PYTHAGORAS AND MONACHISM Author(s): Placidus Jordan Source: Traditio, Vol. 17 (1961), pp.

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236-262. the meaning of insubidis fits the context admirably well and the whole phrase 'verbis insubidis et lapsantibus' would mean 'with foolish stumbling words. 1923) Geschichte der griechischen La Basilique Religion I pythagoricienne (Paris (M?nchen 1941) de la Porte 105-113. Kirk and J. Levy. together with the attendant paleographical phenomena (viz. noting what he thought was One would an erroneous then assume reduplication that a of the and letters is (here Is). that found in his writings. 2 (5th ed. Die M. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1 and tell us is interwoven with Platonic and Aristotelian what the Neo-Pythagoreans he whose birth was foretold by the Pythian god. Carcopino. de la l?gende de Pythagore 1926). development. The haplography that must be assumed to explain insubidis. 1929) 1 (6th ed. as the 1 J. collection of rele and Ethics Geschichte vant Berlin texts 1951). Praechter. eliminated the second occurrence (haplography). 3. This at least is certain. is fairly common. The Presocratic Raven. Schmid of Religion .432 traditio verbis?subidis (for verbisinsubidis) at 1. thus causing the text to read verbisubidis.. 513-524. Old Pythagorean Philosophers K. the use of the tilde). and doctrine.1. ideas. Encyclopaedia W.212 on Mon. Philosophie P. St?hlin. (ibid. 396-407. changes are the extent. Leipzig der Griechen III 361-617. later scribe. indeed. E.) II 662-670.' 'Pythagoras York and New 1908-1927) (Edinburgh I 1 (M?nchen der griechischen Literatur for both Hastings' 10. Zeller. 1950) (9th ed. Gellius seems to have been the manuscript in the case of insubidis phonetic reading remains intact. S. (Cambridge 1957) (special des Altertums Die 61-73. of the word insubidus?to of instances of the word T. Nilsson. His very name ? or he who utters oracles as does Apollo ? gives a hint of themystery enveloping his personality. Apollo. despite the great amount of semantic evidence in its favor. 446-480. Philosophie (Berlin 1926) I 1 (7th ed. H. 447-8). eventually nonetheless ubi dis becomes is apparently the rule in im with found 2.C. School. 307-318 217-231. the 732-741. the greatest number William fond. The case for subitis. it would seem on the whole that insubidis is to be 1.15.O. 92-175. University of Maryland. This content downloaded from 132.520-530. But as we review the evidence. that he was born about 580 B. Avery are PYTHAGORAS AND MONACHISM The biography of Pythagoras of Samos1 is embroidered with legend. Pythagoreans. 161-206. bibliography. which is precisely the reading found in P. and Pythagoreanism. Majeure 1 I. E. Diels. certainty only here in Gellius. Paris Recherches 1944) sur les sources J. must ultimately rest upon the assumption of a phonetic change which.11. As already noted. though it represents a tendency in Vulgar Latin attested as early as the first century portant of no of the Christian of Romance and era and one which areas concern preferred and this for certain principal reasons.66. so to speak. See also G. too well known to require special citation is almost 96-105.' It is a difficult matter to choose between these two possible emendations. Burnet. Fragmente der Vorsokratiker biography : Pythagoras.

cit. a spiritual vessel. In Timaeus. 9-10. Pythagorean are assembled Recherches Politics in Southern Italy 1940) 92. legend made of him also a thaumaturge. Neuch?tel 6 Secundus Sententiae. 390. to be consumed by Him.3 where they are lampooned by the poets of the Middle Comedy.66. by Georges des Lettres Facult? 9.PYTHAGORAS AND MONAGHISM 433 has he it that as a young son of a well-to-do of Isis and man the he spent a fairly long period in Egypt cults Osiris. Nicomachus. to be filled with Him was for him the meaning of life and its goal. in Croton. asserts (Paris This content downloaded from 132. he established a family. still. A. cit. merchant. a violent about where he died produced tensions which (497/6). sequere Deum ' ? wish was to see his disciples initiated into mystic experiences. our re fragments M?autis. Certain parallels between this ideal and the Christian monastic a later period are the concern of the present study. (New York and are discussed de Travaux Hermippus. Since he himself has left no writings of any kind. too.478-480. and age was to express it. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1. ? and ascetical of the religious the continuity with good reason ? 1915). we are entirely dependent for an account of his teaching upon the works of his disciples and successors. acquired his mathe matical knowledge fromwhich he later developed his system of numbers. he soon resolved to seek out the Greek colonies of Southern Italy. Delos and Crete with a view to initiation in their mystic rites. Samos. On the basis of these it is possible to reconstruct with a fair degree of accuracy and completeness the mode of lifewhich the Pythagoreans considered life of ideal. healer. an incarnate mind. Mnesarchus. of Tyana. to teach them the way to the contemplation of divine mysteries. the modern Crotone. G. Dicaearchus. '5 His construction need not be based on conjecture.4 Pythagoras was first of all a religious reformer. others. About this time the to appear in Greece. Mullach.6 The latter 8 Kurt 4 The von Fritz. spite of the divergences Apollonius of such authors as Aristoxenus. ' ? complete absorption in God. For ethical reasons he wished to establish the Greek city-state on a new basis.11. Delatte. There. he then began to teach. After he had settled about 530 B. then a centre of Orphic mysticism. In his native island. but dissastisfied with the rule of Polycrates the tyrant. For many years he labored as philosopher. anti-Pythagorean occurred outbreak what has been lost their lives in a a begin called the 'final exodus' from Italy. he visited first of all such religious centers as Delphi. 1922) at publi?s par length la ed. following A. Some forty in the course of which all but two leaders are said to have incendiary conflagration. to bring about a religious rebirth in public life. as a disciple ' of a later "E e . Fragmenta Philosophorum 1 (Paris 513. sur le Pythagorisme (Recueil 10-18. op. 1883) sur la litt?rature pythagoricienne ?tudes M?autis. steadily growing influence and the reproach that his disciples were sectarians and eccentrics who preached a doctrine later there detrimental occurred at and to the prompted odd an years him to migrate to Metapontum Croton later commonweal.C. Graecorum by Diels. He is said to have had two children. for he took man to be. political teacher His and guide. Upon his return to Greece.212 on Mon. Tradition so runs the in order to familiarize himself with tale. Atheniensis. op. the doctrine of the Master being deeply imbedded in the thought and manner of life of the Neo-Pythagoreans who gained influence in the first century before Christ with the efflorescence due to the efforts of Posidonius of Apamea and Nigidius Figulus. F.

Bur of much of Plato's teaching.8 In the same author's dialogue. shrouded in mystery. since quae a natura involutae videntur' as a and secret expressly society.8. on the basis of the mathematical principles he had elaborated. 528-530. From the Convivial Questions of Plutarch we learn that the Pythagoreans considered essential portions of their teaching as secret (arcana). On Isis and Osiris. C. 10 De Vita Pythagorica 25. whose evaluation of the of is quite different later by Philip. to a considerable extent.4. Institutio oratoria 9. Pythagoras biographies from that of the present writer. denounced those who indulge in such practices in order to appear beloved of the gods and superior to others (579 F). 7 1. by whom he was at one time praised as to have This et diligens earum rerum ' acer investigator declared was in its renewed the Pythagorean however. The interpretation of dreams appears to have had a bearing upon certain dietary regulations of the Pythagoreans. saecula in Italia hune exstitisse viguisset. the neo-Platonist Iamblichus tells us that they were anxious not to overburden the body with food as otherwise the soul could not rise to the regions of pure being while the body was wrapped in sleep. (op.7 it functioned official teaching and in its practice. M?ller [Lipsiae 8 8. Adam's edition of the Republic Press University (Cambridge 1920-21) on Plato's and A. the writer. discipline. As a matter of fact. chapter. 1938] has passages. Siciliaque qui illam renovaret' 1898] (M. 18 (sections ed. 384A.434 TRADITIO was a friend of Cicero.214). as attested by Plutarch in his treatise. Pythagoras and Proceedings 90 [1959] 185-194) Association (Transactions of the American Philological J.110-115. Bernardakis 4 [Lipsiae 1892] Ciceronis Scripta quae manserunt omnia. ed. Deubner For of 80-89. (n. E. Galixodorus. A. cit. Wis. a commentary on Iamblichus.3.3-52. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . having severely criticized the conduct of Theanor the Pythagorean. 271-312). and superstitions' (580 C). been inaccessible to Background for the Theory of Recollection [Menasha. Tulli 4. matical doctrines of Pythagoras passage based and his school?11 ultimately on the musical and mathe of the 'Old' Pythagorean see especially Delatte's 'Le cat?chisme teachings school. communicable to the initiate only. [Teubner completeness 1937] 46.9 Had not and indeed music was a highly esteemed element in the Pythagorean life. who had spent the night at the grave of Lysis in order to obtain a message from the deceased.) This content downloaded from 132. On the Sign of Socrates. Chaeronensis Moralia recognovit G. post nobiles Pythagoreos. Taylor's Timaeus Commentary 1928) are a convenient (Oxford help to finding the passages in question.66.11. Almost immediately afterward he says that Socrates had received from Pythagoras a philosophy 'steeped in dreams. ' ' mention may be made here of The Biographical Tradition ? documentation.19). Iamblichus.1: 'sic iudico. N. to say nothing of the value of the notes on the respective On Pythagoreanism as the background see J. W. ? c. net's article cited in note 1 above. Quintilian. the doctrine of the scale? And do we not find in both the Republic and the Timaeus of Plato more than one movement. des Acousmatiques' De Vita Pythagorica.1 (Plutarchi 336-7).12. 9 cf. 6 above) 11 The indices to J. F. To promote easy sleep the Pythagoreans also played the lyre before retiring.10 Pythagoras in all probability been the first in the history of music to establish scientifically. myths. Timaeus quorum disciplina cum aliquot est quodammodo.212 on Mon. The Pythagorean (Alistar Cameron's dissertation. exstincta Cicero.

Francis. des Vegetarismus excep (three 21 following Life paragraph of the Pythagorean 40-42). And there ea e . in which in God. since all living beings were for them related to one another. 'Das Arbesmann. Alexander Polyhistor (80-40 B. of community-spirit. and those of the abbot Macarius ? a of the Pythagoreans.212 on Mon. pour qu'ils la connaissance occupent dans indue Et il faut donc les retirer de la place du pythagorisme originel. Francis of Assisi. dis them and contrasted sharply with the warlike life of that time. 1935) 404-409 bei den Neupythagoreern). e a and most probably had this 'Pythagoras omnium inter omnia cognationem work. for example.' 13 108. with his social contacts and his manners. Vegetarismus 1929) (Glessen u. objection exemplary and esteem. That the Pythagorean belief in the transmigration of souls was intimately linked with these views. and the parallel narratives in the Vita Antonii.66. Fasten 12 8.) is quoting or summarizing from an earlier the other stars are gods. forheat. the Pythagorean Memoirs. Haussleiter. and fromwhich he then received a promise to desist from his previous murderous conduct. 103-107. So close a relationship was for them the mark of all human. statement 'altpythagoreische may safely des Revue cit?s "M?moires is correct Polyhistor. says Kranz wendig. the Pythagoreans abstained affection mutual to their and animal hence. tinguished ' ' The love of all for all. Wiersma. as Plutarch rather emphatically says. inasmuch as man has men. A parallel has scarcely requires been drawn between Pythagoras and St.'13 but all living beings Because this a united not only all mankind their from flesh meat. of friendship in the sense of brotherly love.S. was the basic law of the Pythagorean mode of life. (Pythagoras series. zum ersten Band' in the 'Nachtrag 503. bibliographical interesting brief account given in this and the on chapter 17 of Iamblichus' is based (ed. says Iamblichus.11. R?mern. any proof. '12Seneca a in mind when he wrote: esse ducebat. fondled and fed. 59) ('Neue of the sixth edition. 'Das Referat 3. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . preponderates in them. Mnemosyne. the gentleness which. Philosophie/ if Festugi?re Urkunde/ as an used be However. we read as follows: 'The sun and moon and of life. is a kinship between gods and a share in this heat. die 296-314 97-157 Berlin Pythagoreer). 14 R.15 depended upon an exam Admission into the ination.27. a scrutiny which concerned itself not only with the parents and an cestors of the candidate. This content downloaded from 132.' bei den Griechen Religionsgeschichtliche Der in J. that is.18. too. for they saw in it an expression of the origin of all creation In a lengthy passage preserved for us by Diogenes Laertius.29-30). 24. Porphyry and Iam blichus both recount. Ep. the legend of the wild bear inApulia which Pythagoras caught. which is the cause And the moon is illumined by the sun. sacrifice. but also ?ber die pythagoreische des Alexandros Polyhistor that sections 26-30 of Alexander's concludes 10 (1941) 97-112. and indeed of all animal existence.PYTHAGORAS AND MONACHISM 435 in Pythagorean was the concept of a Fundamental community-life ' ' or e a.C. Diskussion not ?dition des Vorsokratiker' la derni?re (p. und Vorarbeiten Versuche der Antike (Die (same Wiederbelebung u. W.14 Hence with the gods.' par Alexandre Pythagoriques" ('Les source aucunement servir de 'ne a a these ?tudes peuvent grecques 58 [1945] 1-59). Deubner. 'novi tionally 15 The tiate' lists). Who would not here recall the story of the wolf of Gubbio known to us from the Fioretti of St. inasmuch as they were united to one another as sons of God in the strict sense of the term.

e e a. . artistic. once initiated.' e e .436 TRADITIO with his physiognomy. the words: tury B. Only at the end of their novitiate did they become initiates. if a ' ' was erected in commemoration of his death. vegetables and fruit. e . as the Master taught. which might vary 'first' or concerning a man's character.) to Pythagoras and ' preserved e e e . could one prepare oneself properly to meet one's fellowmen.) 17 Loc. Benedict's Rule. ward lando' what one had learned in the course of the day (colloquia). still There followed turned stability. and if this happened at any time after the surrender of his goods. 21 (ed. This was ' ' which consisted selves to problems one evening a kind of of honey and bread. and the senior brought the day to a close with counsels and 16 Diogenes cil. It is worth noting also at this candidate was rejected.212 on Mon. During these eight years of noviceship. to meditate ? for only in si grove). the Pythagoreans daily. of three After this in duration according to circumstances. and was preceded and followed by sacrifice and prayers. preliminary which or examina the there followed time 'ap titude' or of the applicant was a eagerness to 'postulancy' learn over in the matter honor were now during of perseverance esteem. wore also a distinctive dress and observed a rather sharply defined order of day. Then themembers of the community assembled in a temple to study in common under the guidance of the seniors for the purpose of self-improvement (a followed by physical exercises. II accommodated. they were obliged to persevere in silence. verba magistri of the Prologue of St. ( Lives of Eminent Philosophers 8. that is. words opening o fili. Deubner 56-58). In accordance with the custom of their country.7 (Loeb Classical Library. After a common chapter of faults !). 18 ?amblichus. pedagogical. who remains per meal The Pythagoreans. 8 above). This content downloaded from 132. deductions could a be drawn novitiate tion. but he himself remained hidden behind a curtain. in a temple ' ' ? in other words.66. admonitionem pii Monachorum: Regula Patris libenter excipe. too. [1931] 326.17 in a manner more or less suggestive of the twelfth degree of humility in Chapter VII of St. As a rule the junior member of the group read during themeal.16 And in the Convivial Questions ?e of Plutarch mention is made culta. Benedict's et. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a burial mound point that according to Iamblichus..11. of the day ? political. Only then e were they allowed to see the master face to face. he received the double ofwhat he had brought to the of a Pythagorean named Lucius.. dining afterwards at tables at which no more than ten were 'perambu bathed The meal consisted of bread. since itwas believed that from this factor. they were listeners. attributed by Heraclides Lembos (2nd cen for us by Diogenes Laertius. La?rtius.a a a a a.C. tested particularly and to the indifference years. on a walk set out in twos and collation. Quite in agreement with the at the beginning of a e . 'Aus we read fectly stillwith his eyes cast down. toward five-year possessions 'novitiate. learning obedience and practicing it. They of which the candidates 'exoterics.' their at the beginning community. cit. to reflect upon himself lence. to threes they and discuss devoted them To scientific. community.18 In the morning everyone was obliged to take a walk alone ( a a a ) and in a lonely spot (if possible. op. the candidates and novices heard the voice of the Master.

then. L. Dor?s (Paris 1931).21 Pythagorean ? are dedicated to the Pythagoreans of Phlius. Republic 22 Phaedo 64AB. C. Van 1932) (Leiden Horst. one's self-control not of our era. if you make your mind like to God. Commentary. translation A German pythagoriciens Erziehungsweisheit Pythagoreische in London Rowe translation the English i. the asceticism which was more and more to free the soul from the bonds of the body. Coup?e. it is explicitly stated that they who dwelling on earth more acceptable than a pure soul.?Mario a translation of Hierocles' Pythagore. of life. Pythagoras' one's with fellow in converse and mildness and honor. prayer. Anthologia xxxiv-xxxviii d'or Les Vers der P. for the community-life in volved only the hours of the day. to be one's chief task in life to prepare for death. M?autis. juniors. of wealth of ritual. d'Olivet. 5 above) Mullach. cit. 20 420-421. by Fabre version of the French in 1813.66. translation of the Delatte. chattels of the gods. is to be found in O. purity gods. (Dacier.' le milieu German de placer This content downloaded from 132. 1796). The principle of authority was the basis of the Pythagorean community.'19 in his Commentari] and on Hierocles. The following dictum of Pythagoras has been handed down to us by Plutarch: 'Then century we are really Neo-Platonist quotes a series of Pythagorean maxims which include the following : Pythagoras. (On the Obsolescence (On Superstition). po?me present ?tudes que study. He himself for the teachings of the Master were binding upon all.11. self-examination. They a a e . go to the gods. plus tard by J. 1925).212 on Mon. 67D. but containing century related to all date. pythagoriciens apparatus). Their whole mode of life was directed toward sanctification.PYTHAGORAS AND MONAGHISM 437 instructions which were always repeated in the same words (a kind of Compline). ' You will honor God best. to lead it to greater personal perfection and likeness to the gods. the Golden the fifth Verses of It seemed. Br. Gleim (Halberstadt 1786).' or earlier observance respect third24 a didactic poem of ethical con tent. des Vers et commentaires Traduction pythagoricienne. Y. Plato had a e this in mind when in the Republic he speaks of the seem to be which would of for in the mode the . 81A. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .' and a little farther on: 'God has no we when good of Alexandria. life. ' e a. Les Vers d'Or G.'20 In the Neo-Pythagorean in the of the second23 a much 'practice' death. 6 above) 'il me para?t difficile 45: ( du ine si?cle de notre ?re. published Le livre de la sagesse (Paris 1938). (Date des with together a "E Meunier. was reprinted with an English first published (N. teaching. . 80E. 21 600B. 23 Ernestus 186-194 1 (Lipsiae Graeca (with elaborate 1922-25) Lyrica Diehl. ( . 1922) 48-51. W. helpfulness re as the most are mentioned important was the thus made values of moral scale systematic kindness quirements. op. whose chief and considered themselves was to in accordance with instructions laid down by the it only duty practice. contempt and toward for elders. ' ' whereupon they retired to their respective homes. were words which recurred constantly in the conversations of the dis ciples. have been inaccessible la publication to the du author 24A. Willmann. Master.22 'Golden Verses. toward The contemporaries of a recognition 19 413 Moralia 169E of Oracles). A ' said it. appeared by Nicholas (Freiburg translation the very free French 1719 and was several times thereafter reprinted. Phaedo. composed a few passages reverence for men. as also the versions The older French and London 1706. ).

who in his famous dialogue on Old Age has the Elder Cato say that for the sake of exercising his memory.66. On this follows in the 'Golden Verses': Thou shalt not allow sleep to settle upon thy tired eyes before thou hast examined thy whole day's work. condition for the attainment of happiness. the tomb of the soul). the desires of the flesh. op. re-incarnation until complete cleansing of the soul was achieved. cit.11. presumably may yet bring to light in the literature of the early Church numerous echoes of that the ascetic Old. or the community of goods emphasizes as the distinctive mark of the school of Croton )?at every point we meet parallels which would suggest a between Pythagoras and early Christian monachism. retribution in the next world. be mindful of this: that This was the spirit which death awaits us all. one Testament may conclude and the concepts vital in certain included e a a . 1-2). Cling not to material goods. aconcept. a conceived ground. 27 De affinity beverages a (the body. der Horst's interesting See Umberto Moricca's pitagorico.26 This rule of the Pythagoreans was known to Cicero. is quite different from that of Pythagoras' community ' disciples. in the sense of Neo-Platonists. The exami developed in the adjustment to one's confr?res (e a nation subject of one conscience reads as was therefore an essential factor of asceticism. 40-41. ' servitii. '25 was to be cultivated in the community. practice over were hence taken it be a a e a. were Pythagorean thought. From the concepts which permeate crystallized of Greek schools also ' turn in the passages cited both also the New and and above. in review. ' a thought of monachism.438 TRADITIO If these values were disregarded.27 school it. a harmonious personality was to be ). Republic This content downloaded from 132. Whether celibacy. be sorry. it be the from in its ascent in concepts 21-23 9-12. exceptionally Il Monde Classico e la storia di un precetto di coscienza 28 521C. founder ? St. be happy. if thou hast done well. Benedict investigation of the sources than has hitherto been undertaken.38. In this sense. and anger. (Van der Horst. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . or whether in general. valuable article.28 from intox flesh-meat. Wherein have I failed? What have I achieved ? What duty have I failed to perform ? Go through all. beginning with the first. the desire for sleep ( ( a). of piety and moderation. Bear calumny with mildness. which shared soul for the Neo or whether it be the Pythagorean achieved e e concept a. Pythagorean Dominici passes heard. the self-control and which literature into the pattern of Roman Pythagoreans Plato's or e icating life. 28 Vv. Pythagoras was the of obedience somewhat of an as order religious and order. Senectute op. silence. If thou has done aught amiss. which Iamblichus a a ( certain 25 Vv. day. comment. See Van 11. in effect and of its kind. or of the e a by the a. he that Cato's motive The schola every evening he has said. 15-16.' cit. abstinence through from pleasures of the senses toward Being. and done was after in a the manner course of the of the a Pythagoreans.212 on Mon. 22-25. on Pagan more thorough association. A Of all the course. of virtue. or conversion e a. was inevitable. The spirit of these 'Golden Verses' is reflected 'Let this be accounted by you as right : to check in the following quotations: food the desire for a). 'L'esame 10 (1940) 221-244.

141. Diaboli' Regnum 80 Cf. garments despised chastity. (PG 11. This 'monk' later to be conceived by Benedict himself. wore because linen he and of spontaneous creation as the fied whole convergence of various traditions into a uni let his hair grow long. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . that is.5. and Pythagorean elements. is represented as he was . itwas inevitable that non-Christian and Christian elements should be fused? in such a way. should have found many followers. is a pointed expression of the fact that by the Creator's Will human nature is predisposed toward the supernatural. Gnostic. (Oxford like 1940) the Neo-Platonic. Philostratus. therefore. for his Apollonius biographer ' and made wine. In the last centuries of antiquity.988). For there existed in the Pagan world vestiges of the primitive Revelation (the Uroffenbarung) which by their very nature could not be in contradiction with Christian truth.24. For the Pythagorean and Platonist. kept his eyes cast down and vowed per sheep's The 'wise man' ( . Origen knows of this schooling. IV: 'Regnum Gaesaris 29 C. 31 Contra passage Celsum Christianity (especially Life and Classical pages 151-176). Also it is significant that in this age of transition.817BG. written about 250 by the Pythagorean Philostratus. is not so much a We of distinctive stamp).11 schools. as is again clearly seen in the views of man and his destiny which we meet in classical Greek philosophy. to be sure. as it is understood by the Pythagoreans. Tertulliano phrase.16-17) This content downloaded from 132. Stoic. in germine) in the pre-Christian period.12: (Leipzig 1899) 2. Koetschau 3. the man closely related to God and replenished with the divine Spirit. that the unique character of the Christian Revelation was in no way impaired. as indeed the popular philosophy of the Pythagoreanism Hellenistic period is a syncretistic combination of Platonic. of general and apparently inevitable decay.66.247-20. critics). It is altogether understandable that in the first four Christian centuries Pythagoreanism and Neo-Platonism. perhaps the nearest approaches of that era to the 'philosophic life* as it was cultivated in the schools of Athens in the time of Plato and Aristotle. Gochrane. In the works of Origen traces of Neo are not infrequent. (2. same work PG 11. therefore. caritas fraterna.' wool.31 In fact. for in an a e exceptionally interesting context he explicitly mentions e a a e . In this work the e a . who in the midst of social disintegration sought a support which no longer was to be found anywhere. vir sapiens) ofMatthew 7. anima naturaliter Christiana. he was the philosopher. as a whose entire life is directed toward God. Koetschau 1. was widely clear evidence of the influence of Pythagorean traditions upon the circulated: intellectual and religious structure of the period in which Benedict became the father ofWestern monasticism. ed.29 such a work as the Life of Apollonius of Tyana.'30 a 'Pythagorean. who practiced in the school of the philosophers that which is more or less analogous to Christian a a . of Apollonius of Tyana (Apollonius' reply to his Egyptian In an Origen earlier has of this ed. the Pythagorean Culture 6. . flesh-meat. especially among members of the educated classes. petual rean was colors. The moral and religious bases of humanity could.11. is for Benedict the monk.PYTHAGORAS AND MONACHI SM 439 know that the Benedictine Rule was influenced ? although more indi ? rectly than directly by Origen (and the Rule after all. who has built his house on a rock. be correctly understood (at least.212 on Mon. is here portrayed in genuinely Pythago went barefoot.

Qumran 22-31.32-33. that of erecting .82 a shrine tained its existence over so long a period ? from the sixth century before Christ almost to the very end of the Roman Empire. de Leben Jamblique. TRADITIO whose next ultimate to his Academy of the Muses. 1914. 33 Karl des M?nchtums 20. 2. is of special interest for the student of the origins of Chris Pythagoreanism tian monachism inasmuch as no other religious movement of antiquity main too. even so this system at a later date entered into the work of Clement of Alexandria.11.) (Sb. C. we to go much further however. a . worship. Aristotle.66.' Biblica 35 A. identical toutes les latitudes. ciently ternal recent our temper (Acts ideals. unquestionably flourished in certain milieux of theHellenic and Hellenistic world also. if one may use the word in this context. Pythagorica" 50 (1937) 478.R.36 Benedictine 'stabilit?s. 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a mistake. 8. grecques 36 R. Pesch.212 on Mon.. of the whereas Hans incoming Bardtke. flight from the world was for both the the tians were. Des Athanasius Werk ?ber das Reitzenstein.' des Antonius Revue des ?tudes referred to the custom of the Pythagoreans already a cenotaph to those who have 'apostatized. ? a doubt. Abhdl. the solitary life of the recluse. 19-21 'Zur Exegese (207).. namely.' v?lliger Besitzlosigkeit und Lk 12. The way of these Greeks was fun to e a. of primitive Christianity.33 but this would at Qumran34 formulate of 4. candidate: am Roten Meer Die Handschriftenfunde (Berlin 1958) asserts 'Er muss sein Verm?gen und lebt in abliefern zwangsweise see also W. 39-40.was familiar to the Neo-Pythagoreans even to the point of e e . 41 (1960) 364f. has maintained a fusion extended of Hellenistic our horizon basis in losophy and Christian evidence.440 were Plato. has its counterpart in the concept. was purpose a Mouseion. maintained. '35 Such words as a leave no . for instance. of interpretation logical It would be such parallels. eleven centuries in all. no less eschatologi that in the brief description of the community of goods among the first Chris at Jerusalem The to consequence.a a . The ascetic tendencies within certain systems of Greek philosophy cal than those within Christianity itself. stimulating chez les philosophes grecs (Paris 1937). a prerequisite for the monastic life. 33-34. Karl Heussi. In damentally analogous to that of the Christians: from a asmuch as they both stressed asceticism. comparable to those found in the Christian tradition and else where. Heussi. Boyance's may here be made here mentioned. to eagerness to say nothing conclusions vocabulary. any (Oxford 1957) vance.. un fait humain. partant universel. Heidelberg This content downloaded from 132.Ss. As it profoundly influenced Plato. Studies denies such obser Qumran. von Mt 6. As P?re Festugi?re has succinctly expressed it: 'la vie monastique est resemblances. qui offre les m?mes traits communs sous Le culte des Muses volume. Ursprung (T?bingen 1936) 34 The writer is aware that authorities differ concerning the 'community of goods' in thus Ghaim Rabin. Plutarch and Philo of Alexandria.' too. and the other philosophic schools of his time also had their special quarters or temples dedicated to the service of the gods. religious communities as we know. especially.44-45) have have discoveries seem to be a misreading on the of the suffi of ex phi Ascetic views. J. In a line parallel to the development which began in the days Origen and Basil.' 32 Reference to P. Greek tradition had opened a way for the ascetic life lived in common. 'Sur le "De Vita Festugi?re.

Benedict's birthplace. Op. O. however may themselves. 39 St.. St. said to have been a community of Pythagoreans in Nursia. any It will literary proba monachism Steidle "divine has man" bly be impossible to prove any Pythagorean word.3* Reitzenstein form of asceticism. example.40 the less certain but it is none that that Athanasius Antony. 36 above) 39-40. cit. this too a prerequisite Steidle St. . 25 Mar 2013 08:44:11 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . SOME NOTES ON ENGLISH Latin the of palaeography branches of medieval and preeminent the pre-Carolingian studies which have the UNCIAL surely dramatic that rank progress high among in recent era must made decades.. and Gottes [Halle reference to the fact that there is Krieger 1936] 70 especially. 41 in this connection value is the concluding Steidle. 182f. among contributions to progress is of course und Historia Monachorum Lausiaca 108-9. stands not influence. inwhich In this e a also.11. Basilius these likewise has referred used mind the a Vita 'man Pythagorae. Id. perspectives suggest at times of agreement. tian ' no He has doubt contingencies.1. between This content downloaded from 132. over is the living proof of the complete superiority of the Chris the 'divine man' Christian As the of the pagans as ascetic In full accord with this view one may or real dependence of early hold that there is hardly upon Pythagoras. e . of monachism power. - becomes.B.5. Ludwig e Bieler. of In the Christian "man Hellenistic Christian of the ceptual kinship between the teachings of the sage of Samos and the pioneers of monachism. ning upon Christian of monachism but Spirit. cit. Antony. is probably technical term. Cf. section op. not the Hellenistic His the and even divine example Christ's Apostles. also the (unpublished) K?nigsberg concerning 38 the origin Die 37 and significance of the Rule of St. stands fulfillment if we and of contact a ' at the begin stated.212 on Mon.38 .864C).S. ' alten M?nchtum. 47-48. 3). dissertation of J?rgen Miller (Vienna 1935). ( . silence was every to the highest form of the Hermit. .. in Athanasius' parallels of In his important study of St. Historia (G?ttingen 1916) 51. as R. e explained. of God" Other the "philosopher. '37 Iam a e ?a . monachism. 61. as did St.. which has blichus Reitzenstein man uses the phrase. Benedict (1933) 73 (cited by Ernst von Hippel. startling points redemption. Anthony 40 Basilius '"Homo Dei Antonius": Zum Bild des "Mannes Gottes" im Steidle. in the strict sense of the convincingly of Hellenism. "divine man" finds his the God-man.3. Who knows rewarding but that from which prove to points commence may critical yet be found anew investigation resemblances.pythagoras ' signifies and monachism 441 residence. Of exceptional of Festugi?re's article cited in note 35 above in which certain differences (pages 489-494). of God. a e . Studia Anselmiana 38 (Rome 1956) 148-200. Antony has out Gnostic pointed retirement. the e and the a e are clearly pointed out.B. even for mystic e a a e a. a e choosing a e a place a e of permanent a . His the beginning At His counsel. represented by Pythagoras. Athanasius.'41 examine external a certain con sources Beuron. Life of St.66." and his Holy that ofHis martyrs and of the Angels. 14 (PG 26.S. it may ? Placidus Jordan O.

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