Pneuma between Body and Soul Author(s): Geoffrey Lloyd Source: The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute

, Vol. 13, Wind, Life, Health: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives (2007), pp. S135-S146 Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4623125 . Accessed: 25/03/2013 08:51
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A brief study of pneuma is one way of showing how very much more that conceptlies at the heart complex and interestingthe problemswere. In both cases the assumptionsrepresentdrasticsimplifications.S.). thoughtis its polemical on offer both on substantive questions and on methodology. Alongside the speculative theories of the philosophers. The second is that they invented a whole string of dichotomies that have hamstrungWesternthought ever since. intelligibleand perceptible. Our written sources. rationalityreplacedmuthos. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and on the mind-body problem.attemptsthat met.on the roleof breath and airwithinit (e. not least. nature and culture.subject and object. where who insisted thatthe soul is incorporeal were lockedin controversy with monistswho dualists deniedthat.S135-S146 Journal of theRoyal Anthropological @Royal Institute2007 Anthropological This content downloaded from 132.212 on Mon.Yetin that regardit is worth noting.66. and continue to be.myth. Two superficialassumptions. on the solutions.and. from Homer onwards. in causing disease).The first is that they . made about the ancient Greeks. realityand appearance.havebeen.One of the distinctive features of Greek with rival views nature. there were those who tackled the problems empirically. A distinctivefeatureof much ancient Greekthought on a wide range of problems is that there was no consensus. provide evidence of a Institute (N. dubbed by some extremistcommentatorsthe Greek'miracle'.' In particular. at the outset. of severalGreekattemptsto bridge the gap that they themselvesopened up between mind and body.if indeed they have any grainof truth in them at all. on their contribution to life and intelligence.But the advances that Galen (in particular)made in his understanding of the anatomy of the nervous and blood-vascular systems did nothing to resolve the problem of the physical basis of vital functions.the other negative. the polar oppositions between being and becoming. even today. mind and body.g.one positive. that the mind-body problem can hardlybe said to have been resolved.some of them at least in a engagedin a more or less successfulall-out attackon superstition(deisidaimonia) in which logosor move. as we shall see.11. let alone anything approaching an orthodoxy. with only limited success.Pneuma between body GEOFFREY and soul LLOYD University of Cambridge This paper explores the divergent ideas that different ancient Greek thinkersentertained on the natureof wind and airoutsidethe body. with all the advances that have been made in neurophysiologyand cognitive science.

Boreas (North).which will serveat the same time to give a first indication of some of the differences in the beliefs that were entertained.The winds were reputedto be able to impregnatemares.).3 The theme of the powerof the winds is workedout especiallyin connectionwith sex . In a famouspassagein Plato'sPhaedrus(229bff. as we shall see later. are named as their offspring.S.S136 GEOFFREY LLOYD bewilderingarrayof views about the nature of wind and air outside the body. if when the south wind does.'a goddessmatingin love with a god'.Yetthereis much more to it than that. as the outcome of sexual reproductionin other words.g.It goes back to Homer. and Notus (South). there were theoristswho were doing their best to rationalize such stories. namely aer. I am unableto answerfor the Greeksas a whole. to Boreasand Zephyrusto blow on the funeralpyre of Patroclus.breath. Let me rehearsea little of this. Boreas is said to take the form of a stallion to impregnatethe mares of Erichthonius.).Differentauthorsappropriate ent functions in their own particular theories.The three most important winds.194ff.is the least problematic. Thatidea is repeatedmanytimes. By the time Plato wrote.).wind. anemos is the generic term used for the 'stronghearted'winds that Dawn (Eos)bore to Astraios('Starry one'). and he adds that female-bearinganimals may change and produce males if they face north (Boreas) when copulating. to be Achillesprays personified. it is naturalfor the winds. includingin a fragmentof Aristotle. when he repeats those points in On the generation of animals (GA) (767a8ff.).pneuma. Cults dedicatedto the winds are attestedin the literaryand archaeologicalsources.221ff.66.the LinearB tabletsin this casefrom Cnossos. animals whom the Greeksthought to be particularlysexmad.11. though it is also used of 'winds'inside the body. too.though also. and anemos.such as pneuma or aer.But Socrateshimself is made to say that he has no time for such accounts. However.since the prominentlyin Aristotle'sMeteorology). aella. on the relations between these two. in the Iliad (2o.as well as a lot of minor ones (e.A 'priestessof the winds' (anemonhiereia)is recordedin the earliestevidence for written Greek.) Aristotle says that if sheep or goats copulate when the north wind is blowing.In the Historyof animals (573b34ff. aither. last.even before Homer.One of the most famous buildingsdedicated to the winds is the so-calledTowerof Winds.the Horologion of Andronikos. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Iris (rainbow)hears his prayerand goes to fetch them to answerhis call. Institute Journal (N. on the role of breath or air within it.even though there is no shortageof varietyin the beliefs associatedwith it.If I am askedfor the meaningof some of the main terms used in this area.at Athens. though there. Socrateshimself offers an example:what happenedwas that the girl was caughtby a violent gust of wind when playingon the rocksby the riverand met her end that way.There are no less than five main terms for air. anemos. and anathumiasis. they produce male offspring.). Moreover.in relationto disease. Zephyrus(West). females. In Hesiod's Theogony(378ff. thuella. Anemosis a regularterm for (external)wind.mention is made of an altarto Boreas outside the city markingthe placewherethe god was supposedto haverapedOreithyia. In the Iliad (23.phusa.).he says that that is 'what shepherdssay'.2 Letme justifythat last point with a little basicphilology.where the distinction between two kinds of anathumiasisfigures Let me take my five in reverseorder.Sincethe whole story of the generationof things in Hesiod is mainly (though not exclusively)cast in genealogicalterms.those views were expressed in a vocabularythat was far from the same expressionsfor quite differstableand agreed. and many other questions.212 on Mon.S135-S146 Anthropological of theRoyal Institute 2007 ? RoyalAnthropological This content downloaded from 132. But there is plenty of evidence in our earlytexts of beliefs about the powers of winds. but have to relativizemy reply to particularauthors.

and cube.11. It is also used for the craterof a volcano.and fire. 115.water. Herodotus has a field day describingthe wreck of the Persianfleet off Sepias before the engagement at Thermopylae. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Butif Herodotuscharacteristically on of or his bets the matter whether not humans could control the wind.The latteris distinguishedfrom the formerin Homer and Hesiod as mist or haze to clear. Finallywe have aitherand aer. to blow. Institute Journal (N. It comes from phusao.It is a key termthat severaltheorists use in their attemptsto deal with the mind/body problem. inhale. air. belongs to a more prosaic registerand needs less comment. Diogenes reportingPythagoras). one might say. But then there were also those reported to be able to control them.212 on Mon.but they are equatedwith the regulargeometricalsolids.octahedron. had been advised in an oracle to pray to Boreas to help them. respectively.S. Democritus'principleswere atoms and the void. and breathe in the sense of draw breath.water.and a point to which I shall return.Liddellwho took aerto be the lower. next.bright sky. Homer does not have pneuma but uses another cognate noun.and eventuallyto ghost.when a storm then arose that destroyed 'countless'Persianships. pnoie.In Plato's version of atomism.aitherthe Scott-Jones. But of course many early Greek element theories were not based on that tetrad. and the atoms were undifferentiated substances. The basic senses of pneo. But on the opposite side.$135-S146 of theRoyal Anthropological ? Royal Anthropological Institute 2007 This content downloaded from 132. quite a few doctors and naturalphilosophersclaimed to know a lot about the effects of the winds.being the first Greekto propose the view that the materialconstituentsof things areearth. to be sure.for his fifth element. 2 aer and aither are distinguishedas things separatedoff earlyin the world-formingprocess.g. lo9.But he also said he went around among his fellow-citizensat Acragasacceptedby them as an immortal god. and is used of blasts of different kinds: it is one term for 'bellows'.Aer is regularlyused of elementalair either on its own. own account. Herodotusadds. introducedthat element theory. the PersianMagi are said to have brought the storm to an end after three days by sacrificesand incantations. and they were convinced that their prayerswere answered.breathein the sense of be redolent of ('smell' in that sense). areblow (of air or breath). part. This comes from a man who made important contributionsto element theory. neither wet nor dry. Herodotus says (VII 189).98.earth. as in what used to be calledthe Holy Ghost. So much.and possessingthe propertyof naturaleternalcircularmotion. icosahedron. air. though aer in the clepsydrafragmentioo).inspiration.air.Both terms figureprominently in earlyGreekelement theory. (e. Laertius VIII 27.the stuff of the heavens.used aither for air.criticizesthe ancientgrammarians air in Homer but that distinction was made by some ancient authors upper already.for the triumph of unqualifiedGreekrationalism.unless. the hedges Presocratic his for has no philosopherEmpedocles. compunction in claimingthat he can 'quellthe might of the winds' (menosanemon) in a fragment (111) in which he also says he can raise the dead to life again.e. as I havejust noted.neitherhot nor cold.66.g 71.water.The meaningsof pneuma include breezeand breath/respiration but stretchto spirit. The main Greekdictionary.the next of my five terms. there are four simple bodies. for blasts or breezes. on his interpretation). Aristotle thought that tetrahedron. Phusa.).The Athenians.earth (though in that connection Empedocles. in monistic theories.and by extension for the bladdersfrom which they were made.the wind abated'ofhis own accord'. but is now more often referred to as the Holy Spirit. namely fire.who. Anaxagorasused aither for fire (in his fr. to puff.but that does not vindicateAristotle's but more momentouslyAristotlehimself introducedthat term.or as a member of the tetradfire.GEOFFREY LLOYD S137 As we shall see.

places (cf.When all humans are attacked by the same disease at the same time. The common kind.The distinction between the last two correspondedto two kinds of pneuma. S135-S146 ? Royal Anthropological Institute 2007 This content downloaded from 132. In a similarvein the Aphorisms (III section 5) specifiesthat south winds cause deafness. In the subsequentdiscussion. This preliminary run-down on vocabulary gives a foretaste of the problems of interpretation.he is perfectlyhappy to use aer of what is enclosed in in chapter12phusa and bodies (wherewe might haveexpectedphusa) (chaps5. and he certainlyhas his work cut out to make that idea stick.and so on. That would make pneuma the genus. comes from the pneuma that everyone equally inhales.But othertreatisesalso do so to a lesserextent. Take the writer of the Hippocratic treatise On breaths(late fifth or early fourth century BCE). But a similar idea.They distinguisheddifferentmodes of unity.Plenty of Greekwritersprovide explicit comments on how the terms should be used.But he startsoff in chapter3 with what looks like a usefuldistinction.and 'soul' (psuche).212 on Mon.however. On breathsmakes exceptionalplay with this group of terms in its explanationsof diseases. sore throats. and phusa (breath) and aer (air) its species. and in the account of dropsy in that same chapterit seems that all three (pneumaincluded) are intersubstitutable. Admittedlyhe has a particularthesis to sell. we have to put that down to the air we all breathe.But when diseasesof all sorts and kinds occur at one and the same time.Nor weretheir recommendationsalwaysacceptedby others.'tenor'(hexis).But thereareotherfeversthat come from diet. and pains in the sides and chest. also On regimenII. too. dimness of vision. waters. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . wine-bibbersand the abstemious.torpor. chapter9 (not an integral part of the main treatise. too. 6. according to his overarchingthesis. 7. occurs in On the natureof man.as betweenyoung and old.It itemizes the differentkinds of diseasesto be expected in cities facing winds from different directions.pneuma became the key term in Stoicism.S. heavinessof the head.LLOYD S138 GEOFFREY While aithertook on that particularrole in Aristotle. called plague.'physical'and 'psychic'.namely common and particular. Pneuma for the Stoics becomes the 'sustaining principleof the world'(Long& Sedley1987: I.Some basic distinctions seem reasonablysecure. but although we find them keen to legislate on the distinctions.The diets of differentindividuals differand so.constipation.chaps1-8). while the north wind causes coughs.'physique'(phusis.difficultyin passing urine accompaniedby shivering.38) instructingthe itinerantphysicianon what to look out for as he goes from city to city in his practice. they are sometimes less reliable in keeping to those distinctions themselves. that outside the body is called aer.The pneuma that is in the body. chapters 6 and 7 is that there are two kinds of fevers (puretoi). though the quality of the drinkingwater and the life-style of the inhabitantshave also to be taken into account. 287). men and women. then it is diet/regimenthat is responsibleand so that should be changed.as we shall see (see most recently Berryman2oo2). do theirfeversin such cases. without the overallthesis. to the greater or lesser quantity of pneuma that is ingested with food and drink: witness belching.nature). but the appearance often turns out to be deceptive.and it alreadyhas some interestinguses in Aristotlehimself. Meanwhilethe importanceof consideringthe'airs'or winds of eachplaceforms one of the three greatlessons developedin the HippocraticOn airs.The idea in On breaths.though the writerstill managesto ascribe these. is called phusa.66.). Journal of the Royal AnthropologicalInstitute (N.11. chap.since that differs. he says. o10): aer are apparentlyused interchangeably.for it cannot be diet/regimenthat is to blame in such cases.in factthe problems were never completelyresolved. namely that all diseases come from 'breath'(phusa).

Chapter16 then announces that it is particularlyat the most often when the south wind blows. As evidence for this.fire being hot and dry (with a little of the moist) and waterbeing cold and wet (with a little of the dry) Institute (N. for his part. But takethe HippocratictreatiseOn regimen. then the north. faculties.Proof that air is a body had indeed been undertaken by both Empedocles and Anaxagoras. The north wind is said to precipitatethe moisture in the air and to make it clear and bright:it is the healthiestof winds. 3).may havebeen unhappywith any categoricaldistinctionbetweenliving and non-living.that did not explainwhy some things arealive.11.It acts on everythingthat grows.or air.and is no more divine than the others are'. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But the problems begin to get much trickier and more interestingwhen we consider early Greekideas of life. and fire for were mainly interested(1) Empedocles.).4 the author'sown explanationof the condition is prettyfanciful.and incantations. damp insteadof dry. In Homer psucheis one of the words (alongwith thumos. however. not isolated citations that attractedthe interestof later authors.you can certainlyfeel the wind. changesin the winds that patientsareattacked.makingeverythingdull insteadof bright. Truthto tell.All animals. It is not but it is certainlyinsubstantial.warm insteadof cold. That gives him his conclusion:'[T]his disease arises and flourishes from the changesthat come and go: it is no more difficultto treator to understandthan other diseases.charms. But the south wind has the opposite effect. the question had been put to him in the first place. air for Anaximenes.5 the author cites what happensto jarscontainingwine or other liquids stored indoors or even underground: they are all affectedsimilarlyby the south wind.Buthe complainedthat if you made soul out of water. then the otherwinds.the psucheleavesthe body and conative. humans included.if waterelsewhere(in riversor the sea) is inanimate?Thaleshimself. following a methodology that is common among the new investigators of nature. Theoriststended to identify soul-stuff with whatever they made the primary or basic constituent or origin of physical objects.).GEOFFREY LLOYD S139 On the sacreddiseasepresentsas interestinga mixture of traditionaland innovative ideas as does Empedocles. to off Hades. Why does waterexplainlife in the living. phrenes.6 cognitive. Both internal and externalair have their parts to play in the highly heterogeneous theorieswe lump togetheras Hippocraticpathologyand therapeutics.$135-S146 of theRoyal Anthropological Journal ? Institute2007 RoyalAnthropological This content downloaded from 132.66.with his idea that 'all things are full of gods' or 'of soul'.212 on Mon. water. Odysseusgoes him can converse with once have drunk the blood from the sacrifices ghosts only they he makes.we do not reallyknow what he did believe on this subject.fire for Heraclitus.others arenot.say. to interview his mother and others in the underworld the (Od.the writer says (I chap. consist of fire and water.though their contemporariespresumably would not have needed much convincingthat even though you do not see the air.Aristotleofferedthe view that his predecessors in soul as the causeof motion and (2) in soul as cognitive.kardieand others) that is used to describehuman's and affective but on death. but in both cases we are dealing with materialobjects.earth.indeed everythingthat has moisture in it.using tests with clepsydrasand inflated bladders (to show that air is resistant) . 11. if.air. When we get to the Presocraticphilosophers and Hippocratic writers we find a number of basicallymaterialistaccountsof life and mind.90ff. that is.It is due mainly to the way in which the phlebes('veins':but they contain more than just blood) in the brain become blocked by phlegm. wherewe havea whole treatiseto work with. When goes obviously incorporeal.The treatiseis famous for its attackon those who claimedto know which deity was responsiblefor which kind of epilepticseizureand who said that On the other hand they could cure them by purifications.S.

in any case. The humours can run amok in the body and cause all sorts of problems. Aristotle'ssolution to the mind/body problem is very different.The conversedifficultywas how what happensto the body can affectthe soul.the one incorporeal. but also for their souls (chap.But if the soul is incorporeal. 7). But he introduces.4).and the ordinaryfire that burns wood. reason. who got Plato for marks from introduced as the source of in the order nous. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ensuredthat distinctiveness. on the one hand. Soul is ontologicallydistinct from the other corporeal. psuche. though it is 'mixed with nothing'.for example.as I mentioned. Yet Plato evidently allows that it can. good having cosmos.between the immortal and the mortal .Evensuch an arch-dualistas Plato has to find a way of building a bridge between the two ontologically distinct entities he so emphaticallyseparated.S. phronesis(or the highest intelligenceis the moistest fire and the driest water. One way of resolvingthe problems (up to a point) was to suggestthat soul/mind is quite differentfrom body. the lack of with the mixture or blend. S135-S146 ? Institute2007 RoyalAnthropological This content downloaded from 132. he develops a theory of diseasesthat startswith those of the body but then proceedsto those that affectthe soul 'throughthe body' (86b). surprisingly.66.Thatwas Plato'ssolution.where he distinguishes.parts of the soul. The problemwas:whereinlies the differencebetween the ordinarywaterwe see or drink. is a blend of fire and water.he says. The materialist had soul made of physical problem facing elementswhich enableda straightforward accountto be given of their interactions.or of the differencebetweenpsychicand ordinary. How does the incorporealghost flick the switchesin the physicalmachine it inhabits? Let me backtrackfor a moment. Soul. but he uses the same pair of elements to account not just for their bodies. was to explain how the soul controls the body or interactswith it in any way whatsoever. 12).physical blends.212 on Mon.but did not explain what was distinctiveabout psychic functions. In the Timaeus. where he allows certain differencesbetween the blending in the case of males and females.as vision is of the eye. Rather.and he has pneuma play a distinctivepartin his story about life.That illustratesthe dilemma:it is as if he wanted. complicatingfactorsthat serve to qualifythat dualism.lower . to havemind to be a quite separatekind of thing. and yet.to keep it in touch with everythingelse by locatingit at one extremeend of that spectrumof thinness and purity.like Plato.11. from time to time. the to that materialist. The PresocraticphilosopherAnaxagoras.). Plato produces some notable statementsof the extreme dualist position .That enables him to make certain suggestions about how to adjust diet and regimen to become more intelligent.in a famous passage(On thesoul Journal of the Royal AnthropologicalInstitute (N. he says that what you need for it). The dualists.too. how does it affector interact with the body at all? Ryle (1949) dubbed the dualist view the 'Ghost in the Machine'. He will havenothing to do with any theory that treats soul and body as two distinct entities.the author associatesintelligence.and he certainlyneeds to insist on that ontological divide between soul and body for the sake of his idea of the immortality of the soul. describedit as the 'thinnest and purest of things' (fr. and the fire and waterthat aresupposed to account for vital activities? When in chapters35f.including rashnessand cowardice. 6). other.One problem.But we areleft without any explanationof how the blendingis supposedto account for thinking. on the other. for sure. That gavea definiteansweras to the materialconstituentsof living creatures. Yetthat immediatelyposed the converse body.S140 GEOFFREY LLOYD (chap. he says (chap. So it is pointless.the soul is the activityof the body .

There are gradationsand gradationsof matter.8He does not.)where he clearlyhas Plato in mind. to ask whether the soul and the body are one .rather.and is He in allpneumavital heat (thermotes even concedes that'in a way psuchike) present'. and some scholarsthink many were lost.212 on Mon. they are distinguished.It is at work in ordinaryanimal reproduction(semen has pneuma).havetwo substances.Butthereis nothing clearerthan changefrom which it could be shown. Sometimeshot is just hot. becausein earth. Similarlyas regardsthe naturalworld.7 this in GA (762a18ff. Explanationhas to be in terms of some causal factorthat is clearerthan what it explains.or two .water. in the period between Aristotle'sdeath and the 'edition'of his works by Andronicusin the first century BCE). he saysthat 'animalsand plants areformed in the earth Tackling and in the moist. Even so Aristotleis faced with some severeproblemswhere he does attempt explanations. In the final analysismaybethis is so with life.present. The matter from which animals are spontaneouslygeneratedis not either. The early Stoics elaboratepneuma theory even further. Yetwhile that resolvedthe problemof psychicactivitybrilliantly.66. but others not? When dealing with Aristotle we have to be carefulabout what he takesto be brute fact.$135-S146 of theRoyal Anthropological Journal ? Royal Anthropological Institute 2007 This content downloaded from 132. and.soul and body.S. generatethe animate. We see that pneuma and vital heat act as mediating terms in the intermediatearea between regularlyreproducing species of animals and the totally inanimate. what we call hylozoism.But they revertedto a than to eitherPlato full-bloodedcorporealismcloserto that of some of the Presocratics Institute (N.which starts off in its semantic rangejust meaningwind or breathdoes servicefor the breathof life and ends up being said to be analogous to the stuff of the stars (GA 736b34ff. in the right conditions. are not themselvesalive. pneumais present.but for Aristotlematteris always relativeto form.the propertiesof many things can and should be explained.as we saw.).11. like Plato.wateris presentand in water.that seems to imply that the inanimate can.They may or may not have known the Aristoteliantreatiseswe have (some of which are seldom referredto.He is clearthatfire cannot generateliving things. the doctrine that matter is alive.GEOFFREY LLOYD S141 412b6f.Wemay think of matteras inert. but sometimesit is or containsvital heat.). all things are full of psuche (life). not explicablein terms of other factors.in allpneuma (though he presumablymeans potentially). The ordinarysublunaryelements.as pointless as askingwhetherthe wax and the mark of the signet ring in it are one or two.then. Pneuma. One is that he believesin the spontaneousgenerationof animalsand plants.).in mud and simplyin the earth. But then why are some materialcompounds capableof those psychic functions.which are made of aither and are eternallyalive. not that Aristotle gives a hard-and-fastdistinction between the two. but spontaneously.Those materialsneed to be workedon by the sun or by vital heat.but other properties have to be taken as given.In a famous rebuttalof the denial of change. given that some animals and plants are not generated by their parents.he asks what the existence of change could conceivablybe demonstratedfrom.it leaves another major difficultyfurtherdown the line. So Aristotle is closer to the hylozoists that one might imagine from his explicit rejectionof their position.in terms of their causes . but he is still faced with the problem of distinguishingwhat is alive from what is not.as the activitynot of a separateentity but simply of the body while it is alive .Aristotle rejects. but 'the hot' comes in variousmodes.but it is also invokedto account for the various kinds of animals and plants generatedin decayingmatter. The matter of which living creaturesare made is certainlynot inert. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Aristotleclaims.by their effects.air.earth.and fire.

and Galen's usage is often pretty free. is undertakenfor the sake of moral philosophy). Galen was no Stoic. and Galen does a masterly job of work on the anatomical description of the organs where he locates those faculties. e.S.S135-S146 Journal of theRoyal Anthropological Institute2007 Anthropological ? Royal This content downloaded from 132. the Presocratics distinguisheddifferentmodes of the state of held is the kind of unity exemplifiedby stones. we should understand that the realityis that they exemplifydifferentmodes of pneumatic unification.the major problems he was faced with were to explain how these faculties operated.11. conceivednot as a staticexternalconstrainingforce.They distinguishedtwo fundamentalprinciples.Greekterms for medical groupings are notoriously slippery.Yethis ideas on pneuma may have owed as much to anotherpossible source of influence. fate.is concernedwith in this context). Wellmann1895).namelythe work of those in the early Hellenistic period who had begun investigatingthe properties of air in the field of mechanics known as 'pneumatics'.in their view.Both these principlesare corporeal. phusis.soul.and the liver.and While the appetitive. let alone in medical theory (physics.he speaksof Athenaeusof Attaleiaas the founder of the Pneumatists(On sustainingcauses. exemplifiedby animalscapableof perception and movement. 335). Galen.especiallywhere pneuma is concerned. The cosmos as a whole is just such a living creature.respectively. Once againpneuma has the key role to Institute (N. reason.In particularthe principleof horrorvacui seems to have played an important part in the theories of both Asclepiades and This is not to say that the vitalist associationsof pneuma were any less Erasistratus. Galen tells us that Athenaeuswas influencedby Stoic causaltheory (which is what he. Everythingis instinct with pneuma.direct evidence for which we have in Philo of Byzantiumand later in Hero of Alexandria. in important their pathologies. soul. in as nature.but it is to add to the existingfund of ideas certainnew ones that treatedphysiologicalprocessesin mechanicalterms.Long & Sedley1987:I. together. were in no sense a 'school'.for instance. But if we turn back now to medicine. The passiveis quality-lesssubstanceor matter.But we have to be careful. being There there is 'physique'. plants capableof growingand reproducthemselves.only in Arabicand Latinversions.LLOYD S142 GEOFFREY or Aristotle.with principlesin the brain. The Stoics were not especiallyinterested in the detailed investigationof natural phenomena. as I noted. there is ing Thirdly psuche.9 The Stoic solution to the problem of the distinction between the animate and the inanimatewas to deny there is a fundamentaldivide here. and stones.the activeand the passive.212 on Mon..g.but he offered a synthesis of earlier ideas that draws on a number of sources. and he rejectedErasistratean mechanicalexplanations.and the relationshipbetween them.and plants. They shared a belief in the possibility of investigatingunseen causes and hidden reality. indeed whole monographshavebeen written on the subject(see.In a problematicpassagein a treatiseof Galenthat is not extant in Greek.66. or pneuma. But in each case what holds the unity together is pneuma.Pneumaas the active principle pervadeseverything. Adapting a Platonic tripartitedivision of the soul.but they disagreedfundamentallyon what should be said about those causes and reality.and in histories of late ancient medicine one reads a great deal about this 'school'.When we distinguishanimals.but the two are in total mixture (the theory of krasisdi'olon). the nature of the vital facultiesin question is clearenough.the spirited.'Tenor'. the heart.but. The 'Dogmatists'. he distinguishesthe rational. god.The activeis variouslyidentifiedas the cause.1.).but as a dynamicinternaltension.life and reason. we find both influences from contemporaryphilosophyand independentdevelopments. unity.pervadedwith pneuma. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

he has considerable difficultyin producing a coherent story.and that they operated not by transmittinga signal. From some points of view.explaininghow the variouspneumata relate to and are derived from one another. certain significant developments in its use. he fallsback on pneuma.cosmologists.He thinks that the vital pneuma is produced in the heart and arteriesfrom a combination of the air we inhale and 'exhalations' from the humours (mainly blood).But while Chinese doctors.the speculationGalenprefersis that other vital activities. at the base of the brain into psychicpneuma. philosophers. On the one hand Galenwants a unified account.As noted.including in the account given of the convoluted structuresat the base of the brain. too.He was convincedthat the nerveshad lumina .too. Rocca (2003) has recently repeatedGalen'sdissectionson the brain of an ox and has shown that the description of what Galen saw is very largelycorrect. From a comparativestandpoint one of the most striking featuresis indeed their variety.and others certainlyused qi in differentways.GEOFFREY LLOYD S143 play. where he recyclesa term that Aristotlehad much This pneuma in turn is further changed in the rete mirabile used in his Meteorology. and indeed does so in some of the most convolutedprose in his corpus.or even from the same one.Galendistinguishesthe vitalpneumain the arterialsystemfrom the psychicpneuma responsiblefor the activitiesof the brain and the nervous system.in two guises. or elaboratedin the body. especiallyaitherand pneuma.where some of his critics may be guilty of analogizing in the reversedirection. In both types of pneuma production Galen gives a complex account.On the other.modified.they went on disagreeingalso on the basic senses and references of many of the key terms.But when he faces the question of what that corporealsubstanceis.they did not radicallydisagreeon what qi was or on its importance. and the vital pneuma itself in the other.He does not have a single origin in either case. Let me stand back now and take stock of this remarkableconglomeration of Greek theories.Galen has been much criticizedfor making inferencesto the human brain from the ox . What we find in Greeceis a far more sustainedand overt polemic.but hedges his bets. He is absolutelyclear about the effects he wants eventuallyto be able to account for . to be sure. involvingexternalair in both but combining that with exhalationsin the one case. like other theorists.though he had no real option but to proceedby analogywith other animals.S. can be assignedto furtherfunctions of pneuma as it gets to be changed.).the variousvital functions that he associateswith the heart and the brain.Manyof the philosophersand medical writers were highly critical of others' ideas and prided themselves on their Journal of the Royal AnthropologicalInstitute (N.212 on Mon. Certainlyhe had no reason to suppose that the functions of the sensoryand locomotive nervesdifferedin humans and other animals. but by transportinga substance. he has detailedand accurateknowledgeof the anatomyof animalsthat he felt weresufficiently close to humans to enablehim to base his accounton them. in its close associationwith breathand with vital activities.indeed he claimsto have verified that in the optic nerve .11. The Greeksdid not just continue to disagreeabout the answersto the questions.Everyoneknew that air is necessaryfor life.of what soul is and of how it affectsthe body.though the externalair we breathehas a part to play in the production of this pneuma. S135-S146 Institute2007 Anthropological ? Royal This content downloaded from 132.music theorists.the lack of agreement among theorists who approachedthe problems from differentperspectives.even though there are. Greekpneuma resemblesChinese qi. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .But he has also been often takento task for his account of the ox brain itself .66.

and body are fundamentally different.for example.as Galen did. as Aristotlesays of some theoristswho arguedthat all the winds are one (349a2off.as Aristotledid.thunder in the clouds. vyana. 4 I analysedthe polemic in the opening chaptersof On the sacreddiseasein Lloyd (1979:chap.this is still a problem for us today. NOTES 'The secondaryliteratureon the subjectis very extensive. Verbeke (1945.tetanus.that the winds have 'a life of a sort and a genesis and decay'. Where Anaximanderwas 137)to have said that lightning and thunderas well reportedby Aetius (III 3 1. If you treatthem as differentkinds of entity. But then.you treatedall bodies as in some sense alive. If.). you still had to give an accountof why some materialbodies arealive. Once someone (Plato) had suggestedthat soul. SI have discussedthis problem in Lloyd (1996:chap. but he was convinced that the nerves transported not just an impulse but also a substance.'things that are apparentare the vision of things that are unclear' (see Diller 1932. as I noted at the outset. ' He even says at GA 778a2ff. Putscher (1974). 5 The slogan for this method was: opsisadelon ta phainomena.i).).LLOYD S144 GEOFFREY methodological and epistemologicalsophistication. or mind.and spasms (Meteorology 366b14ff. 2 CompareZysk'sdiscussion in this volume of the differenttheories proposed in differentsources concerning prana. Vermeir (2004) has recently followed up some later influ- ences of Greekideas.as the Stoicsdid.Yetthe Meteorology full of criticismsof others' views. However.then saying how the one influencedthe other was extremelydifficult.Yet in their own solutions to the in the vitalistimagesand analogiesthey used both in cosmology problems.othersnot. and udana. thirdly. 1978).the harderit becomes to say what the relationship betweenbrain and mind is. or (just) air. effect of air compressedwithin the earth and what happens in our own bodies when pent-up air in us has is the force (so he says) to cause tremors.of animalsor humans. for those different activities remained a matter of speculation. samana. especiallythose who want to make a name for themselvesfor cleverness.the living creature.his answersabout how the differenttypes of pneumaareproducedareopaque.11. 5. Lloyd 1966: chap. and even earthquakes he cites an analogybetween the To back up his explanationof earthquakes the earth (Meteorology 370a25ff. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . especially.The more one knows about the brain .212 on Mon. Regenbogen 1930-1). as his solution to the main problem about what that substancewas.Osler(1991).in the nerves.S. Galen knew it was not blood.66.particularly and in their accounts of specificphenomena. including perception and movement and other activities of the nervous system. Aristotle'sown theory of the dry exhalationis that it is the below same substancethat causeswind on the earth'ssurface.).Nussbaum(1978). 5). where it appears that the vocabularyin which those differentviews are expressedis stable. the problemwas relocatedand became one of sayinghow differententities differ.as Platodid. apana.).and he opted for pneuma.and like many Presocraticshe invokes air in his explanation of several natural phenomena.Kirk.S135-S146 Journal Anthropological of theRoyal @ Royal Anthropological Institute 2007 This content downloaded from 132.and Galenknew a greatdeal . they often recycledideas that had had a long history in traditionalbeliefs.in some form.Basinghimself on his Institute (N. But what was responsible. Partly the difficultiesstem from the very ambition with which they explored the issues. Some of those who engaged on speculations concerning psychologicalfunctions had little if any detailedanatomicalknowledge. then the problembecame how to explain how there could be any interactionbetween them. 1). that meant you were in a far better position to localize vital functions.See. 3 Plato's own complex position with regardto the use of mythologicalimages (in the Phaedrusitself) is discussedby Ferrari(1987:chap.But if you went in for sustained anatomicalinvestigations. 6 Snell's account of Homer on the soul (Snell 1953 [1948]) has now been supersededby Padel (1992).Raven& Schofield1983: as whirlwinds all happen as a result of wind. But if you treated them as two aspectsof the same entity .

N.L'dvolution de la doctrinedu pneuma du StoYcisme VERBEKE.The Presocratic philosophers. SCHOFIELD KIRK. antiker Naturwissenschaft. Princeton:UniversityPress. TheHellenistic philosophers. it may sometimes be suspectedof readingback Stoic ideas into much earlierthinkers. The 'physicalprophet'and the powersof the imagination.Aphorisms. The Presocratic second edition (Cambridge:University Press. 192-214.).Timaeus). OxfordStudiesin AncientPhilosophy 23. R. Long & D. 85-97. UniversityPress. 1930-1. Opsis adelon ta phainomena.waters. 1983: 'Justas our soul.1952).Cambridge: UniversityPress. philosophers.the places.so does pneuma or air (aer) enclose the 158f.Listeningto the cicadas.Polarityand analogy. 2 vols. 1974. UniversityPress. a SaintAugustin. M.H. Cambridge: 1983.11.E.Anaxagoras)are cited accordder Vorsokratiker. chez Aristote. Herodotus.the Hippocratictreatises(On breaths. G.Lloyd & G.) 1991. OSLER. Kirk et al. 1966:232ff.C. (ed. One case in point is what may purport to be a quotationfrom Anaximenes'fragment2'.Aristotle: NUSSBAUM. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE The most readilyaccessibleeditionswith translationsof most of the GreekauthorsI cite arethose in the Loeb ClassicalSeries (London and Cambridge. UniversityPress.J. Wiesbaden:Steiner.J.:Heinemann). S.1987). On airs.Kirk. 1949.N. however.RAVEN (Second edition). UniversityPress. 1895. Astronomie und PhysikB 1:2). Sedley. noting both II symmetries and asymmetriesbetween those in the northern and southern hemispheres (Meteorology chaps 5-6). holds us together. ~-1996.Mass.Empedocles. De motu animalium.when 410b27ff.Cambridge: & M. Hesiod (Theogony). G. sixth ing to the numberingin the edition by H.66.A..E. 1987. This applies to Homer (Iliad and Odyssey). and On the sacreddisease). our evidence is late. J.). ~-1979. Cambridge: UniversityPress. (Quellen und Studien zur O.On the Generation ofAnimals. l'InstitutSuperieurde Philosophie. Magic.Louvain:Editionsde G. On regimen. On the natureof man.GEOFFREY LLOYD S145 own theory of a spherical earth.S. Sciences 35. 1953[1948]. M. 2002.Physics. reasonand experience. SNELL. Aristotelian explorations. Testimoniesfor Hellenistic philosophers are cited accordingto A.The discovery of the mind (trans. and Meteorology) treatisesof Aristotle(HistoryofAnimals. being air (aer).E. 14-42. Pneuma. ROCCA. Geist. Wandlungen.Die Fragmente edition (Berlin:Weidmann. he classifies them according to their cardinal direction.E. Rosenmeyer). Galenon the brain. DILLER. Theconceptof mind. and at On the Soul 213b22ff.Oxford:Blackwell. Cambridge: UniversityPress. Vorstellungen PUTSCHER. S135-S146 @ Royal Anthropological Institute 2007 This content downloaded from 132. Berlin.A. G. Studiesin History and Philosophyof Biologicaland Biomedical vapours and the imagination 1685-1710.At Physics he reportsthat he has found a similaridea in certain'Orphic'verses. Cambridge: UniversityPress. PADEL. M. Berlin. Cambridge:UniversityPress. Schofield. 1978. 1983).R.Die pneumatische WELLMANN. G. revisedby W. 1932.in Aetius (I 3 4.Leiden:Brill.On occasion. and Diogenes Laertius. Raven & M. Aristotleon pneuma and animal self-motion. REFERENCES BERRYMAN. RYLE. In and out of the mind. SEDLEY LONG.S.Princeton:UniversityPress. FERRARI.G. vom Lebensantrieb in ihren geschichtlichen M.L. The fragmentsof the Presocratic philosophers(Anaximenes. & D. 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the dialogues of Plato (Phaedrus. REGENBOGEN.Atoms. J.): I analysethe extensiveevidencefor vitalistimagesin earlyGreekcosmologies (Lloyd whole world'.E. The Hellenistic 2 vols (Cambridge: philosophers.Hermes67.Elsewhere.212 on Mon. Cambridge: A. Kranz. philosophers. 1992.PartI:a case-studyof prophecy. Spiritus. London:Hutchinson. VERMEIR.Doctrine du pneuma et entdl&chisme -G. LLOYD. 1945.E1987.(PhilologischeUntersuchungen14).In Aristotleon mind and the senses(eds) 1978.where the most readilyaccessibleEnglishtranslationsare in G.On theSoul.Eine Forschungsmethode Geschichteder Mathematik. 2004.R. B.pneuma and tranquillity: Epicureanand Stoic themesin Europeanthought.S. 9 The idea that the cosmos is formedand growsby'breathingin'the airaroundit is attestedfor severalearly Aristotleattributessome such idea to the Pythagoreans.T. Journal of the Royal AnthropologicalInstitute (N. K. 561-91 Schule.1966. 2003.Owen. Diels.R.

).212 on Mon.le r6le du souffle et de l'aira l'interieurde celui-ci (par exempledans l'origine des maladies). 25 Mar 2013 08:51:16 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .confrontantdes avis opposes aussi bien sur la mati&re aux theories speculativesdes philosophes.les avanceesde Galien.ac.uk Journal of the Royal AnthropologicalInstitute (N.gel2o@hermes. He has publishedtwenty-twobooks. entre corps et Ame Resume al'ext&rieur du corps. UK.S146 GEOFFREY LLOYD Le pneuma. S135-S146 @ Royal Anthropological Institute 2007 This content downloaded from 132.2005) and Principlesand practicesin ancient Greek and Chinesescience(Aldershot: Ashgate. que sur la methodologie.11. Parallklement d'autrespenseursont abordeles problkmesde maniereempirique. Cambridge.Pour autant. L'undes traitsdistinctifsde la pensee grecqueest sa naturepolkmique.leur contributionA la vie et Al'intelligenceet le problkmedu lien entre corps et esprits. ProfessorSir GeoffreyLloyd is EmeritusProfessorof Ancient Philosophy and Science at the Universityof wherehe was Masterof Darwin Collegefrom 1989to 2000.2006).Cambridge CB39AF.S.cam.8 Sylvester Road. Les exploreles idles divergentes exprimeespar diff6rents L'auteur penseursgrecssurla naturedu vent et le l'air dualistesarguaientque l'ame est incorporelle.en opposition aux monistes qui niaient cette dichotomie.en particulierdans la comprehensionde l'anatomiedu systemenerveuxet du systemevasculaire. NeedhamResearch Institute.n'ont pas ' aide resoudrela question de la base physiquedes fonctions vitales. most recently The delusionsof invulnerability (London: Duckworth.66.

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