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Werner Bergholz

Professor of Electrical Engineering International University Bremen

Quality Function Deployment as a Tool to Improve the Development of Standards
BIOGRAPHY Werner Bergholz received his Diploma and Doctor degree in physics from the University of Goettingen in Germany. He joined the Siemens Semiconductor (today Infineon Technologies) in 1985 as the head of a defect and contamination analysis lab. Following positions in process technology, silicon substrate procurement Quality Management / Business Excellence he accepted a professorship of Electrical Engineering at the International University Bremen in 2002. He is Co-chairman of the SEMI Europe Regional Standards Committee and Silicon Wafer Technical Committee and a consultant in Semiconductor Technology and Quality Management. ABSTRACT 1. Introduction and objective of paper During the last 2 decades, in large parts of the manufacturing industry (automotive, electronics,...) the quality function deployment (QFD) technique has been applied to the development, manufacturing and servicing of products. Quantum leap improvements of more than a factor of 2 have been achieved with respect to: • reduction of development times • “painless” transition from development to production (in terms of necessary changes to make the product fit for production) • time for production ramp up • service and user friendliness (measured for instance by the number of customer complaints and emergency actions like call back of cars from the consumers)

Application to standards development The existing standards development process will be examined according to the QFD principles. it was fairly normal that new products would be developed after the likes. – A famous example is the Ford “Edsel” model of the 1950s. if CO-AUTHORS Bettina Weiss. supported by regular feedback cycles to verify that the project is still in time and on track. Int'l Standards & MEMS. dislikes and technical ideas of the developers. – Until the QFD principles were developed. This includes. contrary to the millions which had been anticipated. 2. should start in all weather conditions. etc. should be economically on petrol. The starting point of QFD is a matrix-based technique to transform the customer demands and expectations (which will have been thoroughly researched) in 1 to 6 consecutive steps into the “language” of technology and into a carefully selected concept for the development and implementation of the new product or service. 3. Essentials of QFD Users and customers of products or services usually have fairly good ideas as to what they expect: A car should not rust. but can be and has been successfully adopted by the service www.bergholz@iu-bremen. etc. of which only a few 100 were sold. It is the purpose of this paper to analyse if and how the QFD technique can by applied to identify and implement improvements in the standards development process.This methodology is obviously not limited to manufacturing. with not enough attention paid to the production process. New concepts and ideas will be examined: • • • • How standards can be developed more along the expectations of the users How the development of standards can be accelerated How necessary changes can be implemented How the quality of the standards can be improved in terms of fewer mistakes and ambiguities and in terms of making standards more “robust” against the “rough environment” of the semiconductor industry In conclusion. . be versatile in the arrangements of seats. CONTACT INFORMATION International University Bremen Campus Ring 1 D-28759 Bremen Germany Tel: +49 421 2003111 w. SEMI . Director. new technologies. the expected improvements and changes in the key processes for standards development will be reviewed. new ways of production. including an estimate of the required time to the start of a pilot project and its implementation. servicing and last but not least to the real expectations of the customers.

“Standards – Key Building Blocks to the Semiconductor Industry’s Success” Future Applications . SEMI Standards & QFD Increasing need for early introduction of standards! ¾ Future Applications – Future Standards ¾ Early standards development saves a lot of money and speeds up the ramp process ¾ Having standards available when they are needed allows the industry to be better prepared „From lab to Fab“ 2 1 . IUB and Bettina Weiss.Future Standards SEMI Standards and Quality Function Deployment Werner Bergholz.

lack of allocation of resources and company commitment to them by member companies Æ Benefits of standards not there or not perceived ! ¾ It takes > 500 days (on average) to create a standard Æ Process too slow? Or volunteer time too precious? ¾ Cost of standards program (too) high Æ Process too expensive / too cumbersome? 4 2 .Standards & QFD Outline: ¾ The need for Improvement for making standards ¾ What is Quality Function Deployment ? ¾ How QFD can be „harnessed“ for the development of SEMI Standards ¾ Ideas for Improvements ¾ Summary 3 Standards & QFD The Need for Improving Standards Development: ¾ Only 100 out of >600 SEMI Standards used regularly Æ Not the „right“ standards? ¾ „Shortage“ of volunteers.

Standards & QFD Conclusion: ¾Standard has to meet user expectations better ¾Standard development process must speed up. e. especially for urgently needed projects. software ¾Standard development process must be more efficient All at the same time ! 5 Standards & QFD = The Magic Triangle of Quality: Fit for the purpose = „Quality“ Cost / right Price On time delivery 6 3 .g.

Standards & QFD How can this „magic“ goal be reached ? ¾ Since the 80s: Quality Function Deployment ¾ Used for manufacturing products ¾ Used for providing a service Æ Must be applicable to the development of Standards. too! 7 Standards & QFD Outline: ¾ The need for Improvement for making standards ¾ What is Quality Function Deployment ? ¾ How QFD be „harnessed“ for the development of SEMI Standards? ¾ Ideas for Improvements ¾ Summary 8 4 .

Consensus on the best concept and implement by concurrent engineering (i...) ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ (not what the engineers think he wants or what would be nice to have) 2. Find out what the customer really wants (e. Translate this into „technical“ = corporate „language“ 3.g... robustness of product against production.Standards & QFD What is QFD? Æ An Example ¾ 1980s Competition Honda – Kawasaki for #1 motorcycle manufacturer ¾ Strategy Kawasaki: Increase in capacity Æ economy of scale advantage ¾ Strategy Honda: Quality Function Deployment And the winner was. efficient engine.. Develop several concepts and consider cost.e.. 9 Standards & QFD Honda! QFD in 4 steps (simplified): 1.. order production and service tools in good time) 10 5 . production and service in a cross functional team 4.. high mileage Æ low consumption.. environment and user variation speed of development.

because: ¾ They were exactly what they wanted ¾ Kawasaki’s models looked „old“ and outdated 11 Standards & QFD QFD ¾ Is used in the motorcycle. Cost decrease of production: development cost 10% of total cost. car. Better products to meet customers expectations = higher Quality The magic triangle fulfilled! 12 6 . but determines 90% of the cost 3. other industries ¾ Has led to 1. > 50% reduction of development times and development cost 2. electronics.Standards & QFD Result: ¾ Honda had 100 new models (in a modular concept) in 18 months ¾ By QFD Customers loved and bought Honda‘s models.

Standards & QFD QFD other examples: ¾ Komatsu introduced 11 new products in 2.5 years ¾ Caterpillar only 1 – 2 per year ¾ Xerox recaptured large market share from Canon by introducing QFD 13 Standards & QFD QFD Definition 1: “A methodology designed to ensure that ¾ all major requirements of customers are identified and ¾ subsequently met or exceeded through the resulting design of the product ¾ and its manufacturing“ ( + servicing)“ 14 7 .

¾ “QFD tries to eliminate the gap between what the customer wants in a new product. and process”. and what the product is capable of delivering“ Quotes from : Encyclopedia of Production and Manufacturing Management . parts.ISBN 0792386302 15 Standards & QFD Outline: ¾ The need for Improvement for making standards ¾ What is Quality Function Deployment ? ¾ How QFD be „harnessed“ for the development of SEMI Standards? ¾ Ideas for Improvements ¾ Summary 16 8 .Standards & QFD QFD Definition 2: ¾ “a set of communication and translation tools for making quality customer-driven” ¾ “it translates the voice of the customer into the relevant characteristics of the product.

environment and user variation speed of development.e.Standards & QFD Application of QFD towards SEMI Standards Development: ¾ QFD has worked “wonders” for the production and service industry ¾ It has to be useful for SEMI Standards as well! 17 Standards & QFD QFD in SEMI Standards – A Step-by-Step Adaptation: 1. Translate this into „technical“ = corporate language 3. Develop several concepts and consider ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ cost. robustness of product against production. Consensus on the best concept and implement by concurrent engineering (i. production and service in a cross functional team 4. Find out what the customer really wants: 2. order production and service tools in good time) 18 9 .

service providers. device manufacturers. Find out what the customer really wants : ¾ Customer ƒ SEMI Member companies. IC manufacturers.e. sending volunteers) ƒ Engineers Æ decision on using and implementing the Standard 19 Standards & QFD ¾ Customer Requirement: ƒ General: „High quality“ Standard: . accurate and state-of-the-art technical content .Standards & QFD 1. unambiguous wording with no room for interpretation . end users! 20 10 . correct.Benefit: Saves time and money for suppliers. resources (i.Correct.Easy to understand. others ƒ Top management Æ decision on requirements.Timely .

chemical..MEMS Standards .Cleaning efficiency standard .. strong links to several other committees... Translate into Technical / Corporate Language + 3 and 4 : Which technical committee (s) ™ 300mm wafer ™ MEMS Æ Si wafer committee Æ new MEMS committee.Standard for wafer re-inscription for test and assembly . Si wafer! ™ Wafer re-inscription Æ Si wafer or traceability committee? ™ Cleaning efficiency Æ Si wafer. other? 22 11 . e..300mm wafers(strong drive by IC manufacturers!) ....Standards & QFD ¾ Customer Requirements: Specific Standards / Examples: . 21 Standards & QFD 2....g.

less work. can be published quickly and developed further at a later stage 24 12 .Standards & QFD Workflow: ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Identify requirements and key stakeholders. so involvement of the other regions at an early stage is critical Which document type? ƒ Full Standard – can it be derived from an existing one? ƒ Subordinate document?. all relevant information in one place ƒ Terminology document ƒ Guideline? – quicker to reach consensus ƒ Proposed Standard – only needs committee approval. bring them into Task Force Work out draft in Task Force in several iterations Report to technical committee Æ decision to put up for vote Positive Vote: QM procedure to ensure that procedure was correct Publication of standard Complication: Cross functional standards Æ Change of workflow? (simpler and faster?) 23 Standards & QFD Which region? ƒ A particular region can be the leader ƒ But: consensus has to be reached quickly.

Standards & QFD Which QM procedure (Global Audit and Review Subcommittee) ƒ Previously: Procedural Review per region ƒ Difficulty: how to improve quality and speed of review and at the same time improve efficiency? 25 Standards & QFD How is customer informed about a new standard ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Best: involve him from the beginning (concurrent engineering!) Announcement on website Press Release Most importantly: The customer not familiar with SEMI Standards should be offered a guidance how to apply the Standards to maximum benefit („application notes“. as you would receive for novel devices) 26 13 .

percentage of potential users) ƒ Evaluation of the benefits ƒ Evaluation of problems For a car or airline flight this is regularly done to improve further For standards still underdeveloped! 27 Standards & QFD Outline: ¾ The need for Improvement for making standards ¾ What is Quality Function Deployment ? ¾ How QFD be „harnessed“ for the development of SEMI Standards? ¾ Ideas for Improvements ¾ Summary 28 14 .Standards & QFD Evaluation of the Performance of the Product ƒ How much is it used (frequency.

Optimize the committee structure and procedures: ƒ Make sure that engineers from user companies are involved from the beginning ƒ Adapt creation process to the increased need for „interdisciplinary“ standards (such as cleaning efficiency) Æ matrix principle? ƒ Adopt to globalization: improved cooperation and information exchange between all regions ƒ Improve technical support: virtual meetings. their application and impact ƒ Communication of highly ranked SNARF and alerting the industry of upcoming requirements – „Call for Participation“ ƒ Active communication of the measured benefits of ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ standards! 29 Standards & QFD 2.Standards & QFD Ideas for Improvements from QFD : 1. articles about new SEMI Standards. Systematic Customer Communication via several channels: ITRS roadmap (1-way) Fab Managers Forum (2-way) This conference! (2-way) SEMI Standards technical committees and publications SEMI press releases. support with language problems ƒ Create a standards roadmap per technical committee 30 15 .

Standards & QFD 3.Improve communication with companies Æ more volunteers . Improved information of users / customers: ƒ More effective alert of potential users that new Standard is available ƒ Easier access to new Standard ƒ Advice on how to implement and benefit from the Standard ƒ Develop a systematic approach to regularly monitor the ¾ Use of standards ¾ Measure the benefit of standards ¾ Obtain customer feedback including complaints to continuously improve quality and relevance ¾ Benchmark against other Standards Development Organizations 31 Standards & QFD Summary ƒ QFD is a systematic way of improving products and services for the customer Æ Magic Quality triangle ƒ QFD can be used to generate fresh ideas on how to .Speed up Standards development .Better marketing of standard by improving the visibility of the benefits 32 16 .