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PYTHAGORAS AND MONACHISM Author(s): Placidus Jordan Source: Traditio, Vol. 17 (1961), pp.

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ideas. Philosophie P. 513-524. as the 1 J.66. eliminated the second occurrence (haplography). despite the great amount of semantic evidence in its favor. This content downloaded from 132. Encyclopaedia W. Burnet.432 traditio verbis?subidis (for verbisinsubidis) at 1. Zeller.520-530. The Presocratic Raven. the meaning of insubidis fits the context admirably well and the whole phrase 'verbis insubidis et lapsantibus' would mean 'with foolish stumbling words. later scribe. development.' It is a difficult matter to choose between these two possible emendations. eventually nonetheless ubi dis becomes is apparently the rule in im with found 2. noting what he thought was One would an erroneous then assume reduplication that a of the and letters is (here Is). E. 447-8). Philosophie (Berlin 1926) I 1 (7th ed. Paris Recherches 1944) sur les sources J. Carcopino. St?hlin. Avery are PYTHAGORAS AND MONACHISM The biography of Pythagoras of Samos1 is embroidered with legend. Majeure 1 I. together with the attendant paleographical phenomena (viz. Nilsson. Pythagoreans.1 and tell us is interwoven with Platonic and Aristotelian what the Neo-Pythagoreans he whose birth was foretold by the Pythian god. H. 3. 92-175. so to speak..212 on Mon. Levy. that found in his writings. S. 1950) (9th ed. 1923) Geschichte der griechischen La Basilique Religion I pythagoricienne (Paris (M?nchen 1941) de la Porte 105-113. The case for subitis. University of Maryland. School. (ibid. 307-318 217-231. Leipzig der Griechen III 361-617.) II 662-670. The haplography that must be assumed to explain insubidis. Gellius seems to have been the manuscript in the case of insubidis phonetic reading remains intact. Apollo. indeed. bibliography. Kirk and J. is fairly common. 1929) 1 (6th ed. Diels. and doctrine. Schmid of Religion . Fragmente der Vorsokratiker biography : Pythagoras. thus causing the text to read verbisubidis.' 'Pythagoras York and New 1908-1927) (Edinburgh I 1 (M?nchen der griechischen Literatur for both Hastings' 10. His very name ? or he who utters oracles as does Apollo ? gives a hint of themystery enveloping his personality. This at least is certain. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 396-407. the 732-741.11.1. though it represents a tendency in Vulgar Latin attested as early as the first century portant of no of the Christian of Romance and era and one which areas concern preferred and this for certain principal reasons. changes are the extent. E. 2 (5th ed. the greatest number William fond. 446-480. See also G. the use of the tilde).C. it would seem on the whole that insubidis is to be 1. Die M. and Pythagoreanism. 161-206. (Cambridge 1957) (special des Altertums Die 61-73. Praechter. must ultimately rest upon the assumption of a phonetic change which.15. which is precisely the reading found in P. As already noted. de la l?gende de Pythagore 1926). that he was born about 580 B.O. too well known to require special citation is almost 96-105. of the word insubidus?to of instances of the word T. collection of rele and Ethics Geschichte vant Berlin texts 1951). But as we review the evidence. certainty only here in Gellius. 236-262. Old Pythagorean Philosophers K.

3 where they are lampooned by the poets of the Middle Comedy. Mnesarchus. healer. Nicomachus. 9-10.478-480.212 on Mon. Graecorum by Diels. to be consumed by Him. In Timaeus. asserts (Paris This content downloaded from 132. but dissastisfied with the rule of Polycrates the tyrant. About this time the to appear in Greece. Upon his return to Greece. a violent about where he died produced tensions which (497/6). anti-Pythagorean occurred outbreak what has been lost their lives in a a begin called the 'final exodus' from Italy. to bring about a religious rebirth in public life. He is said to have had two children. merchant. After he had settled about 530 B. to teach them the way to the contemplation of divine mysteries. following A. Dicaearchus. On the basis of these it is possible to reconstruct with a fair degree of accuracy and completeness the mode of lifewhich the Pythagoreans considered life of ideal. we are entirely dependent for an account of his teaching upon the works of his disciples and successors. A. 1883) sur la litt?rature pythagoricienne ?tudes M?autis. the modern Crotone. to be filled with Him was for him the meaning of life and its goal. our re fragments M?autis. Delatte. for he took man to be. the doctrine of the Master being deeply imbedded in the thought and manner of life of the Neo-Pythagoreans who gained influence in the first century before Christ with the efflorescence due to the efforts of Posidonius of Apamea and Nigidius Figulus. cit. he then began to teach. op.4 Pythagoras was first of all a religious reformer. Since he himself has left no writings of any kind. he established a family. a spiritual vessel. In his native island. Fragmenta Philosophorum 1 (Paris 513. he soon resolved to seek out the Greek colonies of Southern Italy. in Croton. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . spite of the divergences Apollonius of such authors as Aristoxenus. cit. There. others. op. 390. he visited first of all such religious centers as Delphi. by Georges des Lettres Facult? 9. Mullach. Pythagorean are assembled Recherches Politics in Southern Italy 1940) 92. of Tyana. Some forty in the course of which all but two leaders are said to have incendiary conflagration. Atheniensis. acquired his mathe matical knowledge fromwhich he later developed his system of numbers. too. G. F. 1922) at publi?s par length la ed. then a centre of Orphic mysticism. and age was to express it. Samos. sur le Pythagorisme (Recueil 10-18. '5 His construction need not be based on conjecture. legend made of him also a thaumaturge.11. steadily growing influence and the reproach that his disciples were sectarians and eccentrics who preached a doctrine later there detrimental occurred at and to the prompted odd an years him to migrate to Metapontum Croton later commonweal. For ethical reasons he wished to establish the Greek city-state on a new basis. as a disciple ' of a later "E e . still. political teacher His and guide. 1. Certain parallels between this ideal and the Christian monastic a later period are the concern of the present study.C.6 The latter 8 Kurt 4 The von Fritz. an incarnate mind. For many years he labored as philosopher. Delos and Crete with a view to initiation in their mystic rites. ' ? complete absorption in God. sequere Deum ' ? wish was to see his disciples initiated into mystic experiences. Tradition so runs the in order to familiarize himself with tale. ? and ascetical of the religious the continuity with good reason ? 1915). Neuch?tel 6 Secundus Sententiae.PYTHAGORAS AND MONAGHISM 433 has he it that as a young son of a well-to-do of Isis and man the he spent a fairly long period in Egypt cults Osiris. (New York and are discussed de Travaux Hermippus.66.

Galixodorus.66. Pythagoras and Proceedings 90 [1959] 185-194) Association (Transactions of the American Philological J. to a considerable extent. Pythagoras biographies from that of the present writer. 9 cf.1: 'sic iudico. matical doctrines of Pythagoras passage based and his school?11 ultimately on the musical and mathe of the 'Old' Pythagorean see especially Delatte's 'Le cat?chisme teachings school.3-52.12. by whom he was at one time praised as to have This et diligens earum rerum ' acer investigator declared was in its renewed the Pythagorean however. On the Sign of Socrates. 7 1. Taylor's Timaeus Commentary 1928) are a convenient (Oxford help to finding the passages in question. on the basis of the mathematical principles he had elaborated. and superstitions' (580 C). to say nothing of the value of the notes on the respective On Pythagoreanism as the background see J. the writer. communicable to the initiate only. since quae a natura involutae videntur' as a and secret expressly society. 528-530. From the Convivial Questions of Plutarch we learn that the Pythagoreans considered essential portions of their teaching as secret (arcana). Tulli 4. ? c.4.) This content downloaded from 132. Institutio oratoria 9. To promote easy sleep the Pythagoreans also played the lyre before retiring.19). N. as attested by Plutarch in his treatise. ' ' mention may be made here of The Biographical Tradition ? documentation. 10 De Vita Pythagorica 25.11. 18 (sections ed.434 TRADITIO was a friend of Cicero. having severely criticized the conduct of Theanor the Pythagorean.214). Chaeronensis Moralia recognovit G. been inaccessible to Background for the Theory of Recollection [Menasha. a commentary on Iamblichus. net's article cited in note 1 above. Quintilian. W. M?ller [Lipsiae 8 8. myths. who had spent the night at the grave of Lysis in order to obtain a message from the deceased. denounced those who indulge in such practices in order to appear beloved of the gods and superior to others (579 F).212 on Mon. Almost immediately afterward he says that Socrates had received from Pythagoras a philosophy 'steeped in dreams. Adam's edition of the Republic Press University (Cambridge 1920-21) on Plato's and A. 384A. 1938] has passages. As a matter of fact. cit.10 Pythagoras in all probability been the first in the history of music to establish scientifically. 6 above) 11 The indices to J. exstincta Cicero.8 In the same author's dialogue. Siciliaque qui illam renovaret' 1898] (M. the doctrine of the scale? And do we not find in both the Republic and the Timaeus of Plato more than one movement. whose evaluation of the of is quite different later by Philip. On Isis and Osiris. chapter. post nobiles Pythagoreos. (op.7 it functioned official teaching and in its practice.3.9 Had not and indeed music was a highly esteemed element in the Pythagorean life. Iamblichus. the neo-Platonist Iamblichus tells us that they were anxious not to overburden the body with food as otherwise the soul could not rise to the regions of pure being while the body was wrapped in sleep. E. shrouded in mystery. [Teubner completeness 1937] 46. C. Bernardakis 4 [Lipsiae 1892] Ciceronis Scripta quae manserunt omnia.8. Bur of much of Plato's teaching. (n.1 (Plutarchi 336-7). The Pythagorean (Alistar Cameron's dissertation.110-115. F. Wis. The interpretation of dreams appears to have had a bearing upon certain dietary regulations of the Pythagoreans. A. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Deubner For of 80-89. des Acousmatiques' De Vita Pythagorica. Timaeus quorum disciplina cum aliquot est quodammodo. 271-312). saecula in Italia hune exstitisse viguisset. ed. discipline.

'Das Arbesmann.14 Hence with the gods.' par Alexandre Pythagoriques" ('Les source aucunement servir de 'ne a a these ?tudes peuvent grecques 58 [1945] 1-59). Ep. forheat. Mnemosyne. 14 R. the legend of the wild bear inApulia which Pythagoras caught. 59) ('Neue of the sixth edition. of friendship in the sense of brotherly love. says Iamblichus.C. for they saw in it an expression of the origin of all creation In a lengthy passage preserved for us by Diogenes Laertius. And there ea e . W. bibliographical interesting brief account given in this and the on chapter 17 of Iamblichus' is based (ed. in which in God. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . e a and most probably had this 'Pythagoras omnium inter omnia cognationem work. Deubner. tinguished ' ' The love of all for all. since all living beings were for them related to one another. and those of the abbot Macarius ? a of the Pythagoreans. Porphyry and Iam blichus both recount. des Vegetarismus excep (three 21 following Life paragraph of the Pythagorean 40-42). Haussleiter. That the Pythagorean belief in the transmigration of souls was intimately linked with these views. Alexander Polyhistor (80-40 B. but also ?ber die pythagoreische des Alexandros Polyhistor that sections 26-30 of Alexander's concludes 10 (1941) 97-112. objection exemplary and esteem. pour qu'ils la connaissance occupent dans indue Et il faut donc les retirer de la place du pythagorisme originel. and fromwhich he then received a promise to desist from his previous murderous conduct. and the parallel narratives in the Vita Antonii. R?mern. we read as follows: 'The sun and moon and of life.S. Francis of Assisi. with his social contacts and his manners. dis them and contrasted sharply with the warlike life of that time. und Vorarbeiten Versuche der Antike (Die (same Wiederbelebung u. Diskussion not ?dition des Vorsokratiker' la derni?re (p. A parallel has scarcely requires been drawn between Pythagoras and St. the Pythagoreans abstained affection mutual to their and animal hence. 'Das Referat 3. '12Seneca a in mind when he wrote: esse ducebat.66.'13 but all living beings Because this a united not only all mankind their from flesh meat. fondled and fed. 103-107. 'novi tionally 15 The tiate' lists). statement 'altpythagoreische may safely des Revue cit?s "M?moires is correct Polyhistor.11. 24. is a kinship between gods and a share in this heat. of community-spirit. as Plutarch rather emphatically says. was the basic law of the Pythagorean mode of life. 1935) 404-409 bei den Neupythagoreern). inasmuch as man has men. for example. So close a relationship was for them the mark of all human.15 depended upon an exam Admission into the ination. Vegetarismus 1929) (Glessen u.' bei den Griechen Religionsgeschichtliche Der in J. Who would not here recall the story of the wolf of Gubbio known to us from the Fioretti of St.212 on Mon. die 296-314 97-157 Berlin Pythagoreer).PYTHAGORAS AND MONACHISM 435 in Pythagorean was the concept of a Fundamental community-life ' ' or e a.' 13 108. (Pythagoras series. preponderates in them.29-30).18.) is quoting or summarizing from an earlier the other stars are gods. that is. inasmuch as they were united to one another as sons of God in the strict sense of the term. Philosophie/ if Festugi?re Urkunde/ as an used be However. the gentleness which. the Pythagorean Memoirs. and indeed of all animal existence.27. Francis. This content downloaded from 132. which is the cause And the moon is illumined by the sun. Fasten 12 8. says Kranz wendig. sacrifice. any proof. zum ersten Band' in the 'Nachtrag 503. Wiersma. a scrutiny which concerned itself not only with the parents and an cestors of the candidate. too.

. of the day ? political. verba magistri of the Prologue of St. that is.' their at the beginning community. e . During these eight years of noviceship. wore also a distinctive dress and observed a rather sharply defined order of day. This was ' ' which consisted selves to problems one evening a kind of of honey and bread. It is worth noting also at this candidate was rejected. 21 (ed.66. After a common chapter of faults !). community. but he himself remained hidden behind a curtain. II accommodated. in a temple ' ' ? in other words. to reflect upon himself lence.C. La?rtius.17 in a manner more or less suggestive of the twelfth degree of humility in Chapter VII of St. In accordance with the custom of their country. 'Aus we read fectly stillwith his eyes cast down. Deubner 56-58). ( Lives of Eminent Philosophers 8. of three After this in duration according to circumstances.7 (Loeb Classical Library. 18 ?amblichus. artistic. This content downloaded from 132. Benedict's Rule. Quite in agreement with the at the beginning of a e . cit. and was preceded and followed by sacrifice and prayers. and the senior brought the day to a close with counsels and 16 Diogenes cil.a a a a a. he received the double ofwhat he had brought to the of a Pythagorean named Lucius. Benedict's et. . preliminary which or examina the there followed time 'ap titude' or of the applicant was a eagerness to 'postulancy' learn over in the matter honor were now during of perseverance esteem.18 In the morning everyone was obliged to take a walk alone ( a a a ) and in a lonely spot (if possible. as the Master taught.) 17 Loc. on a walk set out in twos and collation. They of which the candidates 'exoterics. dining afterwards at tables at which no more than ten were 'perambu bathed The meal consisted of bread. they were listeners. and if this happened at any time after the surrender of his goods.) to Pythagoras and ' preserved e e e .16 And in the Convivial Questions ?e of Plutarch mention is made culta. op. tested particularly and to the indifference years. could one prepare oneself properly to meet one's fellowmen. which might vary 'first' or concerning a man's character. Only at the end of their novitiate did they become initiates. once initiated.212 on Mon.436 TRADITIO with his physiognomy. As a rule the junior member of the group read during themeal. to threes they and discuss devoted them To scientific. attributed by Heraclides Lembos (2nd cen for us by Diogenes Laertius. words opening o fili. if a ' ' was erected in commemoration of his death.11. learning obedience and practicing it. 8 above). ward lando' what one had learned in the course of the day (colloquia).' e e . pedagogical. to meditate ? for only in si grove). vegetables and fruit. since itwas believed that from this factor. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the candidates and novices heard the voice of the Master. the words: tury B. Only then e were they allowed to see the master face to face. who remains per meal The Pythagoreans. e e a. toward five-year possessions 'novitiate. the Pythagoreans daily. admonitionem pii Monachorum: Regula Patris libenter excipe. still There followed turned stability. [1931] 326. too.. Then themembers of the community assembled in a temple to study in common under the guidance of the seniors for the purpose of self-improvement (a followed by physical exercises. a burial mound point that according to Iamblichus. deductions could a be drawn novitiate tion. they were obliged to persevere in silence.

the Golden the fifth Verses of It seemed. Anthologia xxxiv-xxxviii d'or Les Vers der P. C. by Fabre version of the French in 1813. life. Plato had a e this in mind when in the Republic he speaks of the seem to be which would of for in the mode the . translation of the Delatte. as also the versions The older French and London 1706. for the community-life in volved only the hours of the day. 67D. d'Olivet. 1925). He himself for the teachings of the Master were binding upon all. one's self-control not of our era. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . juniors. plus tard by J. Coup?e. 80E.' or earlier observance respect third24 a didactic poem of ethical con tent. have been inaccessible la publication to the du author 24A.'19 in his Commentari] and on Hierocles. 5 above) Mullach. composed a few passages reverence for men. The following dictum of Pythagoras has been handed down to us by Plutarch: 'Then century we are really Neo-Platonist quotes a series of Pythagorean maxims which include the following : Pythagoras. it is explicitly stated that they who dwelling on earth more acceptable than a pure soul. Van 1932) (Leiden Horst. prayer. then. Br. purity gods. Master. were words which recurred constantly in the conversations of the dis ciples. of life. A ' said it. ' ' whereupon they retired to their respective homes. cit. They a a e . toward The contemporaries of a recognition 19 413 Moralia 169E of Oracles). (On the Obsolescence (On Superstition). 81A. W. if you make your mind like to God. was reprinted with an English first published (N. . translation A German pythagoriciens Erziehungsweisheit Pythagoreische in London Rowe translation the English i. Willmann. published Le livre de la sagesse (Paris 1938). 6 above) 'il me para?t difficile 45: ( du ine si?cle de notre ?re.?Mario a translation of Hierocles' Pythagore. contempt and toward for elders. pythagoriciens apparatus). appeared by Nicholas (Freiburg translation the very free French 1719 and was several times thereafter reprinted.'20 In the Neo-Pythagorean in the of the second23 a much 'practice' death. (Date des with together a "E Meunier. the asceticism which was more and more to free the soul from the bonds of the body. 1796). go to the gods.' le milieu German de placer This content downloaded from 132. Les Vers d'Or G. but containing century related to all date. self-examination. Republic 22 Phaedo 64AB. whose chief and considered themselves was to in accordance with instructions laid down by the it only duty practice. helpfulness re as the most are mentioned important was the thus made values of moral scale systematic kindness quirements. The principle of authority was the basis of the Pythagorean community. to lead it to greater personal perfection and likeness to the gods. Dor?s (Paris 1931). M?autis.66. des Vers et commentaires Traduction pythagoricienne. ' e a. ). Pythagoras' one's with fellow in converse and mildness and honor. of wealth of ritual. L.PYTHAGORAS AND MONAGHISM 437 instructions which were always repeated in the same words (a kind of Compline).212 on Mon.21 Pythagorean ? are dedicated to the Pythagoreans of Phlius.11. Phaedo. po?me present ?tudes que study. ' You will honor God best. 23 Ernestus 186-194 1 (Lipsiae Graeca (with elaborate 1922-25) Lyrica Diehl. to be one's chief task in life to prepare for death. Gleim (Halberstadt 1786). 21 600B. chattels of the gods. op. teaching. ( .22 'Golden Verses. Y. Their whole mode of life was directed toward sanctification. (Dacier. 20 420-421. Commentary. 1922) 48-51. is to be found in O.' and a little farther on: 'God has no we when good of Alexandria.

who in his famous dialogue on Old Age has the Elder Cato say that for the sake of exercising his memory. a conceived ground. one Testament may conclude and the concepts vital in certain included e a a . 22-25. ' servitii. ' a thought of monachism. In this sense. exceptionally Il Monde Classico e la storia di un precetto di coscienza 28 521C. silence. 40-41. on Pagan more thorough association. Wherein have I failed? What have I achieved ? What duty have I failed to perform ? Go through all.' cit. a harmonious personality was to be ). Republic This content downloaded from 132. it be the from in its ascent in concepts 21-23 9-12. of virtue. valuable article. op. he that Cato's motive The schola every evening he has said. is quite different from that of Pythagoras' community ' disciples. aconcept. founder ? St. comment.26 This rule of the Pythagoreans was known to Cicero. re-incarnation until complete cleansing of the soul was achieved. presumably may yet bring to light in the literature of the early Church numerous echoes of that the ascetic Old. beginning with the first. der Horst's interesting See Umberto Moricca's pitagorico. in the sense of Neo-Platonists. be sorry.11. were Pythagorean thought. the desire for sleep ( ( a).38. Pythagoras was the of obedience somewhat of an as order religious and order. A Of all the course. which Iamblichus a a ( certain 25 Vv.438 TRADITIO If these values were disregarded. From the concepts which permeate crystallized of Greek schools also ' turn in the passages cited both also the New and and above. cit. and done was after in a the manner course of the of the a Pythagoreans. abstinence through from pleasures of the senses toward Being. and anger. 'L'esame 10 (1940) 221-244.212 on Mon. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (Van der Horst. 1-2). or whether in general. 27 De affinity beverages a (the body. be happy. in effect and of its kind. 15-16. Benedict investigation of the sources than has hitherto been undertaken. the self-control and which literature into the pattern of Roman Pythagoreans Plato's or e icating life. Whether celibacy.66. day. of piety and moderation. Senectute op. in review. or conversion e a. If thou has done aught amiss. condition for the attainment of happiness. if thou hast done well. which shared soul for the Neo or whether it be the Pythagorean achieved e e concept a. See Van 11. 28 Vv. practice over were hence taken it be a a e a. '25 was to be cultivated in the community.28 from intox flesh-meat. retribution in the next world. Bear calumny with mildness. or of the e a by the a. or the community of goods emphasizes as the distinctive mark of the school of Croton )?at every point we meet parallels which would suggest a between Pythagoras and early Christian monachism. Cling not to material goods. be mindful of this: that This was the spirit which death awaits us all. the desires of the flesh. Pythagorean Dominici passes heard. The exami developed in the adjustment to one's confr?res (e a nation subject of one conscience reads as was therefore an essential factor of asceticism. On this follows in the 'Golden Verses': Thou shalt not allow sleep to settle upon thy tired eyes before thou hast examined thy whole day's work.27 school it. The spirit of these 'Golden Verses' is reflected 'Let this be accounted by you as right : to check in the following quotations: food the desire for a). the tomb of the soul). was inevitable.

anima naturaliter Christiana. garments despised chastity. vir sapiens) ofMatthew 7. is not so much a We of distinctive stamp). It is altogether understandable that in the first four Christian centuries Pythagoreanism and Neo-Platonism. was widely clear evidence of the influence of Pythagorean traditions upon the circulated: intellectual and religious structure of the period in which Benedict became the father ofWestern monasticism. Tertulliano phrase. of general and apparently inevitable decay. be correctly understood (at least. Gnostic. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In the works of Origen traces of Neo are not infrequent. (2. Also it is significant that in this age of transition.141. This 'monk' later to be conceived by Benedict himself. For there existed in the Pagan world vestiges of the primitive Revelation (the Uroffenbarung) which by their very nature could not be in contradiction with Christian truth.66. flesh-meat. Diaboli' Regnum 80 Cf. he was the philosopher. of Apollonius of Tyana (Apollonius' reply to his Egyptian In an Origen earlier has of this ed. Philostratus. the man closely related to God and replenished with the divine Spirit. perhaps the nearest approaches of that era to the 'philosophic life* as it was cultivated in the schools of Athens in the time of Plato and Aristotle.'30 a 'Pythagorean. for in an a e exceptionally interesting context he explicitly mentions e a a e .817BG.' wool. . Gochrane. therefore. and Pythagorean elements.212 on Mon.31 In fact. Koetschau 3. In this work the e a . Koetschau 1. same work PG 11. wore because linen he and of spontaneous creation as the fied whole convergence of various traditions into a uni let his hair grow long. petual rean was colors. Origen knows of this schooling. who has built his house on a rock. is represented as he was . (PG 11. Stoic. the Pythagorean Culture 6. is a pointed expression of the fact that by the Creator's Will human nature is predisposed toward the supernatural. kept his eyes cast down and vowed per sheep's The 'wise man' ( . as it is understood by the Pythagoreans.16-17) This content downloaded from 132.29 such a work as the Life of Apollonius of Tyana. is for Benedict the monk. is here portrayed in genuinely Pythago went barefoot. to be sure.12: (Leipzig 1899) 2. For the Pythagorean and Platonist. that is. (Oxford like 1940) the Neo-Platonic. IV: 'Regnum Gaesaris 29 C. In the last centuries of antiquity.5.988). who in the midst of social disintegration sought a support which no longer was to be found anywhere.11 schools. as is again clearly seen in the views of man and his destiny which we meet in classical Greek philosophy. especially among members of the educated classes. should have found many followers.24. in germine) in the pre-Christian period. 31 Contra passage Celsum Christianity (especially Life and Classical pages 151-176). who practiced in the school of the philosophers that which is more or less analogous to Christian a a . ed. caritas fraterna. The moral and religious bases of humanity could. for his Apollonius biographer ' and made wine. written about 250 by the Pythagorean Philostratus. that the unique character of the Christian Revelation was in no way impaired.247-20. as a whose entire life is directed toward God. therefore. critics). as indeed the popular philosophy of the Pythagoreanism Hellenistic period is a syncretistic combination of Platonic.PYTHAGORAS AND MONACHI SM 439 know that the Benedictine Rule was influenced ? although more indi ? rectly than directly by Origen (and the Rule after all. itwas inevitable that non-Christian and Christian elements should be fused? in such a way.11.

As P?re Festugi?re has succinctly expressed it: 'la vie monastique est resemblances. Ursprung (T?bingen 1936) 34 The writer is aware that authorities differ concerning the 'community of goods' in thus Ghaim Rabin.' Biblica 35 A. we to go much further however.36 Benedictine 'stabilit?s. '35 Such words as a leave no . Abhdl.11. Qumran 22-31. especially. has its counterpart in the concept. 1914. worship. Des Athanasius Werk ?ber das Reitzenstein.' v?lliger Besitzlosigkeit und Lk 12. ? a doubt. has maintained a fusion extended of Hellenistic our horizon basis in losophy and Christian evidence. Pythagorica" 50 (1937) 478.440 were Plato. The way of these Greeks was fun to e a. that of erecting . 33 Karl des M?nchtums 20. As it profoundly influenced Plato. de Leben Jamblique. In damentally analogous to that of the Christians: from a asmuch as they both stressed asceticism. partant universel. for instance. 33-34. Pesch.33 but this would at Qumran34 formulate of 4. Heussi. any (Oxford 1957) vance. von Mt 6.' too..32-33. un fait humain. of primitive Christianity.) (Sb. is of special interest for the student of the origins of Chris Pythagoreanism tian monachism inasmuch as no other religious movement of antiquity main too. qui offre les m?mes traits communs sous Le culte des Muses volume. and the other philosophic schools of his time also had their special quarters or temples dedicated to the service of the gods. The ascetic tendencies within certain systems of Greek philosophy cal than those within Christianity itself.R. maintained. Studies denies such obser Qumran.' des Antonius Revue des ?tudes referred to the custom of the Pythagoreans already a cenotaph to those who have 'apostatized. a mistake. if one may use the word in this context. unquestionably flourished in certain milieux of theHellenic and Hellenistic world also. religious communities as we know. to eagerness to say nothing conclusions vocabulary. grecques 36 R.Ss. a prerequisite for the monastic life. Plutarch and Philo of Alexandria. 2. of interpretation logical It would be such parallels. 41 (1960) 364f. eleven centuries in all. ciently ternal recent our temper (Acts ideals. a .66.' 32 Reference to P. In a line parallel to the development which began in the days Origen and Basil. 39-40. comparable to those found in the Christian tradition and else where. candidate: am Roten Meer Die Handschriftenfunde (Berlin 1958) asserts 'Er muss sein Verm?gen und lebt in abliefern zwangsweise see also W. Karl Heussi. C. stimulating chez les philosophes grecs (Paris 1937). the solitary life of the recluse. was purpose a Mouseion. Greek tradition had opened a way for the ascetic life lived in common. 8.44-45) have have discoveries seem to be a misreading on the of the suffi of ex phi Ascetic views. J. Boyance's may here be made here mentioned. TRADITIO whose next ultimate to his Academy of the Muses. even so this system at a later date entered into the work of Clement of Alexandria. Heidelberg This content downloaded from 132.212 on Mon.a a . identical toutes les latitudes. namely.82 a shrine tained its existence over so long a period ? from the sixth century before Christ almost to the very end of the Roman Empire..was familiar to the Neo-Pythagoreans even to the point of e e .. flight from the world was for both the the tians were. 'Sur le "De Vita Festugi?re. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Aristotle. of the whereas Hans incoming Bardtke. 19-21 'Zur Exegese (207). no less eschatologi that in the brief description of the community of goods among the first Chris at Jerusalem The to consequence.

example. His the beginning At His counsel. and Gottes [Halle reference to the fact that there is Krieger 1936] 70 especially. Op. is probably technical term. ning upon Christian of monachism but Spirit. however may themselves. in the strict sense of the convincingly of Hellenism. Of exceptional of Festugi?re's article cited in note 35 above in which certain differences (pages 489-494). the e and the a e are clearly pointed out. 3). . Historia (G?ttingen 1916) 51. ( . a e choosing a e a place a e of permanent a . a e . of God" Other the "philosopher.40 the less certain but it is none that that Athanasius Antony. cit. in Athanasius' parallels of In his important study of St. Antony has out Gnostic pointed retirement. Id. 47-48. which has blichus Reitzenstein man uses the phrase. O. Ludwig e Bieler. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. ' alten M?nchtum.1.5. as did St. 14 (PG 26. Anthony 40 Basilius '"Homo Dei Antonius": Zum Bild des "Mannes Gottes" im Steidle. between This content downloaded from 132. as R. 61. 39 St. 182f. Basilius these likewise has referred used mind the a Vita 'man Pythagorae. stands not influence.11. e explained. Athanasius. perspectives suggest at times of agreement. any It will literary proba monachism Steidle "divine has man" bly be impossible to prove any Pythagorean word. Life of St.3* Reitzenstein form of asceticism. Benedict (1933) 73 (cited by Ernst von Hippel.B.212 on Mon.. over is the living proof of the complete superiority of the Chris the 'divine man' Christian As the of the pagans as ascetic In full accord with this view one may or real dependence of early hold that there is hardly upon Pythagoras. SOME NOTES ON ENGLISH Latin the of palaeography branches of medieval and preeminent the pre-Carolingian studies which have the UNCIAL surely dramatic that rank progress high among in recent era must made decades. 36 above) 39-40. cit.S. 41 in this connection value is the concluding Steidle.3. of monachism power.pythagoras ' signifies and monachism 441 residence. stands fulfillment if we and of contact a ' at the begin stated. among contributions to progress is of course und Historia Monachorum Lausiaca 108-9. said to have been a community of Pythagoreans in Nursia. it may ? Placidus Jordan O. Benedict's birthplace. e ." and his Holy that ofHis martyrs and of the Angels. "divine man" finds his the God-man. - becomes. of God. even for mystic e a a e a. '37 Iam a e ?a . represented by Pythagoras. .66. inwhich In this e a also.. startling points redemption. Cf. of In the Christian "man Hellenistic Christian of the ceptual kinship between the teachings of the sage of Samos and the pioneers of monachism. also the (unpublished) K?nigsberg concerning 38 the origin Die 37 and significance of the Rule of St. St. section op.864C). this too a prerequisite Steidle St. silence was every to the highest form of the Hermit. tian ' no He has doubt contingencies. dissertation of J?rgen Miller (Vienna 1935).S. Who knows rewarding but that from which prove to points commence may critical yet be found anew investigation resemblances.38 .. Studia Anselmiana 38 (Rome 1956) 148-200.'41 examine external a certain con sources Beuron. Antony. not the Hellenistic His the and even divine example Christ's Apostles.B. monachism.