You are on page 1of 13

Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929

Thermoeconomic evaluation of the SCGT cycle
Andrea Corti*, Daniele Fiaschi, Giampaolo Manfrida
Dipartimento di Energetica `Sergio Stecco', University of Florence, Via Santa Marta, 3-50139, Firenze, Italy Received 28 October 1998; accepted 27 February 1999

Abstract The analysis of the SCGT (Semi-Closed Gas Turbine cycle) is extended to the treatment of acid condensation (sulphur compounds) at the exit of the separator (SEP), with reference to di€erent possible con®gurations already studied from the thermodynamic and environmental points of view. This detailed analysis was considered necessary because the natural gas fuel can contain a small amount of H2S which, reacting with air, can form SO2 and ®nally sulphuric acid. This can represent a problem (mainly from the economic point of view) because of the possibility of sulphuric acid condensation at the exit of the separator, where the temperature can reach values below the acid dew point of the mixture. The data obtained from ENI publications were used for the natural gas composition, and a 0.005% H2S molar fraction was additionally hypothesized. With these assumptions, about 0.1% SO2 can be found in the exhaust gases at the separator inlet. Aspen Plus was used in order to evaluate the chemical e€ects of the acidity of the condensate produced in the separator. An evaluation about costs of the devices to be used for condensation of the recirculated ¯ue gas humidity has been performed, considering use of the special materials necessary for reducing the aggressive e€ects of acid water condensation. A ®nal evaluation of the overall conversion system plant is also produced, showing the economic balance in terms of resulting cost of the unit of electrical energy produced and of inlet power in terms of fuel. The results are also evaluated in terms of CO2 emissions, considering the ratio between the global cost of the power generation plant and the global carbon dioxide emissions, compared to other types of energy conversion open cycle solutions. # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

* Corresponding author: Tel.: +39-55-4796243; fax: +39-55-4796342. E-mail address:®.it (A. Corti) 0196-8904/99/$ - see front matter # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 1 9 6 - 8 9 0 4 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 7 9 - 5

1) resemblesÐapart from recirculation of the exhaust to the compressor inletÐa conventional combined open gas turbine cycle coupled with a two pressure level (+deaerator) Heat Recovery Steam Generator Fig. Corti et al. and a very short development time interval can be. The SCGT/CC (Fig. In the particular case of SCGTs operating with atmospheric base pressure. the interest of the power plant community to the study of advanced solutions for reducing CO2 emissions. / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 1. thus. Here. nuclear fusion. 1. at least on a large scale (hydrogen fuel economy. the semi-closed gas turbine cycles (SCGT) appear to be very interesting as a transition to di€erent energy technologies which can be even more e€ective but still need consistent development. renewables. Schematic of the SCGT/CC plant with steam extraction for the CO2 absorption unit. With reference to the very near future. only the basics are reported. Description and comparison of the SCGT/CC and SCGT/RE con®gurations The SCGT/CC and SCGT/RE cycle con®guration have been described in previous works [2.6±8]. the development from existing commercial gas turbines is relatively simple. Introduction The increasing greenhouse e€ects registered in the last century and recent decisions of international communities demonstrating the political willingness of taking e€ective measures aimed at their reduction [1] will raise. 2. . predicted.1918 A. F F F ). in the very near future.

even under these last conditions. respectively. Both SCGT schemes here considered have atmospheric base pressure: this means that a compressor is needed for ®nal disposal of the CO2. The basic data are reported in Fig. a steam bleed (2 bars) is provided in order to extract the heat needed for the amine CO2 absorption unit. 2) is able to feed directly the amine regeneration unit without any sacri®ce of work output. 2. then. a heavy duty gas turbine well suited for operation with combined cycles. the fact that the base pressure is atmospheric allows using gas turbines which are strictly derived from today's commercial units with minor modi®cations (mainly at the combustion chamber level). the plant performance is. In this case. as compared to more advanced schemes using high base pressures for the cycle and allowing sequestration of CO2 as a liquid [13]. / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 1919 (HRSG). The regenerative-evaporative cycle (SCGT/RE. in comparison with con®gurations where no CO2 removal is considered. The gas turbine operating data considered for the two cycle con®gurations correspond to those of the LM501F gas turbine. the SCGT/CC with current market gas turbines is capable of eciencies in the range of 50% and speci®c power outputs of the order of 550 kJ(kg/s) (referred to compressor ¯ow rate). since the gases leaving the regenerative heat exchanger still have a relatively high enthalpy. However. Corti et al. Within the lower pressure turbine. However. . not a€ected by the CO2 removal operation. in practice.A. The introduction of the steam extraction (2 bars) to supply the heat needed for amine regeneration [3] leads to a penalty in eciency and power output for the SCGT/CC of about 4% and 10%. jointly developed by Mitsubishi and Westinghouse. Fig. Schematic of the SCGT/RE plant.

4 70. the regenerative evaporative cycle is better suited for small applications where the size of the Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHE) is limited.0 597.000716 28.1 58.21 15.95 1.4 308.31 8.5 260.59 14.44 49. The optimizing gas turbine pressure ratio is higher for the SCGT/CC (b=18.74 50.61 72.06 168.4 174.00 240.7 179. The performance maps for the SCGT/CC and the SCGT/RE are shown in Fig.9 192. the SCGT/RE performance is typically 40 kJ/kg lower than that of the SCGT/CC. Table 1 Main operating parameters of SCGT/CC and SCGT/RE cycles SCGT/CC Pressure ratio (reference value) Maximum cycle temperature [8C] Compressor mass ¯ow rate [kg/s] Turbine mass ¯ow rate [kg/s] Turbine coolant mass ¯ow rate [kg/s] Fresh air mass ¯ow rate [kg/s] Recirculated gas mass ¯ow rate [kg/s] Stack mass ¯ow rate [kg/s] Fuel mass ¯ow rate [kg/s] Mass fraction of CO2 at the stack [%] Mass fraction of N2 at the stack [%] Mass fraction of O2 at the stack [%] Mass fraction of H2O at the stack [%] Mass fraction of SO2 at the stack [%] Mass fraction of He at the stack [%] SEP condensed water ¯ow rate [kg/s] SEP coolant ¯ow rate [kg/s] HRSG high pressure steam production [kg/s] HRSG low pressure steam production [kg/s] 2 bars steam extraction ¯ow rate [kg/s] Gas turbine power output [MW] Steam turbine power output [MW] Cycle power output [MW] Gas turbine eciency [%] Overall Cycle eciency [%] Gas turbine exhausts temperature [8C] RHE hot side exhausts temperature [8C] RHE cold side inlet temperature [8C] RHE cold side exhausts temperature [8C] Cycle speci®c consumption [kJ/kWh] CO2 separation eciency 14 1349 440.271 0.31 664.59 625. this last is 1% lower than the combined cycle over the whole ®eld. Alteration of the pressure ratio was considered possible in the range from b=10 to b=20.2 34.000741 10.8 ± ± ± 222. however.2 450.089 11.64 637. However.4 ± ± ± 7258 80% SCGT/RE 14 1349 440.2 478.9 48. 3.639 6. From the point of view of speci®c power.4 71.4 10.000107 0. which is about 10% lower than the optimising value considering pure methane as fuel) than for the SCGT/RE regenerative evaporative cycle which shows a relatively low optimization point (b=10.25 179.35 440.9 ± 222.000111 0.8 275.13 76. Corti et al. una€ected by operation on true natural gas) in line with the typical values of conventional open cycles.1920 A.4 9.4 7398 80% .67 1.63 0.64 48. / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 Table 1.48 164. The regenerative solution without HRSG o€ers interesting levels of power and eciency.1 74.

4.A. 4 shows. Moreover. the suppression of the HRSG and of the whole bottoming cycle leads to a simpler plant con®guration with simpli®ed operation and lower capital costs for small and medium size plants (in the range from 5 to 60 MW power output). for both plant options. the sensitivity of the eciency to the heat QRCO2 required by the CO2 removal unit: the eciency of the regenerative evaporative solution Fig. Plant eciency vs thermal request for CO2 removal. Fig. Corti et al. . / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 1921 Fig. 3. Maps of performance of SCGT/CC and SCGT/RE.

/ Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 decreases rapidly with augmenting QRCO2. a decrease in the regeneration level is required (this can be easily obtained by reducing the RHE surface (and consequently. its e€ectiveness) and/or by increasing the pressure ratio.6±8]. Using pure methane. Eciency of SCGT/RE cycles with variable pressure ratio and QRCO2. as reported in Table 1). thus. In practice. This Fig. no problems of acid condensation can occur at the cold exhaust ends of the plant. the temperature could. such as in the exhaust gases water condenser (SEP. the fuel considered for cycle simulation was pure methane CH4. rendering optimization of the amine absorption sectionÐin terms of heat demand for amine regenerationÐcritical in this case for reaching a good overall cycle performance. which implies. 5. since the study was aimed at a preliminary evaluation of performance and at comparison with existing open cycle gas turbine power plant con®gurations. a signi®cant decrease in eciency with respect to the combined cycle solution). 3. such as the stack and SEP. the heat needed for CO2 removal is easily provided by the exhaust gas leaving the RHE without any reduction of the SCGT/RE power output. The combined e€ects of RHE minimum temperature di€erence and pressure ratio are shown in Fig. Corti et al. natural gas has a small content of sulfur which forms SO2 during the combustion and. When the heat needed for the amine regeneration is high. fall below the dew point (considering a solution of sulfuric acid in water). contributes to the formation of H2SO4 by reaction with the water vapor of the gases in oxidizing conditions: in the cold sections of the plant. . at least for low and medium heat requests (the exhaust gas leaving the RHE is well above 3008C. ®nally. In previous works [2. Cycle compatibility with natural gas: sulfur content of the natural gas All simulations discussed above consider a reference natural gas as the fuel. 1). however. However. 5.1922 A. causing serious corrosion problems. Fig.

it is possible to use simple vapour tables in order to evaluate the condensed water ¯ow rate.6 0. Corti et al.11 0.8.647 0. / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 1923 implies the choice of expensive materials. using the emission factor assumed as reference in the CORINAIR data base for natural gas fueled gas turbines (0.7122 0.87 0.28 7. In the absence of direct data.88 0.2677 0. even if originally very low.06685 0. such as stainless steel.18 93.84 0. Even if this result is conservative. Recirculation increases corrosion problems.28 0. The chemical composition of the reference natural gas was evaluated by a weighted mean between the compositions of the main Italian natural gas providers (national. As a result.19 5. is subject to an increase if no correcting measures are taken (gas treatment in the cold section). with a safety margin.01 3.07 1.89 2.4 91.9 83.11 0.04 Russia 13.07 0.62 0.05 0. the acidi®cation process which occurs to the condensate inside the cooler.02 0. a high acidity of the condensate was calculated from the ASPEN Plus model. ASPEN Plus does not allow simulating the acid gas modi®cation of the condensing temperature. based on the assumed fuel and on the ¯ue gas conditions shown in Table 2. but considering the low temperature level.A. which a€ects the capital costs of the semi-closed cycle con®guration with respect to traditional solutions where the SEP is not present.7 0.07 0. a volumetric content of 0. All H2S was considered converted to SO2 at the stack.114 0. with a pH value of about 3.0075 mg/m3. Holland and Algeria) in 1993 [15]. it is possible that under real operating conditions. A detailed study of the water separator (SEP) was conducted because of concern about acid dew point conditions.26 0 Holland 5.22 0. A speci®c model was developed using ASPEN Plus to consider this e€ect.01 0.06 0. Table 2 Composition of natural fuel gas from the main countries Italy Provided amount [Billions of m3] Natural gas composition CH4 [% molar fraction] C2H6 [% molar fraction] C3H8 [% molar fraction] C4H10 [% molar fraction] C5H12 [% molar fraction] C6H14 [% molar fraction] CO2 [% molar fraction] N2 [% molar fraction] He [% molar fraction] 18. This scheme can simulate.01 Algeria 13.2038 2.01 0.05557 Average composition . where the cooled gas ¯ow passed countercurrent with respect to the water.52 0.3 98.09 0.02 0. The amount of water condensed in the SEP is large because of the low process temperature necessary to limit the decrease in compressor eciency due to temperatures much higher than reference (ISO) conditions.21 0.7 99.04599 0. The amount of water produced inside the recirculated ¯ue gas cooler was then used in the model as a liquid inlet of an absorption unit.00052 H2S in the average natural fuel gas composition was also estimated. [5]). Russia.78 0.01 0 0.11 2. which is summarized in Table 2.02 0. as the concentration of acid species.68 2. small quantities of additivesÐcompatible with gas turbine operationÐshould be added to control the acidity of the recirculated gas.

improving mass transfer in the liquid phase. Con®guration of the amine CO2 absorption plant Among the di€erent carbon dioxide separation systems. DEA is less reactive than MEA. while a regenerative heat exchanger in the cold ¯ow exiting from the absorber allows reducing energy demands for CO2 desorption. . but its use leads to the formation of relatively stable carbamates. but it forms a less stable compound and has a similar loading capacity. 6. The amines here considered are monoethanolamine (MEA). With respect to open cycle gas turbines. A temperature di€erence of 40±508C between the two stages allows obtaining good levels of regeneration of the solution. Fig. / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 4. This renders amine absorption very attractive from the point of view of economics. the semi-closed con®gurations (both SCGT/ CC and SCGT/RE) bene®t of an increased concentration of CO2 at the stack (exceeding 15% in mass) and in a lower overall stack ¯ow rate. 6) for a carbon dioxide separation plant consists in two separate columns for absorption and desorption (stripping) of CO2 so that continuous solution regeneration can be achieved.1924 A. Corti et al. Its loading capacity reaches 1 mol of CO2 per mol of MDEA. but its reactivity is lower than that of the other amines here considered. MDEA does not react directly with CO2. Schematic of the CO2 absorption unit. The basic scheme (Fig. Amines in aqueous solution react with CO2 in the ¯ue gases to form new compounds which subtract CO2 from the liquid phase. MEA is the most reactive compound. absorption by means of blended amines in aqueous solution was selected as the most promising in terms of commercial feasibility. but it works as a catalyser in its reaction with water. diethanolamine (DEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA).

30% content of amines. . Among blends of Diethanolamines and methyldietalonamines. with special reference to the heat recovery system for the stripping unit of the DeCO2. The sensitivity study on carbon dioxide separation was performed using the ASPEN Plus chemical simulator. and the MDEA mass fraction covering. on the whole. which is able to simulate the reaction of absorption in the liquid phase of carbon dioxide in the case of using amines in solution with water. 5. Solution mass ¯ow variation with respect to DEA mass fraction. 7. blends of DEA and MDEA were preferred to MEA and MDEA because this choice allows simultaneously a lower energy consumption and a lower solution mass ¯ow rate [3]. / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 1925 The use of blended solutions can produce relevant bene®ts. Performance of the CO2 removal plant (SCGT/CC) Having identi®ed the DEA. The optimal blend of amines is strictly connected to the design of the power plant. the choice of the blend which provides the best results was based on the overall SCGT/CC cycle integrated with the amine blend absorption unit performance evaluation. a variable composition range was investigated. Operating on atmospheric pressure conditions. as this solution is more appropriate for Fig. with the DEA mass fraction in the aqueous solution from 12% to 30%. Only the SCGT/CC was considered in this study. joining together the high reactivity of the primary and secondary amines with the low energy requirement for regeneration of tertiary types. Corti et al.A.MDEA solutions as the most interesting from both points of view of the solution mass ¯ow rate and energy demand. depending also on the parameter of optimization selected (lower energy consumption or lower solution mass ¯ow rate).

The performance estimate for the di€erent plant con®gurations here examined disregards other auxiliary thermal and electrical energy consumptions.1 g/kWh. This is a very low emission factor of carbon dioxide with respect to the SCGT/CC simple cycle (360. this value corresponds to an absorption removal eciency above 80%). / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 large power plants and also o€ers a better performance (at least for QRCO2 larger than 4000 kJ/ kgCO2.39%) can be easily identi®ed. the results obtained (Fig. 8. . In this case. [14]). Economic evaluation of SCGT/CC with DECO amine unit 2 The performance study with di€erent blends of amines was repeated from the point of view of the economic balance of the integrated SCGT/CC based on a 501F-derived gas turbine with a carbon dioxide separation unit. an optimum point (maximum eciency) corresponding to a blend of 18% DEA and 12% MDEA with a cycle eciency of about 49. 6.17% (CO2 separation eciency of 83.1926 A. 4). SCGT/CC thermodynamic net eciency with DEA content mass fraction. 8. The evaluation and comparison of the several SCGT/CC solutions was accomplished by referring to a ®xed target of CO2 emissions referred to unit energy produced (70 g/kWh. The ®rst parameter considered for optimal plant performance is the solution mass ¯ow rate of the aqueous blend of amines which should be minimised. the dependence of the thermodynamic net eciency of the SCGT/CC plant on the composition of the amine solution is reported. The economical analysis on the plant used available (utility based) cost data for the SCGT/ Fig. In Fig.8 g/kWh) and even lower if compared to the emission factors quoted for the IGCC (630. To this end. 7) allow determining an optical composition corresponding to an aqueous solution of 23% DEA and 7% MDEA (mass fraction). Fig. Corti et al.

The optimum point obtained for the economic evaluation (in practice. In the present case study.229 US$/t for process water. for the absorbing and stripping beds. ASPEN Plus economic evaluation data and routines were used. heat exchangers and cooling towers. For estimation of the overall cost of energy in the integrated energy conversion cycle with the absorption amine unit. 1.3% of the global solution ¯ow rate at the stripper outlet. In Fig. / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 1927 CC power plant section [2]. 9.72 mill/kWh. For the carbon dioxide separation unit. which corresponds to a percentage increment with respect to the base cost of electricity of about 70%. An investment time of 15 years and a construction time of one year were considered with an investment rate of 12%. this ¯ow rate was about 0. The results of these evaluations are reported on Fig. considering the added complexity of the amine separation plant. with speci®c data obtained from Sulzer#.143 US$/kg for amines and 0. Alfa-Laval# and Ilmed Impianti#. This value correlates well with published data [9±12]. As for operation costs.80 US$/GJ for natural gas. An optimal economic operating con®guration is found for 23% DEA and 7% MDEA with an energy cost of 57. A possibility of cost reduction is to increase the recycle of amines exiting the plant blow-down.034 US$/kWh was considered (overall power output of 258. a capital cost of about 130 US$/kW (speci®c cost referred to power output) was obtained. Corti et al. 9.3 MW [4]). both for additional Fig.A. For the absorption plant. two additional personnel units per year were considered necessary with respect to a conventional combined cycle of similar size. . Unit feedstock costs were assumed at 2. 10. a 501F SCGT/CC base speci®c cost of 0. some results of the accounting in terms of additional costs per unit energy producedÐdue to the presence of carbon dioxide separationÐare presented for di€erent blends of amines. Energy speci®c additional costs due to carbon dioxide separation unit (mill$/kWh). The evaluation process evidenced a strong variability of costs on the market price of amines.

10. 9Ðor for overall costs of energy production+CO2 separationÐ Fig. / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 Fig. 7). it was not added in Fig. Conclusions The semi-closed gas turbine cycle proposed for containing carbon dioxide emissions has a relatively simple plant con®guration and operating parameter typical of current technology level equipment. Therefore. costs of CO2 absorptionÐFig. power output higher than 500 kJ/kg).1928 A.5% purity). The performance level is very interesting for both the SCGT/CC and SCGT/RE con®gurations (eciency close to 50%. The SCGT/CC provides better values of performance when used with large heavy duty turbomachines (such as the LM501F here considered). The use of natural gas fuel instead of pure methane does not imply important variation of the cycle performance with respect to the results obtained and reported in previous works by the authors. An estimate of the additional cost for puri®cation (99. taking into account that the cycle can self sustain the CO2 removal process. liquefaction. the introduction of a small fraction of SO2 in the fuel gas composition can raise the acidity level of the gas leaving the SEP heat exchange/condenser. It allows industrial development to start from existing equipment with only minor modi®cations. so an economical evaluation including the CO2 removal process was done for this con®guration. However. This is an additional constant. Energy production overall speci®c costs 501FSCGT/CC plus CO2 separation unit (mill$/kWh). which does not depend on optimization of the plant or of the CO2 absorption section.37 mills/ kWh referring to published data [9]. 10) corresponds closely to that of minimising the ¯ow rate of the absorbant mixture (Fig. 7. . Corti et al. but it should be considered for ®nal decision making. transport and storage of the carbon dioxide separated from the ¯ue gases was estimated at 5. 10.

Takeuchi K. Cost comparison in various CO2 ocean disposal options. For this optimal solution. Fiaschi D. Birmingham. [4] Corti A. 1. In: ASME IGTI Gas Turbine Conference and Exhibition.38. Fiaschi D. [8] Fiaschi D. b. 1 Oct 1997. Cincinnati: Ohio. Power plant ¯ue gas as a source of CO2 for microalgae cultivation: economic impact of di€erent process options. 1998. which were more economical and e€ective with respect to MEA and the CO2 removal capability always exceeds 80%. Semi-closed gas turbine cycle and humid air turbine: Thermoeconomic evaluation of cycle performance and of the water recovery process. Absorption of CO2 with amines in a semi-closed GT cycle: Plant performance and operating costs. Manfrida G. The study showed the existence of an optimization point con®guration for the system. / Energy Conversion & Management 40 (1999) 1917±1929 1929 The analysis of the SCGT/CC with integrated CO2 removal plant was performed for evaluation of the process and costs parameters. Manfrida G. Drake E. Stockholm. 1994. Copenhagen. Fiaschi D. 1998. [3] Corti A. [2] Corti A. [5] EMEP-CORINAIR. Tester J A.38:505±10. In: ASME IGTI Gas Turbine Conference and Exhibition. research needs assessment for the capture. [6] Facchini B. Semi-closed gas turbine cycle and humid air turbine: Thermoeconomic evaluation of cycle performance and of the water recovery process. 1995. mainly due to the stripping unit. Stockholm. In: ECOS '96 Conference. an overall electrical energy production cost about 70% higher than the base SCGT/CC without any carbon dioxide removal unit (about 0. 1998. Lie [14] Pruschek R. Energy Convers Mgmt 1997. 1996. Corti et al. Nihart R. [10] Herzog H. SCGT/CC: An innovative cycle with advanced environmental and peakload shaving features. [11] Herzog H. Manfrida G. A new semi-closed gas turbine cycle with CO2 separation. CO2 mitigation strategies: how realistic is the capture and sequestering option? In: Proceedings of the 87th Air & Waste Manage Assoc Ann Mtg & Exhibition. Stockholm. Facchini B. Report for DOE (Dept. 1998. Oeljeklaus G. of Energy) 1993. Ozaki M. SNAM/APU-STRAP 1993. Iantovski E. The role of IGCC in CO2 abatement. utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-®red power plants. July. [9] Fujioka Y. References [1] COM(97) 481 Final. 96-GT-317. In: ECOS '98 conference. Nancy (FR). semi-closed gas turbine/combined cycle with water recovery. Herzog HJ. Climate ChangeÐThe EU approach to Kyoto. . In: ASME IGTI Gas Turbine Conference and Exhibition. 1996. Lombardi L. vol. Manfrida G. corresponding to a solution formed by a 23% mass fraction of DEA and 7% of MDEA. European Environment Agency. di€erent blends of amines were tested (using blends of DEA and MDEA). The zero emission MATIANT cycle: Technical issue of a novel technology. Manfrida G. Energy Convers Mgmt 1997. 1998. In: Atmospheric emission inventory guidebook. Stockholm. In: 2nd International Workshop on Zero Emission Power Plant. [15] SNAM Metano ed Energia: dati statistici 1993. Á ge. a.A. Energy Convers Mgmt 1997. Shindo Y. ASME IGTI Gas Turbine Conference and Exhibition.034 US$/kWh) has been found.38:273±7. Desideri U. [7] Facchini B. [13] Mathieu Ph. Manfrida G. taking into account the extra cost due to carbon dioxide separation and the related reduction of energy production. [12] Kadam KL. Facchini B.