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Learning modules material- Engineering (FB

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Learning Modules material
For Engineer Trainees

Engineering /Fossil Boilers

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Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)

Index
1. Boiler - Design 1.1 Steam Generation 1.2 1.3 1.4 Types of boilers Boiler Circulation system Boiler Design – Specification & Parameter

2. Engineering processes 2.1) Boiler Performance and proposals 2.2) Product Engineering 2.2.1) Boiler layouts 2.2.2) Pressure parts, pressure parts arrangement and Stress analysis 2.2.3) Boiler Mountings 2.2.4) Ducts and Dampers 2.2.5) Fuel Systems 2.2.6) Lining and Insulation 2.2.7) SS and Buckstay 2.3) ITS &S 2.4) Controls and Instrumentation 2.5) FES and R&M

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Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)

3. Boiler Materials 1. Materials used in boiler 4. Boiler auxiliaries 1. Pulverisers 2. Fans 3. Air Pre-heater 4. Dust Collector 5. Environmental Pollution 1. Indian Pollution control board guidelines 6. Codes and Regulations: 1. Material testing codes 2. Coal Analysis Standards 3. Boiler efficiency 7. Destructive and non-destructive testing 8. Water Chemistry 9. Boiler operation, Availability and Reliability and Boiler Tube failure mechanisms.

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superheated in the superheaters and is sent to a steam turbine.1 Steam Generation Modern Thermal power plants operate on the Rankine cycle . thus producing electric power. In a typical thermal power plant. Increase of plant efficiency is one of the important ways of reducing the fuel consumption and consequently reducing the plant emissions and conserving energy resources. all the water is converted to steam ( in once thru mode of operation) . thus generating steam. which can be attained by efficient processes. The steam is separated from the water in the boiler drum. which in turn rotates the generator. In drum type boilers. technologies and equipments. In the case of once thru boilers.Engineering (FB) 1. Adopting any one 4 . the heat released during combustion of the fossil fuel is transferred through the walls of the boiler ( waterwalls formed of tubes) to water that flows through the tubes. The increasing concerns on the atmospheric pollution warrant that power be generated with minimal pollution. normally used for subcritical pressure application. The steam after expansion in the turbine is condensed in the condenser and is pumped back to the boiler. Steam generation Process Boiler is thus a very vital component of the thermal power plant. Pulverized coal fired boilers today form the backbone of thermal power generation in almost all countries due to the abundant availability and low cost of coal. The rotor of the steam turbine rotates as the steam passes over the turbine blades. a mixture of steam and water leaves the waterwalls. It is therefore of paramount importance that coal utilisation is done in an environmental friendly manner.Learning modules material. connected to the rotor.

2. The boiler bank is arranged between two drums and hence the name bidrum boilers.2 Increasing main steam pressure Increasing Superheat and Reheat steam temperature Adopting double reheat cycle.the drum.1 Boiler application Industrial boilers are mainly for use in process industries and are normally non-reheat units and have partial steam generation in boiler bank tubes. Separated water is mixed with incoming feed water and flows back to the waterwalls. 5 . supercritical Drum type boilers employ either Natural circulation or Forced circulation .2 Drum Arrangement Industrial / Utility application Single drum/ bi-drum/ once thru (no drum) Tower type/ two pass type/ box type/ close coupled type Natural Circulation. Steam -water separation takes place in the drum.Learning modules material. Bi-drum boilers: In lower pressure ranges it is common to incorporate a boiler bank for heat transfer in the evaporator circuit. Forced/ Controlled circulation Sub critical. Utility boilers are large capacity boilers used for electric power generation 1.Engineering (FB) or more of the following measures can increase the overall efficiency of pulverised coal fired power plants:        1.2. In drum type boilers steam generation takes place in the furnace water walls and has a fixed evaporation end point . Increasing the vacuum of condenser Increasing final feed water temperature Reducing boiler flue gas exit temperature Reducing excess air Boiler Types: Boilers can be broadly classified on the following basis: Use/ Application: Drum arrangement Heating surface arrangement: Circulation: Operating Pressure: 1.

The concept is shown in Fig. 1. There are different arrangements that could be adopted. the boiler feed pump forces a once-through type flow through the complete system in the boiler (through the economiser. so that natural circulation can still be employed. single drum boilers are hence normally employed. 1. Tower type designs have all heat transfer surfaces arranged as horizontal sections above the furnace.3 Heating Surface Arrangement: The heating surfaces like Superheater. Two pass designs employ a combination of pendant and horizontal sections.3 Boiler Circulation System: Choice of Circulating system depends on operating Pressure. At steam pressures above 100 kg/cm2.Learning modules material. water walls and superheater sections) in one single continuous pass.2. the drum plate thickness increases considerably and the bi-drum arrangement is not preferred because of the large thickness. Reheater and economizer are dispositioned in a boiler to achieve the most optimum heat transfer.1 6 . Natural Circulation Boiler  Circulation thru water walls by thermo-siphon effect Forced/ Controlled Circulation Boiler  Thermo-siphon effect supplemented by pumps Once-through Steam Generators: In once through steam generators.Engineering (FB) Single drum boiler: With increase in operating pressures. The density difference between water and steam provides the driving force for the circulating fluid. Box type and close coupled are compact designs normally used with oil and gas fuels. Higher pressures units warrant pumps to ensure circulation or alternately the components are to be sized bigger to reduce the frictional resistance.

World-wide R & D efforts are going on to develop power plants with ultra supercritical steam parameters. In sliding pressure operation. In the 90’s.Learning modules material. load ramp behaviour and flexibility are available with subcritical design parameters also. the parameters in new projects are even higher (300 bar / 600OC / 600OC). which are termed as ultra supercritical parameters. the live steam pressure is directly proportional to the steam flow. Once through steam generators are ideally suited for sliding pressure operation due to the absence of thick walled components and lesser storage requirements as compared to drum type steam generator. i. 7 . The important advantages of once-through boilers such as short start-up time. is one of the most effective measures to increase the efficiency. Increase in the steam parameters. In the 80’s. The current trend in advanced countries is to go in for increase in steam pressure as well as temperature.1 Concept of Once Through Steam Generation Once-through steam generators can be designed for both sub-critical and super critical pressures. Hence. new materials and improvement in design has led to adoption of supercritical cycles. However higher steam condition is limited by the availability of the materials required to withstand the duty conditions Development of once through technology. In countries like Japan.Engineering (FB) Fig. a few utilities adopted advanced steam parameters of 285 bar and 5800C to 6000C. temperature and pressure. number of new units adopted higher temperature of 565 0C and 5800C. with the development of high temperature steels.e. the turbine inlet valves are kept full open during normal operation. The supercritical cycle (pressure higher than the critical pressure) offers a ‘burn less fuel for the same output’ approach.

Learning modules material. cooling water temperature. fuel combinations. temperature. rainfall. Boiler Design parameters The following parameters shall be specified as a minimum for designing a boiler: Feed Water & Steam parameters – flow. pressure. altitude. Site conditions – seismic data.Engineering (FB) 1. fuel properties. Layout constraints/space availability Boiler operating modes (Base load. humidity etc. Cycling. Fuel Firing – Fuels to be fired. quality Control load – the load range in which superheat and reheat steam temperature are maintained at rated value. Sliding pressure etc. ambient temperature. wind velocity. number. fuel parameters at terminal point.) Emission limits Specification of major components/auxiliaries / systems (type.4. Two-shifting. sizing criteria etc) 8 . Constant pressure.

necessary engineering inputs are furnished to Product engineering sections for further engineering. In BPP. if any. Field Performance Data Analysis On commissioning of the boiler. level of technology. individual equipment specifications etc.).1 Boiler Performance and Proposals: Boilers are designed to meet the requirements specified by the Customer. the operating data from the unit is collected. Contract Performance Engineering On award of Contract. preferences on equipment type. Functions of BPP fall under three categories:    Proposal Contract FES support for performance Proposal Phase BPP Proposals come from the three major business sectors:  Power sector /Marketing ( utility boilers) 9 . emission norms. Requirements vary in terms of output.Learning modules material. Proposal packages include details of the proposed boiler (Technical specification. Proposals BPP prepares the technical portion of the tenders against enquiries from Customers for Utility. compared with the predicted performance data and reasons for variations. the Performance Engineering of the boilers is carried out towards ensuring the required boiler performance. operating requirements. Technical data sheets.Engineering (FB) 2. Drawings etc. space constraints. the performance aspects of the boilers are studied and the required inputs are generated and furnished to the related agencies. Based on this. are analyzed. the thermal and system design of the boiler is developed to meet the desired performance and configuration requirements. Designs are continuously updated to incorporate the feedbacks to obtain better performance. as it is designed to meet these varying requirements. Renovation & Modernization (R&M) of Boilers In R&M. Each boiler is unique. Engineering Processses: 2. Industrial and Chemical Recovery boilers. inputs.

terminal points and exclusions from power sector/ marketing   Deliverables        Filled up specification review Filled in proposal datasheets PG wise BOM with estimated weight Technical write up and proposal Details required for erection estimate List of information of spares Proposal valve schedule to valves BPP processes  Enquiry registration  Receive enquiry specification from commercial  Assign proposal number  Detailed proposal  Budgetary proposal  Detailed proposal  Prepare the specification review list  Finalize scope. BAP.Learning modules material. HYD . addendum / clarification by customer from commercial tendering and estimation Boiler parameter from PEM /PED as applicable Scope.Engineering (FB)   Industries sector International operations Inputs  Enquiry specification . valves and C and I 10 . exclusion and terminal points between units consortium partners  Seek clarification from customer  Seek clarification /comments from PEB. PC. QA.

ECO arrangement  Performance calculation  Auxiliary selection  Prepare technical deviations  Presentation to top management  Prepare BOM  Prepare support documents  Performance Calculation  General data  Proximate analysis to ultimate analysis  Slagging characteristics of coal  Air and gas weight calculation s  Heat duty  Efficiency calculations  Flue gas analysis  Furnace performance  Plan area  Volume  Effective projected radiant surface  Arrangement data  Heating surface area 11 . RH .Engineering (FB)  Obtain feedback from the FES for similar running contracts  Design processes  Customer clarification  Finalize design approach  Furnace design  SH .Learning modules material.

ducts and losses  Duct area calculation  Fan selection  Duct draft loss calculation  Circulation  Controlled and natural circulation  Pump selection  CIRGEN 12 . ECO performance  IBP runs  Mills  AH  Check for design limiting values  Material selection   Metal temperature program Tubing list for PP  Headers and piping  Pressure drops  Fuel firing  Mill selection  wind box selection  Airheaters  Tubular  Bisector (a) Trisector  Fans. RH .Learning modules material.Engineering (FB)  Flue gas area  SH .

SOX  Wear life of mill rolls  Performance curves  Prepare support documents  Guarantees  Technical data sheets  Spares list  Technical offer  Erection input to regions  Finalize technical offer  Review by management  Presentation to top management  Prepare and submit technical offer  Attend post bid meeting with customer/ consultant and resolve points  Revise BOM. if required 13 .Engineering (FB)  DNB check  Auxiliary selection  EP selection  Ash collection data  Chimney selection data  Safety valve selection  C and I parameters  Boiler performance  Guarantee schedule  Efficiency program  Auxiliary power consumption  NOX.Learning modules material.

if required  Finalize technical offer  Submit to commercial 2.1 Layouts Various types of Layouts used in the power plants are as follows: (a) Conventional / Front mill layout 14 . Pressure Parts Arrangement and Stress Analysis Boiler Mountings Ducts and Dampers Fuel System Lining and Insulation Supporting Structures and Buckstays 2.2 PRODUCT ENGINEERING(Detailed Engineering): Various Section in Product Engineering are        Layouts Pressure Parts.2 .Learning modules material.Engineering (FB)  Revise technical offer.

Engineering (FB) (b) Vijayawada Layout (c) Rear mill / Panipat Layout (d) Side mill layout 15 .Learning modules material.

DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 2 16 . dust problem to TG set was rectified and sufficient ventilation was also available as compared to the conventional layout.Engineering (FB) . As the number of mills operating in the 500MW unit is around 10 and occupies more space in the conventional layouts. Mills are arranged along both sides of the furnace in this layout. duct carrying the primary air to the mill bay and the pulverized coal to the furnace. 2 Pressure parts. 2.Learning modules material. In Vijayawada Layout. It also involves collection of all standards required for the design into a single document for easy reference. This problem was rectified using the Rear Mill layout. To prepare Production & Erection documents for superheater/reheater assembly and header is being done for each project as per the boiler specification based on the design guideline. covers the entire area around the furnace. mill bay is located adjacent to the TG set. In the Conventional Layout. This led to the change in the location of mills in some of the subsequent boilers. The superheater/reheater assembly of various Projects have been analyzed to find the variants involved in each component. named as Side Mill Layout. the layout was named as Vijayawada Layout. need for these variants and scope for standardization. As this was implemented first in Vijayawada. classification and analysis of their variant drawings. Due to this. As it is first used for Panipat it is also called as Panipat Layout. This project involves the detailed study of each components in the superheater/reheater assembly and header.2. The mill reject started accumulating in TG set causing inconvenience to the people working with it.Pressure Parts Arrangement and stress analysis: DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 1 For a 500 MW.

The other pressure parts which act as heat absorbing surfaces are waterwalls or furnace walls. But in Box type units all superheaters and Reheaters are arranged Horizontally which will act as Drainable type. Titling the burners up and down is the major method of control used generally for Reheater to control the temperature. The hot bends are called squeezed bends which are done in a special hydraulic pressing machine called squeezing press. thus the cycle efficiency also increases. Depending on mode of heat transfer the superheaters and reheaters coils are generally classified as Radiation or convection type and depending on location or Arrangement in the boiler this is further classified as Horizontal and Vertical (pendant) types. Superheating also eliminates the formation of condensate during transporting of steam in pipe lines and inside the early stages of turbines which is harmful to the turbine blades and pipe lines.5 (R/D 1. In the case of reheaters this method is used only as an emergency purpose and not as a regular means as direct admission of water in reheater adversely affect the system efficiency. The headers. The Assemblies may have one or more than one circuits depending on the performance requirements of the boiler. Drum. Downcomer and other connecting lines and links will also be called as pressure parts in a boiler.P turbine.5). 17 . The inlet and outlet end of circuit or coil is connected to inlet and outlet heaters correspondingly which will act as supplier and receiver for each stage. The reheating of steam improves the cycle efficiency and reduces the damage to the turbine blades due to condensation of steam at turbine ends. In a conventional type of boiler vertical and Horizontal superheaters are used with vertical or pendant Reheater. Squeezed bends are used in the coils where the ratio between Radius of bend and diameter of tube is less than or equal to1. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 3 TYPES OF SUPERHEATRS AND REHEATERS: These heating surfaces are in the form of coils which are made by bending the tubes in cold or hot forming.Learning modules material. the superheater outlet temperature is limited to 540 + 5 C because the maximum temperature is dictated by the metallurgy and economy in initial cost and maintenance cost. In both the Radiation and Convective types.Engineering (FB) DESIGN OF SUPERHEATERS & REHEATERS INTRODUCTION: The Superheaters & Reheaters are part of the pressure parts systems of a boiler. Reheaters are used to raise the steam temperature to the same superheat temperature but at a lower pressure since the steam flow through reheater takes place after H. Due to superheating the useful energy that can be recovered increases. For utility boilers which are meant for power generation. Superheaters are used to raise the steam temperature above the saturation temperature by absorbing heat from flue gas to increase the cycle efficiency. the Horizontal or Vertical arrangement is used based on type of boiler.

Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)
The vertical arrangement is simpler in supporting and allowing for expansion and this arrangement is called pendant type. Horizontal superheaters or Reheaters needs supporting of the tubes at multipoints to avoid segging and expansion movement should also be permitted with the advantage of draining. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 4 RADIANT SUPERHEATER/REHEATER: The reheaters or superheaters which can view the flame is called radiant type. The Radiant surfaces are kept at the top of combustion chamber and in our conventional units, only one Radiant superheater or Platen superheater are used. Since the projected area only is the design criteria for radiation heat transfer the radiant superheaters have tubes closely pitched along the flue gas flow which is called longitudinal pitching or spacing between tubes SL. The pitches across flue gas flow between coil assemblies is called as Transverse pitch ST which is wider in the case of Radiant superheater to reduce the velocity of gas and the bridging the surfaces by the ash and they are arranged in line fashion. Because the heat absorption of furnace surfaces does not increase in direct proportion to boiler output but at a considerably lesser rate curve of radiant superheat as a junction of load slopes down ward with increase in boiler output. In the case of typical 210 MW boiler the Radiant superheater is composed of 29 assemblies of dia 51 tubes spaced at 457.2 mm centers along the width of the furnance. Since the adjacent superheaters are closely arranged generally squeezed bends are used to form the coils CONVECTION SUPERHEATER/REHEATER: Convection surfaces are located at moderate flue gas temperatures and also kept in the rear pass. Since the total circumferential area (surface area) is the criteria for heat transfer the pitch between tubes SL along the flue gas flow will be wider to allow flue gas will flow around the tubes. The transverse pitch ST (pitch between assemblies) will be closer when compared to radiant superheater. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 5 In a conventional type unit the reheaters will be of pendant convection arrangement and also the final superheater. The superheater which is placed at lower flue gas temperature region in the second pass of the boiler will be of Horizontal convective type and it is generally called as low temperature superheater (LTSH). Since the tubes are very widely pitched along the flue gas flow the convective SH/RH. Since convection heat transfer rates are almost a direct function of output, the total absorption in the superheater increases with increase in boiler output. The control of combination radiant convection superheaters are relatively simple because of their compensating characteristics. The combination of these two superheaters is generally used in all utility units to give flat superheat curves (to maintain constant temperature) over wide ranges in load. The fundamental considerations governing Superheater design also apply to Reheater design. However the pressure drop in reheaters is critical because the gain in heat rate with the reheat cycle can be

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Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)
completely nullified by too much pressure drop through the reheater system. Hence steam mass flows are generally somewhat lower in the reheater. In conventional type units the reheater is composed of two stages or sections, the front pendant vertical spaced section and the rear pendant vertical spaced section. The rear pendant vertical spaced section is located above the furnace arch between the water cooled screen wall tubes and rear water wall hanger tubes. The front pendant vertical spaced section is located between the rear water wall hanger tubes and the superheater platen section. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 6 RELATIONSHIP IN SUPERHEATER/REHEATER DESIGN : Effective superheater/reheater design calls for the resolution of several factors. The outstanding considerations are: 1. The steam temperature desired. 2. The superheater surface required togive this steam temperature. 3. The gas temperature zone in which the surface is to be located. 4. The type of steel, alloy, or other material best suited to make up the surface and the supports. 5. The rate of steam flow through the tubes which is limited by the permissible steam pressure drop but which in turn, exerts a dominant control over tube metal temperature. 6. The arrangement of surface to meet the characteristics of the fuels anticipated, with particular reference to the spacing of the tubes to prevent accumulation of ash and slag. 7. The physical design and type of superheater as a structure. A change in any one of the first six items will call for a counter balancing change in all other items. Steam Mass velocity, steam pressure drop, and superheater tube metal temperatures are calculated after the amount of surface is established. The proper type of material is then selected for the component tubes, headers and other parts. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 7 The same general similarity exists between superheater and reheater considerations, but the reheater is limited in ruggedness of design by the permissible steam pressure drop. The outside diameter of reheater tubes will be bigger than that of superheater tubes as more volume is to flow through reheaters, operating at low pressures. Since the superheaters are at high pressure, their thickness will be higher than that of reheaters, superheater tubes normally vary from 44.5 OD to 54 mm OD whereas reheater tubes vary from 47.63 mm OD to as high as 63.5 mm OD. The thickness for superheaters goes as high as 10 mm whereas reheater thickness do not exceed about 5 mm. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 8

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Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)
MATERIAL CONSIDERATION: Oxidation resistance, maximum allowable stress and economics determine the choice of materials of materials for superheater and reheater tubes. The use of carbon steel is extended as far as these considerations permit. Beyond this point carefully selected alloy steels are used. The majority of superheaters and reheaters are made of low & high alloy steels. The steels commonly used for this application are shown in Table. Higher chromium content increase the resistance to scaling or oxidation. Stainless steels are also used to a limited extent wherever the skin temperature of superheaters or of wrapper tube which is exposed to furnace is made of stainless steel. Stabilised stainless steel has Niobium, Titanium, Cadmium, Tungsten etc. added in traces to the steel prevents carbide precipitation in the grain boundaries. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 9 1. Carbon SA192 SA106 Gr.B SA515 Gr.70 SA105 SA216 427 C Waterwalls. Fin welded Steel panels, Economiser. LTSH Lower bank (some portion) Waterwalls headers. SH Headers upto SHH9. Suspensions for plates. 2. Carbon SA209 T1 ----- SA204 SA182 F1 SA217 WC1 482 C Tubes are used for SH Radiant ½ % Mo roof, LTSH lower bank, LTSH upper bank, (some Portion), RH inlet. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 10 3. 1 % Cr SA213 T12 SA335 P12 SA387 Gr.12 SA182 F12 SA217 WC6 535 C Pipes are used for SH hdrs. ½ % Mo (Rod) SHH13. Plates for suspensions. Forged rod fot tie rod Suspensions & nozzles. 4. 1 ¼%Cr SA213 T11 ----- ----- SA182 F11 ----- 552 C tubes are used for LTSH ½%Mo upper bank, terminal tubes. 5. 2¼%Cr SA213 T12 SA335 P22 SA387 Gr.22 SA182 F22 SA217 WC9 577 C Used in platen SH, RH front

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Unless the spacers are small or cooled by medium they will be burnt at these higher temperature. steam cooled spacer is generally used in all our natural circulation units. 18%Cr SA213TP ----. SL.Engineering (FB) 1 % Mo & rear.. Flexible connector and alignment band are used as transverse spacers. These connectors will allow the tube to expand downwards during operation but at the same time they will maintain SL pitch between tubes. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 12 SPACERS FOR SUPERHEATER/REHEATER: Spacers are provided to maintain pitches along and across coil assemblies.704 C Tubes are used for wrapper 10%Ni &cb. Flexible connectors have one male and two female connectors welded to second and first tube as shown in Fig. The spacers must be able to do the function both in cold and hot conditions.Learning modules material. Transverse spacers are used to maintain pitch between assemblies ST.25%Mo RH final coils. Spacer plates are welded on either side of this tube in between assemblies to maintain ST which is cooled by steam 21 . 7. Fluid cooled spacers are mechanical spacer bar are used as alignment ties. Flexible connectors in combination with fluid cooled spacers are used when the maximum average gas temperature exceeds 900 C in coal and gas fired units and 593C in oil fired units. The type of spacers generally used are transverse spacers and alignment ties. Final SH pipes are used for final SH & RH outlet headers Plates are used For supporting purposes.e. Alignment ties are used to maintain pitch between tubes in the same assembly i. A tube from low temperature SH header (I utility boilers this tube is taken form Front SCW inlet header) will be taken and passed across the coil assemblies along the furnace width.3.Ta 347H Gr. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 13 In the case of fluid cooled spacers.SA240 SA182 ----. 9%Cr. SA213 T91 SA 335P91 635 C Used in SH Platen. Mechanical spacer bars in combination with alignment band are used at temperatures below these.347 F347 tube portion of platen SH.SH Final 0. The pendant spaced sections have lot of offset bends only to accommodate these small size spacers. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 11 6.

DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 14 SUPPORTS & SUSPENSION OF SUPERHEATER/REHEATER: The vertical or pendant superheaters or reheaters are suspended from the ceiling and horizontal coils are either self supported or supported by hanger tubes. The pendant superheaters and reheaters are separately suspended by high crown supports.4. The entire tube will be resting on support lugs which are welded to tubes of coil assemblies as shown in Fig.Learning modules material. Fin welded walls have flats welded in between tubes rigidly and the walls are gas tight. Bar strips will be welded over the band in between tubes to maintain SL and the entire band will be resting on support lugs which will be welded with the tubes of coil assembly.The spacers are all made of stainless steel. The end plates will be suspended from the ceiling by means of tie rod assemblies. The radiant roof will be of peg fin welded construction where these small pieces of flats are welded along the length of each tube with gap and there will be gap in between 22 . The fin welded walls are an improvement over skin cased enclosures where the walls are peg finned. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 15 SUPERHEATER WALLS: In power boiler. Mechanical spacer is a scalloped bar which will be running across the assemblies over the alignment band and the first tube of alternate assemblies will be connected with this bar by U-Rod . High crown plates are welded on either side of the seal band which is already welded on wither side of the seal band which is already welded to the terminals tubes of coil assemblies as shown in Figure. the tangent ties are welded in between tubes at the top row to transfer the load from center to end terminals on either side. The ends of high crown plates will be welded to end plates. In pendant SH or RH Assemblies.Engineering (FB) flowing inside the tube. The Horizontal superheaters are supported by Economiser hanger tubes thro tube saddles as shown in Figure 1. But the superheater walls are fin welded whereas water walls are fusion welded. The headers which are required for supports will be independently suspended from the ceiling thro tie rod assemblies. the horizontal and rear passes are covered by superheater walls just like furnace is covered by superheater walls just like furnace is covered by waterwalls. On either side of Eco Hgr. After the spacer passes through all assemblies the same will be routed thro the gap available between assembly and side wall and it will be connected with low temperature SH header. tube these saddles are welded along the length and the other side of saddles is welded to horizontal tubes of LTSH. Alignment band is a strip of 5 mm and height of Maximum 100 mm is wound all round the assembly as shown in figure and the ends are welded. So the load available at terminal tubes will be transferred to end plates by high crown plates. These saddles provide very good spacer cooling from close tube contact and permits each horizontal tube to be picked up individually from the hanger tubes.

Learning modules material.Tubing list of RH.SH. Spacer lug b. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 16 COMPONENTS OF SUPERHEATER/REHEATER 1) Super Heater / Reheater circuits 2) Roof seal band 3) Heat shields 4) Connectors (i) Flexible Male connectors (ii) Flexible Female connectors 5) Lugs a.SH.Engineering (FB) adjacent tubes also these gaps are covered by castable refractory. RH & Economiser Arrangement Data (Ref :Annex:A) CPT 1501 . Lifting lug 6) Flats 7) Welding bifurcate DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 17 INPUT REQUIRED: (A) BPP transmittals: CPT 1301 . Economiser(Ref:Annex:C) (B) PPA drawing: General Arrangement Drg Sectional Side Elevation – Upper/First pass (C) Applicable standards (if any) of Roof seal band Flexible male/female connectors 23 . Support lug c.

The minimum Bend Radius that is feasible in shop based on the tube diameter. Pendant platen Superheater iii. 24 . The design of the individual reheater circuits are done based on the BPP transmittal which gives the tubing list along with the different material specification that should be used. no of circuits.Learning modules material. The position and location constraints are obtained from the PPA – GA drg.Engineering (FB) Lifting Lug Spacer Lug Support Lug DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 18 VARIANT OF REHEATER: (i) No of stages ( single or Double) (ii) No of elements (iii) Usage of connectors or Alignment bands VARIANT OF SUPERHEATER: In a 500 MW Boiler. Superheating of steam takes place in 3 stages: i) Low Temp Superheater (LTSH) ii) Divisional panellete iii) Final Vertical platen Superheater In a 250 MW Boiler. For Choosing Coil Bend Radius use ‘List of Rotary Bending Tools’ (Refer Annex :F). Final Vertical Spaced Superheater DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 19 1) SUPERHEATER COILS: The material specification. Low temp Superheater (LTSH) ii. design temperature and pressure are obtained from the BPP transmittal – CPT 1501 and CPT 1701 gives the rough sketch with welding bifurcation and location with respect to roof. Superheating of steam takes place in 3 stages: i. along with the approximate length of each specified tube. The designer shall ensure that material transistion doesn’t occurs at the bend of the tubes.

The distance between the end bar are governed by the overall size of the reheater coils and this is given in the PPA drawings. The roof seal band varies with the diameter of the coil tube. pitch distance between the two circuits.Engineering (FB) 2) ROOF SEAL BAND: Roof seal band are provided with the coil assembly for the purpose of transferring the load of the coils to the roof girders. which is given by the Stress Analysis dept. The end bar transfers the load to the ceiling. The plate width is governed by the entire assembly load. Dimension of the roof seal band and hi crown support is determined by the load carried by the reheater coil. It transfers the entire load of the coil through the Hi-crown plate.Learning modules material. DESIGN STANDARDS OF SH/RH COILS & HEADERS FOR 500 MW PRESSURE PARTS/PRODUCT ENGINEERING 20 Inputs from BPP to LAYOUTS: Drawings         Proposal drawing Scheme of water and steam Scheme of air and gas path Scheme of pulverizer system Scheme of oil system Basic scheme of spout cooling water Secondary air fan and tertiary air fan selection Piping for GL/BL system Transmittals        Boiler parameters Special operating conditions Soot blower selection data Furnace and back pass sketch Wind box selection data Mill selection data Feeder selection data 25 . which is welded with the End bar.

Engineering (FB)                   Fuel pipe data SH. RH and Economizer arrangement data Air heater selection data SH. These drawings will be useful for manufacturing and erection purposes.Learning modules material. RH and Economizer arrangement sketch SCAPH selection data Duct design data FD fan specification ID fan specification PA fan specification GR fan specification Header and piping list for SH. Inputs:     BPP Transmittals PPA sketches Layout drawings Contract specification and scope 26 . RH and Economizer Header and piping list for circulating system Safety valve selection data Pent house cooling fan selection data Flow measurement device characteristics and data Contact data sheet ESP ash tank data Pressure part arrangement group prepares the detailed drawings of the Pressure Parts of boiler. Pressure parts include steam and water circuits starting from the Economiser inlet header to the Main Steam supply line and Reheater Assemblies.

and geometries. interferences. type of drum internals. screen dryer or turbo separator etc may vary During DDR.Engineering (FB)  Proposal BOM from BPP Activity Sequence           Preparation of applicable PGMA Preparation of PP specification review list Preliminary strength calculation Preparation of material forecast IBR fees payment based on heating surface area of boiler For NTPC contracts.Learning modules material. a pressure parts schedule is prepared DDR as per CCST in theory Inputs : BPP transmittal PPA drawings For new designs Coil arrangement drawings are drawn to scale for verifying the inner tube allowances. For industrial boilers. design of vertical coils is interlinked with design of suspensions for the same Pressure parts and their corresponding supports are released together Sequence is usually  Drum  Top header  Upper belt of panels  Roof panels  Middle portion  Lower panels including re heater  Bottom headers   IBR submission Erection welding schedule preparation     27 .

Engineering (FB)  Unit material diagram preparation Various Drawings prepared by this group:     General arrangement of pressure parts Expansion movement diagram Plan over headers and links of furnace Ceiling loading plan Various Schemes supplied for the execution of above     Scheme of boiler water and steam with valves and fittings and instrumentation Scheme of boiler water circulating pumps with valves fittings and instrumentation Scheme of SH and RH system with valves fittings and Instrumentation Scheme of soot blowing system with valves fittings and Instrumentation Stress Analysis Stress analysis group carryout the stress analysis for following components             Drums and hanger rods Hanger tubes Ceiling loading Pressure parts hanger rods Header lugs Furnace guide loads Horizontal tube support spacing Header nipple flexibility VLH and CLH Roof tubes supports Flexible connections Steam cooled spacer 28 .Learning modules material.

3 Boiler Mountings Inputs:        Contract scheme of water and steam circuit from BPP BPP Transmittals GA drawings Instrumentation required from C and I Contract and tender spec PPA drawings Dished end tappings for Drum 29 .2.Engineering (FB)      Height of header above roof Strap type support PANTO support Bent tube lugs U-rod supports           Collector channel Washer plates Thermal expansion movements MS support lines and links Drum rocker settings Allowable deviations in tube bends Vibration sobers Fin width Fillet weld designations Eco inlet header support 2.Learning modules material.

Scheme of boiler water circulating pump with valves.  After preparation of the schemes. Based on the transmittals received this group orders for the pumps and control valves 2. Collection of water and steam mixture raised through water walls and Scheme of water and steam circuit with valves. fittings and instrumentation Scheme of soot blower piping with valves. fittings and Apart from the schemes mentioned above. this group involves in designing. Japan for circulating pumps.4 Ducts and Damper This group deals with        Ducts Dampers Guillotine gates Expansion joints Duct support Flow measuring device Guide vanes 30 .2. quoting and procurement of sub delivery items like   Control valves Circulating pumps NTPC approved vendors for procurement of circulating pumps are Hayward Tyler. and KSB. valve schedule will be provided. fittings and instrumentation Scheme of super heater and re-heater steam circuit with valves.K.Engineering (FB) This group prepares the following layouts. control valves and block valves.   instrumentation    riser tubes. fittings and instrumentation. Apart from the above two BHEL approved Torishima. U. Transmittals will be sent from BPP about pump characteristics. Germany.Learning modules material.

Its thickness will be 4 mm to 8 mm and the expansion rate is 1mm/100°c/1m. Three types of duct support are there bottom support. but by providing Guillotine gate one can achieve 99.Engineering (FB) The ducts are designed for flue gas.To absorb thermal movements. It gives an efficiency of 98. Ducts are made of IS2062 carbon steel. Dampers are used when 100% leak proof is required. top support. Flow measuring devices like Airfoil in secondary air and venturimeter in primary air. Location of guillotine gate:        PA Fan outlet ESP inlet ESP outlet ID Fan inlet ID Fan outlet Hot air mill inlet Cold air mill outlet Types of dampers   Biplane damper Louver damper 31 . Guillotine gates are big in structure so cannot be used inside the furnace. expansion joints are provided. Generally in ID Fan.Learning modules material. dampers will be used. In case of space restriction. and restraints to restrict the expansion movement in the desired direction. guillotine gates will be provided.      Dead load Live load Pressure load Ash load Wind load Dampers are used for isolation.98% efficiency. It is only a on/off system. Guide vanes are provided to distribute the flow The following loads are considered in the Design the Ducts. and primary air circuits.5%. secondary air.

four tall windboxes (combustion air boxes) are arranged. The coal nozzles are sandwiched between air nozzles or compartments.5 Fuel Systems Firing Systems Coal Firing Systems      Tangential Firing system Wall firing (turbulent/vortex burners) Direct firing/Indirect firing Stoker firing Fluidised Bed combustion Tangential Firing System: In tangentially fired boilers.Learning modules material. The same elevation of coal nozzles at 4 corners are fed from a single coal mill.2. The coal burners or coal nozzles are located at different levels or elevations of the windboxes. one below the bottom coal nozzle and one 32 . That is. one at each corner of the furnace. The number of coal nozzle elevations are equivalent to the number of coal mills. air nozzles are arranged between coal nozzles.Engineering (FB) Location of dampers:       FD Fan outlet SAH air inlet SAH air outlet PAH air inlet PAH air outlet AH Gas inlet Types of expansion joints:   Metallic joint Non-metallic joint 2. In some designs one mill feed two elevations of burners.

For a boiler equipped with 10 mills. The air nozzles in between coal nozzles are termed as „Auxiliary Air nozzles‟.ach oil gun is associated with an ignitor arranged at the side. ignition energy availability and thus combustion efficiency. DE . a portion is supplied by primary air fans that goes to coal mill for drying and carrying the pulverised coal to the coal nozzles. E. This primary air flow quantity is decided by the coal mill load and the number of coal mills in service. 2. The coal fuel and combustion air streams from these nozzles or compartments are directed tangential to an imaginary circle at the centre of the furnace. Combustion Air Distribution: Of the total combustion air. The auxiliary air nozzles are designated by the adjacent coal nozzles. is admitted immediately around the coal fuel nozzles (annular space around the casting insert) into the furnace. A portion of secondary air (normally 30% to 40%) called 'Fuel Air'. individual burner load. BC. EF. and the top most and bottom most air nozzles as „End Air Nozzles‟. HJ and JK from bottom to top. Each of the coal fuel nozzles and auxiliary and end air nozzles is provided with a louver type regulating damper at the air entry to individual nozzle or compartment. and counting front water wall left corner as '1'. the coal nozzle elevations are generally designated as A.H.J and K from bottom to top. 33 . D. like AB. This creates a turbulent vortex motion of the fuel. B. The rest of the secondary air called 'Auxiliary Air' is admitted through the auxiliary air nozzles and end air nozzles.Learning modules material. GH. The proportioning of air flow between the various coal fuel nozzles and auxiliary air nozzles is done based on boiler load. The four furnace corners are designated as 1. The quantity of secondary air (fuel air + auxiliary air) is dictated by boiler load and controlled by FD Fan inlet guide vane regulation. C. air and hot gases which promotes mixing. Each pair of coal nozzle elevations is served by one elevation of oil burners located in between the auxiliary air nozzles. by a series of air dampers. If there are 'n' number of coal nozzles per corner there will be (n+1) number of air nozzles per corner. F. FG.Engineering (FB) above the top coal nozzle. the bottom end air nozzles as AA and the top end air nozzle as KK. The balance of the combustion air. CD. (or 5 double ended tube mills). and the coal oil burners in service. The primary air flow rate is controlled at the air inlet to the individual mills by dampers. is provided from FD Fans.G. referred as Secondary Air. 3 and 4 in clockwise direction looking from top.

Learning modules material.Engineering (FB) Wall firing The desired intensity and completeness of pulverized fuel combustion in the furnace space can be achieved through the proper supply and intermixing of pulverized fuel with 34 .

and is discharged at the other end as ash. There are a variety of stoker grates viz.   Non -catenary type Catenary type Oil Firing Fuel Oil Atomisation 35 . Bagasse. Stoker Firing: Among renewable energy sources bio . Travelling grate stoker is unique in its design and is capable of burning variety of bio-mass fuels as well as burning coal . inclined grates.Learning modules material. To overcome this .. It may be fixed or tiltable burners which facilitate combustion control. The travelling grate stoker has a firing bed which moves continuously between two sprockets . It has circular cross section. vibrating grates. wood chips etc These bio-mass fuels are efficiently burnt in stoker grates. the generating units are operated using bagasse whenever available and for the rest of the periods the unit can be operated with other fossil fuels like coal or with other bio-mass fuels like bark.. Hence the travelling grate stoker is otherwise called as continuous ash discharge stoker (CAD) There are two types of travelling grate stokers viz. the bio-mass fuels from Sugar mills. There are two main types of burners. The choice is based on their capacity and application. The intermixing in the furnace space is ensured mainly by an appropriate arrangement of burners on the furnace walls and by providing a particular aerodynamic pattern of jets in the furnace space.mass fuel occupy an important place. They are mainly employed with high reactive fuels. coconut shell. It can be used with any kind of solid fuel but are used mostly widely for low volatile grades. is being utilised for generating steam and power. dust air mixture and secondary air are fed as whirled (turbulized) jets which form a cone shaped expanding flame in the furnace space. peanut husk.Engineering (FB) secondary air in a burner assembly. Fuel starts burning at one end. As sugar cane cultivation is seasonal. dump grates and travelling grates . roller grates.. availability of bagasse is not ensured throughout the year. which release heat for steam generation. Straight flow burners: Burners of this type turbulise the air flow less substantially and produce a long ranging jet with a low expansion angle and weak intermixing of the primary and secondary flow.is this necessary? Turbulent Burners: In this burner.

So.Engineering (FB) Atomisation is the process of spraying the fuel oil into fine mist. Fuel oil strainers Fuel oil strainers or filters are essential to prevent the mechanical impurities reaching the small clearance and intricate passages in the screw pump. HFO suction strainers are provided with SS mesh of 500 microns filtration and LFO suction and HFO discharge strainers are provided with SS mesh of 250 microns filtration. In steam coil heater steam is allowed to pass through the coil to heat the fuel oil up to the required temperature. So to maintain the flow ability fuel oil heaters are used. whereas a gear pump can develop pressure upto 1000 kpa and the vane pump can develop pressure up to 70000 kpa. Normally screw pump is used for pumping the fuel oil up to required pressure. In electrical heaters the heat energy induced by the electrical supply to the coils is used for heating the fuel oil. For satisfactory atomisation the viscosity shall be within 15 to 20 cst. viscosity of the oil is the major parameter which decides upon the atomisation level. The screw pump can be operated at high speeds (around 4500 RPM) compared to the gear pump and vane pump. In other words the pouring temperature of fuel oil is higher than the atmospheric temperature. for better mixing of the fuel oil with the combustion air for efficient combustion. Heaters: The viscosity of fuel oil at atmospheric temperature is very high. While passing through the spray nozzles of the oil gun. Also it can develop very high pressure i. Fuel Oil Pump & Heaters Pumping the oil is a major preparatory work on fuel oils for atomization and burning. 36 . The main advantage of screw pump is that it is vibration free and hence a smooth pulsation free delivery of oil is possible. which breaks up the oil stream into fine particles. There are two types of heaters namely steam coil heater and electrical heater. Other than pressure. The fuel pumps used in the fuel pumping house are of positive displacement type. A positive displacement pump causes a liquid to move by trapping a fixed amount of fluid and then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. Poorly atomised fuel oil would mean bigger spray particles which takes longer burning time resulting in carry over and makes the flame unstable due to low rate of heat liberation and incomplete combustion.Learning modules material. 150000 kpa. The screw pump is compact in design and more silent in operation compared to the gear pump and vane pump. the pressure energy of the fuel oil is converted into velocity energy. it can be directly coupled to the driving motor.e.

the changeover may be effected by opening and closing the isolation valves. This group involves in      Material Handling Coal firing Oil system Feeders and Handling equipment Air system Inputs required:      Scheme of pulveriser system and instrumentation Scheme of oil system GA of boiler Fuel pipe diameter Mill selection data from BPP 37 . the oil gun is scavenged with steam to keep the small intricate passages of the atomiser parts clean. Suitable alarms are provided to indicate such clogged filters. Certain designs employ stationary oil guns and utilize cooling air to keep the guns protected from heat. which keeps it relatively cool. to burn out the oil. The clogged strainer should be immediately cleaned in solvent. there is no further flow of oil or steam. the other is serviceable. Air Cooled Oil Gun: The atomiser assembly of an operating oil gun is protected from the hot furnace radiation by the flowing fuel oil and steam. in order to protect the atomizers from damages due to overheating. Before such changeovers it is necessary that the standby strainer is filled with oil to avoid air locking and for smooth continued running of the pump. wiped and air blown and replaced in position for ready availability. Before stopping the oil burner.Engineering (FB) When one of the strainers is in line.Learning modules material. Oil gun is always scavenged with associated igniter in service. it is required to withdraw the oil gun from firing position or provide some other means provided. when the pressure drop across the operating element exceeds the set value. Strainer and strainer baskets must always be clean. Once the burner is stopped. Under such situation.

one for isolation and other for control Isolation valve is controlled manually.   The schematic diagram of the gravimetric feeder is as shown in figure.Engineering (FB)      Windbox selection Furnace sketch Key plan of boiler GA of mill Vertical bracing arrangement There are two types of fuel systems used for Fossil boilers   Gravimetric Feeder Volumetric Feeder In the case of gravimetric feeders weighed coal will be sent to the boiler.  Weighed coal will be sent to the mill through the feed pipe. whereas flow regulating valve is motor controlled. The schematic diagram of the gravimetric feeder is as shown in figure followed by its working. In the case of volumetric feeder.Learning modules material.   25mm crushed coal will be supplied to raw coal bunker Raw coal bunker outlet will be connected to feeder by means of coal valves and downspout    Two no. of coal valves will be used. Height of the bunker above the feeder will be such that seal air sent to feeder must not escape through the downspout. 38 . volume-measuring system will be adopted. Coal reaching the feeder will be conveyed using belt drive Coal weight measurement system will be provided in between to weigh the coal. rather than belt conveyer and weight measuring system.

39 .Engineering (FB) The schematic diagram of the Volumetric Feeder is as shown in figure.Learning modules material.

high moisture content and fibrous nature of biomass-based fuel. 40 . For handling chemical ash in the case of chemical recovery boilers.Engineering (FB) Disadvantage associated with volumetric feeder against the cost advantage is. Typical arrangement diagram for oil system is as shown in the following diagram. Oil Firing scheme For the start-up of the boiler LDO and HFO will be used. drum type feeders will be used. Oil support to the boiler will be continued till the load reaches 30% and above this oil support will be withdrawn. as there will be improper filling in specific volume.Learning modules material. This is because of the high bulk density. In case of industrial boilers. as the chemical ash is highly corrosive. drag link chain feeder will be used. the heat-input measurement in terms of volume for solid fuels is inaccurate.

Learning modules material. Various components in which insulation is provided are as follows           Insulation: Insulation is the material which resists the heat flow from one medium to other.Engineering (FB) As the heavy fuel oil is highly viscous. Types of Insulation Materials: Furnace bottom Rear arch Roof tubes Second pass header Furnace first pass & second pass Tubes and pipes >60°c Fuel lines Down comers. Apart from above. economiser coils.2. This results in fewer chances of choking of fuel line. oil lines Main steam line Enclosure area 41 .6 Lining and Insulation Wherever the temperature of components is more than 60oC. insulation needs to be provided in all those areas in order to prevent the accidental damage to men and material working in the area. there is need for heating. this group also involves in handling equipments like       Fan Circulating pumps Air heater and SCAPH Mills Pressure parts (LTSH and ECO) Furnace maintenance platform 2.

enclosures. oil lines and EP. Service temperature 650oC & density 650 Kg /m3.Learning modules material. and Pipe lines. Ducts. their usage. ducts. Service Temperature: 550 C & Density: 100 Kg / m3.  Pourable Insulation This material is used in pent house roof deck and water wall Buckstays.  The other insulation Materials are    Lining : Lining is the material which can withstand high temperature.  Calcium Silicate Slab This material is used on water walls. Insulating Bricks. Different types of lining. pipes.Engineering (FB)  Lightly Bonded Wool Mattress    Rock wool Slag Wool Glass Wool This material is used on water walls. 42 . Asbestos Mill Board Asbestos Rope. Service temperature 600oC & density 350 Kg /m3. temperature upto which they may withstand the heat and their densities are as follows.

Learning modules material. cross girders and intermediate beams. Both pressure part and non pressure part system contribute vertical load due to mass and horizontal load due to pressure. 2. expansion etc. Repeaters. Critical pipes and also takes care of loads due to platforms provided for access and maintenance purpose. 43 . Soot blowers.Engineering (FB) . Super heaters. Economizers and these masses will be supported at the top most ceiling level of boiler through a ceiling grid consisting of main girders.7 Boiler Supporting Structure Introduction A boiler is made up of complex masses either hanging or ground / floor supported. Hot and Cold air ducting. Water wall.2. The boiler structure also supports other equipments like Air heaters. The hanging mass is primarily pressure part system consisting of components like Drum. Fuel pipes. The boiler structure is analyzed for all the above loads and sized using advanced software packages. A boiler supporting structure primarily does the function of supporting all the above masses for vertical as well as horizontal forces and safely transfers the load to foundation. Further a boiler structure is subjected to dynamic loads like wind/seismic forces.

Learning modules material. Main Brace Level (MBL) / Horizontal Floor analysis etc. which in turn will transfer the force to ground. beam. In short. cross girders.e. vertical bracing in both longitudinal and transverse directions along with horizontal floors and bracing system at different levels. FLAT and bought out program like STAAD PRO”. Counter balancing couples of reactions at column bases will resist the external moment created by the horizontal forces at the column base. Main Boiler structural Frame. All the mainframe analysis. These vertical bracings will transfer the horizontal load in X-X (along the axis of boiler/longitudinal) and Y-Y (transverse/perpendicular to boiler axis) directions to the column base.. Boiler ID system frames like Before ESP. all vertical loads will be transferred to columns through beams/ girders or directly like Airheater loads and the vertical load from columns are transferred to foundations through suitable base plates. beams. Analysis of main boiler structure can be done in two ways namely 2-D or Plane Frame Analysis. intermediate beams. The complete boiler structure is analyzed in 3 to 4 separate 3D structural models i. These guide forces either due to stability or due to wind/seismic will be transferred to boiler main braced levels and horizontal bracings at these levels will transfer these guide forces further to the vertical bracing planes. The boiler structure primarily does the function of supporting the loads due to all the boiler equipments and platforms /floors (vertical) as well as wind and seismic loads (horizontal) and transfers the loads to the foundation. Since the basic pressure part system is hanging and subjected to downward thermal expansion the horizontal load transfer from pressure part to main boiler structure is affected by means of boiler guides. For seismic analysis of boiler structure. MAIN.Engineering (FB) Structural Arrangement and Load Transfer Mechanism: A boiler supporting structure is a steel structure of complicated arrangement consisting of girders. are accomplished with the help of computer programs “like in house program Anchoring System. The base shear will be transferred to the foundation through suitable shear lug provision at the bottom of base plate. 44 . After ESP and Near Chimney. The boiler structural frame will consist of columns. ceiling analysis.. which will be transferred to vertical bracing nodal points at those elevations. It acts in a composite form/ integrated form to resist all the induced forces on the structure. dynamic analysis using response spectrum method as per code IS 1893:2002 is performed. The horizontal load acting on the boiler at various locations will be picked up locally by horizontal bracing of main braced levels. vertical bracing and sometimes horizontal bracing are also included for the analysis. columns. 3D or Space Frame Analysis.

Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)

Methods of Design: The column / bracing sizes taken from the STAAD output file “Member Selection” are altered to suit the available raw material inventory using program like “ALDESIGN” and “Opt-Plus”. The beam sizes will be designed by taking the forces from the STAAD output file “Member forces “and also the force actually coming in the beam like Floor & Duct load etc,. For Ceiling Structures separate IN HOUSE DEVELOPED PROGRAM will be used to prepare the input file and analyzed in the STAAD.

Engineering transmittals and material forecast: The material forecast will be prepared based on the above and send to Material Planning for the purpose material procurements in advance. The Engg Transmittals are prepared incorporating the final sizes of the members. Based on the transmittal the fabrication, the erection drawings and documents are prepared using the IN HOUSE DEVELOPED DETAILING PROGRAM (SCAD) & AUTOCAD. All foundation analysis, sizing of members for boiler supporting structure, ID structure and lift structure is done through computer programs which enables an accurate and optimum design in the least possible time with error free calculation. Timely release of foundation drawings and design documents are possible due to implement of software in each stage of analysis and design.

Sequence of Design         Arrangement of vertical bracings and MBL Preparation of foundation loading table and anchoring detail for main boiler Design of Buckstays and preparation of transmittal DDR for Buckstays through program DDR for galleries and stairs Modeling in STAAD, PRO and analysis Submission of foundation drawings to customer Collection of boiler GA drawings, key plan, floor extension sketches, and vertical bracing arrangement drawings from layout.

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Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)
     Collection of vertical chunk load data from sections of PE Calculation of live and dead load Calculation of the wind load Transfer of PP furnace guide loading to MBL Modeling of column , beams, vertical bracings, member releases, member properties and support Addition of vertical load to the model Stabilization of model with wind loading Analysis of model of various load combinations Perform dynamic analysis Design of interconnecting platforms Lift structures Economizer handling structures Mill platform Mill handling structures Machine room structure

         

46

Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)

Flow chart representing the input and output of Structural Design

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Learning modules material.Engineering (FB) Weight Breakup of Boiler Structural 42% Pressure Parts 26% Ducts 14% L&I 10% Fuel Firing 6% C&I 1% Handling system 1% Comparison of Boilers (Typical) Capacity (MW) Flow (TPH) Weight (MT) PGMA (No.) No of DU 500 1675 31000 820 25000 250 810 14700 640 18000 210 700 12000 620 16000 120 390 7800 550 10000 60 160 4100 300 5000 48 .

OCF calculation Heating Surface Area calculation for 500MW boilers and Fan Selection          49 .Engineering technical engineering design fortran programs Operations and Maintenance manual management system Plant modeling The works dealt till now are  Developed a comprehensive O&M Generation and Management System covering aspects from preparation to despatch featuring online viewing of O&M Manuals and easy status tracking Automated PDF document generation and successful deployment in CPT and BCR systems Enhanced security features in online viewing of Dolphin drawings Implemented BCR monitoring system Developed CPT workflow system with extensions to general engineering transmittals Deployed Design Directives. Technical Information and CIP‐Contract Information package in quest Automated generation of 25 CPTs Enhanced Windows‐based Integrated IBP/AH/Mill programs and link programs for selection of Auxiliaries Completed IBP Input & Output storage to database for integration with CPT generation systems Developed programs for ESP Selection.3 Information Technology Systems And Services The main functions of the department are          Develop programs for Engineering cycle time reduction Engineering process automation BCR monitoring system Erection drawing viewing system Collaborator documents transfer system Development of Dolphin drawing management system Re. Chimney Selection. Duct Sizing.Engineering (FB) 2. Drum Length calculation.Learning modules material.

Metals. R&M) C&I Centre Quality assurance and control (QAC/C&I) 50 . NOWA/WANSYS.Learning modules material. BS. RHBP. ASTM. Filmx and Supernova for super‐critical boilers on temporary server Quest. IEC standards made online Facilitated Tour Management System for FES General Arrangement drawing extracted from PDMS model of Budge Budge project: Boiler sectional side elevation Pressure parts arrangement Layout of cold air ducting plan and elevation Marks a major milestone in plant modeling             2.4 Controls and Instrumentation Department of Controls and Instrumentation (C&I) has 5 groups as follows      Project management (PM/C&I) Product engineering (PE/C&I) Field engineering services and renovation and modernisation (FES. BIS. an enhanced Technical Information Gateway to access all online engineering applications. including technical reference information with built‐in access control Provided facility for viewing and downloading of Erection Drawings Tender Documents online reference facility was developed & Implemented Developed an online PIR management system to manage developmental projects Implemented CIB System for preserving and accessing CIB documents online.Engineering (FB)    Implemented Single‐stroke multiple load IBP Input Generation system Developed C&I proposal document generation system that generates all the 8 documents Implemented AIX‐based systems.

Intensity discrimination decides based on the quantity of light signal received and flicker frequency discrimination is based on that there will be flicker if coal burns in the boiler. System which is operating with 24 V DC supply got certified by the Canadian Standards Association and 230 V AC supply system is under the process of certification. This reduces the damage by preventive action Flame scanner head assembly will be used to detect the flame inside the Combustion chamber and to transfer the signal to FSSS. Tiruchirapalli and the rest are outsourced. C & I Centre Various Instrumentation getting assembled and tested at C&I centre is      Electronic water level indicator (BHEL VISION 20M) BHELMHO level switch Flame scanner head assembly Acoustic steam leak detector Gravimetric Control Electronic water level indicator is the indigenously developed technology to know the drum level. Logical checks for the steam below water and water above steam also provided to get the correct signal.Engineering (FB) Department of C&I mainly look after all the controls required for the boiler. Based on this sound level it will be found whether steam leak is occurring or not and if it is. Acoustic steam leak detector works on the principle of steam leaking will have some sound with some frequency. 51 . A few of the controls are designed and fabricated in BHEL. By measuring the resistance signal will be passed to activate either green or red bulb to indicate the water or steam. Flexible fibre optic cable will be used to tilt the head as coal nozzle tilts and to transfer the light signal. BHELMHO Level Switch will be used in HP Heaters and condenser drying parts. It works on the principle of intensity discrimination and flicker frequency discrimination. at what location. Steam will have the electrical Resistance in Mega Ohms whereas the same for the water in Kilo Ohms. such that it can be rectified during the maintenance or annual shutdown.Learning modules material. It works on the principle of difference in the electrical resistance of the steam and water.

Apart from the design of FSSS. C&I -Field Engineering Services FES (C&I) activities start with the activities of FES (FB). Furnace safeguard supervisory system is the systems.Learning modules material. attending proposal meetings with clients Digital controls boiler interlocks Burner management system Soot blower control Analog controls drum level control Main steam pressure control Main steam temperature control Furnace pressure control        52 . Activities performed by C & I group  Proposal Activities : Technical offer preparation. Checking or inspection carried out at various stages like raw material inspection.. Site action request and commission action request is the ways of giving complaints. secondary air damper control system and burner management system. in-process inspection and final product inspection. It contains the facilities to trip the boiler or particular equipment at any abnormal operation. which will be raised by site or customer. bill of material preparation.Quality Control and Quality Assurance Quality assurance prepares the plan for various items prepared at BHEL. Responsibility of training the customer for operating the plant will go to FES (C&I). Bangalore. marking of instruments in p & id’s. There are 4 types of quality plans viz. vendor quality plan. FSSS manufactured by EDN. This group designs the furnace safeguard supervisory system. filling up of data sheets. engineering support for obtaining budgetary offer for new items. contract quality plan and reference quality plan. standard quality plan. Quality control is the post quality activities of the purchase order. will be taken care off. It also contains the soot blower control system. this group carries out the procurement of Instruments required. The FES (C&I) group will deal complaints pertaining to commission action request.Engineering (FB) C&I -Product Engineering (PE /C&I): Product engineering activities consist of detailed engineering of activities pertaining to C&I area. C&I. which consist of control systems for all electrical components such that plant works healthy. PG Test and pending work.

Uncontrolled process often end up in creating harms. While doing the same the process should be in our control.Learning modules material. Every process created by us need to be monitored for the datas provided by the process. The solution for providing a efficient control system is to automate the same and having Soft controls to control the same. Pre bid discussions. Evaluation of offers. transmitters Preparation of specifications and Indenting. When the datas are plenty it becomes less possible to track its 53 . The process when controlled manually deprive lot of man power and are less accurate in measurements. Technical recommendation.electronic water level indicator. Scrutiny of vendor documents C&I PRODUCTS & THEIR INTERFACES WITH BOILER CONTROLS” 1) INTRODUCTION 1 2) C&I PRODUCTS 2  GRAVIMETRIC FEEDER 3  BHEL SCAN 12  BHEL VISION 16  BHELSONIC 18  ELECTROMATIC RELIEF VALVE 21  FURNACE TEMPERATURE PROBE 23 INTRODUCTION Every process available with and used by Us were created with an objective and to serve purpose.Engineering (FB)          Cbd tank level control Local instruments Level measurements Direct level gauge .

GRAVIMETRIC FEEDER GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF A GRAVIMETRIC FEEDER The path of the coal flow is from the Bunker Outlet to the Mill and the Gravimetric feeder regulates the flow of the coal in the middle. Automation provides features to have these datas stored and retrived when necessary. The 54 . Quantisation. Alarm generation or Interlock. The purpose of Feeder is to control the speed of the belt according to the fuel demand and hence controlling the Coal flow into the Mill. It avoides frequent opening of Safety valve. BHELSONIC.  ERV. C&I PRODUCTS The Instruments or systems supplied in the Boiler serve any of the following purposes like Indication. When a process is at risk or at saturated level the conditions need to be communicated for further proceedings to be made with respect to the behavior of the process.  FTP. Electromatic relief valve is a supplementary valve to relieve Boiler pressure in addition to Safety valve. Automation has also provided Indication and Alarm features which reach the process owners in the same instant of risk formation.  BHELFEED controls the coal flow. It also creates Boiler trip when the fuel injection is available but the flame is not sensed. The same system also creates Alarm and trip conditions for the starvation and over flow of the drum level. creates alarm and trip interlocks for malfunctioning observed.  BHELVISION indicates the drum water level and also used for Drum level control. Quantize the amount fed into the boiler.  BHELSONIC indicates the Boilertube leaks and creates alarm that are useful in preventing damages to adjacent tubes.Engineering (FB) performance. The In-house products developed by C&I like BHELFEED. The speed of communication is a highly necessary factor when the process is most critical. BHELVISION and BHELSCAN also serve these purposes. Control.Learning modules material.  BHELSCAN indicates the flame availability and the distinguishes the fuel causing the flame. Furnace temperature probe is used to indicate the boiler furnace tem perature during Start up.

lamp indicators for feeder status.. The system contains the 32. controller etc. The electronic assembly mounted to the feeder will have signal conditioning modules for load cell and tachometers. memory. All I/Os are optically isolated with respect to processor and its associated circuits. are provided on the panel door for operator interaction. EURO standard rack mounted. digital circuits and a keyboard display etc. The control system of gravimetric feeder consists of two electronic assemblies. A 32 switch membrane key panel and two row vacuum fluorescent display of 40 characters each. Analog 55 . Load cells measure the change in resistance in strain gauges to measure force. The remote power panel will have all necessary power circuits.Learning modules material. FEEDER GENERAL ARRANGEMENT The Gravimetric Feeder weighing system consists of two load cells to measure the mass on belt. All the I/O modules are intelligent. One mounted along with the feeder and the other a remote power panel at the control room. The controller works on a real time operating system. The controller is a 32 bit embedded processor of Pentium architecture. panel mounted rotary and push button switches.bit microprocessor.Engineering (FB) general arrangement of a feeder has various parts both Mechanical and Electrical for the efficient functioning and data transmission purpose.

the control gives better weighing accuracy and better repeatability as compared to analog electronics based controller.Engineering (FB) circuits used to amplify and convert the load cell outputs are located separately in the feeder local panel. In addition. mode selection etc. for parameter setting. The display / keyboard assembly consists of a vacuum fluorescent display for written communication. in addition to the display of process numerical data. 9 LEDs serve as system status indicators. 56 . Since the feeder control system employs advanced digital processing with 32-Bit microprocessor. feed rate.Learning modules material. material density etc. The keyboard consists of 32 keys with various functions / operations. which indicates totalized weight. motor RPM. The display / keyboard located on the Remote panel door provides the means to communicate and receive information from the processor. The vacuum fluorescent display consists of two lines with 40 characters each.

one pulsar unit is provided with two pulse outputs – one for customer use 57 . the two load cell output signals are summed and the tare is subtracted. Also the system receive two speed signals from two independent speed sensors (tacho-generators) which represent the speed of the feeder belt. The same operation is then performed on the other load cell. The speed signal from the tacho-generator is multiplied by another calibration factor to arrive at a number representing belt travel speed per second.20 mA DC analog feed rate feedback signals to DDCMIS. motor speed. This signal is converted in to a digital signal with high resolution. The display unit has 2 lines of 40 characters each with Vacuum Fluorescent Display. If the signals are valid. coal bulk density etc. This value is compared against parameters stored in temporary memory. The application software computes the feeder delivery as follows: a measurement is taken of the output of one load cell. The result is multiplied by a calibration factor determined during calibration to arrive at weight of material per unit of belt length. self check and self diagnostics. Subsequently the belt speed and weight signals are multiplied together to arrive at the feed rate. The result is then compared to the demand feed rate to determine the error and to vary the feeder belt speed through the variable frequency drive. The embedded software is suitable for controlling the gravimetric feeder in real time. The system provides four numbers of 4 . calibration.Learning modules material. which represent the weight of coal acting on the weigh span. The system is designed to automatically switch to the secondary tacho-generator if the primary tachogenerator fails. The signals are validated and if it is invalid. The mode of operation and parameters are entered through keyboard and the Vacuum Fluorescent Display unit show the status of operation and indicate the values like Feed rate. In addition. The key board with display unit provided on the front door of the remote control panel facilitate user friendly communication which clearly communicate text messages to the operator during parameter setting which are project specific (during initial start-up). the feeder is switched to volumetric operation and the controls use a simulated load cell output generated from historical average value stored in the memory. total coal delivered.Engineering (FB) OPERATIONAL DETAILS: The MPC based feeder control receives signals from the two load cells.

of coal delivered.Engineering (FB) and the other for remote integrator. Data logging and storage of process parameter like total coal consumption. historic density and trip details and recovery of data in the event of power interruption 58 . (For every 100 Kg. Automatic changeover from Gravimetric mode to volumetric mode in case of errors in load cell signals. programming of parameters and display of various status. the pulsar unit will give one pulse output) Each feeder controls shall receive federate demand signal from DDCMIS for feeder speed controls. Providing user interface through Keyboard and display unit by which the feeder controls can be programmed and operated. SALIENT FEATURES : The salient features of the micro Processor based gravimetric feeders are: Automatic digital calibration of feeder to measure and record Tare and Span factors independently requiring no potentiometer adjustments.Learning modules material. This includes setting the mode of operation. The demand signal provided by DDCMIS shall be galvanically isolated 4-20 mA DC.

INTERLOCKS RELATED TO FEEDER : TO START A FEEDER : The following conditions are required to start a Gravimetric feeder in the remote mode. i) Adjacent Oil Elevation should be in service to give start permit to feeder. ii) The Primary air capacity also determines the number of feeders that can be put into service.Engineering (FB) Automatic change over from main tacho to redundant tacho when main tacho fails. 59 .Learning modules material. which assist the operator in system trouble shooting. In built diagnostic features. thus resulting in less down time of the feeder.

SIGNALS GIVEN BY FEEDER : i) Feeder Trip : The Feeder Trip is caused by the following conditions. c) When the feeder is OFF the status indicates that coal fuel is nopt available in that elevation and Oil fuel has to be introduced to support the Elevation flame. The 4-20 mA output given from the Feeder to the SADC system regulates the Secondary Air Damper.  When both the PA fans are in service all the feeders can be put into service provided the start permissive from FSSS is available. When the Feeder is proven the Fuel air damper is in regulating mode according to the boiler load.Engineering (FB)  When no PA fans are in service no feeder can be started. The Feeders corresponding to the lower half elevations should have been provided with other start permissive.  Similarly the remaining feeders also stopped while the other fan trips.Learning modules material. SIGNALS TO OTHER SYSTEMS : a) The Feeder signal are interfaced with the SADC system.  During operation while the PA fan trips the boiler load has to be reduced and hence the feeders corresponding to the upper half elevations are taken out of service. a) Loss of Both tachos. b) Feeder proven signal is given by the feeder when the federate crosses 50%. b) Feeder Discharge plugged c) No coal on Belt in Remote d) Material on belt in local/calibration e) Belt motion monitor timed out f) Motor starter fault g) RPM Deviation h) Coal flow monitor fault 60 .  When only one PA fan is in service only lower half elevations can be put into service.

iv) Feeder Alarm : The Gravimetric Feeder gives Alarm output for the following Conditions.Learning modules material.The signal given to DCS indicates whether the feeder is currently running in Volumetric or gravimetric mode.Engineering (FB) i) Loss of flow j) AIM/AOM/DIM/DOM/PIM module BAD When the feeder trips due to any of the trip condition the Feeder Off signal is given to the FSSS. iii) Feeding Volumetric : When the loadcell difference goes above 12. v) Feeder Running Reverse : The Feeder when taken for maintenance to clean the coal deposited on the belt the feeder will be run in the reverse direction. a) Load cell signals Out of range b) Demand signal out of range c) Loss of any one tacho d) Remote TCI increments too small e) Feed rate Error For all alarm conditions.Feeder Alarm status is communicated to the control system through the Feeder alarm Signal to initiate necessary actions. BHELSCAN 61 .5% of their count feeder switches to Volumetric mode. The operations done locally will be null and void. During this condition feeder cannot be operated from Remote condition. If the same happens for all the feeders then All feeders Off signal is generated which is a condition for Loss of all fuel trip. ii) Feeder in Remote : When the feeder is running in remote mode the Feeder remote signal is available and the feeder cannot be operated locally through Local control panel.

BHELSCAN SYSTEM CONFIGURATION The electrical output of photo diode is amplified by log amplifier. The flame intensity component and flicker component of the signal is separated and processed for characteristic frequencies of coal and oil flame by the control unit which consists of four signal processing card and 2/4 logic card. Advancements in flame detection has moved from just identification to discrimination of flame and processing the multiple flames. 62 . The advantage of the same is the elimination of individual scanners for different type of fuel to discriminating operation for multiple fuels.Learning modules material.Engineering (FB) Flame scanner is a digital and reliable way of flame detection. In the Head electronics a Photodiode is used to convert the light signal to electrical signal. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION : The basic physics of Flame scanner is Light detection. The Head Assembly of the scanner consists of a Quartz lens for collection of light signal and a fibre optic cable for transmission of light signal to the Head electronics. The amplified signal is then compensated for back ground radiation of the furnace. It consists of a Head electronics and a control unit. The further processing of the signal is to derive further observations as inputs for other systems.

to give flame out signal by employing 2/4 logic and establishes the connectivity to DCS through RS232C.Engineering (FB) SIGNAL PROCESSING IN THE BHELSCAN The software ensures discrimination of different flames through proper detection of characteristic flicker frequency range of the flame. all the four corners are centrally monitored by a fifth microcontroller.Learning modules material. For an elevation. 63 .

Learning modules material.  The Flame signal along with the open condition of HFO. FLAME PROCESSOR MODULE INTERFACE FROM BHELSCAN FOR BOILER CONTROLS :  2/4 Flame output from the flame scanner is taken for voting the elevation flame or No flame. The final output of the availability of flame is given through LED outputs. The display mode can be changed with the Mode Pushbutton. The Input signal is conditioned and compared with the previous set values done through Dip switch.Engineering (FB) FLAME PROCESSOR MODULE : The individual flame processor module has the following architecture. 64 . LDO Trip and Nozzle valves shows that the flame is due to Oil firing.

The Conductivity difference between Steam and water is used to distinguish the fluid in the Drum.Learning modules material.  These two signals are supporting the discriminating mode of operation of the BHEL SCAN.  The No Flame signal is an input toElevation No flame which in turn goes to the Unit Flame failure trip.Engineering (FB)  The Flame signal along with the Feeder proven(>50%) feed rate shows that the flame is due to Coal firing. It works on the Principle of Conductivity.  The Intensity of the Flame sensed by the Scanner is given as 4– 20 mA signal to DDCMIS for monitoring purpose. BHELSCAN HEAD PORTION INSTALLATION AT SITE BHEL VISION The BHEL VISION is a Water level Indicator. 65 .

The Steam or the Water in the region induces conductivity as the Electrode is a conductor.  Drum Level control is used in Auto control for 2/3 redundancy in evaluating the drum level along with Direct water level gauge and Level transmitters. The Resistance observed are compared with the set value for that region.Engineering (FB) The Drum tappings are connected with a Pressure vessel in which the fluid are almost at the same operating conditions of the Drum. Steam region will have the higher resistance due to lower conductivity of the range of 200 K ohm.Learning modules material. The level difference is corrected in the software. The output has been indicated through Red and Green LED at the display units fixed at the panel door and in UCB. The Conductivity for the Water is greater than Steam. The Pressure vessel is divided in equal parts. 66 . BHEL VISION AT SITE INTERFACES FOR BHELVISION WITH BOILER CONTROLS:  The Drum level has been transmitted to DDCMIS as 4 – 20 mA output. The Resistance in the electrode is sensed and measured. If the Resistance is high the region has been voted for Steam and for lower resistances water is voted. The level in the pressure vessel does not reflect the Drum level directly due to the density difference of the fluid caused due to the pressure difference between the Drum and the pressure vessel.  The Drum level Low alarm and H igh alarm are used as alarm indications to the Drum water level Low or High status. Water being a good conductor offers less resistance of the order of 100 K ohm. The Electrodes are fit one per region.

BHEL SONIC The BHELSONIC is an advancement of the early days manual tube leak detection. Drum level very high with a 10 seconds delay is ta ken as High trip signal for Master fuel Trip.  There are provisions for disabling the Trip signal also for User’s convenienc e. BHELSONIC SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE BHELSONIC consists of the following operating parts.  The probe fault and the System fault along with the Alarm signals for Drum level are taken to the marshalling panel in DDCMIS. 67 . This system provides early tube leak detection through acoustic emission.Engineering (FB)  The Drum level very low with a 5 seconds time delay is taken as a Low trip signal for Master fuel trip.  Sonic tube assembly makes contact with the boiler tube wall and the acoustic waves passes through it to reach the acoustic sensor.  Similarly.Learning modules material.

 The Field amplifier box eliminates the unwanted ba ckground noise through a filter and amplify the signal. The Scanner displays 0 – 40 dB corresponding to 74 – 114dB in actual sense. 68 .  The Ascertor modules in the panel convert the signal back to voltage and process them and give to the dB scanner.2– 20 mA and it is taken to the panel. SIGNAL PROCESSING IN BHELSONIC  The scanner scans all the channels and displays the amount of leak in the form of sound decibels.  The Voltage to Current convertor produces an output of 02.  The PC attached in the panel gives pictorial representation of the Boiler arrangement through mimic and gives the leak pattern of regions as bargraph.Learning modules material. Trend and history.  The Alarm preset and tim e delay for alarm are set through manual selection.Engineering (FB)  Acoustic sensor converts the acoustic signal to electrical signal.

The application of this valve places at the command of the plant operator a means of instantaneous opening and closing a relief valve on remote header. plus a more uniform line pressure.  The Bhelsonic performs the discrimination of Steam leak and Sootblower operation as both the operations are steam flow. The electromatic relief valve does not replace the spring-loaded safety valve. The relief valve assures more accurate.  The Alarm feature identifies the possible location of steam leak and operator can perform remedial measures to avoid the steam leak causing damage to nearby tubes. it has been designed as a supplementary operating valve that will conserve power and increase efficiency of a steam generating plant. ERV SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE 69 . balanced boiler operation at peak loads. pressure relief valve which can be set for one percent or less differential between opening and closing by means of a pressure sensitive element that precisely and automatically relieves pressures within very close limits.Learning modules material. Rather.Engineering (FB) INTERFACE FOR BHELSONIC WITH BOILER CONTROL:  Sonic tube leak detection has no Trip Interlock attached with it. ELECTROMATIC RELIEF VALVE The Electromatic relief valve is an automatic. Regular spring-loaded safety valves rarely pop in service when the electromatic relief valve reduces safety valve maintenance substantially.  When the leak is detected after the preset time delay Alarm is generated through the Bhelsonic panel. electrically actuated.

ERV opens and the steam is let off and the pressure is relieved. When the steam pressure is in normal operating range. One micro switch with change over on increasing parameter (PSH) and the other on change over on decreasing parameter (PSL) OPERATION: The UCB mounted control station has a 3-position switch. having micro switches with dual set points. and through the contacts of interposing relay. Subsequently. when the steam pressure reduced to the preset low level. The controller is provided with Barksdale make pressure switch (B2S-H32SS). de-energising the solenoid valve. The probe consisting of: 70 . The DC supply gets connected to the ERV solenoid valve through contacts of this DC contactor and the ERV opens. DC power contactor housed in local (in ERV controller) gets 220VDC power supply and gets energised.Learning modules material. Hence. the relay coil of the interposing relay mounted in the relay panel gets energised. the pressure switch also gets connected in series with the contactor relay coil.off. Solenoid valve closes and ERV closes closing steam line. the DC supply to the contactor is cut off and the solenoid valve is not energised and hence in closed position. When the switch is in "MANUAL" position. normal operation continues without affecting the process even if process pressure overshoots using ERV control INTERFACE WITH BOILER CONTROL : The ERV valve opening and close status are available at the DDCMIS to ensure the action taken against the Boiler pressure relief. contactor is energised and power supply reaches the solenoid valve energising and opening it. FURNACE TEMPERATURE PROBE The furnace temperature probe is intended to measure the temperature in the furnace during the initial start-up of boiler. the PSL resets and the control supply to the contactor is cut . relieving the steam pressure. The ERV remains open so long the switch is in "manual" position and closes when the switch is turned to the "OFF" position. the PSH is activated.Engineering (FB) ERV PRESSURE SWITCH : The electromatic safety valve is provided with local controller. When the switch is in "OFF" position. the DC supply is not extended to the contactor coil. When the steam pressure reaches a preset relief high level. When the switch is in "AUTO" position.

v. LS-S resets tripping ‘RET’ power contactor and tripping the power to probe motor. FTP stops at the forward end. the limit switch LS-R changes over to thus cutting off power supply to the 'EXT' power contactor. iii.Al thermocouple measures the furnace temperature and fed to DDCMIS for remote indication. 71 . ‘NO’ contact of the same energises the RA contactor. ii. the interposing relay ‘R4’ is energised from DDCMIS. When probe motor gets over-loaded FTP will be retracted to home position. thus bringing the probe to its ‘home position’. Limit switches for ‘Probe extended’ and ‘Probe retracted’ positions. When the temperature exceeds 540°C. Power contactor 'EXT' energises and hence the electrical drive is switched ‘ON’ and the probe advances to furnace. A duplex chromel . The probe can be retracted from the forward end position by pressing ‘RET’ pushbutton from the field or by ‘Retract’ command from DDCMIS. An electrical drive to extend or retract the probe as necessary. A helipot potentiometer for remote position indicator. ii. OPERATION : Switch on the power supply switch (PSS). The limit switch LS -S is provided to monitor the home position of the probe. if it is energised already and probe withdraws to home position as described above. If intentionally the probe is to be retracted to its home position during the advance / retract cycle of operation. The contactor RET energises and trips ‘EXT’ contactor. Temperature probe can be stopped inside the furnace at any location within its operating range by pressing ‘STOP’ pushbutton or by giving ‘STOP’ command from DDCMIS. This can be used for measuring the temperature of furnace at any location. Once the probe reaches the ‘home position’ the limit switch ‘LS-S’ stops probe operation.Alumel thermocouple mounted at the tip of the probe. Once the probe reaches the home position.Learning modules material. Press the 'EXT' push-button from field or ‘extend’ command from DDCMIS to advance the probe. press the retract push button / give retract command from DDCMIS. Local push-button integral with the probe for local operations.Engineering (FB) i. FTP INTERLOCKS : i. The Cr. iv. From that particular location FTP can be advanced/ retracted using extend/retract commands. Once the probe reaches the fully extended position.

to register steady temperature. 2. FTP is meant for Reheater Protection. EXT & RET are provided in the starter box for annunciation. At any position temperature probe can be stopped by pressing ‘Stop PB’ from local or from DDCMIS. v. Spare potential free contacts for X1. 4-20mA signal will be provided from the local starter box to DDCMIS.Engineering (FB) iii. Key Activities are as follows Project Follow – Up Project Follow–up consist of    Advice to customer/site on pre-commissioning checks Support to customer/site in commissioning and trial operation Feed back to the concerned Engineering sections regarding technical problems /equipment performance Recommendations with required documents for repair / modification in case of failure Disposition of CARs and customer complaints Technical directives to site/Region Feed back to similar units for corrective and preventive action Coordination of interface activities between Engineering sections and site during repair/modification       72 . The Operator should ensure fluid flow in the Reheater when the set temperature is acquired. INTERFACE WITH BOILER : FTP has no part to play with the Boiler control and it is used only for the Indication purpose. X2. For remote position indication of temperature probe position. 74. iv. X3. Probe in operation and probe motor overloaded indications are provided in the starter box.Learning modules material.5 FES AND R&M: Field Engineering Services Activities of field engineering services start after the erection of boiler.

Engineering (FB) Performance Testing Performance Testing Includes      Functions:  Clarification (CL) : Performance Guarantee test Proposal Performance Evaluation test Proposal Performance Guarantee test reports. 73 . Complaints requiring only Clarifications / advice without involving any material supply / man power are classified under this category. FES activity is complete when the clarification is furnished.  Material supply (MS): Problems for which materials are to be arranged / supplied are categorized under Material Supply. Phase I is completed with the following activities:    Sending of WO Request to Contracts as per format 353-012 Receipt of WO from Contracts Group DDR as applicable (No DDR required for raw material supply or repeat manufacturing of NS-I document) Communicate the proposed action to Contracts / Site / Customer as applicable.  Phase II is completed with the following activities:  Contracts will arrange for material supply to BHEL site / Customer and inform FES on despatch of materials.Learning modules material. Performance Evaluation test report Performance test data. Phase -I activity of FES is complete when the Work Order is obtained and document is released (if required) by FES and communicated to customer /site.

No material supply is involved from the unit. Wherever material supply is needed. These are referred to concerned Engineering sections whenever required and FES coordinates for solution. Phase II is completed with the following activities:   Material supply will be organized by BHEL site / customer as applicable. it will be construed as the issue is resolved satisfactorily with the customer and treated as closed. Phase I is completed when suitable advice to customer / BHEL site is communicated. if required. FES will further follow-up for implementation and for obtaining feedback. man-power and work schedule. If no complaints are reported within three months of the implementation. it will be construed as the issue is resolved satisfactorily with the customer and treated as closed. If no complaints are reported within three months of the implementation. However. Follow up of implementation and feedback on performance will be done by FES as Phase II activity. On receipt of material at site. FES will coordinate with the BHEL site / customer enabling them to arrange material.Engineering (FB)  On receipt of material at site. Based on the recommendation.  Engineering Analysis (EA) : Complaints received from customer / BHEL site requiring engineering analysis for deciding the solution are classified under this Category. Phase I is completed with the following activities.  Generic problem (GP) :  Generic Problems are those which are repetitive in nature for more than three times either in the same boiler or in different boilers.  Site work (SW) : Based on the advice / solution recommended by FES. FES will further follow-up for implementation and for obtaining feedback. 74 .Learning modules material. an interim reply informing the action being taken will be sent to customer / BHEL site. These are categorized under Site Work. customer / site has to carry out work / modification. execution will be done by Customer / BHEL site. WO will be obtained by FES and Document released.

Renovation and Modernisation Proposals stage: This checklist is designed by incorporating all the details related to the R&M proposal preparation starting from dates. Type of R&M .Engineering (FB)  The Generic Problems which are reported either by the Project Coordinator or Group Head or HOS are referred to a Select Committee which will review and advise appropriate actions to avoid recurrence / occurrence. Schemes and BOM Preparation  Proposal document Checklist while forwarding proposal SECTION 1: GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE PROJECT This section contains general information about the R&M proposal. The enquiry/ tender may be placed by the Spares and service Business Group head quarters or by the corresponding SSBG region. 75 . observation and values.which is to be placed and Factors . Place . for easy application and maintenance of data. These are the four ways of getting the R&M proposal from customer.from where we received the offer. Type of R&M will be decided by following factors.based on which the R&M is proposed. They are      General information about the project R&M requirement in component wise Proposal Finalisation and Date of Commitment. Sometimes the enquiry will come from customer directly to R&M commercial department or R&M engineering department. Some of the main details available here are.Learning modules material. Enquiry. The checklist is divided into 6 sections.

 Decrease in Plant Load Factor of the plant  Increase in Heat Rate  Generic Problem in the thermal station  Lost capacity of the power plant  Pollution Control regulations  Availability / Reliability of the power plant Section 2: R&M requirement in component wise : The component vise R&M requirement can be broadly classified into Pressure parts. Sometimes due to some peculiar problem also the customer want the renovation and modernization the unit. It may also due to coal property change or modification due to uprating. Requirement of R&M is based on following factors: They are various reasons why R&M of old units is required. clinkering. second pass modification due to overheating.Learning modules material. To meet the growing demand of power.Engineering (FB)  Major R&M – Nameplate Rating : To meet the name plate rating of the boiler. C&I requirements. Air pre-heater and Electrostatic Precipitator.Pressure parts. Gates and Dampers and Auxiliaries like Fans. Fuel system: In fuel system the R&M activity may be carried out due to state of art improvements or coal property change. Pressure parts: The R&M of pressure parts may be required due to erosion. High gas temperature at AH outlet. Mills. which is currently running below the specified rating. the R&M of existing old units is a viable option for our government. 76 . Non.  Major R&M – with Up rating : Here the R&M is based on increasing the capacity of existing boilers by 5 to 15 MW. Fuel system.  C&I R&M : Here the R&M is based on Control and instrumentation requirements and state of art improvements in electrical and electronics field  Part R&M – due to requirement from customer for specific replacement of components due to failures and damage.

ESP : The R&M of Electrostatic Precipitator may be due to state of art improvements in the ESP field or may be due to customer requirements through communication meetings. C&I Requirements: The state of art improvements of C&I equipments will create interest in customer minds for R&M of C&I equipments. Fans: The changes in ESP modification and ID system layout change will be sorted out by the corresponding change in fans capacity through R&M activity. codes.Learning modules material.Engineering (FB) Non Pressure Parts: In Non pressure parts the R&M activity may be based on conditional assessment carried out in the boiler or due to customer requirements. Floating enquires for sub deliveries will issued to the dealers. On receipt of this. standards and division of work among departments will also be finalized. on which certain actions are planned. After this scope. what we get for the proposal preparation is the tender document from the SSBG head quarters. Then list of proposal drawings to be submitted will be finalized. we will duplicate and distribute the copies to various related departments. Because this commitment dates will decide the time taken for the proposal preparation. terminal points. the next step will be compilation of missing data. Section 3: Proposal Finalisation and Dates of commitments: The important aspect of the checklist is to follow up with dates of commitments. After this both the customer and supplier will negotiate between them for the deviation observed in the tender. Based upon the documents. Then list of major sub deliveries will be intimated to corresponding sources. 77 . Mills: Change in coal property change and state of art improvements in mills field will induce the R&M of Mills. This date is the starting date in proposal preparation schedule. exclusions. Gates and Dampers: In gates and dampers. The first important document. Then the negotiated deviations have to be discussed with the relevant departments for their concerns and it has to be reported back to SSBG and Customer. the R&M activity may be based on state of art improvement in the same field or may be due to customer requirements.

common/ individual system and simple and duplex strainer. Secondary air and Primary air sectors is dependent on parameter like margin available with existing fans. They are oil dew point. The first step is the Verification of Boiler thermal calculation & performance variation from original design condition. modn check op air/ gas parameters. maximum oil load. recirculation required by FD and stalling point check. The Air temperature entering Air. motor rating to IS. Induced Draft. If there is no deviation observed then design of fuel analysis will be done and in case if it is found that mill cannot support full load it will be intimated to customer. The Air Pre. Similarly the wind box selection is decided by the Number of oil elevation. The efficiency calculation and furnace leakage percentage will be calculated.pre Heater is designed accurately based on the calculation. The boiler parameter will be checked against the margins specified by customer. mill up rating in future.Heater selection will be based on TG min. type of ignitor. Like this some data has to be furnished to C&I for furnace supervisory safe guard system (FSSS). After this. Some of the details including pump house. The selection of pulverizer will be based on the spare mill required. The gas temperature leaving air. line tracing. special drives. The fan selection for Forced draft. It mainly depends on the acid dew point and draft loss level at various loads. 78 .Learning modules material. In this stage. based upon the calculation. boiler overall new design. checking healthiness of motor by IS. latest design requirement will be given to C&I. ignitor air fans. Sector angle required. Then Steam coil air preheater (SCAPH) will be designed . few data has to be furnished to oil system. The excess air required will be fixed. gun cooling air fans.Engineering (FB) Section 4 : Enquiry This section deals with proposal calculation. mill reject handling system input and power consumption guarantee given to the pulverizer. After this the air and gas weight calculation will be done. cold/ hot PA.heater is another important part of proposal calculation. type of scanner. scanner used.

Similarly furnace details will be provided to stress analysis group for designing buck stays. Location of ASLD. P and SV closing pressure. addition of long retractable soot blower is based on the ratio of 100% bypass to the 30% adequacy of steam parameter. The pressure drop calculation is based on margin of drum design pressure and gap between D. The data sheets for gates and dampers will be issued from BAP. Section 6: Proposal documents checklist while forwarding the proposal. O. Bhopal. Details will be given to stress analysis on pressure parts like check on minimum pressure drop required of coils and SCW. boiler mountings. Inputs to erection and commission agency will be furnished along with list of drawings and documents. Ducts. replacement requirement of soot blower central structures. Surface effective factor is also calculated based on site performance data analysis. After this. wind velocity. Then the BOM and sub deliveries list will be sent to commercial for estimation. C&I . beam support. additional LRSB layout or interference location of heat flux probe. Pipe lines. bill of material preparation will start. structures.Engineering (FB) Then the parameter for dust collecting plant will be discussed with BHEL Electronics division. The Furnace outlet temperature is calculated based on site performance data analysis. 79 . The group wise weights and erection details for PPA will continue after BOM preparation. replacement. thermal drain system. L&I. The soot blower selection for repair. list of spares will be finalized. Section 5 : Schemes and Bill of Material The collection of data for the preparation of schemes and Bill of material starts with oil system. Specific information about Line & insulation and painting can be given to corresponding departments. Bangalore and BHEL PDX. The suppliers for sub-deliveries will be finalized.Learning modules material. The data for structural design is based on beam bend second pass modification or change of mill layout. Then the component code wise. location details of smart soot blowing system. Ranipet. Furnace details will be provided for insulation purpose and the main components will be taken into account are skin temperature required. The next step will be performance calculation for upper furnace. eco modification and for column strengthening when change of load transfer. Air Heater and Fans sections.

After this technical specification and drawings will be sent to SSBG. Some of the items to be checked are List of tender deviations & clarifications. General arrangement drawings including plan and elevation drawings will be issued.Engineering (FB) This section deals with options. Then the plot plan will be drawn by adding all the changes in the layout details. preparation of technical specification and preparation of design summary letter. 80 . This will be followed by schemes for air and gas path along with schemes of oil system. Then design summary letter will be prepared. The sister units inputs will be forwarded to corresponding units. The list of proposal input to other units will be given. Sometimes specific component designs will be given if applicable. Drawing inputs for pressure part arrangement and ID system inputs will be given to respective department. filling up data sheets. Proposal Schemes of steam and water will be prepared followed by proposal schemes for valves and fitting.Learning modules material. Then inter unit scope matrix will be prepared. which have to be checked before forwarding the proposal. Then erection inputs will be furnished to erection department.

Learning modules material. over estimation of oxidation effects especially in case of thick walled components and use of large factor of safety and lower bound properties. A complete analysis combining the unit‟s operational data with design expertise and problem solving knowledge is basic requirement for success of the exercise. A team effort is needed between the utility and designer to ensure safe continued operation of steam generators with minimum unscheduled outages. creep. Units originally designed for base load require improvements in equipment and controls. On the other hand the components may fail prematurely due to unforeseen system. fatigue and interaction of above mechanisms. The reasons for such behaviors are related to design. critical Components may distress through mechanism such as oxidation. Local conditions and operational factors associated with the particular unit dictate the type and 81 . operational and metallurgical conditions. The useful life of components in service may well exceed or fall significantly short of the design life.economical way. corrosion. considerable reserve strength and longevity even at the end of the predicated design life are not uncommon. Additionally. Condition of critical components and the remaining life / service time available before replacement or major repair are the main consideration in life assessment study. Sometimes such failures may be catastrophic resulting in huge loss. These components deteriorate continuously during service as a result of the above time dependent material degradation process. In actual practice material damage results from interaction of two or more of these mechanisms causing unanticipated failures. modification in operating philosophy is also considered during life assessment program.Engineering (FB) Remaining Life Assessment: Life Assessment and Life Extension program helps to identify and implement strategies so as to ensure continued running of the unit in a cost . As units age. Steam pipes and headers operating in the creep range are designed for certain minimum lifetime. Boiler pressure parts like super heater tubes. This happens because of the conservatism built into the original design. stress concentrations and operating conditions envisaged during design stage.

each unit needs independent study so that exact status of each unit can be established. 3. due to erosion and corrosion. Prior evaluation of pressure part condition. integrity of attachments in coils and hanger supports in piping. A) Liquid Penetrant Inspection: 82 . During visual inspection the observations made with reference to discoloration of coils. erosion /corrosion problems. NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION: The following NDE will be carried out prior to examination by replica technique. TESTS AT SITE: 1. VISUAL EXAMINATION: Visual examination is carried out to assess material wastage due to oxidation. digital vernier calipers are used.Engineering (FB) extent of damage in a component. West Germany and for diameter measurements. are selected for an evaluation of the metallurgical condition. DIMENSIONAL MEASUREMENTS: Essentially. 2.Learning modules material. Outside diameter measurements are generally employed to determine the swelling (bulging) due to creep. thickness and outside diameter measurements form the dimensional measurements. fouling conditions of heat transfer surfaces. misalignment is considered in deciding sample tubes removal for metallurgical examination. This includes inspection of drum internals to ensure proper steam/water separation. based on experience and design knowledge from similar plants makes sample selection more rational Samples from the regions thus determined to be most susceptible to failures and samples depicting the general condition of each component. The thickness measurements are made using ultrasonic thickness meters supplied by M/S Kraut Krammer GMBH. Hence even though a station has units of similar type. Thickness measurement at critical areas gives a value of thickness loss over the years.

Cracks.Learning modules material. The magnetic particle testing is carried out as per ASTM-E-709-80 and the adequacy of the magnetic field strength is verified by using octagonal field indicator (ASTM 275). 83 . B) Magnetic Particle Examination: This technique is adopted for locating surface and sub-surface discontinuities like seams.Engineering (FB) This technique is adopted primarily for detection of cracks or crack like discontinuities that are open to the surface of a part. flakes. pinholes and other weld defects. extent of oxide scaling and corrosion/erosion. C) ULTRASONIC TESTING: By using high frequency sound waves. All excess penetrant is then removed surface dried and the developer applied. cavities. the liquid penetrant is applied to the surface to be examined and allowed to enter into the discontinuities. pitting. pore and binding faults that act as discontinuities in metal gas interfaces can also be easily detected. The testing is done by magnetising at least two mutually perpendicular directions to ensure detection of defects in all possible orientations. shrinkages. SAMPLING FOR LABORATORY ANALYSIS AND STRESS RUPTURE TESTING: Tube samples carefully selected after the visual inspection from super heater / reheaters are analyzed in laboratory for material degradation. 4. internal and external surface condition assessments aid in identifying the root cause of failures/degradation noticed. the surface and sub-surface flaws can be detected. quenching and grinding cracks and surface rupture occurring on welds. This method is also used for detecting surface fatigue cracks developed during service. In principle. laps. Magnetic particle inspection helps to detect cracks and discontinuities on or near the surface in ferromagnetic materials using dry magnetic particle testing equipment. The testing is as per ASTM-E165-80. The developer serves both as a blotter to absorb the penetrant coming out by capillary action and also as a contrasting background to enhance the visibility of the indication. like surface porosity. laminations. Tube deposit analysis.

The analysis is done according to internationally accepted micro structural criteria as noted below: 5. and tube wall thinning will be evaluated. Formation of minute creep voids along the grain boundary surfaces also accompanies creep deformation. The second stage or steady state creep occurs over a very long duration of several years.Engineering (FB) 4. The metallic constituents of the deposit are determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the morphology is found using X-ray diffraction analysis.Learning modules material. The metallurgical changes like carbide transformation and dispersion occurs. In the third stage of creep. IN-SITU METALLOGRAPHY BY REPLICA TECHNIQUE: The high temperature components in utilities when subjected to high stress for a long time undergo steady changes in transformation of strengthening carbide phases followed by creep cavitations.1. This is the beginning of creep or slow plastic deformation leading to gradual bulging of pressure parts. The need for chemical cleaning will be decided on the deposit content and the constituents of the deposit. Carbide morphology and distribution. Transverse ring segments from the tubes will be metallographically prepared and examined using light optical microscope up to a magnification of 500X. 4. the creep voids increase in number and size and get oriented and connected They generate micro cracks. presence of creep bulging. WATERWALLS AND ECONOMISER: Water wall tube samples will be removed from high heat flux zone for evaluating the deposit content and constituents of the deposit. The analysis report may include the need or otherwise for chemical cleaning. The first stage of creep occurs in a short period which is transient. METALLURGICAL EXAMINATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE TUBES: The tube samples removed from super heater will be analyzed for any metallurgical degradation in service.2. and the micro cracks connect 84 . Recommendation on solvent for ensuring the effective removal of the deposit will also be included as per requirement. The oxide scale thickness on steam side surface will be measured and used in estimating the extent of damage as also the general operating temperature for the running hours. Three distinct stages of creep occur in several alloys.

Subsequently diamond paste lapping is done followed by etching with 3% Nital to reveal the structure. 6. REPLICATION TECHNIQUE: The process involves preliminary preparation of the metal surface using polishing equipment. A cellulose acetate film of 0. the micro structure of component is truly transferred to a film. R. The soft side is pressed uniformly over the etched surface using clean and plain rubber and exerting the force of the thumb for about 10 seconds.L. The sample tubes removed from boiler will be subjected to creep rupture tests at accelerated temperature and at service pressure in the test 85 .Learning modules material. 200. After the preparation of the surface. The replication is the technique adopted to obtain the micro structure "in-situ' by non-destructive metallography.15 mm thickness and 20 x 40 mm size is cut from roll or sheet. DETERMINATION BASED ON ACCELERATED CREEP RUPTURES TESTING. Silver shadowing or gold sputtering in vacuum can be done on the impression side to improve reflection. For examination at higher magnification. the microstructure of the components can be transferred to cellulose acetate replicating tape. Transparent film with green reflecting foil can be used which can be examined in laboratory with magnification up to 500X to assess the metallurgical damages like creep cavitations. and 600 in sequence. 120. The technique is used in areas where sample removal is difficult and not viable on cost economic aspects.Engineering (FB) themselves resulting in the initiation and growth of macro crack with sudden fracture in some zones depending on the operating stress at that zone. The surface preparation can also be done by adopting electro polishing. When the spot is ensured free from rust and scale polishing will be done using abrasive paper of varying grits from. It will be protected against dust and left for some time for drying. Super heater tubes operating at higher temperatures (more than 450 °C) are subjected to a time dependent phenomena known as creep. 400. A few drops of acetone will be applied on one surface for about 5 seconds and this makes the acetate film soft on one side and retains hardness on the reverse side.A.1 to 0. This helps in micro structural examination using light optical microscope or scanning electron microscope at higher magnification. The dried film will be lifted up using fine knife and will be kept between parallel glass slides.

The assumptions made in the above method are. 86 . the average stress can be calculated for the aging duration considered.Engineering (FB) facility available at laboratory. With average stress value Larsen . CALCULATION OF REMAINING LIFE: Assuming oxidation rates for a specific period. Fraction of life consumed is the ratio of operating period divided by Rupture life is consumed. Metal wastage is assumed as linear for computing operating stress. The test parameters can be controlled within close limits.Learning modules material. the metal is oxidized. CALCULATION BASED ON SERVICE TEMPERATURE: The tube samples removed from boiler will be evaluated for micro structure classification based on which the service temperature can be evaluated taking into consideration the operating hours collected from the plant record. Larsen Miller parameter is computed based on lower bound stress. With the Larsen . Another method of estimating operating temperature is based on oxide scale measurement.A. As steam passes through the tubes at high temperature. R. the average temperature‟t‟ can be calculated. a) Thickness variation is not considered and hence the operating stress is assumed as uniform. Specimen from each sample tube will be subjected to a specified stress and temperature.Miller parameter rupture life can be calculated using metal temperature values.Miller parameter can be calculated for the particular material. To predict remaining life from the results of rupture tests. The following assumptions are made in this method. Time to rupture versus temperature will be plotted and the extrapolation will be done for the operating temperature to decide the remaining life. the following method is adopted. Uniform oxidation rate is assumed. b) Metal temperature considered for extrapolation is assumed as constant and metal temperature increase due to building of oxide scale over a period is not accounted.L. 3. 2. Knowing the operating hours and oxide thickness measured in mills. 1.

Carbon Steel SA178 SA192.Engineering (FB) 3.A1 & Gr.Learning modules material. 430. 1 Cr ½ Mo SA335 P12 SA213 T12 13 Cr Mo 44 BS3059 P2 S2 620 BS3604 P1 620 – 440 04.Boiler Materials The boilers being built today are demanding in terms of unit sizes and operating requirements .C 02. 440 BS3602 P1 360. 3.1 VARIOUS STEEL GRADES OF TUBES / PIPES IN BOILERS Sl. 1¼ Cr ½ Mo SA213 T11 SA335 P11 ---- BS3604 P1. 500 Nb SA106 Gr.C. St 35. 2¼ Cr 1 Mo SA213 T22 SA335 P22 10 Cr Mo 910 BS3059 P2 S2 622490 BS3604 P1. Gr. hence the choice of materials is of prime importance for ensuring satisfactory performance of the boilers. Nominal Composition MATERIAL SPECIFICATION ASME Section-I DIN 300 – TRD BS 1113 01. 622 87 .C Gr. No. Gr.8 SA210 St 45. ½ Mo SA209 T1 15 Mo3 ---- 03. 621 05.B.8 BS3059 P2 S2 360.

Pipes Guiding Reason for Upper Limit 07. 18 Cr 8 Ni SA213 TP304 H ----- BS3059 P2 304 S51 BS3605 – 304 S59 E 09. 9 Cr 1 Mo ¼ V SA213 T91 SA335 P91 X 10 Cr Mo V ----Nb91 Area Application of Material type Typical spec.Learning modules material. Tubes.Engineering (FB) 06. for Plates. 12 Cr 1 Mo ¼ V ----- X 20 Cr Mo V BS3059 P2 S2 762 121 BS3604 P1 762 08. 18 Cr 10 Ni Cb SA213 TP347 H ----- BS3059 P2 347 S51 BS3605 347 S59 E 3.2 Conventional Boiler Materials 88 .

Economiser Superheater and Reheater C Steel/ Low Alloy Steel C Steel C ½ Mo steel 1Cr ½ Mo 2 ¼ Cr 1Mo 18 Cr 8 Ni 18 Cr 10 Ni Cb Modified 9Cr 12%Cr SA299 SA192. SA335P22 SA213 TP304 H SA213 TP347 H SA213T91.Engineering (FB) Drum Water walls. SA106 A209 T1 SA213T11. Flue gas Oxidation/ corrosion. SA335P11 SA213T22. Flue gas 89 . SA335P91 X20CrMoV12 1 ASME code German Code SA210. Graphitisation Graphitisation Oxidation/ corrosion.Learning modules material.

Engineering (FB) MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED SUPERCRITICAL PLANTS 90 .Learning modules material.

Engineering (FB) 3.04-0.070. Ferritic steels of 9Cr-2W-0.40.5Mo Steel(T92/P92) The 9 Cr. This composition modification gives rise to very stable carbides and carbon-nitrides.50 Mo 0. The steel composition and tensile properties of P92 grades are shown in Table I and II. Controlled micro alloying in the form of niobium vanadium and nitrogen is retained. which improve long term creep strength. Some of the steels that have been developed and are in service in European and Japan utilities are given below.006. Table I Chemical composition of P92 steel C 0.15-0.03-0.5-2.5Mo and 2. Cb 0.13 Mn 0.010 P 0. For example at 600°C the 100. N 0.09 B 0.0.2W steel for tube and pipe has been approved for boiler and pressure vessel manufacture and has been included in ASME specification.300.7% tungsten plus a few parts per million of boron.300.5 Mo.04 W-1.25 Cr-1Mo-2W steel Austentic stainless steels 17Cr-8Ni-3Cu 9Cr-2W-0. This steel is designed to operate at temperatures up to 625°C.07 Ni 0. It is claimed that high temperature rupture strength is 30% more than for P91. P92 is a modification of P91 steel which is now well established steel in power plants. The tube material (T92) has been listed in SA 213 and the pipe material (P92) in SA 335 of ASME sec IIA.0 91 .000hour creep rupture strength of P91 base material is about 95MPa whereas that of P92 is about 123MPa.60 Others V 0. Al-0.5% and adding about 1. The steel grade has higher yield and tensile strength compared to P91 grade.50 Cr 8. The P91 steel is modified by reducing the molybdenum content to about 0.25 .020 Si 0.001-0. The carbon content has been kept low to ensure welding processing characteristics.3 NEW GENERATION STEELS FOR SUPER CRITICAL AND ULTRASUPER CRITICAL BOILERS The changes in boiler design in super critical and ultra super critical boiler calls for advanced creep resistant steels for the enhanced steam parameters of temperature and pressure.Learning modules material.60 S 0.509.

25 Cr. Due to its chemical composition T/P23 developed a bainitic martensite structure and the maximum hardness is only about 350 HV due to low carbon content.05P22 0.1.7 W steel (T/P23) The steel grade T/P23 was validated and included in the ASTM A 335 in 2001 and incorporated in ASME section II in 2004 .90-. reheater tubes and water wall panels in conventional power plants and HRSG heat recovery steam generators. Table III Comparison of chemical composition of rP22 and P23 grades Grade C Mn 0.60 Mo 0. columbium (niobium). The steel is the modified form of well-known creep resistant steel SA 335 P22 grade. The steel composition and tensile properties are shown in Table III & IV.Engineering (FB) Table II Tensile properties of steel for P92 and P91 Steel SA 335 P92 SA 335 P91 *mimnimum 2.300.60 S 0. In addition the long term creep properties are much higher for P23 and they are close to P91 grade.(%) 20 20 Hardness max.7% as well as micro alloying with vanadium.50 Cr 1. The carbon content is intentionally lowered to improve the steel welding and processing characteristics. It is used in water wall panels in advanced new power boilers such as super critical boilers and in superheater.871.025 Si 0. 2.(Hv) 265 265 SA 335 0. The steel has higher yield and tensile strength compared to P22 steel.Learning modules material. flanges under ASTM A 182 F22. It is a bainitic steel with addition of tungsten upto 1. nitrogen and boron.83 Others NS *UTS(MPa) 620 585 *YS(MPa) 440 415 *Elong.025 P 0.The steel has also been approved for other product forms like fittings.15 92 .

Engineering (FB) SA 335 0.006. High temperature strength has become one of the most important aspects for the application of boiler tubes.75. Table V CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS of super 304H C 0.010 0.0015 W-1.60 0.08 B-0.030 0.00 Ni Cu Mo 0.13 Mn 1.0 *Maximum limit Super 304H austentic stainless steels Austenitic stainless steel pipes are primarily used for boilers in thermal power plants and the energy sector. The super 304H tubes have been service exposed as Superheater tubes and reheater tubes. This excellent creep rupture strength is based on the precipitation strengthening effect of fine Cu-rich phase which precipitates coherently in the austenitic matrix during service-exposure.3 Cr 17.04P23 0. an increased carbon content and certain amounts of niobium and nitrogen.20-0. Though the addition of 3wt% of copper to the standard grade. and the 6.010 P 0.00 S 0.050. The addition of nitrogen leads to a solid solution strengthening of the material.12 93 .0.Learning modules material. the elevated temperature strength and especially the creep properties are improved in the grade Super 304H. The 18Cr-8Ni steel grade 304 is a conventional austenitic stainless steel.IV Comparison of mechanical properties for P22 and P23 grades Steel *UTS (MPa) SA 335 P22 SA 335 P23 415 510 *YS (MPa) 205 400 *Elong (%) 30 20 *Hardness ( Hv) Not specified 220 HB Allowable stress at 600 :C (MPa) 23.30.6 0.10 0.5 years service-exposed tubes confirmed that this new stainless steel applicable to the boiler material.3. N-0.100.0050.45-1. The steel composition and tensile properties are shown in Table V & VI.050.0010-0.5 0.001 –0.06 Table .50 3.5 – 2.01 Al 0.07 – 0.0030.00 19.5 57. Ti 0. This increases the allowable tensile stresses.30 V-0.510.871.02-0.03 7.040 Si 0.902. Cb-0.50 1.83 Cb N B 0. The allowable stress of this stainless steel is more than 20% higher compared with that of SA-213 grade TP347H.60 0. The corrosion resistance of this stainless steel is almost same as that of fine-grained TP 347H.

The ball tube mill requires low maintenance.Engineering (FB) Table VI MECHANICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS of super 304H Tensile strength. Low speed mills The low-speed ball-tube mill is basically a hollow cylinder with heavy-cast wear-resistant liners. min.runs at high speed. 94 . classified by speed: Types of Pulverisers    Low speed (Ball mill/ Tube mill) . normally 750-1000 rpm. but it is larger and heavier in construction and consumes more power than others.1 Boiler auxiliaries Pulverisers The pulverizing process is composed of several stages. drying is an integral part of pulverizing process. ksi ( M Pa) Yield Strength . Because coals have varying quantities of moisture. less than half-filled with forged steel balls of mixed size. is delivered to the pulverizer by the primary air fan. Grinding is accomplished by impact. High speed (Beater Wheel) . min. min.0 4. or combinations of these. Part of the air from the steam-generator air preheater. % 85 (590) 34 (235 ) 35 4. Pulverization is accomplished by attrition and impact as the balls and coal ascends and falls with cylinder rotation. Primary air is circulated over the charge to carry the pulverized coal to classifiers.ksi (M Pa) Elongation in 2 in. Pulveriser selection shall also ensure one spare mill to account for outage for maintenance.Learning modules material. attrition. The first is the feeding system. which must automatically control the fuel-feed rate according to the boiler demand and the air rates required for drying and transporting pulverized fuel to the burner...Usually rotating between 15 to 25 rpm Medium speed (Vertical Spindle – Bowl / Ball & Race / Roller Mills) – usually rotates between 50 to 100 rpm. crushing. There it is mixed with the coal as it is being circulated and ground. There are several commonly used pulverizers. The selection of number of mills and capacity of mill shall meet pulverizing requirement for the range of coals specified. the primary air.

in the manner of a ball bearing.Engineering (FB) Medium speed mills The medium-speed ball-and-race and roll-and race pulverizers are the types mostly in use nowadays. The coal fed to the centre of the revolving bowl is forced between the grinding roll and the bowl for getting pulverized. 95 . They operate on the principles of crushing and attrition. Wide capacity. Bowl Mill: It is one of the most advanced designs of coal pulveriser. It is provided with a set of 3 grinding rollers. The rolling elements may be balls or ring-shaped rolls that roll between two races.Learning modules material. The bowl mill essentially consists of a revolving bowl which is driven by a reduction gear mechanism coupled to an electric motor. The balls are between a top stationary race or ring and a rotating bottom ring. The required grinding pressure is given by means of a set of heavy duty springs. Classifier The classifier is located at the pulverizer exit. Primary air causes coal feed to circulate between the grinding elements. The advantages of Bowl mill are Low power consumption. Reliability. Quiet and vibration less operation and ability to handle wide range of coals. Minimum resistance. and when it becomes fine enough. They are mostly used with low-rank coals with high-moisture content and use flue gas for drying. Pulverzation takes place between two surfaces. High speed mills High-speed pulverizers use hammer beaters that revolve in a chamber equipped with high-wear resistant liners. which is driven by the vertical shaft of the pulverizer. Adjustment is obtained by varying the gas-suspension velocity in the classifier by adjusting the inlet vanes. it becomes suspended in the air and is carried to the classifier. Hot air is sent through an air chamber provided beneath the bowl to dry and transport the pulverized coal. It is usually a cyclone with adjustable inlet vanes. one rolling on top of the other. Grinding pressure is varied for the most efficient grinding of various coals by externally adjustable springs on top of the stationary ring. The classifier separates oversized coal and returns it to the grinders to maintain the proper fineness for the particular application and coal used.

In the Impulse type fans. Axial reaction fan (`AP’ type) has distinct advantages – because of the highly efficient profiled blades. Fans may be classified into two major types : Axial flow and radial flow. `AP’ fan is generally offered for clean air application than dust laden gases because the profiles will be affected by erosion. Capacity in m3/sec. less floor space and less weight. Total pressure rise required in mbar/mmwc.Engineering (FB) 4. AN fan has blades particularly suitable for operation with air and dust laden gases. Axial fans may be classified further into Impulse Type and Reaction Type fans. most of the energy coming out the impeller is Kinetic Energy. It is converted into Pressure Energy in the Outlet Blades and the diffuser. Hence these fans are called Impulse Fans. All major components are easily accessible. Even with advanced wear due to erosion the performance hardly changes. 96 . It is continuous because the flow at entry and exit and also through the impeller is steady. Specific weight of medium in m3/kg Operating temperature in deg. Axial fans are best suited for handling large capacities compared to pressure rise with good efficiencies. Pressure at fan inlet. - The mechanical design of the fan is governed by the tip speed and the maximum operating temperature.C.2 Fans Introduction: Fan is a rotating machine with a bladed impeller which maintains a continuous flow of air or gas. In the reaction type of Axial Fans. Selection of fans for a given application depends on the following parameters. most of the energy coming out of the impeller is in the form of Pressure Energy.Learning modules material. Where load changes are frequent. `AN’ fan is of mechanically simple design.

for refineries. Forced Draft fans: Forced draft fans supply air necessary for fuel combustion and this shall deliver stochiometric air plus the excess air needed for proper burning of the specific fuel for which they are designed. as forced draft. Primary Air Fans: These fans supply the air needed to dry and transport the coal either directly from pulverising equipment to a furnace or to an intermediate storage bunker. induced draft.Engineering (FB) Radial fans: Based on the configuration of the blade with respect to the direction of rotation of the impeller. Gas Recirculation Fans: These fans draw gas from a point in the flue gas flow path ( normally between economiser outlet and air preheater inlet) and discharge it (for steam temperature control) in to the bottom of the furnace. Induced draft Fans: These fans exhaust combustion products from a boiler to chimney by creating sufficient negative pressure to establish a slight suction in the furnace. primary air and gas recirculation fan in power stations. Igniter Air Fans: These fans are provided to supply air to take eddy plate oil/gas igniters and normally suction is taken from FD fans. sinter plants. for ventilation application including mine ventilation. These fans are used mostly in the oil & gas fired boilers.Learning modules material. 97 . Application: Based on the selection parameters. These fans supply the total air flow taking in to account the air preheater leakage and some sealing air requirements. single inlet or double inlet radial fans can be offered. palletizing. fertilizer. Normally 1 AC and 1 DC fans are provided to ensure the availability even during power failures. Scanner Air Fans: These fans provide air to the flame scanners which are operated at higher temperature zone for cooling of the scanner heads. Seal Air Fans: Seal air fans take suction from FD/ PA fans fans and boost its pressure to deliver the downstream equipments like pulveriser and feeders to maintain the sealing pressure required for them to prevent leakage. They ensure the combustion air requirements of the igniters. Forward Curved and Radial Bladed Impeller. cement. petrochemical. it is called Backward Curved. steel.

3 Airpreheaters Schematic diagram of typical coal-fired power plant steam generator highlighting the air preheater (APH) location. allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack (to meet emissions regulations.Engineering (FB) 4. 98 . for example). They may be used alone or to replace a recuperative heat system or to replace a steam coil.Learning modules material. combustion in a boiler) with the primary objective of increasing the thermal efficiency of the process. The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the flue gas. These may be arranged so the gas flows horizontally or vertically across the axis of rotation. An air preheater (APH) is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process (for example. and the other is a regenerative air preheater. As a consequence. the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature. Types There are two types of air preheaters for use in steam generators in thermal power stations: One is a tubular type built into the boiler flue gas ducting.

the hot furnace gases pass around the preheater tubes. Ambient air is forced by a fan through ducting at one end of the preheater tubes and at other end the heated air from inside of the tubes emerges into another set of ducting. which carries it to the boiler furnace for combustion.Engineering (FB) Tubular type Construction features Tubular preheaters consist of straight tube bundles which pass through the outlet ducting of the boiler and open at each end outside of the ducting. Rotating-plate regenerative air preheater 99 . transferring heat from the exhaust gas to the air inside the preheater.Learning modules material. Inside the ducting. Regenerative air preheaters There are two types of regenerative air preheaters: the rotating-plate regenerative air preheaters (RAPH) and the stationary-plate regenerative air preheaters (Rothemuhle).

The hot exhaust gas flows over the central element. and is usually composed of some form of steel and/or ceramic structure. 100 . The seals allow the element to rotate through all the sectors. Tri-sector types are the most common in modern power generation facilities. The third sector is the smallest one and it heats air which is routed into the pulverizers and used to carry the coal-air mixture to coal boiler burners. from the element to the cooler air in the other sectors. but keep gas leakage between sectors to a minimum while providing separate gas air and flue gas paths through each sector. transferring some of its heat to the element. carrier air for transporting the pulverised coal to the boiler burners and the primary air for combustion. The rotating-plate design (RAPH) consists of a central rotating-plate element installed within a casing that is divided into two (bi-sector type). which passes over the heated element as it rotates into the sector. In the tri-sector design. It rotates quite slowly (around 3-5 RPM) to allow optimum heat transfer first from the hot exhaust gases to the element. is fed with ambient air by a fan. the total air heated in the RAPH provides: heating air to remove the moisture from the pulverised coal dust. three (tri-sector type) or four (quad-sector type) sectors containing seals around the element. the largest sector (usually spanning about half the cross-section of the casing) is connected to the boiler hot gas outlet. then as it rotates.Engineering (FB) Typical Rotating-plate Regenerative Air Preheater (Bi-sector type) Principle function for the regenerative preheater. and is heated before being carried to the boiler furnace for combustion. Thus.Learning modules material. The rotor itself is the medium of heat transfer in this system. and is then ducted away for further treatment in dust collectors and other equipment before being expelled from the flue gas stack. smaller sector. The second.

The bags can be of woven or felted cotton. Fabric filters Commonly known as baghouses. Dust-laden gases enter the baghouse and pass through fabric bags that act as filters. 101 . fabric collectors use filtration to separate dust particulates from dusty gases. such as centrifugal. The three primary types of inertial separators are:    Settling chambers Baffle chambers Centrifugal collectors Neither settling chambers nor baffle chambers are commonly used in the minerals processing industry. The fabric primarily provides a surface on which dust particulates collect through the following four mechanisms:  Inertial collection . where it is temporarily stored.Learning modules material. However. The high efficiency of these collectors is due to the dust cake formed on the surfaces of the bags.Engineering (FB) 4.4 Dust collectors Types of dust collectors Five principal types of industrial dust collectors are:      Inertial separators Fabric filters Wet scrubbers Electrostatic precipitators Unit collectors Inertial separators Inertial separators separate dust from gas streams using a combination of forces. their principles of operation are often incorporated into the design of more efficient dust collectors. They are one of the most efficient and cost effective types of dust collectors available and can achieve a collection efficiency of more than 99% for very fine particulates. The separated dust is moved by gravity into a hopper. synthetic.Dust particles strike the fibers placed perpendicular to the gas-flow direction instead of changing direction with the gas stream. and inertial. gravitational. These forces move the dust to an area where the forces exerted by the gas stream are minimal. or glass-fiber material in either a tube or envelope shape.

The greater the contact of the gas and liquid streams.Engineering (FB)    Interception . the stream separates and flows around them. This increase in particle size makes collection easier. Dust is removed from the scrubber in a clarification unit or a drag chain tank. 102 . dust particulates and water droplets combine to form agglomerates. o Condensation nucleation .This is one of the most important factors affecting collection efficiency.When liquid droplets are scattered among dust particles. the larger dust particles will continue on in a straight path. o Diffusion . the higher the dust removal efficiency.Regardless of the contact mechanism used.The presence of an electrostatic charge on the particles and the filter can increase dust capture. and become encapsulated. As the agglomerates grow larger. Gas-liquid separation .Learning modules material. or diffusion. condensation of moisture occurs on the dust particles. Electrostatic forces .Submicrometre particles are diffused.The gas-humidification process conditions fine particles to increase their size so they can be collected more easily. they settle into a collector. which eventually increases the resistance to gas flow. o Interception .If a gas passing through a scrubber is cooled below the dewpoint.   The "cleaned" gases are normally passed through a mist eliminator (demister pads) to remove water droplets from the gas stream. all have one of three basic operations:  Gas-humidification . In both systems solid material settles on the bottom of the tank. the scrubbing liquid (usually water) comes into contact with a gas stream containing dust particles. the particles are deposited on the droplet surfaces by Brownian movement. Once contact is made. This is the principal mechanism in the collection of submicrometre dust particles. The dirty water from the scrubber system is either cleaned and discharged or recycled to the scrubber. however. Brownian movement . hit the droplets. Wet scrubbers Dust collectors that use liquid are commonly known as wet scrubbers. In these systems.Finer particles moving within a gas stream do not hit droplets directly but brush against them and adhere to them. increasing the probability of contact between the particles and collecting surfaces. Due to inertia. A combination of these mechanisms results in formation of the dust cake on the filter. A drag chain system removes the sludge and deposits in into a dumpster or stockpile. Gas-liquid contact . as much liquid and dust as possible must be removed. The particle and droplet come into contact by four primary mechanisms: o Inertial impaction . There are a large variety of wet scrubbers.When water droplets placed in the path of a dust-laden gas stream.Particles that do not cross the fluid streamlines come in contact with fibers because of the fiber size. The filter must be cleaned periodically.

and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream. and low initial cost. The plate precipitator The most basic precipitator contains a row of thin vertical wires. If the applied voltage is high enough an electric (corona) discharge ionizes the gas around the electrodes. Particles build up on the collection plates and form a layer. electric field. The ionized particles. Advantages of unit collectors include small space requirements.Engineering (FB) Electrostatic Precipitator An electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The layer does not collapse. A negative voltage of several thousand volts is applied between wire and plate. such as bins and silos or remote belt-conveyor transfer points. an ESP applies energy only to the particulate matter being collected and therefore is very efficient in its consumption of energy (in the form of electricity). or frequently moved dust-producing operations. Negative ions flow to the plates and charge the gas-flow particles. The air or gas stream flows horizontally through the spaces between the wires. and maintenance periods have been sacrificed. the return of collected dust to main material flow. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device. and followed by a stack of large flat metal plates oriented vertically. 103 . unit collectors control contamination at its source. following the negative electric field created by the power supply. consisting of a fan and some form of dust collector. However. move to the grounded plates. their dust-holding and storage capacities. portable. They are suitable for isolated. Unit collectors Unlike central collectors. depending on the application.Learning modules material. thanks to electrostatic pressure (given from layer resistivity. In contrast to wet scrubbers which apply energy directly to the flowing fluid medium. or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. They are small and selfcontained. with the plates typically spaced about 1 cm to 18 cm apart. servicing facilities. and current flowing in the collected layer). and then passes through the stack of plates.

Firing system adopted for a particular power plant dictates the Nox emission from the plant. Sox emissions need to be focused on. and DeNOx system in addition to the inherent reduction achievable by adoption of suitable firing system and by improving boiler efficiencies. CO2. Low NOx firing system. However with the use of Imported coals containing high sulfur. NOx and Sox. Particulate emissions can be reduced to very low levels by high efficiency Electrostatic precipitators and Bag filters. the SOx emission from the power plant is not a problem with the current environmental regulations.0 Environmental Pollution Control Measures Major pollutants from a coal fired boiler are particulates.GUIDELINES BOILER SIZE PROTECTED AREA OTHER AREA OLD (BEFORE 1979) < 210 MW > 210MW 150 mg/NM3 150 mg/NM3 600 mg/NM3 ---NEW (AFTER 1979) 350 mg/NM3 150 mg/NM3 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FOREST NOTIFICATION.Engineering (FB) 5. 100 mg/Nm3 for new plants. 104 . 20-50 mg/NM3 are being followed for most new projects.GUIDELINES. MAY 1993 . which are determined by the operating condition and the load on the unit. Nox emission from a power plant is dictated by the fuel nitrogen (fuel Nox) and the temperature of the flame. 5. In coal and oil fired units the SOx emission depends upon the % of sulphur in the fuel and the calorific value of the fuel.Emission 150 mg/NM3 .Learning modules material.6 % only.5 to 0. Minimising the emissions calls for provision of dust collectors.1 Indian Pollution Control Board Guidelines: EMISSION REGULATION – JULY 1984 .to examine feasibility to limit 100 mg/NM3 for existing power plants. Since most of the Indian coals have sulphur content around 0. Over fire air system reduces the Nox emission. MARCH 2003 .

2000 Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced concrete 105 . IS:875-Part-1-1987. IS:1893.Dead Loads 4.Code of practice for General Construction in Steel 2.Dimensions for hot rolled steel beams 3. IS:875-part-4-1987.Wind Loads 6.Engineering (FB) WORLD BANK EMISSION LIMITS (WORLD BANK 1999 ) COAL FIRED BOILERS o o For New Plants PLANT SIZE < 50 MWe < 500 MWe >500 MWe 100 50 50 EMISSION mg/m3 b) Plants in Areas with Degraded or Poor Air Quality ALL 50 6. IS:2062-2006 Hot Rolled Low. IS:456.Live Loads 5. IS:808-1989.Snow Loads 7. IS:875-part-5-1987.Criteria for Earthquake Resistance Design of Structures 9. IS:800-2007.1 Material testing codes List of IS codes applicable for structural design 1. IS:875-part-2-1987.0 Codes & Regulations 6. IS:875-part-3-1987.Special Loads and Load combinations 8.Learning modules material. Medium and High Tensile Structural Steel 10.

89 and D 2013 .89 8 Determination of forms of sulphur IS 15438 :2004 D 2492 – 90 9 Instrumental determination of carbon. hydrogen & nitrogen in D 5373 .89 5 Determination of carbon and Hydrogen IS 1350 ( Part IV/ Sec 1 ) Reaffirmed 1994 IS 1350 ( Part IV/ Sec2 ) Reaffirmed 2000 6 Determination of nitrogen 7 Determination of sulphur IS 1350 ( Part III ) Reaffirmed 2000 D 3177 .91 D 3176 – 89 D 3178 .93 106 .Engineering (FB) 6.2 Coal Analysis Standards Sl No 1 Subject / title BIS number ASTM number D 2234 .Learning modules material.86 Methods for sampling of coal and IS 436 (Part1/Sec1) coke (manual sampling) Reaffirmed 1996 Methods for sampling of coal and IS 436 (Part1/Sec 2) coke (mechanical sampling) Reaffirmed 1994 Methods of test for coal and coke : Proximate analysis IS 1350 ( part 1 ) Reaffirmed 2001 2 3 D 3302 – 91 D 1412 – 89 D 3172 – 89 D 3173 – 89 D 3174 – 89 D 3175 .89 4 Determination of calorific value IS 1350 ( Part II ) Reaffirmed 1994 D 2015 – 91 D 3286 .89 D 3179 .

coke. Modern boilers of large capacity used in power plants have an efficiency ranging from 80 to 90 %.Learning modules material. These are normally done on a daily basis in most power plants.Engineering (FB) coal & coke 10 Grindability IS 4433: Reaffirmed 1994 11 Elemental analysis of ash of coal IS 1355 : 1984 and coke Reaffirmed 2001 D 2795 – 1991 D 3682 – 1991 D 4326 .[Water Flow kg/s×Water Enthalpy kj/kg] / [Coal Flow kg/s x HHV of Coal kj/kg] ×100 In case of reheat units the reheater inlet and outlet enthalpy also has to be considered. Input-Output Method: The simple method is to measure quantity of fuel input and the steam energy output.92 6. & IS 12891: 1990 lignite Reaffirmed 1995 D 1857 .92 12 Fusibility of ash of coal. This method is the input output method. Efficiency % = Output / Input X100 = [Steam Flow kg/s x Steam Enthalpy kj/kg] . One can determine the higher heating value by taking a sample of coal as it enters the boiler and analyzing it in the laboratory.87 D 409 . 107 .3 Boiler efficiency Determining and adjusting the efficiency of a boiler in a power plant or a process industry is essential for energy savings. Elaborate calculation method is given in ASME PTC 4 or BSEN 12952-15:2003 which are the performance test codes for boilers. The main requirements for determining the boiler efficiency is detailed below.

Losses Method: Another method and a more practical approach is to measure the losses and then calculate the efficiency. Efficiency % = 100 – Losses %. Otherwise this will have to be computed from volumetric flows and bulk density of the fuels. 108 . This is more accurate than the field flowmeters. although it looks simple on paper. which can very much alter the results.Engineering (FB) Fuel flow is more complicated. Air and gas quantities are determined on theoretical basis and from laboratory analysis of the fuel. However. is not the industry preferred method because •Flow measurements are not accurate nor steady •Good quality flow instruments are costly. •Trouble shooting problems for determining the reasons for a lower efficiency is difficult Coal calorific value may change during the course of the day and hence calculation based on one analysis in a day need not be correct. this method finds use for quick calculation if the flow measurements are reliable and steady. Gravimetric feeders used in modern power plants can give the coal flows to a certain degree of accuracy. •Flow measurements always involve a co-efficient.e. This eliminates any inaccuracies in flow measurements. Since each loss is separately calculated it is easy to identify problem areas. The big advantage is that the calculation is on unit basis i.: for 1 kg of coal.Learning modules material. This method.

a boroscope. during and after welding. LOP. or a gage.0 Destructive & Non-destructive Testing NDT is an integral part of manufacturing system for quality control of engineering materials during all stages –raw material. a dental mirror. overlaps. visual inspection is simple. The main objective of defect prevention and not just detection. in process and finished condition. quick and relatively inexpensive. process. LOF. pockmarks. The most widely used NDE techniques in the welding industry are : Surface NDT methods    Visual Liquid Penetrate Testing (PT) Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Voluminar NDT methods   Radiographic Testing (RT) Ultrasonic Testing (UT) VISUAL INSPECTION: Widely used to detect surface discontinuities. In general most NDT methods in use today indirectly measure the overall quality.Learning modules material. Visual inspection is useful for checking the Dimensional accuracy of weldments. Presence of surface flaws such as unfilled craters. The only aid that might be used to determine the conformity of a weld are a low power magnifier. However. weld spatter and cleanness. Applying magnetic particles to the surface of the material .Engineering (FB) 7. dimension etc to choose the most appropriate NDE methods.viz. under cuts. component or assembly. and 109 . It consists of four basic operations . it is essential to know the material. strength or serviceability characteristics of the items under test be it a material. and cracks etc.Examining the surface of the material for accumulations of the particulars (indications ) and finally evaluating the serviceability of the material. The types of weld discontinuities normally detected magnetic particle inspection include cracks. Conformity of welds to size and contour requirements. Establishing a suitable magnetic field in the material being inspected. Acceptability of weld appearance with regard to surface rough ness.MPI is a particularly suitable for the detection of surface flaws in highly ferromagnetic metals. MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION(MPI):This is used for detecting surface and near surface flaws in ferromagnetic materials. There are a number of NDT methods available today. Visual inspection can and should be done before.

shrinkage cavities.In industrial Radiography. Inclusions etc. The inspector looks for these coloured or fluorescent indications against the background of the developer. even when the flaws are generally not visible in the unaided eye. where it remains for a period of time and penetrates into the flaws. slag inclusions. held in a light tight envelope or cassette having a very thin front surface which allows X-rays to pass through. lack of fusion. and gas pockets can be detected if large or extensive or if smaller and near the surface.Engineering (FB) porosity open to the surface. lack of bonds. bursts. After penetrating period. it diffuses into the developer. Liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of the part. Linear porosity. 110 . pores. ULTRASONIC INSPECTION(UT): Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high frequency (0. This developer acts as a blotter. drawing out a portion of the penetrant that had previously seeped into the surface openings. that are wider than the surface openings. lack of penetration. slag inclusions. remaining on the surface is removed. the excess penetrant. The sound wave travel through the material with loss of energy (attenuation) and are reflected to define the presence and location of flaws or discontinuities.1 & 25 MHz) sound waves are introduced into materials for the detection of surface and subsurface flaws in the materials. RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION (RT): Radiography is most popular NDT method . Tungsten inclusions etc. As the penetrant is drawn out. laminations. Discontinuities detectable by radiography include gas porosity. the usual procedure for producing a radiograph is to have a source of penetrating radiation (X-rays or gamma rays) on one side of the other side. light – coloured developer is then applied to the surface. The detector is usually a sheet of photographic film. forming indications. An absorbent. LIQUID PENETRANT INSPECTION(LPI):It is capable of detecting discontinuities open to the surface in weldments made of either ferromagnetic or non-ferromagnetic alloys.UT cab detect almost all the internal defects including Cracks.Learning modules material. However enough care should be given to follow the safety procedures to avoid Radiation hazards. The energy of the radiation must be chosen so that sufficient radiation is transmitted through to the detector.UT equipment generates electric signals which are converted to Ultrasound by piezo electric tranducers and the beams reflected from defects are converted back to electric signals and presented in the Cathods Ray Tubes. cracks.

111 . Verification of Thickness of Thin wall materials. which propagate to the surface and are recorded by sensors. current will be induced in this second conductor.Learning modules material. When alternating current is applied to the conductor.SBC using Sliding Probes. matrix cracking and fiber breakage and debonding contribute to acoustic emissions. or temperature). In composites. ECT can be used to detect Surface Breaking Cracks. and phase transformations in metals.Tube Inspection. Metal thinning(Corrosion). They get their name from “eddies” that are formed when a liquid or gas flows in a circular path around obstacles when conditions are right. AE’s have also been measured and recorded in polymers. Eddy currents are induced electrical currents that flow in a circular path. and concrete. melting. ACCOUSTIC EMISSION TESTING: Acoustic Emission (AE) refers to the generation of transient elastic waves produced by a sudden redistribution of stress in a material. This magnetic field expands as the alternating current rises to maximum and collapses as the current is reduced to zero. Flux Leakage and Barkhausen Noise also use this principle. The demand for personal safety is a strong force in the development of non.Engineering (FB) EDDY CURRENT TESTING(ECT): Eddy current inspection is one of several NDT methods that use the principal of “electromagnetism” as the basis for conducting examinations. With the right equipment and setup. wood. Sources of AE vary from natural events like earthquakes and rockbursts to the initiation and growth of cracks. in the form of stress waves. Appropriate Non-destructive inspection provides such vital assurance by determining the existing state or quality of materials with a view to find out its acceptance for intended end-use and supplements percentage 'destructive-testing' assuring that all materials employed meet the required quality standards and are reliable. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING Non-destructive inspection is a testing technology based on applied physics and is exactly what the name implies-method of testing materials for cracks or flaws without damaging or altering their physical structure. slip and dislocation movements. localized sources trigger the release of energy. Saves lives & prevents accidents: Reliability to protect human life is essential. Proper NDT assures the axle in a supper fast train does not fail at high speed and prevents collapse of landing gears in an aircraft on touch down. a magnetic field develops in and around the conductor. When a structure is subjected to an external stimulus (change in pressure. Several other methods such as Remote Field Testing (RFT). load. If another electrical conductor is brought into the close proximity to this changing magnetic field. Thickness of Coatings etc. twinning. such as copper wire. Eddy currents are created through a process called electromagnetic induction. motions on the order of picometers (10 -12 m) can be identified.destructive tests. among other materials. Reason for using NDT: 1. The complex products and new materials that are developed today and introduced in the market need freedom from defects and assurance for trouble-free performance.

Timely inspection and good construction standards result in reduction of both costs and delays due to rework.Learning modules material. 6. Quality above optimum results in scrap or reworks. Ensures Product Reliability: The public expects a fabricated part to give a trouble free performance for a reasonable period of usefulness. For inspections to be meaningful consideration must be given to condition of materials. the process of fabrication then will be controlled. When any element of manufacturing operation goes out of control quality drops & waste increases. Makes profit for user which are tangible and intangible 4.Engineering (FB) 2. The inspection requirements of materials such as plates. Maintains uniform quality level: NDT helps to achieve optimum Quality verifying the quality level of a product. Using a defective material results in waste of labour and time. In a casting the design can be improved and the 'Pattern' modified to increase the Quality of Casting. valve castings and welded components employed in boiler and pressure vessel industry are stipulated by Codes which further defines sensitivity level of inspection as well as 112 . pipes. use of ring-forging for critical pressure vessels to avoid longitudinal welds etc. forgings.g. Design planning includes avoiding complex weld geometry accessibility for performing examination method planned. 5. better service year by year and longer life for a given product. 9. E. Aids in product Design: The state of physical soundness as revealed by NDT shows the designer the important areas that need design changes. location and shape of welded joints. 3. 7. PLANNING AND SCHEDULING NDT: Planning for NDT starts during design stage. Controls Manufacturing process: The operators need be trained and supervised. The stages of production at which the inspection is to be conducted should also be preplanned. 8. Ensures customer satisfaction: Actual Quality and reputation for quality stands high in customer's mind when choosing among products of competing manufactures. During fabrication quality plans must be integrated with manufacturing sequence to ensure inspections are performed at proper time and to the requirements of applicable standards. reducing profits. This saves money that would be spent in further processing or assembly. Develops Demand for sound Materials: As size and weight decrease factor of safety is lowered. INSPECTION METHODS: Non-destructive inspection methods are specified for materials to maintain necessary quality for their final service life. Saves Manufacturing costs: NDT locates undesirable defects of a material or component at an early stage. New specified quality levels on raw materials and workmanship rest on NDT for practicality. Placement of sources or film in Radiography and to facilitate movement of probes at appropriate skip-positions for scanning in ultrasonic testing. Quality below optimum affects reputation.

The degree of absorption depends upon the thickness as well as physical density variations in the object. The forms of penetrating radiation that are used in radiographic inspection of pressure vessels and valves are X-rays and Gamma rays. The inspection methods include visual. changes in thickness and variations in density of materials are properly interpreted to compare them with predetermined acceptance standards. X-rays are generated in vacuum tubes when accelerated electrons are stopped by metals like tungsten. The ability to characterize indications-grays & blacks-appearing on a radiograph needs training and experience added along with it over a period of time makes one capable of distinguishing slags. liquid penetrant and magnetic particle. Gamma rays originate from artificially produced radioisotopes when elements such as Iridium and Cobalt are treated in a reactor with a flux of neutrons. It is based on differential absorption of penetrating radiation by the part being inspected.Engineering (FB) objectionable flaw-size. cracks and lack of fusion in a weld radiograph. Radiography is the most understood and widely accepted Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) method. radiographic.Learning modules material. In a radiograph the length and width of the part under examination is more or less truly recorded whereas the thickness plane is distorted and reduced to blacks and grays. The grays and blacks that may result from voids. 113 . ultrasonic. Radiographic Inspection: Radiography is concerned with studying the homogeneity of opaque materials using penetrating radiation and is mainly used for volumetric examination of materials and welds to detect internal discontinuities present and to find-out assembly errors. The major reason for its use is that the radiograph of a three dimensional object provides a permanent visual record as a two-dimensional interior image.

Ultrasonic inspection: Ultrasonic Inspection is another volumetric inspection method to detect internal discontinuities similar to radiography.Engineering (FB) The acceptance standards are developed according to the limits of radiography and the quality level obtainable by the manufacturing practices used in making pressure vessels or valves and are well-defined in codes and standards. Thick specimens require equipment of high energy potential. Both radiography and ultrasonics are not 'substitutes' to each other but rather they complement or supplement each. grease or water. where sound beam enters vertically from the surface of inspection is specified to detect lamination in plates and internal discontinuities in forgings and castings. The basic principle is that of 'ECHO'. Safety considerations imposed by X and Gamma rays must be considered. is specified for welds. requires costly space utilisation and construction practices. Hence it is a relatively expensive means of Nondestructive testing. shear or surface modes and are reflected by any metal-air interfaces that are oriented approximately normal to incident sound wave.reflection of ultrasound by voids. High frequency electrical signals are converted as mechanical vibrations in a piezo-electric crystal. 7. These vibrations propagate through materials in longitudinal. ring forgings and pipes to detect cracks and inclined 114 . these vibrations form a wave-front and are coupled to parts under inspection with suitable medium such as oil.Learning modules material. Narrow discontinuities and laminar type of discontinuities are often undetected by Radiography.where sound beam enters inside material at pre-determined angles to the surface. castings & Assly. 6. Application: Inspection of welds. The reflected waves from such interfaces or flaws are directed back to the same transducer and are converted as electrical signals to be presented as a pip or vertical deflection in a cathode ray tube screen (CRT) of an ultrasonic flaw detector. Straight beam ultrasonic inspection. The specimen must lend itself to two side accessibility. As a permanent visual record in the form of a radiograph is available the NDT inspectors or customers can review the radiograph at any point of time to ensure the requirements of the product have been complied with. LIMITATIONS OF RADIOGRAPHY 1. 3. 2. Radiography is time consuming. Impracticable to use on specimens of complex geometry. 5. The greatest dimension of suspected discontinuity must be ”parallel to radiation beam. Angle beam inspection . 4.

It is mandatory however the examination shall be conducted to a detailed procedure. Advanced imaging and automatic scanning techniques reduce dependency on operators and ensure that pressure vessels remain fit for continued service by locating. The procedures generally refer to the amplitude of signals obtained from a calibration notch or cylindrical holes as a basis for interpretation of discontinuity signals presented on the CRT.Learning modules material. It must be also remembered that not all slag inclusions or cracks present in production materials would produce a similar signal amplitude response and it is difficult to distinguish planar flaws (cracks) from linear-flaws. The acceptance standards of radiography and ultrasonics are almost one and the same. NORMAL BEAM TESTING ANGLE BEAM TESTING 115 . However ultrasonic inspection will detect cracks and side-wall lack of fusion in welds better than radiography. Ultrasonic testing is more operator dependent test method as the presentation of discontinuity indications is by indirect means and the test results depend on the interpretation skill of the operator. Another advantage of ultrasonics over radiography is its capability to size the discontinuities in the direction that reduce the cross-sectional thickness providing a base line data during pre-service inspection to make it possible to monitor growth of flaws. characterizing and sizing the discontinuities more accurately.Engineering (FB) flaws.

Their principle application consists of: 1. permitting detection of minute defects Great penetrating power. Thickness measurement Study of metallurgical structures Determination of elastic moduli Advantages of Ultrasonic Test: 1. 3. or fine. 2. Flaw detection Evaluation of the influence of processing variables on materials and process. Undesirable internal structure. Magnetisation is done by passing current through copper electrodes and sometimes by a hand116 . grain size. Coupling and scanning problems 4. Difficult to detect point reflecors such as porosity Magnetic Particle Inspection: Magnetic Particle examination is widely used on ferromagnetic parts on edge preparations of welds and on the welds before and after the vessel has been subjected to hydrostatic test. 3. 4. High sensitivity. size. dispersed precipitates. complexity and defect orientation.Engineering (FB) UT APPLICATIONS: Because Ultrasonic techniques are basically mechanical phenomena. permitting rapid and automated inspection Need for access to only one surface of the specimen Limitations of Ultrasonic Test 1. Unfavorable sample geometry. 2. 2. 5. 3. colour. structure porosity inclusion content. allowing examination of extremely thick sections Accuracy in the measurement of flaw position and estimation of flaw size Fast response. 5. for example. they are particularly adaptable to the determination of structural integrity of engineering materials.Learning modules material. 4. for example.

any discontinuity which interrupts the lines of force more or less in perpendicular direction will set-up flux-leakage at the surface and thereby attracting the powder to form a build-up resembling the discontinuity.PROD INSPECTION METHOD 117 . CIRCULAR MAGNETISATION.Engineering (FB) held Electro-magnetic yoke. All linear discontinuities that are greater than 1. magnetic lines of force or magnetic flux will be developed. When a part or area of a part is magnetised. This technique is best employed for both detecting surface discontinuities that are open and too fine to be seen by naked eye and any discontinuities that may lie below surfaces.5 mm are generally analyzed and taken for re-work . If a medium such as iron-powder is dusted on the surface of the part during magnetisation.Learning modules material.

3. Difficulty in btaining permanent recordsof test. 4. and non-mtals such as ceramics and composites (non-ferro magnetic materials ) reduce scope for application of Magnetic Particle Inspection. Aluminum alloys . on the final welds after the vessel has been subjected to hydrostatic test.YOKE Application 1. They are also applied on edge preparation of welds. Limitation 1. Effective for for surface and near-surface defet detection only and components need to be magnetised in more than ONE direction. A thin developer coating made on the dried surface reveals the presence of flaws as a red indication against white developer background.Learning modules material. Widely used both in fabrication and maintenance of ferritic materials 2. which makes the flaw indications easily noticeable. 2. The limitation of this method is the defects should be open and 118 . Used for inspection of castings and ferritic Butt. Liquid penetrant Inspection: Liquid Penetrant examination: is used on all ferro and non-ferromagnetic materials that are essentially non-porous. 3.titanium. Any modification work during periodical overhaul of the boiler & Nuclear is tested by magnetic particles inspection method. Materials of complex geometry pose problems for testing. The surface is cleaned-off the excess penetrant after a period of penetration time using a cloth by wipe technique. Metals such as austenitic stainless steels.Engineering (FB) LONGITUDINAL MAGNETISATION.for defect locations and to identify lamination and cracks on gas cut edgess of plates-and exposed faces and edge prepared grooves in ferritc joints. Certain components need demagnetising after test. Liquid penetrant that is deep red in colour seeps or pulled into minute surface openings or cavities or cracks by capillary action. corner &Tee joints in boiler & pressure Vessels.

if found to be so.Engineering (FB) connected to surface. Spherical or round indications are tolerated to a certain size but all linear discontinuities that are greater than 1.Blotting action 119 . Hence this is considered as an aid to visual inspection as the discontinuities are too fine and are not seen by naked eye.Learning modules material.5 mm are generally probed for existence of material-separation and taken for re-works. Reverse Capillary action.

Engineering (FB) 120 .Learning modules material.

and as it can be operated by minimum technical knowledge. 2. -Fillet welds in drum-dished ends. Internal corrosion and deposition cost power plants crores of rupees in repairs and maintenance. 3. As it can be applied on any kind of material unlike magnetic particle inspection and as is free from any external energy like electricity for operation. it is to be ascertained that the halogen and sulfur content should not be harmful to the material being tested. header hand hole plates etc. dissolved solids. 4. dissolved gases and organics. The removal of suspended impurities is important for efficient operation of the demineralising plant. Extremely rough or porous surfaces are likely to produce false indications. attachment welding in super heaters is tested by penetrant inspection method. 5. The testing area should be properly ventilated. so that the chemicals will not be hazardous to the operator. are inspected by penetrant test . deposition and achieving desired steam quality. Steam turbines rated for high capacities call for stringent steam quality to avoid damages and to maintain the rated output. The dissolved solids and silica are required to be 121 .Engineering (FB) Applications: 1.0 Water Chemistry Water treatment General The major objectives of water chemistry programme in modern high-pressure boilers are the control of corrosion. 8. It is very versatile test method. Penetrant Inspection is widely used both in fabrication and maintenance. But before putting the chemicals into use. Any modification work during periodical overhaul of the boiler as is scalloped bar welding. Exhaust fan should be provided when test is conducted inside closed vessels. Limitations: The major limitation of liquid penetrant inspection is that it can detect only imperfections that are open to the surface. Thus the successful operation of power plant requires a thorough understanding of all aspects of water treatment. clarification and filtration.Learning modules material. Make-up water treatment: Raw water contains suspended solids. The suspended solids and turbidity are generally removed by pre-treatment stage comprising of coagulation.

Feed water treatment: The reaction of feed water and steel is spontaneous and rapid at high temperatures. there is a great potential for caustic to concentrate under deposits and cause corrosion . Ammonia (20 to 70 ppb) is added to 122 . Oxygenated treatment: In oxygenated treatment [OT]. Ammonia is generally used to elevate the pH of feed water by the feed of not more than 0. Even if bulk boiler water does not contain large amount of caustic.1) has been used to relate the relative corrosion of steel over a wide range of pH values.0.5 to 11. magnetite (Fe3O4) forms a protective barrier on the boiler steel surfaces which minimizes further corrosion. The corrosion end product. The dissolved solids and silica are removed in the demineralising plant and thereby producing acceptable make-up water quality for high-pressure boilers with specific electrical conductivity of less than 0. This method of treatment excludes free caustic from boiler water. Boiler water treatment: It is recommended to use co-ordinated phosphate-pH treatment method for high pressure drum type boilers. another contributing element in corrosion of steel is essential to avoid corrosion in feed water. With main oxygen removal by deaeration. an optimum pH of 8.02 ppm) in small quantities can be reduced further by reducing agents such as sodium sulphite for low pressure boilers and hydrazine for high pressure boilers. Oxygen is deliberately injected in a controlled manner into the boiler feedwater to maintain a 50 to 150 ppb residual. The work of Bell and Van tack (fig.2 is recommended for feed water to minimise the pre-boiler corrosion. Considering boiler components with mixed metallurgy.2 µS / cm with hardness completely removed and silica less than 0. The exclusion of dissolved oxygen.01 to 0.Engineering (FB) maintained at very low levels in boiler at high pressures to control deposition and to maintain steam quality. residual oxygen (0.0. by the injection of mixtures of phosphates in to the boiler drum so that sodium to phosphate molar ratio is less than 3.02 ppm.8 to 9.5 ppm of ammonia to minimise copper corrosion.Learning modules material. Minimum corrosion of steel is indicated at pH values of 8.

15 µS / cm). This compact layer is more stable than magnetite and releases very little dissolved iron or suspended ironoxide particles to the fluid. The principal criterion for determining the need to clean boilers is the deposit density in milligram per cm2. as the corrosion would be very high. the base layer of magnetite becomes overlaid and interspersed with a tighter and impervious film of ferric oxide hydrate (FeOOH). Poor water quality would cause deposition leading to differential oxygen cells formation and subsequent under-deposit corrosion and pitting.0 to 8. OT has become very popular in once-through units. Hence boilers operating on OT are always equipped with condensate polishers.Learning modules material. Chemical cleaning: In spite of high purity make up water and improved boiler water treatment program. BIS: 10391-1982 provides guidelines for permissible deposit weight limits and its relationship with boiler cleanliness for high pressure subcritical boilers. With the controlled injection of oxygen. Internal deposit weight (mg/cm2) < 15.Engineering (FB) raise the pH to a range of 8.0 15 – 40 > 40 unit cleanliness clean surface moderately dirty very dirty surface 123 . If boiler performance is to be maintained at design values and availability is to be assured. iron oxide generation (due to corrosion of feedwater system) has been observed to be much less with OT programmes. Water side deposits can reduce heat transfer. influence corrosion of the underlying metal and ultimately result in tube failure if they become excessive. Compared to AVT programmes. The key to an OT programme is control. trace levels of corrosion products in feed water and impurities from condenser leakage are carried over and accumulated on boiler heating surfaces.5. deposits will have to be removed periodically by chemical cleaning. OT cannot be used in systems that contain copper-alloy feedwater heater tubes. Input water must be extremely pure (cation conductivity < 0.

Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)

Chemical cleaning is recommended whenever deposit weight is more than 40.0 mg/cm2. These limits have proven effective in avoiding overheating and corrosion related problems in a large number of utility boilers.

RECOMMENDED FEED WATER LIMITS
DRUM OPERATING PRESSURE kg/cm2 (g) TREATMENT TYPE 1.Hardness ppm (max) 2.pH at 25℃ Mixed metalallurgy All ferrous metallurgy 61-100 PO4 NIL 8.8-9.2 9.0-9.4 100 and above PO4 NIL 8.8-9.2 9.0-9.4 0.20 AVT NIL 8.8-9.2 9.0-9.6 0.20

3.Sp. electrical conductivity after cation 0.30 exchanger in H+ form at 25℃, microsiemens/cm (max) 4.Dissolved oxygen, ppb (max) 5.0 5.Silica as SiO2 , ppb (max) 6.Iron as Fe , ppb (max) 7.Copper as Cu , ppb (max) 8.Residual Hydrazine , ppb 9.Total organic carbon, ppb (max) 20.0 10 5 10-20 200

5.0 20/10* 5 3 10-20 200

5.0 10 5 3 10-20 200

* Should match with the corresponding values to be maintained in super heated steam.

BOILER WATER LIMITS
(FOR DRUM TYPE BOILERS- NORMAL OPERATION) DRUM OPERATING 61-90 PRESSURE kg/cm2 (g) TREATMENT TYPE PO4 1.Total Dissolved solids ppm (max) 100 91-125 PO4 100 125-165 PO4 50 165-180 PO4 15 AVT 2.0 181 & above PO4 10 AVT 1.0

2. Sp. electrical 200 conductivity microsiemens/cm (max)

200

100

30

4.0

20

2.0

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Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)
3. Silica as SiO2 ppm (max) 4.Chlorides as Cl ppm (max) 5. pH at 25℃

To be controlled as per fig. 2&3
3.0 9.0 10.0 2.0 – 9.0 – 10.0 1.4 9.1 – 9.8

0.1 0.6 9.1 9.6

0.1 0.03 – Note

0.1 0.5 9.1—9.6

0.1 0.02 Note

6.Phosphate residual 5-20 5-20 5-10 2-6 N/A 2-6 as PO4 ppm NOTE: pH should be monitored continuously; immediate shutdown if the pH goes below 8.0

N/A

GUIDELINES FOR EMERGENCY OPERATION
(DRUM TYPE – PHOSPHATE TREATEMENT)

SL.No.
01

Pressure range Hot well kg/sq.c.m (g) solids ppm 61-125 0.5-2.0 (ABNORMAL)

Operational Limitations Limited operation Note.1 Emergency OperationNote.3 Limited operation Note.1 Emergency OperationNote.3 Limited operation Note.1 Emergency OperationNote.3 Limited operation Note.1 Emergency OperationNote.3

Control Limits

Boiler water Control TDS<200 ppm NOTE 2 pH 9.1-10.1 PO4 5-40 ppm -DONOTE 4

>2.0 (EXCESSIVE) 02 126-165 0.5-2.0 (ABNORMAL) >2.0 (EXCESSIVE) 03 166-180 0.25-1.0 (ABNORMAL) >1.0 (EXCESSIVE) 04 181-203 0.1-1.0 (ABNORMAL) >1.0 (EXCESSIVE)

TDS<100 ppm NOTE 2 pH9.1-10.1 PO4 5-20 ppm -DONOTE 4

TDS<50 ppm NOTE 2 pH 9.1-10.1 PO4 5-20 ppm -DONOTE 4

TDS<50 ppm NOTE 2 pH 9.1-10.1 PO4 5-20 ppm -DONOTE 4

NOTE 1: NOTE 2:

Schedule Inspection and repair of condenser as soon possible Immediately start chemical injection to achieve higher phosphate and pH conditions,

125

Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)
Do not continue operation if pH cannot be maintained above 8 total solids below Specified limits. Avoid use of desuper heating spray. NOTE3: Immediately reduce load to permit isolation of damaged condenser and prepare for orderly shutdown if hot well TDS cannot be reduced quickly below specified limits. NOTE4: NOTE5: Prepare for wet lay up of the boiler. Control silica in boiler water in accordance with graph provided.

HOT WELL CONDITIONS FOR ALL VOLATILE TREATMENT
(FOR DRUM TYPE BOILERS) PRESSURE RANGE (kg/sq.cm) 126-165 Above 166 Note: HOT WELL SOLIDS (PPM) NORMAL OPERATION < 0.05 < 0.05 EMERGENCY OPERATION < 0.1 PPM < 0.25 PPM

Switch over to phosphate treatment when hot well solids exceed emergency operation levels.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. All Feed water measurements shall be made at high pressure heater outlet or economiser inlet 2. Oxygen can also be additionally measured at deaerator outlet to determine the quantity of N2H4 dozing. 3. The recommended pH in feed water can be obtained by dozing ammonia, morpholine or any volatile amine. The concentration of volatile chemical in the feed water should not exceed 0.5 ppm. (expressed as Ammonia) 4. The phosphate and pH are recommended in accordance with co- ordinate phosphate curves (Figs.4 to 6) to prevent presence of free hydroxide in boiler water. 5. Water levels in drum should be maintained within limits during all operational modes, start - up, load fluctuation and normal operation. 6. The alignment of drum internals should be checked and ensured to be in order at least once every year. 7. It is needles to emphasize that correct sampling accurate measurements with the use of reliable at adequate intervals and proper logging of reading go a long way in ensuring trouble free operation.

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0 21-40 0.8-9.02 0.01 0.0-10.5 20-40 200 400 15.2 0.01 0.8-10.2 0.( µs /cm) Hydrazine residual –ppm - - 0.0 Note 2 Note 3 Note 3.5 Less than 20 21-40 41-60 Remarks 127 .Learning modules material.2 0.01 1.3 5.0 Note 4 Note 4 Remarks Note 4 Note 1 Conductivity at 25℃ measured 10.5 20-40 500 1000 25.Engineering (FB) RECOMMENDED FEED WATER AND BOILER WAETR LOW AND MEDIUM PRESSURE WATER – TUBE BOILERS [For drum pressure below 60 kg / cm2(g)] LIMITS FOR GENERAL The following recommendations hold good for water – tube boilers with drum pressure upto 60 kg/cm2 (g) where high purity feed water is available by use of demineraliser.0 41-60 Nil 8.0 8.02 0.04 RECOMMENDED BOILER WATER LIMITS Drum Operating pressure [kg/cm2 (g)] pH at 25℃ Phosphate residual -ppm TDS – max – ppm Specific electrical conductivity at 25℃ max –(µs/cm) Silica max –ppm Sodium Sulphite as Na2SO3-ppm 10.5 8.0 after cation exchanger in H+ form and after CO2 removel max .(Note 6) Drum Operating pressure [kg/cm2 (g)] Hardness Max-ppm pH at 25℃ Oxygen max – ppm Total iron max –ppm Total copper max –ppm SiO2 max –ppm Upto 20 1. RECOMMENDED FEED WATER LIMITS -.0 5-10 9.01 0.0 20-40 10.02-0.8-9.01 0. It is recommended that demineraliser shall only used for all chemical recovery boilers irrespective of drum pressure.05 0.0-10.1 2.8-9.2 15-25 150 300 10.02 0.

Learning modules material. Pressure of oil or organic matter is not allowed in feed water which will induce foaminess and cause carryover of impurities into steam. 4. 6. The phosphate and pH shall be maintained in accordance with co-ordinated phosphate –pH curve (fig 7) to prevent pressure of free hydroxide in boiler water . Total Alkalinity in boiler water shall not exceed of TDS. (a) Hardness shall be nil (b) SiO2 shall not exceed 0.Engineering (FB) NOTE:1. 128 .02 ppm (c) Conductivity at 25℃ measured after cation exchanger in H+ form after CO2 removal shall not exceed 2 micro mho/cm. 2. after the tapping point for Desuperheating spray so that it does not get contaminated. 3. The concentration of volatile chemical in feed water shall not exceed 1 ppm (expressed as Ammonia ) Sodium sulphate shall be dozed in the feed water. 5. Morphline or any other volatile amine can be used toelevate pH. If feed water is used for Desuperheating spray.

Engineering (FB) FIG 2 129 .Learning modules material.

Learning modules material.Engineering (FB) FIG 3 130 .

Learning modules material.Engineering (FB) FIG 4 131 .

Engineering (FB) FIG 5 FIG 6 132 .Learning modules material.

Engineering (FB) FIG 7 133 .Learning modules material.

conservation of fuel etc. as long as the main steam and reheat steam temperatures are held constant. need to respond to grid fluctuations.Engineering (FB) 9. 134 .Learning modules material. Boiler Tube failure mechanisms. warrant the boilers to be designed to meet varying operating modes like:        Base Load Operation Cycling Two-shift Constant pressure Sliding pressure ( Natural & Modified) Trip to house load Response to FGMO( Free Governing Mode of Operation) .1 Boiler Operating Modes: Increasing focus on plant efficiency. Natural sliding pressure operation has the advantage of essentially eliminating first stage temperature changes inside the turbine. 9. Availability and Reliability.0 Boiler operation.

Learning modules material. In the modified sliding pressure mode. the steam pressure is kept constant down a certain load say from 100% to approx. In order to overcome this. Instrumentation. safety interlocks  Vibration monitoring Equipment trip provisions Leveraging IT for performance analysis & optimization and for smart operation   9. to changes in load demand is relatively slow and may not satisfy the power system control requirements. 9.3 Boiler Tube failures 9.Engineering (FB) However.3.1 Major Tube Failure Mechanisms : The 22 primary mechanisms responsible for boiler tube failures as per the EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) statistics are given below. turbine inlet valves are kept at a position lower than full open position and the admission cross section at the turbine is altered briefly when the load is varied. the modified sliding pressure operation is in use. By this. 90% and then allowed to slide down along with the load. The dynamic behaviour of the steam generator is improved to take care of load fluctuation to a limited extent. so that the accumulated steam in the steam generator is discharged at once. the response of the steam generator-turbine combination. Table 1: Major Tube Failure Mechanisms 135 .2 Availability & Reliability Plant availability and reliability can be improved by adopting various measures like:    Use of well proven equipment & design practices Redundancy for Critical equipment Use of early warning systems  Tube leak detection system  Operator alarms  Sophisticated controls. with control valve in wide open condition.

stress relieving are important factors included in the welding process to ensure flawless fabrication. Since the different material sizes and specification are used in combination for an optimal design at economic cost. Therefore the weld design and welding process are to be carefully chosen. the welding process to be adopted do vary widely.Learning modules material. Not observed in Indian power stations. Based on quantity of steam flow and the velocity / pressure Heat transfer characteristics / surface effectiveness / metal temperature Thermal expansion / constraints Radius of bends Attachments Weldments Manufacturing aspects : Most of the pressure parts of the high pressure and high temperature boilers are manufactured by welding.Engineering (FB) Stress Rupture  Short Term Overheating  High Temperature Creep  Dissimilar Metal Welds Fatigue  Vibration  Thermal  Corrosion Water-side Corrosion     Caustic Corrosion Hydrogen Damage Pitting Stress Corrosion Cracking Erosion         Fly Ash Falling Slag Soot Blower Coal Particle Fire-side Corrosion     Low Temperature Water wall1 Coal Ash1 Oil Ash Lack of Quality Control Maintenance cleaning damage Chemical Excursion damage Material Defects Welding Defects 1. post heating. 9. preheating.3. Transportation / Handling : 136 .        Compatible for working pressure / temperature.2 Aspects to be considered for boiler pressure parts Availability at various stages : Design stage: Selection of material during design stage should take care of the following aspects.

Learning modules material. Welding at site needs due care and carried out as per recommended weld procedures to minimize / avoid the pressure part failures later. By taking prudent steps in O&M. normally a hydraulic testing is done at site even though various pressure parts are hydro tested at manufacturing works. Since there are many site weld joints involved at erection sites the soundness and reliability of these are ensured by field hydro testing. mill scale. during handling (loading. Followed by hydro testing alkali boil out and acid cleaning and steam blowing operations are carried out to remove the loose deposits. transportation and site erection. Plants near to costal area needs extra care due to salubrious atmosphere prevalent. muck. Operation and Maintenance: As per the statistical evidences gathered so far. Cases of tube failures have been faced due to scoring / cutting cost by wire ropes used for tying up during transportation. loose rest etc. During these commissioning activities especially during hydro test any weak / defective weld joint will be revealed during this hydro test and the same can be corrected. Open yard storage for prolonged duration may need periodical repainting of tubes with rust preventive coating. Moreover this is also a statutory requirement as per IBR. Particularly pressure part tubes are to be preserved by properly closing the open ends with end covers after putting the necessary preservatives. For facilitating field erection it is recommended for sequential erection with different modules which has to be adopted at sites. Erection : The high capacity of boilers are manufactured in parts and pieces from the point of view of handling. panels of tubes and headers do suffer due to self weight. Hence the materials received from manufacturers are to be properly stored at erection sites. Hence. during service of the boiler. weld slag. unloading) enough care to be taken so that permanent sag does not setin in the components. Storage : Normally the large capacity boilers takes several months for erection and commissioning. the pressure part tube failures due to design / manufacture / erection and commissioning accounts for 20 to 30% whereas the rest 70 to 80 % are traceable to operation and maintenance. Commissioning : After completion of erection.Engineering (FB) Long pipes. the number of failures can be minimized if not eliminated. Tube failure reduction through operation and Maintenance Over heating – short term / long term: 137 .

More excess air also accelerates the erosion potential of the ash and external metal wastage resulting in thinning of tubes and consequent tube failure. When firing coal with ash containing more than 4% sodium having conventional tubes spacing results in severe plugging in gas path leading to overheating failures.Engineering (FB) Overheating of tubes may be due to any or combination of the following:     Partial or full choking of tubes resulting in flow starvation. But too much of excess air leads to cooler furnace and higher heat absorption in convective paths. Coal : The coal having higher ash content and higher percentage of Alpha quartz results in higher erosion rate and metal wastage in the convection pass especially in the LTSH and economizer zones. Too little excess air leads higher furnace temperature result in higher radiation pickup and also promotes slagging in the furnace. Excess air levels: In order to ensure complete combustion. the properties of such fuels are to be analysed in detail and steam generator are to be designed and operated cautiously and carefully according to their characteristics to avoid any unforeseen failures.Learning modules material. Fuel types : Fuel oil (% of sulphur and vanadium content): Vanadium present in the fuel gives raise to high temperature corrosion. 15 to 20% (coal firing) more air than the stoichometric quantity. Extracting more auxiliary steam flow than the designed level may also lead to starvation in super heater / reheater. Other fuels : In Industries the process wastes. The sulphur content in the fuel results in cold end corrosion when the sulphur percentage increases. Flame impingement due to faulty or improperly aligned burners. Internal deposits due to poor water chemistry. industrial gases and bio fuels when used bio mass when used as fuel in steam generators. carry over of solids from the steam drum. it is usual practice to operate the boiler with 5 to 10% (oil & gas firing). Soot blowing : 138 .

Feed water oxygen concentration is properly controlled. It is preferable to use DM water for these operations. Correct drum level operation: Incorrect drum level operation beyond permissible limits is unsafe. Drum internals and drum water level controls are maintained in good working order. excessive pressure of steam used for blowing may cause external metal wastage due to erosion of steam with fly ash in the flue gas.. Corrosion products formed in the feed water system are kept within the specified limits. corrosion damage may occur in water wall and economizer tubes. Lack of calibration of drum water level measurement or control instrumentation. When water chemistry are maintained within the prescribed limits recommended by the designers or qualified consultant. Typical situations leading to low drum level operation are as follows:     Stoppage of feed water to the boiler due to inadvertent closure of feed system valves or loss of deed pump.Engineering (FB) While soot blowing helps in cleaning any ash / slag deposits on the tubes. jammed soot blower valves. condensate in blowing steam. Operation of the Unit without requisite level instrumentation Water Chemistry: Quality of water and steam used in modern high pressure steam generator is of utmost important for trouble free performance of fossil fuel fired steam generators. Precaution are taken during chemical cleaning operations to prevent metal attack. are few of the reasons causing erosion of pressure part tubes and consequent failures. struck-up soot blower lance which fail to retract. 139 . affects the circulation in the water wall tubes resulting in overheating of tubes. Water wall corrosion problems can generally be avoided in boiler if the following points are taken care :     Recommended water treatment controls are followed. Snapping of the buck-stay connections to the water walls may also occur. Low drum level leads to steam entrapment in the down comer. This in turn.Learning modules material. etc. superheater fill water and de-superheater spray water are free of solids. leading to sudden loss of density of circulating fluid in the down comer. Excessive usage of soot blowers. Level protection devices either by passed or in-operative. Tube internal deposits problems can be avoided if:   Hydraulic test water. The damage may range from busting of water wall tubes to bowing in of the water wall panels.

sea water and water from re-circulating cooling water systems with cooling towers contain dissolved solids that hydrolyze to form acidic compounds. Proper boiler water treatment can minimize further corrosion. By contrast. Generally Hydrogen damage is difficult to detect using NDT means. Fresh water from lakes and rivers usually provide dissolved solids that hydrolyze in the boiler water environment to form a caustic such as sodium hydroxide. To some extent UT may pin point some damaged areas.Learning modules material. Even repeated chemical cleanings sometimes will not remove them. the corrosive attack can be minimized. 140 . This condition may happen when water treatment conditions deviate from the recommended parameters. Some of the hydrogen produced in the corrosion reaction diffuses into the tube metal where it combines with carbon in the steel. Replacement of tubes where metal attack exists becomes necessary. Brittle fracture occurs along the partially separated boundaries. Causes of high and low pH: It is a well known fact that the high or low pH do cause damage to pressure parts as explained in the previous paragraphs. Restoration of proper boiler water treatment may not be sufficient to prevent further hydrogen attack unless the dense corrosion product deposits are removed. Ultrasonic tube wall thickness checks can detect tubes with metal loss. Hydrogen induced brittle fracture occurs beneath a relatively dense deposit and is most likely to occur when boiler water pH is too low. The raw cooling water that leaks into the condenser essentially ends up in boiler water. Methane is formed and it exerts internal pressure within the steel causing grain boundary fissuring. but positive identification of all failure prone tubes is not possible.Engineering (FB)  Silica concentration in the boiler water is held within the acceptable limits. In many cases an entire section is blown out of a damaged tube leaving window opening. High pH damage: Concentrated hydroxide salts such as sodium hydroxide in the boiler water will cause gouging type of corrosion leading to ductile failures. The cooling water source determines whether the inleakage is either acidic producing or caustic producing. Condenser leakage is the primary cause for acidic and caustic boiler water conditions. Low pH damage: Corrosion failures occur when acid or alkaline salts are concentrated. If the recommended specifications are followed during operation of the Boilers. Minimising corrosive attack : Concentration of salts promoting corrosion generally forms at the surfaces of the tubes when acidic or alkaline producing environment prevails.

Solids carry over by the steam into the turbine also can cause turbine damages. which forms gaseous methane (CH4) at the grain boundaries in the tube steel. Causes of Hydrogen Damage : Hydrogen is generated under the following circumstances : 141 . These deposits impairs with heat transfer because of its insulating effect and leads to overheating failures. The larger methane gas molecules become trapped between the grain boundaries and cause a network of discontinuous internal cracks to be produced. Attack by chemical cleaning solvents can be eliminated by carefully following the cleaning procedures. Hydrogen damage develops from the generation of hydrogen during rapid corrosion of the internal surface of the tube. During shut down period it is necessary to protect all internal surfaces.Engineering (FB) Another potential source of acidic and caustic contaminants is the make up demineralised. The tube steel will become brittle from the combination of hydrogen and carbon. These cracks grow and some will link up to cause a through wall fracture. Hydrogen Damage: Boiler tube failures caused by hydrogen damage result from fouled heat transfer surfaces and an acidic (low pH) condition of the boiler water. From operational point of view proper blow – down. Wet lay-up together with a positive nitrogen pressure cap of about 3. Corrosion can occur if the sodium hydroxide and sodium phosphate are not added to the water in proper proportion.Learning modules material. The hydrogen atmos `migrate through the tube steel where they can react with the iron carbide (Fe3C) to form the methane. sulphuric acid and caustic may inadvertently enter the feed water system. Boiler manufacturers help in limiting the solid carry over from steam drum by proper design and fitment of drum internals. where regenerant chemicals like. Minimising pitting of Boiler tubes : Pitting caused by dissolved oxygen can be prevented by maintaining feed water oxygen level within the 5 ppb limit. Chemicals incorrectly applied during boiler water treatment also can be corrosive. Avoiding steam side deposition: Internal surfaces of steam side components like superheaters and reheaters are deposited with salts carried over along with steam from drum. controlled dosing and proper drum level control will help in avoiding deposits in superheaters / reheaters. an attempt has been made to give a brief coverage in this paper.5 psig will protect metal surfaces from corrosion. To sum up. Hydrogen damage is some times referred to as “ hydrogen attack‟ or hydrogen embrittlement”. good water chemistry with prudent boiler operations with vigil will go a long way in minimizing the tube failures to a great extent. While extensive elaboration on technique of water treatment and water chemistry is outside the purview of this paper. For example sodium hydroxide used in conjunction with sodium phosphate compounds to treat boiler water.

At high pH levels. “or “ductile gouging”. and at high heat input locations. Most of the feed water corrosion products deposit on the heated side of the furnace wall tubes since deposition is heat flux related and will favor the tubes within the highest heat absorption zones. Causes of Caustic Corrosion: Caustic corrosion occurs through:   Selective deposition of feed water system or pre-boiler corrosion products at locations of high heat flux. Caustic corrosion: Boiler tube failures caused by caustic corrosion result from fouled heat transfer surfaces and an active corrodants in the boiler water. Concentration of the corrosive contaminants within the deposits on the internal tube wall.Learning modules material. Stress corrosion cracking failures in a boiler usually occur in the austenitic stainless steel used for superheater and reheater tubing. the tube steel‟s prot ective magnetite oxide layer is solubilized and rapid corrosion occurs. or malfunction of the chemical control subsystem. However. Introduction of high stresses from service conditions. a corrosive environment. Causes of Stress Corrosion Cracking : Conditions for stress corrosion crack initiation and propagation exist under the following circumstances:    Contamination of boiler water or steam with chlorides or hydroxides. The tube surface deposits accumulate at locations where flow is disrupted such as just downstream of welds with backing rings. Concentration of sodium hydroxide from boiler water chemicals or from upsets in the water chemistry. at bends. 142 . SCC failures have occurred in some ferritic reheater tubing when high levels of caustic were introduced from the desuperheating or attemperator spraying station. in horizontal tubes heated from above or below. Stress Corrosion cracking: Boiler tube failures have been caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and result from the combined effects of tensile stress. and a susceptible material. Caustic corrosion is some times referred to as “caustic attack”. shallow pits. Production of high residual stresses during fabrication and assembly. “caustic gouging. Caustic corrosion develops from deposition of feed water corrosion products in which sodium hydroxide (Na OH) can concentrate to high pH levels.Engineering (FB)   Operation of the boiler with low pH water chemistry from the ingress of acidic salts through condenser leakage. contamination from chemical cleaning. especially in crevices. and under weld backing rings.

Learning modules material.Engineering (FB) Tube failures indications: During the regular operation of the Steam Generator if there is any tube failure occurs it will be indicated by any one or combination of the following points:         Sudden or abnormal loud noise Continuous hissing noise Furnace draft fluctuations / pressurization Flame out Falling drum level Increased quantum of make-up water Steam / Water leakage Uncontrolled Boiler Feed Regulation / Feed Pump Trip SHORT OVERHEATING TERM LONG OVERHEATING TERM 143 .

SATELLITE SCALE CRACKING OVERHEATING DEPOSITS – WATERSIDE 144 . CREEP INCORRECT MATERIAL – OVERHEATING – BULGING.Learning modules material.Engineering (FB) STEAMSIDE OXIDE SCALE OVERHEATING.

Learning modules material.Engineering (FB) DISSIMILAR METAL FAILURE IN SERVICE WELD DISSIMILAR METAL WELD MICRO AT TRANSITION FLATTENING TEST FAILURE HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT GRAIN BOUNDARY CRACKSHYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT 145 .

Engineering (FB) HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT ETCHED ROUNDED DISSOLVED PITTING CORROSION GAS LONG TERM OVERHEATING WATERSIDE DEPOSTS DISSIMILAR METAL WELD FAILURE 146 .Learning modules material.

Engineering (FB) CAUSTIC GOUGING STRATIFICATION CAUSTIC GOUGING HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT 147 .Learning modules material.

Engineering (FB) DISSIMILAR METAL FAILURE IN SERVICE WELD DISSIMILAR METAL WELD MICRO AT TRANSITION FLATTENING TEST FAILURE HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT GRAIN BOUNDARY CRACKSHYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT 148 .Learning modules material.

Engineering (FB) HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT ETCHED ROUNDED DISSOLVED PITTING CORROSION GAS STRESS CORROSION CRACK IN COLD BENT TUBE TRANSGRANULAR STRESS CORROSION CRACKS 149 .Learning modules material.

Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)

INTERGRANULAR STRESS CORROSION CRACKS

CORROSION FATIGUE CRACKS

CORROSION FATIGUE CRACKS

SIDE WALL LACK OF FUSION IN A WELD

DISSOLVED OXYGEN PITTING CORROSION

EXTERNAL PITTING IMPROPER STORAGE

150

Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)

STRESS CORROSION CRACK IN SS 304H

LOW TEMPERATURE CORROSION

LOW TEMPERATURE CORROSION

WATER WALL CORROSION

FIRE

SIDE

151

Learning modules material- Engineering (FB)

COAL ASH CORROSION

OIL ASH CORROSION

FATIGUE CRACK

FATIGUE CRACK

152

Engineering (FB) FATIGUE CRACK – INADEQUATE FLEXIBILITY THERMAL FATIGUE 153 .Learning modules material.

Engineering (FB) FATIGUE CRACK ATTACHMENT WELD – CORROSION FATIGUE CRACK IN COLD BEND CORROSION CRACKS FATIGUE CORROSION FATIGUE CRACKS DAMAGE DUE TO TUBE INSIDE TUBE PIPE MANUFACTURING DEFECT LAP 154 .Learning modules material.

Learning modules material.FOLD TUBE MANUFACTURING DEFECT .Engineering (FB) INCORRECT MATERIAL TUBE MANUFACTURING DEFECT .SEAM TUBE BENDING CRACK – STRIP HEATED BEND 155 .

Engineering (FB) START STOP GAP IN PULSED MAG WELDING BURN-THROUGH IN SMAW TRANSPORTATION DAMAGE AT WIRE LASHING REGION INDUCTION PRESURE WELD – PASTY JOINT 156 .Learning modules material.

Determination of the root cause can lead to implementation of corrective actions which could reduce or eliminate the likelihood that a similar type of failure will occur.Learning modules material.Engineering (FB) LIGAMENT HEADER CRACKING IN CLOSE UP VIEW OF LIGAMENT CRACK INTERNAL EROSION IN A TUBE BEND CREEP FAILURE OF A LINK PIPE – IMPROPER SUPPORT Tube failure investigation: An Investigation into a tube failure in an electric utility steam generating boiler has the potential to determine the root cause of that failure. These economic and morale benefits can only be achieved if an investigation into the tube failure is conducted which correctly identifies the 157 .

equipment manufacturers. The wrong material can be installed at a critical location.Learning modules material. leading to premature failure of the tube. Follow-up corrective actions based on the complete results of the investigation must be planned and implemented before additional failures are experienced. 158 . cognizance of the root causes for each failure mechanism. For an investigation to be successful. and tube samples must be acquired and transferred to others who will conduct the investigation while repairs are being performed. chemical cleaning. Failure descriptions. Immediate corrective actions based on the initial results of the investigation must be approved and implemented before repairs are completed. maintenance mechanics. welding. Such an investigation can be a complex process requiring effective communications between equipment operators. Errors can occur in the design. plant management. and technical experts in materials. The likelihood that a failure investigation will be successful and produce the proper corrective action can be enhanced when the plant personnel have knowledge of the basic failure mechanisms that produce tube degradation. recognition of the ways to verify a root cause. storage. shipping. the following activities must be performed by plant personnel :     Information and data concerning the tube failure must be gathered quickly before repair activities can begin. operation. and mechanical engineering. and tube manufacturing. Boiler tube failures have been experienced due to lack of quality control in maintenance cleaning. operating conditions at the time of failure. chemistry.Engineering (FB) failure mechanism and recommends the corrective actions that will control the root cause for that failure. and conviction to follow a planned approach to document the failure with pertinent data. This error can be the result of lack of quality control at the supplier ‟s factory or in the utility‟s storage and stock disbursement process. manufacture. Human errors are also an important factor in boiler tube failures. historical records. and maintenance of the boiler tubing. construction.