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System identification based on Step and Impulse response considering first and
second order transfer function models

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These notes discuss system identification based on the step and impulse response. In the following we consider linear, time-invariant systems of first and second order, as they provide reasonable approximation for the description of the dominant behavior of most linear time-invariant systems. I. First order system A first order system is described in frequency domain by the transfer function k G (s) = t s +1 where the parameters k and t are the system gain ( k ) and the time constant of the system ( t ). The step response of this system, considering initial conditions equal with 0, is obtained as follows: a. the Laplace transform of the system input is 1 U (s) = s b. using the relation Y ( s ) = H ( s )U ( s ) one obtains the Laplace transform of the output signal k 1 Y (s) = t s +1 s c. we use partial fractions expansion and then inverse Laplace transform to obtain the system response in time domain A B Y (s) = + t s +1 s k k A = Y ( s )(t s + 1) s =- 1 = = -t k and B = Y ( s ) s s =0 = =k s s =- 1 t s + 1 s =0 t

**tk k k k Y (s) = + =+ t s +1 s s + 1/ t s Inverse Laplace transform results in
**

y (t ) = - ke

-t 1 t

t

+ ku-1 (t )

ì0, t < 0 where u-1 (t ) denotes the step function u-1 (t ) = í . î1, t ³ 0 Figure 1 shows the step response of a system with the transfer function G ( s ) = 2 . 3s + 1

1

and considering that u-1 (t ) = 1.k which means æ y (t ) . (t2 . i.e. one gets .8 0. t > 0 .k ø ø è 1 2 .6 1.t1 è y (t2 ) .2 0 System: sys1 Time (sec): 2 Amplitude: 0. finding the values of the two parameters k . 1 ì -t1 t ï y (t1 ) = -ke + ku-1 (t1 ) ï í 1 -t 2 ï t + ku-1 (t2 ) ï î y (t2 ) = -ke Dividing the two equations.t describing the system dynamics. y (t1 )) . y (t2 )) .k t =e y (t2 ) .2 Amplitude 1 0.k ö 1 1 ln ç 1 ÷= t2 .8 1.k ø t or æ æ y (t1 ) . Step response of the system G ( s ) = 2 3s + 1 The identification procedure.73 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Time (sec) Figure 1.971 System: sys1 Time (sec): 6 Amplitude: 1. è y (t2 ) .k ö ö t = (t2 . amounts to solving a system of two equations defined by two points on the system’s step response (t1 .Step Response 2 1.(t1 -t2 ) y (t1 ) .t1 ) ç 1/ ln ç ÷÷ ç ÷.6 0.4 1.4 0.

993 thus at t = 5t the system step response reaches more than 99% of the steady state value. one can determine the time constant of the system using (t2 -t1 ) y (t1 ) t . i. the DC gain. a b. t2 . in order to determine the value of the t ®¥ system’s DC gain one needs to divide the measured steady state value by the amplitude of the step input. c. is k -t y (t ) = e t u-1 (t ) t Measuring the value of the impulse response at positive time moments. In order to determine the value of k one notes that the steady state value of the step response is lim y (t ) = k which can be easily measured from the step response graph. Then the steady state value of the system’s step response is lim y (t ) = ak .p is the pole t s +1 s + 1/ t s + p of the system.This equation gives the value of the time constant of the system if y (t2 ). k k /t q e.e-1 ) = k * 0. considering initial conditions equal with 0. d. which means that the t ®¥ s ®0 gain of the system at zero frequency. say U ( s ) = where a denotes the s amplitude of the step input. The impulse response of this system. k are known. If the step input is not of amplitude 1. then the step response of the system is y (t ) = a (. y (t1 ). Let t = 5t then y (t ) = k (1 . 1 and the relations given above to verify that the step response 2 presented in the figure is indeed the step response of a system described by G ( s ) = .e-5 ) = k * 0. In this case. is k . =e y (t2 ) 1 1 3 . G ( s ) = can also be written as G ( s ) = = where . t1. Let t = t then y (t ) = k (1 . 3s + 1 Notes: a. t ®¥ Question 1: Use the graph in Fig.6321 thus the system’s time constant is the time moment when the system step response reaches approximately 63% of the steady state value.e. Remember also the final value theorem lim y (t ) = lim Y ( s ) . say t1 and t2 .ke -t 1 t + ku-1 (t )) .

æ y (t ) ö thus t = (t2 .343 Amplitude 0.3 0. 3s + 1 Looking at the system’s impulse response one sees that at t = 0 y (0) = Impulse Response 0.5 System: sys1 Time (sec): 2 Amplitude: 0.176 0.4 0. t Figure 2 shows the impulse response of the system described by the transfer function 2 G (s) = .667 0. 3s + 1 4 . 3s + 1 Question 2: Use the graph in Fig.7 System: sys1 Time (sec): 0 Amplitude: 0. k . Impulse response of the system G ( s ) = 2 .1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Time (sec) Figure 2. è y (t2 ) ø The time constant being known the system gain can be determined from k = t y (t3 ) / e -t3 1 t for any t3 ³ 0 .2 System: sys1 Time (sec): 4 Amplitude: 0. 2 and the relations given above to verify that the impulse response 2 presented in the figure is indeed the impulse response of the system G ( s ) = .6 0.t1 ) / ln ç 1 ÷ .

a . wn which defines it as 5 .II. s ®0 The denominator is the Characteristic polynomial which can be written in several canonical forms. The norm of the vector from the origin to the pole is wn. Figure 3 shows the location of the two poles in the s-plane. The real part of the poles is -a and the imaginary part is jb. which is known as the natural frequency. One may write 2 D( s ) = s 2 + 2as + w n = ( s + a ) 2 + b 2 where 2 b 2 +a 2 = wn . wn ) . Second order system (complex pole pair) A second order system with no finite zeros is described in frequency domain by the transfer function kw 2 k0wn 2 k0wn 2 H ( s) = 2 0 n = º D( s) s + 2a s + wn 2 s 2 + 2zwn s + wn 2 The numerator is chosen to scale the transfer function so that the DC gain (which can be calculated by lim H ( s ) ) is equal to k0 . Location of the complex poles of a second order system in the s-plane Notice that the system dynamics is completely described by the triplets (k0 . 2 Figure 3. Thus if a 2 < w n . the polynomial D( s ) describes a complex pair of poles at s = -a ± jb . z . To link the two forms of the characteristic polynomial we define the damping ratio as a z = . b ) or ( k 0 . including 2 2 D( s ) = s 2 + 2as + w n = s 2 + 2zw n s + w n .

If z = 1 then b = 0. The impulse response of the system with transfer function kw 2 H ( s) = 2 0 n (s + a )2 + b 2 is given by wn 2 -a t y (t ) = k0 e sin b t u-1 (t ) . 2 6 . If 0 > z > -1 then one has a complex pair in the right-half plane (e. b = w n and the poles are at s = ± jb on the imaginary axis. Note that one may write z = cos q = . both at s = -a . This is known as the underdamped case. the period of the oscillation is given by T 2p T= .cos j = b = wn -a 2 = wn 1-z 2 . b The variable b is known as the oscillation frequency. which provides the exponential decay term. 2 Figure 4. This is known as the undamped case. In this overdamped case.a = w n and the poles are on the real axis. Having in mind the standard form for sinusoids sin 2p t . The figure clearly shows the meaning in the time domain of the real part -a of the poles. wn For complex poles in the left-half plane one has 0 < z < 1 .g. If z > 1 then there are two real poles and we can split the quadratic factor D( s ) = s 2 + 2as + w n into two real linear factors. Sketch of the impulse response of a second order system with complex poles If z = 0 then a = 0. unstable complex pair).a . b which is plotted for 0 < z < 1 in the figure. the impulse response has the form te -at .

t1 ) .e-a t [cos b t + sin b t ])u-1 (t ) = k0 (1 . b b y (t1 ) Dividing the two one gets = ea (t2 -t1 ) and from here y (t2 ) y (t1 ) = k0 æ y (t ) ö a = ln ç 1 ÷ / (t2 . è y (t2 ) ø Knowing the values a . wn 2 -a t3 e sin b t3 one can also determine the b Figure 5. Sketch of the step response of a second order system with complex poles The steady state value of the system’s step response is yss = lim y (t ) = k0 .In order to determine the parameters of the system. one can simply determine the period 2p of oscillation T and subsequently use T = to determine b . y (t2 ) = k0 n e -a t2 . t ®¥ 7 .n e-a t sin( b t + q ))u-1 (t ) b b where the angle q = arctan b is shown in Figure 3. b and y (t3 ) = k0 system DC gain k0 . b Then by measuring the values of the impulse response at two moments in time when sin b t = 1 one has wn 2 -a t1 w 2 e . a The step response of a underdamped second order system is presented in Figure 5. The step response of this second order system is given by inverse transforming k0wn 2 1 Y ( s ) = H ( s )U ( s ) = H ( s ) = s s [( s 2 + a )2 + b 2 ] to obtain w a y (t ) = k0 (1 .

4 s + 1 which have the same time constant t = 0. then s y yss = ak0 and thus k0 = ss .4 . a Note that in the case in which the system input is not a unit step. a In Figure 6 are compared the step responses of the two systems H1 ( s ) = H 2 (s) = 6 s + 5s + 6 2 1 and 0. from the system’s step response. one can simply calculate the POV and then determine the damping factor z . In this case however the signal rises faster and one may 2. Measuring the steady state value of the step response one gets the system DC gain k0 = yss . U ( s ) = .8 . tr. using t r = wn The percent overshoot is a function of damping ratio POV = 100e -p z / and conversely 1-z 2 ù é ln 2 POV 100 ú z =ê 2 ê ln POV +p 2 ú 100 û ë ( ( ) ) 1/ 2 . To determine the parameters of the system. Then by measuring the settling time one can use t s = 5t to determine the time constant of the system and then a . for 0. is the time required for the step response to rise from 0. (Notice the difference.16z + 0. Note that for a first order system one has t r = 2.An important quantity for characterizing the performance of systems is the percent overshoot (POV) in the step response. This is defined as y .) 8 . The settling time ts is the time required for the signal to effectively reach its steady-state value.2t and t s = 5t (some take t s = 4t ). the time constant is t = 1 and one may use t s = 5t to a calculate the settling time.g. The rise time. e.9 of its steady-state value. For the underdamped pole pair. approximate.6 .1 to 0.3 £ z £ 0.yss POV = max ´ 100% yss where ymax is the maximum value of the step response and yss is its steady-state value.

5 Figure 6.5 0. 9 .5 1 1.1 0 second order system first order system 0 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.Step Response 1 0.6 Amplitude 0. Step response comparison of a first order system and a second order. overdamped.5 3 3.9 0.5 Time (sec) 2 2. system. Both systems have the same time constant thus the same settling time.3 0.2 0.

The following figures present the step responses (to a unit step) of two first order systems.8 1 1.2 Amplitude: 0.2 0 System: tff Time (sec): 6.1 0. Step response of a system Step Response 0.You can consider solving some of the following questions. some points were given explicitly on the graph.6 0.99 0 5 10 15 Time (sec) 20 25 30 Figure 1.4 0.4 0.1 Amplitude: 1.35 System: x Time (sec): 0.2 Figure 2. Step response of a system 10 .05 0 0 0. To help with the calculations.4 0.4 1. Determine the transfer functions of the two systems.25 Amplitude 0. Step Response 2 1.3 System: x Time (sec): 0.6 1.367 0.8 1.07 Amplitude: 1.8 0.2 0.253 0.41 System: tff Time (sec): 25.2 0.2 Amplitude 1 0.15 0.5 Amplitude: 0.6 Time (sec) 0. 1.

717 System: x Time (sec): 2. Determine the model transfer function of the system.994 0.2.32 Amplitude: 1.5 Time (sec) 2 2.624 Amplitude: 0.53 1. To help with the calculations.5 1 1.2 System: x Time (sec): 1.2 0 0 0. some points were given explicitly on the graph.95 System: x Time (sec): 0.6 0.59 Amplitude: 1.4 1. Step response of a system Consider that the steady state is obtained when the signal enters in the ±1% of the steady state value (this is related with the value of the settling time). The following figure presents the step responses (to a unit step) of a system.6 System: x Time (sec): 0.35 Amplitude: 0. Step Response 1.5 Amplitude: 0.04 1 Amplitude System: x Time (sec): 1.5 3 Figure 3. 11 .4 0.8 0.

some points were given explicitly on the graph. The following figure presents the impulse response of a second order system.865 Amplitude: 3. Impulse Response 8 System: syst Time (sec): 0.32 -4 -6 0 1 2 3 Time (sec) 4 5 6 Figure 4. Determine the model transfer function of the system.26 Amplitude: 0.93 Amplitude: -1.155 Amplitude: 7. Impulse response of a system 12 .19 Amplitude: 0.68 6 4 System: syst Time (sec): 0.43 System: syst Time (sec): 1.947 Amplitude 2 0 System: syst Time (sec): 4.83 System: syst Time (sec): 2. To help with the calculations.51 Amplitude: -5.3.00273 -2 System: syst Time (sec): 0.

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