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All food additives are listed below by code number and by name

There are about 350 permitted food additives in Australia. About 50 are likely to cause adverse reactions. They are marked in RED bold. AVOID Additives in italics are new, untested and should be avoided. Other additives are unlikely to cause reactions. This includes anti-caking agents, bleaches, emulsifiers, mineral salts, propellants, food acids, sweeteners, thickening agents, vegetable gums and vitamins.
Last update September 2002

Food additives by code number
Colours
100 101 102 103 Turmeric or curcumin, yellow Riboflavin, lactoflavin, vitamin B2, yellow, failsafe Tartrazine, yellow #5 AVOID Alkanet, pink

Alkanet is so new it hasn't been tested for behavioural and learning toxicity. It is a natural colour derived from a plant. As with annatto, this is no guarantee of safety. 104 110 120 Quinoline yellow
AVOID

Sunset yellow AVOID Cochineal or carmines, red

Cochineal, from the body of a South American insect, is moderate in terms of food intolerance reactions, but severe allergic reactions have been reported, especially in dye workers. 122 123 124 Azorubine) AVOID Amaranth AVOID Ponceau 4R AVOID

see comment) citranaxanthin (new. Canthaxanthin taken in large quantities in tanning tablets has been associated retinal damage.iceland. 151 153 155 160a 160 160b 160e 160f Brilliant black BN AVOID Carbon black. 161 161g 161I Xanthophylls. We have received a few reports of reactions.nsf/ (WebSearch)/CusEggs/ . Plain caramel is considered failsafe. See sample colours in eggs at http://www. It is used as a food colour. vegetable carbon Brown HT AVOID Beta-carotene (failsafe) Carotene (others) .and possibly in Europe . in poultry feed and fed to farmed salmon and trout to colour their flesh.uk/Ext_11/web/Market. canthaxanthin (161g) and citranaxanthin (161i) are used in poultry feed to deepen the colour of egg yolks. 150b (caustic sulphite caramel) and 150c (ammonia caramel).see listed below Annatto extracts AVOID beta-apo-8' carotenal (new) E-apo-8' carotenoic acid (new) 160e and 160f are too new to have been tested for behavioural toxicity.127 129 132 133 140 141 142 150 Erythrosine AVOID Allura red AVOID Indigotine AVOID Brilliant blue AVOID Chlorophyll Chlorophyll-copper Food green S AVOID Caramel (see comment) In the US . yellow (see comment) canthaxanthin (new.co. 150a (plain or spirit caramel). see comment) Beta apo 8'carotenal (160e). There is a report of sulphite ammonia caramel used widely in soft drinks like cola causing problems for the extra sulphite sensitive. They might be safe like betacarotene (160a) or harmful like annatto (160b).caramel 150 may be divided into caramels 150 (sulphite ammonia caramel).

white (failsafe) Iron oxide . brown Preservatives . beet red.sorbates 200 201 202 203 Sorbic acid AVOID Sodium sorbate AVOID Potassium sorbate AVOID Calcium sorbate AVOID Preservatives . yellow (failsafe) Silver Tannic acid. white (failsafe) Titanium dioxide. red. blue. turmeric.benzoates 210 211 212 213 Benzoic acid AVOID Sodium benzoate AVOID Potassium benzoate AVOID Calcium benzoate AVOID Sorbates and benzoates have been associated with the full range of food intolerance reactions.red. 216 218 Propylparaben Methylparaben Preservatives 216 and 218 are only permitted in food colours in Australia. 170 171 172 174 181 Calcium carbonate. violet (from plants) Colours made from plants are moderate in salicylates (eg anthocyanins.162 Beet red Beet red may contain sodium nitrate (preservative 251) up to 25 mg/kg.sulphites (aka sulfites) 220 221 Sulphur dioxide AVOID Sodium sulphite AVOID . Preservatives . black. 163 Anthocyanins. tannins) except for beta-carotene (160a) which is low.

234 235 242 Nisin Natamycin Dimethyl dicarbonate (new. Food acids 260 261 262 262 263 264 270 Acetic acid Potassium acetate Sodium diacetate Sodium acetate Sodium acetate Ammonium acetate Lactic acid Preservatives . they prevent bacterial growth and food poisoning. nitrates and nitrites are necessary.propionates 280 Propionic acid AVOID . but they are not failsafe.222 223 224 225 228 Sodium bisulphite AVOID Sodium metabisulphite AVOID Potassium metabisulphite AVOID Potassium sulphite AVOID Potassium bisulphite AVOID Sulphites (above) are the biggies for asthmatics. Used in processed meats. untested) Preservatives . Also known as sulfites.nitrates and nitrites 249 250 251 252 Potassium nitrite AVOID Sodium nitrite AVOID Sodium nitrate AVOID Potassium nitrate AVOID (also colour fixatives) Unlike many food additives. Not to be confused with sulphates (514-519).

290 296 297 Carbon dioxide (propellant) Malic acid (food acid) Fumaric acid (food acid) Antioxidants 300 301 302 303 304 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 315 316 319 320 321 Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Sodium ascorbate Calcium ascorbate Potassium ascorbate Ascorbyl palmitate Mixed tocopherols (vitamin E) dl-a-Tocopherol g-Tocopherol d-Tocopherol Propyl gallate AVOID Octyl gallate AVOID Dodecyl gallate AVOID Erythorbic acid Sodium erythorbate tert-Butylhydroquinone.281 282 283 Sodium propionate AVOID Calcium propionate AVOID Potassium propionate AVOID Widespread use in bread in Australia and the US. BHT AVOID 322 Lecithin (also an emulsifier) . fruit and vegetable products in Australia. tBHQ AVOID Butylated hydroxyanisole. propionates are rarely used in Europe. BHA AVOID Butylated hydroxytoluene. Recently permitted also in cheese.

Most failsafers can manage citric acid (330).Gallates and TBHQ. More food acids 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 331 331 332 333 334 335 336 336 337 338 Sodium lactate Potassium lactate Calcium lactate Ammonium lactate Magnesium lactate Citric acid Sodium dihydrogen citrate Sodium citrate Sodium acid citrate Potassium citrates Calcium citrate Tartaric acid Sodium tartrate Potassium tartrate Potassium acid tartrate Potassium sodium tartrate Phosphoric acid Food acids are safe for most people. a few react. BHA and BHT are used to preserve vegetable oils and margarines. Antioxidants 300-309 are safe alternatives. Mineral salts 339 340 341 342 Sodium phosphates Potassium phosphates Calcium phosphates Ammonium phosphates . When vegetable oils are used in other products. these antioxidants are often unlisted because of the 10% labelling loophole. BHA and BHT can also leach into products from cereal wrappers and clingfilm.

niacin (B vitamin) Triammonium citrate Ammonium citrate Ferric ammonium citrate Calcium disodium EDTA Vegetables gums and thickeners 400 401 402 403 404 405 Alginic acid Sodium alginate Potassium alginate Ammonium alginate Calcium alginate Propylene glycol alginate .343 Magnesium phosphates More food acids 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 357 365 366 367 368 375 380 380 381 385 Ammonium malate DL-Sodium malates Potassium malate DL-Calcium malate Metatartaric acid Calcium tartrate Adipic acid Potassium adipate Sodium fumarate Potassium fumarate Potassium fumarate Ammonium fumarate Nicotinic acid.

Glycerin is used as a humectant in marshmallows and other sweets. The first two are not permitted in foods for babies and young children. Carrageenan (407) used in yoghurts. All can cause nausea or diarrhea in large amounts or sensitive people. icecreams and others has been linked to cancer and is not recommended in large quantities for young children. isinglass Carrageenan Vegetable gums are failsafe. These additives are also used as sweeteners. Guar and xanthan are used extensively by coeliacs. 407a 409 410 412 413 414 415 416 418 Processed eucheuma seaweed Arabinogalactan Locust bean gum Guar gum Tragacanth Acacia Xanthan gum Karaya gum Gellan gum Humectants 420 421 422 Sorbitol Mannitol Glycerin (glycerol) Humectants keep food moist.406 407 Agar agar. Emusifiers 433 435 436 440 442 444 Polysorbate 80 Polysorbate 60 Polysorbate 65 Pectin (also a vegetable gum) Ammonium salts of phosphatidic acid Sucrose acetate isobutyrate .

insoluble Potassium polymetaphosphate Cellulose microcrystalline and powdered (anti-caking agent) Thickeners. vegetable gums 461 464 465 466 Methylcellulose Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose Methyl ethyl cellulose Sodium carboxymethylcellulose Emulsifiers 470 471 472a 472b 472c 472d 472e 473 475 476 Magnesium stearate (emulsifier. stabiliser) Mono. glassy Sodium metaphosphate.and di-glycerides of fatty acids Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol Tartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol Sucrose esters of fatty acids Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid .More mineral salts 450 450 450 451 451 452 452 452 460 Sodium pyrophosphate Sodium acid pyrophosphate Potassium pyrophosphate Sodium tripolyphosphate Potassium tripolyphosphate Sodium polyphosphates.

mineral salt) Hydrochloric acid (acidity regulator) Potassium chloride Calcium chloride Ammonium chloride Magnesium chloride Stannous chloride (colour retention agent) Sodium sulphate (mineral salt) Potassium sulphate (mineral salt) Calcium sulphate (flour treatment agent.and di-esters Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate Sodium stearoyl (or oleyl) lactylate Calcium stearoyl (or oleyl) lactylate Sorbitan monostearate Sorbitan tristearate Mineral salts 500 500 501 503 503 504 507 508 509 510 511 512 514 515 516 518 519 526 529 Sodium carbonate Sodium bicarbonate Potassium carbonates Ammonium carbonate Ammonium bicarbonate Magnesium carbonate (anti-caking agent. mineral salt) Magnesium sulphate (mineral salt) Cupric sulphate (mineral salt) Calcium hydroxide (mineral salt) Calcium oxide (mineral salt) .477 480 481 482 491 492 Propylene glycol mono.

535 536 541 542 551 552 553 554 556 558 559 570 575 577 578 579 Sodium ferrocyanide (anti-caking agent) Potassium ferrocyanide (anti-caking agent) Sodium aluminium phosphate. acidic (acidity regulator. emulsifier) Bone phosphate (anti-caking agent) Silicon dioxide (anti-caking agent) Calcium silicate (anti-caking agent) Talc (anti-caking agent) Sodium aluminosilicate (anti-caking agent) Calcium aluminium silicate (anti-caking agent) Bentonite (anti-caking agent) Kaolin (anti-caking agent) Stearic acid (anti-caking agent) Gluconod-lactone (acidity regulator) Potassium gluconate (stabiliser) Calcium gluconate (acidity regulator) Ferrous gluconate (colour retention agent) Flavour enhancers 620 621 622 623 624 625 627 631 635 L-Glutamic acid AVOID Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) AVOID Monopotassium L-glutamate AVOID Calcium di-L-glutamate AVOID Monoammonium L-glutamate AVOID Magnesium di-L-glutamate AVOID Disodium guanylate AVOID Disodium inosinate AVOID Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides AVOID .

artificial and not recommended. anti. Sugar is a natural alternative. antifoaming agent. There are reports of addiction.caking agent) Beeswax. Not recommended. 952 Sodium cyclamate (artificial sweetening substance) . white and yellow (glazing agent) Carnauba wax (glazing agent) Shellac. Aspartame in diet". 636 637 640 641 Maltol Ethyl maltol Glycine L-Leucine Miscellaneous additives 900 901 903 904 905a 905b 914 920 925 926 928 941 942 Dimethylpolysiloxane (emulsifier. "lite" and "no added sugar" products may increase appetite thus failing to assist weight loss. bleached (glazing agent) Mineral oil. white (glazing agent) Petrolatum (glazing agent) Oxidised polyethylene (Humectant) L-Cysteine monohydrochloride (flour treatment agent) Chlorine (flour treatment agent) Chlorine dioxide (flour treatment agent) Benzoyl peroxide (flour treatment agent) Nitrogen (propellant) Nitrous oxide (propellant) Artificial sweeteners 950 951 Acesulphame potassium (artificial sweetening substance) Aspartame (artificial sweetening substance) AVOID The safety of aspartame with regard to brain tumours and others is not proven.The adverse effects of MSG (621) are well documented. Artificial sweeteners in general are unnecessary. We have also received many reports of skin rashes associated with new additive 635 which is a combination of 627 and 631.

952 952 953 954 954 954 955 956 957 965 966 967 1001 1100 1101 1102 1104 1105 1200 1201 1202 Cyclamic acid (artificial sweetening substance) Calcium cyclamate (artificial sweetening substance) Isomalt (humectant) Sodium saccharin (artificial sweetening substance) Saccharin (artificial sweetening substance) Calcium saccharin (artificial sweetening substance) Sucralose (artificial sweetening substance) Alitame (artificial sweetening substance) Thaumatin (flavour enhancer. flavour enhancer) Glucose oxidase (antioxidant) Lipases (flavour enchancer) Lysozyme (preservative) Polydextrose (Humectant) Polyvinylpyrrolidone (stabiliser. bromelain. dispersing agent) Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (colour stabiliser) Thickeners. stabiliser) Choline salts and esters (emulsifier) Amylases (flour treatment agent) Proteases (papain. vegetable gums 1400 1401 1402 1403 Dextrin roasted starch Acid treated starch Alkaline treated starch Bleached starch . stabiliser) Lactitol (humectant) Xylitol (humectant. clarifying agent. artificial sweetening substance) Maltitol and maltitol syrup (humectant. stabiliser. ficin) (flour treatment agent.

1404 1405 1410 1412 1413 1414 1420 1421 1422 1440 1442 1450 1505 1518 1520 1521 Oxidised starch Enzyme-treated starches Monostarch phosphate Distarch phosphate Phosphated distarch phosphate Acetylated distarch phosphate Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate Acetylated distarch adipate Hydroxypropyl starch Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate Starch sodium octenylsuccinate Triethyl citrate Triacetin (humectant) Propylene glycol (humectant) Polyethylene glycol 8000 (antifoaming agent .