Alamada. Salay. Sultan sa Barongis.First District: General Santos City. Adopted: October 15. Binidayan. Gascon Serafin V. Governance manages development. Guingona Alberto M. Bumbaran. Malabang. Bernas Florangel Rosario Braid Crispino M. and Balingasag. project and enterprise development. Tudela. Buldon. it essentially integrates the norms. Eulogio R. Rosales Rene V. and Baroy. Villegas The RBA Framework in Development and Governance As a result of consultations conducted by CHRP with government institutions. Vicente B. Kapatagan. Maigo. and Paquibato. Libjo. Romulo Decoroso R. Pagayawan. with Cotabato City. Abubakar Felicitas S. three (3) . is geographically located shall be correspondingly adjusted by the Commission on Elections but such adjustment shall not be made within one hundred and twenty days before the election. duty or obligation to comply with all the obligations in the ratified or signed treaties/instruments. Ozamiz and Tangub. Tan Gregorio J. Matungao. c) Programmatically applying national and international human rights standards and norms into governance decision-making. Cagwit. The 15 Regional Offices of the CHRP shall be responsible for the orientation of the local councils. and Basilisa. New Corella. Bubong. Roxas Tulunan.C. Banisilan. General Luna. Bacolod. Third District: Municipalities of Sto. Calinan. Magsaysay. states among others the following powers and functions: Article XIII 6. San Isidro. MAGUINDANAO. Montevista. Being a State Party means that the Philippine government has the primary responsibility. Tagana-an. 1986 Yusuf R. Maguing. Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) Cecilia Munoz Palma President Attested: Flerida Ruth P. and Tupi. Ditsaan . Ganassi. Gigaquit. The number of Members apportioned to the province out of which such new province was created or where the city. Section 3. DAVAO ORIENTAL.
it will not be long when the democracy fought for by our heroes slip our hands and we will be ruled by chaos and anarchy. Gabriella and other allied organizations. To this end. then party defendants. Denial of the permit may be justified only upon clear and convincing evidence that the public assembly will create a clear and present danger to public order. Aside from the rights to life. may it be criminal. • Conscientiously apply the RBA in development planning. this runs counter to the constitutional guarantee of presumption of innocence unless proven guilty. liberty and security of persons. and DepEd to extend assistance upon appropriate representation of the Government Cooperation Office of the CHRP before all national government offices to the active and effective application of RBA in development and governance in their respective jurisdictions and as duty holders of specific human rights through any or a combination or all of the following activities: • Actively conduct RBA orientation in their respective agency/office in which the key officials most especially those with official functions in development planning. which is the sway and dominance of justice. “nemo est supra legis." (Article 19 of the ICCPR) and " The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized.” This simply means that no one is abovethe law. then the PNP may be held liable for the commission of any human rights violation on account of the unreasonableness of the manner employed to effect the dispersal. whether or not the assembly or rally was effected with permit. No amount of reason will justify the indiscriminate killings committed by any person. 320-321). 3. to the end that law may approach its supreme ideal. Not even membership to any group or organization is reason enough to justify this kind of summary execution. having been found to have acted beyond the scope of their authority. Since time immemorial. Gabriella and other allied organizations. or of public health or morals. The International Human Rights Committee considers that States parties should take measures not only to prevent and punish deprivation of life by criminal acts. in writing or in print. this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek. • Submit a periodic report as may be asked by the CHRP on RBA application in their agency/office. has conducted investigations relating to the systematic killings committed against unsuspecting victims including members of Bayan Muna. it shall be the duty of all CHRP Regional Offices to provide the following to any regional agency or office or even Civil Society Organizations ( CSOs ) who desire to conduct RBA orientations and apply RBA in their agency/office: • Trainors or resource speakers for the conduct of RBA orientations and application workshops. For the protection of national security or of public order. But the power of local officials in this regard is merely one of regulation. The right against discrimination is likewise breached. herein public officials. The right to assemble is guaranteed by the Bill of Rights and is not subject to prior restraint.” The precepts of the law are these. 1. This court has made it quite clear that even a high position in the government does not confer a license to persecute or recklessly injure another. Bayan Muna’s registration with the COMELEC showed not only its regularity but also its legality." This constitutes the fundamental and basic right of every citizen to air their insights to authorities and political leaders on matters involving public concern and interest for the protection of their civil. Anak Pawis. NO RALLY POLICY". It may be said therefore that the citizens are merely "utilizing the weapons afforded them by the Constitution. and observe honesty and good faith. other rights violated are the freedom of expression and association which are foundations of democracy.” Not even those who possess power has been given the unbridled right to use (or abuse) it. 23 June 2004 i . Fugoso . Immunity from suit cannot institutionalize irresponsibility and non-accountability nor grant a privileged status not claimed by any other official of the Republic. as part of its compliance with state obligations under the human rights treaties signed/ratified by the Philippine government. If this arbitrary taking of precious lives would continue without being restrained by the government. Otherwise. However. pp. not prohibition. This right precedes from the inherent right to human dignity of every person regardless of race. The right to life includes the right of an individual to his body in its completeness. Although the military officers and personnel. In line with the ruling of this court in Shauf vs. there must be proof of such weight and sufficiency to satisfy the clear and present danger test. 191 SCRA 713. In fact. programming. To justify such a limitation. This maxim sums up the totality of every man’s duty and responsibility to society in general. this right shall include freedom to seek. and at the same time most abused and exploited. most enshrined and most fought for in all of the international community. morals or health." Another point of controversy raised is: In the event that the protesters are not armed with permits. No Rally Policy This is in reference with ordinances passed by key cities and municipalities in Metro Manila pertaining to the "NO PERMIT. in the future. any expenses in the conduct of the RBA orientation shall be charged to the account of the conducting agency/institution. Again. through its CHRP Regional office. Action on the application shall be communicated within 24 hours to the applicant.” A chapter on Human Relations was formulated in the New Civil Code. “1. GABRIELLA and OTHER ALLIED ORGANIZATIONS . Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution provides: "No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech. safety. who may appeal the same to the appropriate court.” The Commission on Human Rights. not to injure another and to give each one his due. This is what separates the civilized world from the barbaric one. the burden of showing the existence of a clear and present danger that would justify an adverse action on the application of the permit lies on the mayor as the licensing authority. some have even gone to the extent of transferring residence in order to avoid whatever repercussions the incident may cause them. may be held liable for damages. No less than the International Bill of Rights promotes respect for the rights to freedom of expression and freedom of peaceful assembly and association. the facts as found by the trial court showed that they fired at the unruly crowd to disperse the latter. The military and police forces were deployed to ensure that the rally would be peaceful and orderly as well as to guarantee the safety of the very people that they are duty-bound to protect. in the campus of a government-owned or operated educational institution. of expression. our country has always adhered to the principle that “ours is a government of laws and not of men. then the use of these means of dispersal is clear violation of human rights. regardless of frontiers. (Justice Malcolm. Bagatsing ." Therefore. For respect of the rights or reputations of others. On the No Permit. convenience. programming. A stop must be placed on this series summary execution committed by those who think they are above the law. it may not be conditioned upon the prior issuance of a permit or authorization from government authorities. most of the perpetrators are perceived to belong to the military and/or paramilitary arms of the government. " ( Article 21 of the ICCPR ) Further. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety. receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds. Every human being has the inherent right to life. States parties should also take specific measures to prevent the disappearance of individuals. or in a freedom park. Under Article 6 of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. 39). much more by the military. The case of Republic vs. The reasonableness of the means employed shall depend on the circumstances present during the protest because the allowed means of dispersal must be in consonance and relative with the danger which they seek to prevent . budgeting and for policy formulation and/or review in their respective jurisdiction or chosen level of application. 20 September 2004. it may be inferred that "any abuse of authority committed by the dispersal units in the exercise of their functions shall amount to human rights violation resulting to liability. The right to liberty. or of the press. alterum non laedere. nationality and any other kind of discrimination. The conduct of an inquiry specifically relating to this issue could not be on a more better time. No one may take the law into their own hands. free from dismemberment and extend to the use of God-given faculties which make life enjoyable. the said Chapter is calculated “to indicate certain norms that spring from the fountain of good conscience. its consequent filing in court and lack of information due to refusal of witnesses and family members to shed light and furnish details on the incident for fear of their own lives.) The Commission on Human Rights totally detests these inhuman practice of summary execution committed against our helpless brothers especially those who belong to Bayan Muna. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. the untrammeled enjoyment of their basic human rights. Anak Pawis. Request the assistance of any department. in the form of art. the written application shall be filed with the mayor's office at least 5 days before the scheduled meeting and shall be acted upon within two days. the Government of the Republic of the Philippines as a state party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights wherein the following articles are enshrined is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant. Indeed. either orally. Thus Article 19 of the Civil Code provides: “Every person must in the exercise of his rights and in the performance of his duties. Universal Declaration of Human Rights). were discharging their official functions when the incident occurred. On the basis of the investigation reports (38 reported killings and harassment gathered from the CHR Regional Offices). BP 880 otherwise known as the Public Assembly Act of 1985 . in accordance with the RBA framework and tools. xxx” The right to life is the supreme right from which no derogation is permitted even in time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation ( Article 4. liberty and security of persons” ( Article 3. 125 SCRA 553 that: "If the assembly is to be held in a public place. TESDA. Philippine Constitutional Law. ii . morals or health. legislation and policy formulation and review to attend the RBA Orientation. SUCs and all education regulating institutions such as CHED. The lawmaker makes it imperative that everyone duly respect." Thus. and • Other technical assistance or consultancy services to enable or capacitate the agency or officeapplying RBA in development planning. includes “the right to exist and the right to be free from arbitrary personal restraint or deprivation. the CHRP calls upon all branches of government. the Commission supports the Constitutional right of every citizen to peaceably assemble to seek redress of their grievances through rallies provided it will not prejudice the public welfare. Court of Appeals. to present some basic principles that are to be observed for the rightful relationship between human beings and the stability of the social order. In the absence of imminent danger to public order. based from the foregoing decision of the Supreme Court . offices or agencies including all LGUs . that is.” (Ibid. something which unfortunately has become all too frequent and leads too often to arbitrary deprivation of life. 2.). 80 Phil 71 and subsequently in the case of Reyes vs. • RBA user friendly materials to supplement or enrich knowledge gained from RBA orientations and workshops. Ibid. No other right is most basic. than the “right to life. but not limited to. to wit: Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: " Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. act with justice. Sandoval. convenience. political and economic rights. bureaus. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions. it was ruled in the case of Primicias vs. Hence. but also to prevent arbitrary killing by their own security forces. Decision may be reached within 24 hours. p. Violations of these kind deserves the most severe punishment to serve as deterrent against those who. honeste vivere. public order. worse if the killings were done by the government itself. but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary: ON THE KILLINGS OF MEMBERS OF BAYAN MUNA. give everyone his due. the military must be the protectors of the State and its citizens and not the oppressors and violators thereof. shall find application where it was ruled that: "An officer cannot shelter himself by the plea that he is a public agent acting under the color of his office when his acts are wholly without authority. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life." Likewise.9." Quezon City. For this purpose. the rights of others (Report of the Code Commission. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference. Article III . While the Republic in this case is sued by name. Quezon City. “Juris praecepta sunt hec. Henceforth. a permit for the use of such place. and not for the assembly itself. and injuries are inflicted on them in the course of dispersal then should the PNP or other officers be held accountable for the commission of Human Rights violations? The Commission stands on the affirmative for the reason that although dispersal units of the PNP are allowed to use truncheons and tear gas on the protesters provided that maximum tolerance is exercised before these methods or means of dispersal shall be effected. otherwise the permit shall be deemed granted. budgeting and policy formulation or review in their respective agencies or offices. Any unjustified and unreasonable form of curtailment of this freedom shall amount to a violation of the guaranteed human rights. receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. may be tempted to take the law into their own hands. office or agency in the performance of its functions. This right shall be protected by law. live honestly. it is stated that: "A permit to hold a public assembly shall not be necessary where the meeting is to be held in a private place. or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the Government for redress of grievances. safety. civil or administrative." and Article 20 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association" Moreover. These summary executions without due process of law has no place in a cultured world. Where a permit is required. The Constitution itself guarantees this right to association. bureau. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression. suum cuique tribuere. 220 SCRA 124. The only limitation is that its purposes must not be contrary to law. on complaints received and on its own. ANAKPAWIS. These guides for human conduct should run as golden threads through society. • Creatively craft an RBA best practice in their agency or office to serve as model in the contributions of the Philippine government to the goal of total convergence of human rights and development in keeping with the human rights treaty obligations. It is the stand of the Commission that such policy is a blatant violation of the Constitutional right of every citizen to peaceably assemble and to seek or air grievances which may be expressed through rallies. program budgeting. their functions ceased to be official the moment they exceeded their authority. the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. sex. the justice system and the courts of law will serve no purpose. Further. as duty holders through its attached regional departments. the ultimate liability does not pertain to the government. or through any other media of his choice. As a support to the human rights institution and in compliance with human rights obligations. against the ordinary and helpless citizen. may be validly required. Some of the investigations have been closed for monitoring due to various reasons such as. Bayan Muna is a duly registered political party and the killing of any person by reason of his membership to the same is illegal and inhuman. on the other hand.
Some houses were burned in Barangay Galigayanan. free and informed consent. Dalican and Guinaang. the Special Rapporteur urges that CAFGUs be withdrawn from indigenous areas altogether. Anakpawis. to conduct the necessary investigations regarding these killings and to report violations covering the same. the continuing internal armed conflict hostilities resulted in wanton and indiscriminate killings. Pampanga. recognizes the possibility of abuse coming from the military ranks. the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. under Article II. apply non-violent means before resorting to the use of force and firearms. province of North Cotabatao and Maguindanao. The Under-Secretary of National Defense informed the Special Rapporteur that these units should be considered as reserve units of the armed forces. Pikit. Among the problems identified are the exploitation of the IPs ancestral domain perpetrated by some unscrupulous individuals/groups. “The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. a threat to national security. Military men are deployed in the following areas: Aurora Province .” The human rights in question are identified and protected by national and international law. Sometimes they asked for food. Some stayed in the government centers and others sought shelter among their relatives who are not affected by the armed conflict.” Article 2 “In the performance of their duty. Mr. torture. especially the PNP. The villagers admitted though that once a month. Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.” International Instruments Relating to Human Rights and the Proper Deportment of law Enforcement Officials Law enforcement officials shall not use firearms against persons except in self-defense or defense of others against the imminent threat of death or serious injury. The sectors affected are the children. we say again that their paramount duty is to the welfare of the citizens of the State and to the rule of law. which occasionally carry out military activities when the need arises. The rights enshrined in the abovementioned International Bill of Rights are. Communities resist development projects that destroy their traditional economy. the Region also conducted dialogues among the concerned parties and some awareness activities on the rights of Indigenous Peoples. Ensure that relatives or close friends of the injured or affected person are notified at the earliest possible moment. The basic human rights issues involved are the right to life. health and education. and if there is nothing. Sadly. Nabuclod. The instant case was already referred to the Office of the Military Ombudsman. security. CHR is still in the process of completing its investigation but through its intervention. The areas particularly affected are that of Sultan Kudarat. the IPs built a bunkhouse for the rebels. coercion. the Philippines . Aside from investigating and providing legal assistance. whose semimilitary activities often tend to divide local communities and set one group against another. The B’laan village in the said area has already been declared as “Zone of Peace. or to prevent his or her escape. Province . Samar . shall. Ensure that assistance and medical aid are rendered to any injured or affected persons at the earliest possible moment. known as the Buliok Complex situated in the Municipalities of Pikit and Pagalungan. the measures being undertaken by the government in protecting their rights as well as specific recommendations therefor. a delegation of 40 persons from Barangays Mainit. in disregard of the latter’s traditional customs. as far as possible. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory. 8 July 2005 . They also complained that old men pasturing their livestock were fired upon. at all times. “These activities (economic development activities such as but not limited to quarrying and mining) are often carried out without their prior. complained to their mayor that three of their rice granaries have been forcibly entered and ransacked by the Philippine Army Units operating in the area. the police or the so-called paramilitaries. This is not because there are mountain ranges where the NPA rebels take refuge from attacks by the military. Gabriella and other allied organizations whose groups are considered legitimate under Philippine Laws. to prevent the perpetration of a particularly serious crime involving grave threat to life. food blockades. beans and rice have been left unharvested and rotting in their fields. lodged a complaint for harassment and grave threats against the Battalion Commander of the 62 nd IBPA. indigenous peoples reported that these are not regularly trained military units and that their objective was to control the political and social life of local communities. In the Caraga Region. In the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). Women.” Article 5 “No law enforcement official may inflict. Section 3 “Civilian authority is. rape. In the context of the armed conflict that sti ll prevails in the countryside. such as arbitrary detention. killings of community representatives. Further. Bontoc and Belwang and Betwagan in Sadanag. physical assaults. Reports from the Cordillera Peoples’ Alliance (CPA) claim that operations of the 54 th IB and th e Reconnaisance Group harmed civilians in Bontoc and Sadangan towns wherein. as the law stipulates. as part of the recommendations.We call on the government. Article II). We remind them. and Doña Remedios Trinidad. The B’laan natives of Sition Lam -alis were reportedly harassed. illegal detentions. Stavenhagen. abduction. In Region IV. This deserves our utmost attention. The peanuts. destruction of property. Accordingly.” In the same vein. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the Protector of the People and the State The world community. In Region XII. Special Provisions Principle 9 “Given the severity of the various alleged human rights abuses and the divisive effects on indigenous communities caused by irregular military units or paramilitary groups. however.” Section 4 ‘The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. the reported offenders belong to their ranks. While the Armed Forces may be tempted to feign and simulate the truth or to put the law into their own hands in order to protect and show loyalty to their ranks. Principle 5 Whenever the lawful use of force and firearms is unavoidable. children and the elderly suffered poor health condition. Article 3 “Law enforcement officials may use force only when strictly necessary and to the extent required for the performance of their duty. illegally arrested and detained by the military soldiers. security of persons. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. this office was informed that the Battalion Commander was already relieved. internally displaced people and Muslims. The victims of these atrocities were the most vulnerable sectors of society – women and children. we ask that these law enforcers furnish copies of the said investigations to the Commission on Human Rights. under the Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officialsadopted as early as December 17. The Indigenous Peoples in the provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte are situated no differently.” With this in mind. and forced recruitment by the armed forces. persecution. Quezon City. the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel. On the other hand. multiple incidents of harassment and illegal arrest have terrorized the residents of the town. has rapidly increased in the past years.” The Report includes details of the information gathered and those submitted by various non-governmental agencies concerned with the monitoring of these indigenous peoples. the peasants. 2002 specifically for the purpose of knowing the situation of the Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines . intentional lethal use of firearms may only be made when strictly unavoidable in order to protect life. ‘‘development aggression. When indigenous peoples were involved in counter-insurgency operations they suffered indiscriminate firing. The rights against discrimination of any and all kinds. equal protection before the law. internal political instability or any other public emergency as a justification of torture or other cruel. Unfortunately. the Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government of the Philippines take maximum caution to protect indigenous peoples’ rights during its military operations. no less than the Philippine Constitution enshrines. to arrest a person presenting such a danger and resisting their authority. women. Special Rapporteur of the United Nations. in his report said: Exercise restraint in such use and act in proportion to the seriousness of the offense and the legitimate objective to be achieved. Sultan Kudarat. At the national level. resulting in the delay of their agricultural calendar. torture or to cruel. There was inadequate delivery of basic health services and protection. Rodolfo Stavenhagen. xxx” Further. the most pressing human rights issue is the armed conflict between the government forces and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) in Liguasan March Area. harassment. dispossession and destruction of their property. However. that their primary duty under the 1986 Philippine Constitution is the “protection of the people and the State” (Section 3.’’ and militarization. as recorded in the Regional Offices of the Commission on Human Rights. water housing. indigenous communities and organizations are often victimized and their human rights abused.” In Region IX. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The school children in the affected areas stopped going to school. because of these reasons. Minimize damage and injury. Floridablanca and Porac. Several International Instruments addresses this issue in order to prevent human rights violations especially to those members of the community who are the least able to protect themselves. dignity. a process described as “development aggression. Such incidents have been reported in various parts of the country. and only when less extreme means are insufficient to achieve these objectives. due process.583 families or 39. unlawful arrest. One case is that in Datalbao. within the framework of national programme to demilitarize indigenous peoples’ territories. 1990 contains the following guidelines: General Principles Principle 4 Law enforcement officials. Cultural and Social Rights. the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners and the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. the NPA guerillas pass by their village but only to rest under the trees for a couple of minutes after which they leave again. the following were pronounced as basic principles to be observed: Article 1 “Law enforcement officials shall at all times fulfill the duty imposed upon them by law. Some of the natives were forced to admit that they were NPAs for fear of death. economic empowerment was limited. They asked that CAFGU’s be removed from their communities because they do not carry out any beneficial activity. under the same Article of the Constitution. torture and threats. kidnapping and threats. Their properties were looted after their houses were forcibly entered into. Finally. The militarization of some areas contributes to the increase in number of human rights violation. Thus. supreme over the military. The said report gave an account of the current situation and condition of the indigenous peoples in the Philippines . inter alia. The International Bill of Human Rights consisting of. the following as its declared national principles. such as Civilian Armed Forces Geographical Units (CAFGUs). privacy. the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. by serving the community and by protecting all persons against illegal acts. among others. while acknowledging each State’s necessity of maintaining a strong national military arm. Water supply was almost not available and food rations from the concerned government line agencies were nonaccessible. they just leave. . Furthermore. Charges of militarization have been hurled against the military such as the celebrated case of the killing of Eden Marcellana and Eddie Gumanoy where the suspected killers were alleged members of the military. arbitrary arrest are likewise protected. demolition of houses. instigate or tolerate any act of torture or other cruel. Among the relevant international instruments are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. residents were forced to stay at home. law enforcement officials shall: ON HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS COMMITTED BY THE CAFGU AND OTHER PARA-MILITARY GROUPS AGAINST INDIGENOUS PEOPLES Introduction/ The Philippine Situation The number of human rights violations committed by the military and paramilitary groups specifically against our Indigenous Peoples. 1979 . rural dwellers migrate to the urban centers to find a place in the sun or for a greener pasture or scamper for their family’s safety from the ensuing firefight between the lawless armed elements and the government armed forces. social unrest and economic instability. working animals and harvest. has been a hotbed of insurgency and of social unrest. They may use force and firearms only if other means remain ineffective or without any promise of achieving the intended result. The natives were accused of being NPA guerillas. the unit is now based in Catbalogan. nor may any law enforcement official invoke superior orders or exceptional circumstances such as a state of war or a threat of war. The militarization of indigenous area is a grave human rights problem. In the areas of armed conflict. Cotabato in the course of the intense fighting between government troops and the MILF. the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights and the International Convention on Economic. the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid. no justification will rationalize these indiscriminate killings against members of Bayan Muna. Special mention must be made of CAFGUs set up by the army in numerous indigenous municipalities. who visited the Philippines in December. The basic issues and/or human rights violations surrounding the indigenous peoples were found as follows: rights to ancestral domains. liberty. specifically under Section 11 of our Constitution. It also resulted in child labor due to the need to augment the family income for subsistence. as members of indigenous communities are sometimes accused of rebellion or engaging in “terrorist” activity. Failure of peace talks. Bulacan.” Indigenous resistance and protest are frequently countered by military force involving numerous human rights abuses. the military blames the NPA of killing farmers and rebel returnees. the DND and the AFP. the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials adopted by the General Assembly on August 27. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. slavery. of movement and to freely participate in their cultural life. Allegedly. under the same Article II. youth. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. in carrying out their duty. unlawful seizures and searches. not to mention the paramilitary units called the CAFGU Active Agents (CAAs). Thus. community structures and cultural values. clearly mandates all member states to respect the human rights of all persons without discrimination of any kind. IPs are often victims also to forced recruitment of CAFGUs/NPAs and tribal forces and massacres. Principle 8 Exceptional circumstances such as internal political instability or any other public emergency may not be invoked to justify any departure from these basic principles. Columbio. The Report stated that: More specifically. in accordance with international humanitarian standards. During the dialogue. Surigao del Sur. recommending immediate indictment of the responsible elements of the military. illegally detained and interrogated and their belongings searched on the suspicion that they were NPA supporters. four (4) battalions of the AFP were deployed in the area. whether you belong to the minority or the so-called civilized society. and respect and preserve human life. They reported that divisions among indigenous peoples were created by a tactic whereby the military actually chooses the community leaders (Datu) in order to manipulate and control the community. In any event. should prima facie case exist. liberty. the rights to life. a member of the Indigenous Peoples group who is also a barangay captain of Lanuza. food. consistent with the high degree of responsibility required by their profession. adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land. It was gathered that there was displacement of about 6. dialogue and ceasefire agreement and lack of security for evacuees result in more IP evacuation and displacement. To counter the insurgency. law enforcement officials shall respect and protect human dignity and maintain and uphold the human rights of all persons. The Stavenhagen Report This miserable plight of our cultural minorities is further bolstered by the so-called “Stavenhagen Report” submitted by Mr.498 persons. all in Mt. it is stated that. Maguindanao and Saranggani Provinces. everyone deserves equal protection and treatment before the law. Issues such as war conflicts between the lawless armed elements and the government armed forces prevail. For over a month. to which the Philippines is a signatory. the fisher folks and the elderlies. the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. The people lost their livelihood and others lost their livestocks. and education of the children and youth was disrupted. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. ambuscades. the complainants said that their carabaos died due to bombings and more of their cows and carabaos are missing. a specific area in Southern Tagalog.
issues this advisory to remind the Government and the general public of the pertinent provisions of human rights treaties to which the Philippines is a state party. without distinction of any kind. 1&2). color. duty to protect persons from killings by non-state actors. 2). (ICCPR Art 2. pp 109 .” and invokes Article 2. the indigenous peoples fall prey to violations in the government’s efforts to put a stop to terrorism and insurgency. sex. in worship. No derogation from articles 6. health or morals or fundamental rights and freedoms of others). slave trade. notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity (ICCPR Art. Article 4 provides: In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation. duty to punish offenders for state killings. The Commission on Human Rights urges the Philippine government to manifest its commitments by demonstrating its compliance to the obligations set forth in the said Covenant. even in a state of emergency.137 Human Rights Committee General Comment No. 1017 Declaring a State of National Emergency. Death Penalty for the most serious of crimes. The use of force by law enforcement officials should be exceptional. right to seek pardon. everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality. egregious economic exploitation or dominance or ‘slavery – like practices. degrading punishment or treatment: all persons deprived of their liberty must be treated with humanity and respect for dignity or human person. Force or Compulsory Labor defined as ‘all work or service which is extracted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which he has not offered himself voluntarily. The sufferance of our brethren are by no means measurable because of oppressive acts amounting to their being marginalized as a sector of our society and resulting to the violations of their human rights. A review of the military operations. Safeguards must be set in place in order to protect the human rights of our indigenous peoples. This calls for national action. of the provisions from which it has derogated and of the reasons by which it was actuated. sex. public order and the general welfare in a democratic society (Art. political or other opinion. Sec. the measure of derogation must be of an exceptional and temporary measure. Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself of the right of derogation shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the present covenant. 20 adopted at its 44 th Session. x x x” Recognizing that there are indeed situations when a state is allowed to derogate from a part of its obligation to the ICCPR. The Proclamation cited unrestrained political opposition “engaged in a concerted and systematic conspiracy. 29. 24 February 2006 President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo issued Proclamation No. Joseph. Article 8 Prohibition of slavery. Like all civilians. no execution for pregnant women. cruel. All sectors must cooperate in order to obviate the violations committed against our brothers. servitude. no punishment except in accordance with law or nulla peona sine lege. It is stressed that indigenous peoples are human beings. freedom to manifest individually or in community with others in public or private. observance. no imposition for death sentence for minors. Violations must be reported and properly addressed. religion or social origin. through the intermediary of the Secretary General of the United Nations. Article 15 The principle of legality in the field of criminal law: prohibition of retroactive criminal laws. such as race. no crime except in accordance with law or nullum crimen sine lege. Government must consider primordial. However. Violations of their human rights aggravate their condition and endanger their respected recognition transcending to the Filipino national cultural heritage. In plain language. the principle of proportionality of must be observed and that the use of firearms be considered as an extreme measure. Thus. in the exercise of this mandate. order.” The 1987 Constitution created an independent Commission on Human Rights with the mandate to ensure that the state indeed “values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect of human rights. Sec. Section 4 of the Constitution which provides that “the defense and preservation of the democratic institutions and the State is the primary duty of Government. We call on the Armed Forces to help in realizing this objective. 12 September 2005 . Sec. no delay in abolition of the Death Penalty. The Commission on Human Rights totally abhors this practice. no justification or extenuating circumstances may be invoked to excuse torture. Servitude refers to other forms of . Article 7 Prohibition of torture or cruel. no medical or scientific experimentation without valid consent. practice and teaching. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases. as follows: “xxx Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant. we are only to blame if they will no longer be there to receive our protection in the future. no punishment under extremely vague laws. Article 11 Prohibition of imprisonment because of inability to fulfill a contractual obligation: no imprisonment for private law civil obligations due to ‘inability’ which indicates incapability rather than unwillingness. religion. Materials and Commentary 2000. language. 1). color. language.” (Article II. These rights must be in the context of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which provides: “x x x In the exercise of his rights and freedoms. Section 11. 1992 “ON THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE DECLARATION OF THE STATE OF NATIONAL EMERGENCY” On Friday. In particular. duty to investigate state killings. Violators must accordingly be punished. degrading treatment or punishment. property. and the existence of which is officially proclaimed. Done in Quezon City. CAFGU activities must be monitored and evaluated. The protection of their human rights should be the principal consideration akin to respecting the nation’s identity and the Filipino’s being. forced or compulsory labor: Slavery occurs where one human being owns another that the former can exploit latter with impunity. Philippines on this 27 th day of February 2006. 3a). inhuman. national or social origin. the fundamental rights of the Filipino People.” This is of paramount importance for the system of protection for human rights under the ICCPR. A further communication shall be made through the same intermediary on the date on which it terminates such derogation. This simply has no place in a civilized society. If we don’t give the protection and respect due our indigenous people today. 15. Article 16 Recognition of everyone as a person before the law (a person’s humanity must be legally recognize d). the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation. the Commission on Human Rights as well as the other non-governmental organizations can only do so much. The fundamental rights of the Filipino People cannot be overemphasized. inhuman. Schultz and Castan. While it allows the unilateral derogation from a part of its obligations thereto. is highly called for. it must be subject to a specific regime of safeguards where the restoration of a state of normalcy must be the predominant objective. freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs subject only to limitations prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety. 11. 7. especially those conducted in the mountains and by the CAFGUs. the Philippines ratified on 23 January 1987 the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. the ICCPR proscribes (or prohibits) derogation from the following rights: Article 6 The Right to life: No arbitrary deprivation of life. to bring down the duly-constituted Government elected in May 2004. 1987 Philippine Constitution) The Commission. To ensure that any person whose rights or freedom as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy. provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination solely on the ground of race. over a broad front.Recommendations The current state of affairs of our indigenous peoples is already appalling as it is. commutation. The Philippine Government is legally obligated to comply with its provisions. 16 and 18 may be made under this provision. 2. birth or other status. Article 18 Freedom of thought conscience and religion (freedom to adopt a religion or belief of his choice. 8 (par.