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# First Course on

Chapter 2

Power Electronics

Reference Textbook: First Course on Power Electronics by Ned Mohan, www.mnpere.com

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Chapter 2 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7

Design of Switching Power-Pole

Power Transistors and Power Diodes Selection of Power Transistors Selection of Power Diodes Switching Characteristics and Power Losses in Power-Poles Justifying Switches and Diodes as Ideal

Design Considerations The PWM Controller IC References Problems Appendix 2A Diode Reverse-Recovery and Power Losses

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POWER TRANSISTORS AND POWER DIODES • Voltage Rating • Current Rating • Switching Speeds • On-State Voltage © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 3 .

• IGBTs • IGCTs • GTOs • Niche devices: BJTs.SELECTION OF POWER TRANSISTORS Thyristor 10 8 Power (VA) 10 6 10 4 10 2 IGCT IGBT Thyristor IGCT (a) IGBT MOSFET MOSFET 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 Switching Frequency (Hz) (b) • MOSFETs Figure 15-1 Power semiconductor devices. SITs. MCTs © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 4 .

7 RDS ( on ) α VDSS © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 5 .5 to 2.MOSFETs D iD + VDS D iD iD RDS ( on ) = 1/slope VGS = 11V iD RDS (on ) = 1/slope iD Io G + VGSG − − S + VDS 9V 7V VGS = 11V 5V 9V VGS 7 ≤V VGS (th ) VGS 5V V ≤ VGS (thDS ) iD Io (a) + VGS −S − 0 0 0 0 VGS (th ) VGS ( I o ) (b) (b) VDS VGS (th ) VGS ( I o )(c) VGS (a) (c) VGS Figure 2-1 MOSFET: (a) symbol. (b) i-v characteristics. (c) transfer characteristic. 2.

© Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 6 .IGBTs C iC + iC VGE + VGE − E G VCE − VCE (a) (b) Figure 2-2 IGBT: (a) symbol. (b) i-v characteristics.

4 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 7 .7 Pricing (USD/A) 1200 V IGBTs 0.6 0.Power Semiconductor Price Trends USD/A 0.

• Line-frequency diodes • Fast-recovery diodes • Schottky diodes • SiC Schottky diodes © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 8 .SELECTION OF POWER DIODES iAK A K 0 (a) (b) v AK Figure 2-3 Diode: (a) symbol. (b) i-v characteristic.

SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS AND POWER LOSSES IN POWER-POLES iD + Vin − VGG RGG iD Io Io 0 on + vDS − off (b) Vin vDS (a) Figure 2-4 MOSFET in a switching power-pole. © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 9 .

© Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 10 .Turn-on Characteristic vGS iD D + 0 G vDS S iD Io on B A Io 0 off Vin (b) vDS vGS ( Io ) vGS (th ) 0 vGG vGG t Vin − Vin iD 0 td ( on ) tri vDS Io t fv t (a) (c) Figure 2-5 MOSFET turn-on.

It shows that 100 A 40 A 10 A ID 1A VGS 0. If the current through the transistor is to be limited to 40 A during a malfunction in which case the entire input voltage of 50 V appears across the transistor. 2-6.0 7.Example 2-1 In the converter of Fig.5V if VGS = 7. Figure 2-6 MOSFET transfer characteristic. the transistor is a MOSFET which carries a current of 5 A when it is fully on. Solution The transfer characteristic of this MOSFET is shown in Fig. 2-4a.1 A 4.0 9.0 8.0 6. © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008  11 .0 5. what should be the maximum on-state gate voltage that the gate-drive circuit should provide? Assume the junction temperature T j of the MOSFET to be 1750 C .0 7.010.5V is used. the current through the MOSFET will be limited to 40 A.

© Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 12 .Turn-off Characteristic vGG iD vGG + Vin − 0 G D vDS S iD Io on C D Io 0 (b) vGS ( Io ) vGS (th ) 0 vGS t Io 0 td ( off ) Vin vDS t rv off Vin vDS iD t fi t (a) (c) Figure 2-7 MOSFET turn-off.

Simulation Results: MOSFET Voltage and Current 50 40 30 vDS 20 iD 10 0 -10 0s V(M2:d.4us 1.2us -I(V2) 0.8us Time 1.2us 1.0us 1.6us 0.M2:s) 0.4us 0.6us © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 14 .

off ) f s 2 vDS Vin tc . 15 . on = tri + t fv tc . on + tc . off t © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 Figure 2-8 MOSFET switching losses. off = trv + t fi iD 0 iD t fv tc . off t fi t psw 0 tc . on tri trv tc .Calculating Power Losses Within the MOSFET (assuming an ideal diode) Conduction Loss: Switching Losses: Vin vDS Io Pcond = d RDS ( on ) I o2 1 Psw = Vin I o (tc . on Vin I o psw Vin I o tc .

Gate Driver Integrated Circuits (ICs) with Builtin Fault Protection VCC vc Vext = 12 V S Figure 2-9 Gate-driver IC functional diagram. © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 16 .

JUSTIFYING SWITCHES AND DIODES AS IDEAL • Very High Converter Efficiencies • Low on-state voltage drops across devices • Low switching losses © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 17 .

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS • Switching Frequency • Selection of Transistors and Diodes • Magnetic components • Capacitor Selection C ESL ESR ˆ LII rms Ap = kwJmaxBmax Ap = kconv ∑ Vy Iy.rms kwBmax Jmax fs Figure 2-10 Capacitor ESR and ESL. © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 18 .

0KHz -I(V3) 10KHz 30KHz Frequency 100KHz 300KHz 1.0MHz © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 20 .Simulation Results: Individual and Total Admittances 50A 40A 30A 20A 10A 0A 1.0KHz I(L2) I(L1) 3.

(b) electrical analog. © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 .Thermal Design T j = Ta + ( Rθ jc + Rθ cs + Rθ sa ) Pdiss isolation pad case chip ambient heat sink Tj Rθ jc Pdiss Tc Rθcs Ts Rθ sa Ta Ta Tj Tc Ts (a) Ta (b) 21 Figure 2-11 Thermal design: (a) semiconductor on a heat sink.

© Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 22 .Design Tradeoffs size Heatsink Magnetics and capacitors fS Figure 2-12 Size of magnetic components and heat sink as a function of frequency.

PWM CONTROLLER IC ˆ V r vc (t) vr 0 q(t) dTs t Ts 1 t 0 Figure 2-13 PWMIC waveforms. d (t ) = vc ( t ) ˆ V r © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 23 .

neg ⋅ f s 24 2 . sw = ( I RRM tb ) ⋅Vd . neg Figure 2A-1 Diode reverse recovery characteristic. © Copyright Ned Mohan 2008 Diode Switching Losses: 1 Pdiode . F = (1 − d ) ⋅VFM I o Diode Forward Loss: Diode Reverse Recovery Characteristic: trr ta 0 Qrr tb t I RRM VFM 0 t Vd .APPENDIX 2A: Diode Reverse Recovery and Power Losses Pdiode .