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Can 1. It is used to express the ability to do something. I can swim very well. Can he speak English fluently?

- No, he can't. We cannot sing at all! 2. It expresses the possibility to do something. We can go to the seaside at last. Our holidays start next week. 3. We use it to say that something is probable. It can be John. He has blond hair and he is wearing glasses. 4. It expresses the permission to do something. Why not? You can marry her. She is a nice girl. May 1. It is used for permissions. You may borrow my car. I won't need it. May I smoke here? - No, you can't, I'm sorry. 2. It is used to express probability or prediction. They may call tomorrow. I hope so. The main difference between may and can is in style. May is more formal than can. Can is typical of spoken English. 3. The opposite of may is must not or may not. May I smoke here? - You mustn't smoke here. (strong prohibition) - You may not smoke here. (more polite, very formal) - You can't smoke here. (informal spoken English) Must 1. It is used for strong obligations. It is personal, because it expresses the speaker's opinion or will.

also called modal auxiliaries or simply modals. They are used with a main verb to form a sentence or a question. English has ten modal verbs: can may shall will must could might should would ought to Modals express the mood a verb. you needn't. You must see it. We make the passive voice with a verb + be + past participle: This can be done. possibility. these modal auxiliary verbs are not used in different tenses. It's the best film I've ever seen. and cannot be used without a main verb.No. Modals are not conjugated. must I wash up? . We use it to show the certainty of the speaker. such as ability. however. have no tense. only have the present form. necessity. It's already 9 o'clock. or another condition. Note Normally. 3. I want to be healthy. And do it right now! 2. They must be at school by now. The opposite of must is need not. It is dangerous. Mum. Modal verbs. 4. All the other tenses must be formed in a different way. main verbs always remain in the infinitive without to. He mustn't enter this room. Or the teacher will be very angry. may and must. I've already done it. . are a type of auxiliary verb or helping verb. The laws must be respected. It is used to express prohibition that involves the speaker's will. We mustn't come late today. Must not has a different meaning.I must clean my teeth. You must go there. The past tense of can is could. When used with modal verbs (except ought). It means a strong recommendation.

In a statement the word order is subject + modal + main verb. yes-no questions modal Can Should subject main verb they Mike come? drive? wh. subject modal main verb They Mike can come. Dining out can be costly. Wild animals can be dangerous.word modal When How can could subject they he main verb come? know? Can The modal can indicates possibility or ability: Tom can help you. In questions.questions wh. should walk. In questions. the word order changes to modal + subject + main verb. the modal can requests permission to do something or to ask about possibilities: Can I help you? Can Mike come over for dinner? Who can answer the next question? When can we get back the results? Could Could indicates possibility or ability in the past: .

Could is placed in the result clause. but could is more polite. It could / might rain tonight.I could have told you that. When I was young. Could speculates about future posibilities. Could / Can you open your window? Could / Can you help me move this sofa? Could indicates an option: We could go see a movie. . In the following examples could and might are synonomous. If it weren't raining. It could have been a disaster. The modal could is also used to form the conditional. The conditional contains an if clause and a result clause. In these examples could and can are synonomous. I could run very fast. could speculates about present posibilities: Could she be the murderer? Could this be a mistake? It can also make a request. We could study together. we could have taken the train. we could go on a picnic. In yes-no questions. if you want to. could expresses hypothetical situations: If I had time. I could play tennis with you. In these examples. That could / might be dangerous. I could have passed the exam if I had studied more. I could become a doctor. Could mentions something that didn't happen because a certain condition was not met: If we had left sooner.

Will asks a favor. They will / shall leave tomorrow at 8:00. shall is rarely used in American English.I'm glad we took umbrellas. however. Who will / shall drive the car? When will / shall I see you again? How will / shall you get here? What time will / shall we meet? In yes-no questions. shall and will have different meanings. Shall and Will The modals shall/will + main verb are used to create future tenses. shall and should are synonomous. Will / Shall Tom ever pay you back? Will / Shall Mars be visited by humans within twenty years? Will / Shall you be finished soon? Shall asks about a preference. In American English. there is no difference in meaning between these two modals. when it is. shall and will ask about options. In these examples. . When used in statements.questions. Tom will / shall meet us at the train station. In wh. I will / shall close the door for you. it's only in the first person singular and plural. These modals indicate an intention or an action that is expected to happen in the future. shall is rarely used. We could have gotten soaked. Will / Shall you turn off the TV? Will / Shall you stop whining? Will / Shall you go with me? Will also asks for information or knowledge about somebody or something.

You may / can now board the airplane. Tom must see a doctor immediately. Must also indicates an assumption or probability. It may / might rain tonight.Should / Shall I close the door? Should / Shall he close the door? Should / Shall they come back later? Should / Shall Tom bring food to the party? Should / Shall we stay here? May and Might The modals may and might indicate an uncertain future action. . May is more polite. These two modals are synonymous. This may / might be a bad idea. You must see this movie. or I may / might stay home. please? You can might in place of may or can. May / Can / Might I be of some assistance? May / Can / Might we offer you a suggestion? Must The modal must indicates an obligation. May / Can I see your driver's license? May / Can we have some more water. but this is extremely rare in American English. In yes-no questions that make a request. You may / can begin the exam in ten minutes. you can use may or can. I may / might go to the park. iMay or can gives instructions or permission.

When should / must we be there? Who should / must I talk to? Must can sometimes form rhetorical questions.questions.My watch must be broken. should asks if an obligation exists. Must he ask so many questions? = I hope he stops asking questions. In questions. when you want the person to stop doing something. He must have done that before moving to Spain. When used in questions. Ought is never used in questions in American English. I would like white wine with my fish. These two modals are synonymous. Should he call her? Should we pay now? When should we leave? What should I wear? Would Would followed by like is a polite way of stating a preference. must is an obligation and can be replaced with the modal should. We would like a room with a view. would + subject + like is a polite request for a choice to be made. I should / ought to go home now. . Must you make so much noise? = Please be quiet. You should / ought to call your mother. In wh. should is much more common in these types of questions. Should and Ought (to) The modals should and ought to indicate an obligation. In American English.

When I was a student. Tom would drive. If I had not had to work. .Would you like soup or salad with your meal? Where would you like to eat dinner? When would Tom like this delivered? Would can make a request sound more polite. I would go with you if I didn't have to work. Come here! Would you come here? Stop making that noise! Would you stop making that noise? Would explains an action as a result of a supposed or real condition. Would introduces habitual actions in the past. but he doesn't have a license. She would be surprised if you came to the party. he would write me long letters. I would go swimming every day. When Tom lived in France. I would have gone with you.