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Electronic design automation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Electronic design automation (EDA or ECAD) is a category of software tools for designing electronic systems such as printed circuit boards and integrated circuits. The tools work together in a design flow that chip designers use to design and analyze entire semiconductor chips. This article describes EDA specifically with respect to integrated circuits.

Contents
1 History 1.1 Early days 1.2 Birth of commercial 1.3 Current status 2 Software focuses 2.1 Design 2.2 Simulation 2.3 Analysis and verification 2.4 Manufacturing preparation 3 Companies 3.1 Top companies 3.2 Acquisitions 4 See also 5 References

History
Early days
Before EDA, integrated circuits were designed by hand, and manually laid out. Some advanced shops used geometric software to generate the tapes for the Gerber photoplotter, but even those copied digital recordings of mechanically drawn components. The process was fundamentally graphic, with the translation from electronics to graphics done manually. The best known company from this era was Calma, whose GDSII format survives. By the mid-70s, developers started to automate the design, and not just the drafting. The first placement and routing (Place and route) tools were developed. The proceedings of the Design Automation Conference cover much of this era. The next era began about the time of the publication of "Introduction to VLSI Systems" by Carver Mead and Lynn Conway in 1980. This ground breaking text advocated chip design with programming languages that compiled to silicon. The immediate result was a considerable increase in the complexity of the chips that could be designed, with improved access to design verification tools that used logic simulation. Often the chips were easier to lay out and

EDA tools are also used for programming design functionality into FPGAs. or sold them at cost. Tektronix. with just a few copies of each projects' chips. and the components are (in general) less ideal. who operate the semiconductor fabrication facilities. this general approach of specifying the desired behavior in a textual programming language and letting the tools derive the detailed physical design remains the basis of digital IC design today. The basic concept was to use reliable. Department of Defense began funding of VHDL as a hardware description language. Although the languages and tools have evolved. and Valid Logic Systems were all founded around this time. Cooperating fabricators either donated the processed wafers. In 1981. The front ends produce standardized design descriptions that compile into invocations of "cells.[citation needed ] Some users are foundry operators. a consortium of universities and fabricators that developed an inexpensive way to train student chip designers by producing real integrated circuits. another popular high-level design language. In 1981. they interact more strongly. Within a few years there were many companies specializing in EDA. For many years. managers and developers spun out of these companies to concentrate on EDA as a business. the U. with simulation models that fit standard simulation tools. Analog EDA tools are far less modular. the larger electronic companies. relatively low-technology IC processes.more likely to function correctly. seeing the program as helpful to their own long-term growth. was first introduced as a hardware description language by Gateway Design Automation. Mentor Graphics. In 1986.". Birth of commercial 1981 marks the beginning of EDA as an industry. Fabricators generally provide libraries of components for their production processes. without regard to the cell technology. In a few more years. such as Hewlett Packard. Verilog. back-ends were developed to perform logic synthesis. low-cost. and collectively referred to as DMV. and Intel. Design closure. One of the most famous was the "Berkeley VLSI Tools Tarball". Daisy Systems. and pack a large number of projects per wafer.S. each with a slightly different emphasis. had pursued EDA internally. since many more functions are required. since their designs could be simulated more thoroughly prior to construction. a set of UNIX utilities used to design early VLSI systems. and design-service companies who use EDA software to evaluate an incoming design for manufacturing readiness. The earliest EDA tools were produced academically. or "fabs". 3D PCB layout EDA for electronics has rapidly increased in importance with the continuous scaling of semiconductor technology. Cells implement logic or other electronic functions using a particular integrated circuit technology. Current status Current digital flows are extremely modular (see Integrated circuit design. The first trade show for EDA was held at the Design Automation Conference in 1984. Still widely used is the Espresso heuristic logic minimizer and Magic. and Design flow (EDA)). Software focuses . Another crucial development was the formation of MOSIS. permitting direct simulation of chip designs: executable specifications. Simulators quickly followed these introductions.

algorithmic synthesis) For digital chips Logic synthesis translation of abstract. and will meet original specifications. Manufacturing preparation . Static timing analysis: Analysis of the timing of a circuit in an input-independent manner. and that the resulting chips will not have any function-preventing physical defects. Logic simulation – digital-simulation of an RTL or gate-netlist's digital (boolean 0/1) behavior. Electrical properties of devices are derived directly from device physics. PV: checking if a design is physically manufacturable. Analysis and verification Functional verification Clock Domain Crossing Verification (CDC check): Similar to linting. Physical verification.Design Main article: Design flow (EDA) High-level synthesis(syn. to ensure functional equivalence at the logical level. also model checking: Attempts to prove. this is called in-circuit emulation. or just field solvers. meta-stability due to use of multiple clock domains in the design. ARES in Proteus Simulation Main article: Electronic circuit simulation Transistor simulation – low-level transistor-simulation of a schematic/layout's behavior. analog. Technology CAD simulate and analyze the underlying process technology. by Schematic capture program mathematical methods. logical language such as Verilog or VHDL into a discrete netlist of logic-gates Schematic Capture For standard cell digital. accurate at cycle-level or interface-level. but these checks/tools specialize in detecting and reporting potential issues like data loss. Formal verification. accurate at devicelevel. Electromagnetic field solvers. behavioural synthesis. solve Maxwell's equations directly for cases of interest in IC and PCB design. rf like Capture CIS in Orcad by CADENCE and ISIS in Proteus Layout like Layout in Orcad by Cadence. and that certain undesired effects (such as deadlock) cannot occur. Hardware emulation – Use of special purpose hardware to emulate the logic of a proposed design. Equivalence checking: algorithmic comparison between a chip's RTL-description and synthesized gatenetlist. Behavioral Simulation – high-level simulation of a design's architectural operation. They are known for being slower but more accurate than the layout extraction above. hence finding a worst case over all possible inputs. that the system has certain desired properties. Can sometimes be plugged into a system in place of a yet-to-be-built chip. accurate at boolean-level.

This is happening because there is now a trend to place entire electronic systems on a single chip. see List of EDA companies.[3] but does not have a market cap as it is the EDA division of Agilent. RET – methods of increasing of quality of final photomask.[2] EEsof should likely be on this list. Synopsys acquired SpringSoft in August 2012 ¥11. and mixed systems. Optical proximity correction. MDP: generation of actual lithography photomask used to physically manufacture the chip. Acquisitions Many of the EDA companies acquire small companies with software or other technology that can be adapted to their core business. or BIST – installs self-contained test-controllers to automatically test a logic (or memory) structure in the design Companies For more details on this topic. Note: Market caps current as of Dec. Automatic test pattern generation. 2011. This trend is helped by the tendency of software companies to design tools as accessories that fit naturally into a larger vendor's suite of programs on digital circuitry. many new tools incorporate analog design.Mask data preparation. OPC – up-front compensation for diffraction and interference effects occurring later when chip is manufactured using this mask.0 billion – Synopsys $2. See also Computer-aided design (CAD) Circuit design EDA database Signoff (electronic design automation) Comparison of EDA software References .44 billion – SpringSoft. Top companies $4. Synopsys acquired Magma in February 2012[1] NT$6. and other components. Resolution enhancement techniques.95 billion – Zuken Inc. ATPG – generates pattern-data to systematically exercise as many logic-gates.42 billion – Mentor Graphics connector design $489 million – Magma Design Automation. as possible.[4] Most of the market leaders are amalgamations of many smaller companies.94 billion – Cadence PCB layout and schematic for $1. Mask generation – generation of flat mask image from hierarchical design. Built-in self-test.

NASDAQ:LAVA. Martin. 2010.NASDAQ:MENT.com/electronics-news/4231034/Synopsys-to-buy-Magma-for--507-million.edacafe. 2006 Combinatorial Algorithms for Integrated Circuit Layout. "EDA Innovation through Merger and Acquisitions" (http://www10. Teubner Verlag. Rubin Electronic Design Automation For Integrated Circuits Handbook . . ^ Kirti Sikri Desai (2006). by Dirk Jansen et al. additional terms may apply. http://www10. by Lavagno.staticfreesoft.eetimes.org/w/index.NASDAQ:CDNS 3.com/nbc/articles/view_weekly. ISBN 3-519-02110-2.php?title=Electronic_design_automation&oldid=545925053" Categories: Electronic design Electronic design automation Electronic engineering This page was last modified on 21 March 2013 at 08:05. 1997. 2003. ^ http://www.eetimes. See Terms of Use for details..com/nbc/articles/view_article. 4.php?articleid=782353) . Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.php?articleid=301031&interstitial_displayed=Yes. ^ Dylan McGrath (30 Nov 2011).NASDAQ:SNPS.com/finance? q=TPE:2473. "Synopsys to buy Magma for $507 million" (http://www.com/nbc/articles/view_weekly. http://www10. 2. Retrieved March 23. The Electronic Design Automation Handbook .google. Notes http://www. available also in German ISBN 3-446-21288-4 (2005) Retrieved from "http://en. EDA Cafe.com/documentsTextbook.com/electronics-news/4231034/Synopsys-to-buy-Magma-for--507-million) . ^ "Agilent EEsof EDA – Part I" (http://www10. by Thomas Lengauer.TYO:6947. Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www.html Computer Aids for VLSI Design by Steven M.php?articleid=301031&interstitial_displayed=Yes) .edacafe. a non-profit organization.1. Inc.wikipedia.. ISBN 1-40207502-2. ISBN 08493-3096-3. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.edacafe.edacafe. EETimes.php?articleid=782353. and Scheffer.com/nbc/articles/view_article.