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. • Problems that follow predictable pattern and can be solved without actually reading the whole problem situation.

Many Possible Answers

**• Problems that produce more than one answer.
**

Puzzles

**• Game-like problems. • Problems that may not require any mathematical knowledge.
**

Multi Step Word Problem

• Problems that require more than one step operation. • It is required to read the context carefully to make a plan of solution. • Operation with the given numeric data only can result partial results.

Contain Extra Information

**• Problems that have unnecessary information in producing the answer.
**

Algebraic Expression

**• Problems that contain letter data, instead of numeric data.
**

Non-realistic Situation

**• Problems that can be calculated but the problem situation cannot be happen in real life.
**

Nonsensical Information

**• Problems that have contradictory information. • Problems that have missing information.
**

Posing Problem

**• Problems that ask to pose the question.
**

Justification

• Problems that require the explanation of why the particular decision was made. Non –Routine Problems

Application

• Problems that require gathering necessary data and making a decision base on the data.

Students with LD are notoriously poor self-regulators. Effective visual representations. students in upper elementary school should be able to use visualization effectively to represent mathematical problems. 2003. Therefore. they are generally operating at a fairly concrete level. hypothesizing or setting a goal and making a plan to solve the problem. progressive. and scaffolded instruction that considers the students’ cognitive strengths and weaknesses. for most children. estimating or predicting the outcome. Poor problem solvers tend to make immature representations that are more pictorial than schematic in nature. who have been characterized as having a variety of strategy deficits and differences. 2000). it is imperative that they be explicitly taught how to self-instruct (tell . In other words. As a result. Montague. Other cognitive processes and strategies needed for successful mathematical problem solving include paraphrasing the problem. Teaching mathematical problem solving is a challenge for many teachers. whether with manipulatives. & Morgan.What is mathematical problem solving? Mathematical problem solving is a complex cognitive activity involving a number of processes and strategies. it is the type of picture or diagram that is important. visualization matures somewhere between the ages of 8 and 11. The illustration below shows the difference between a pictorial and a schematic representation of the mathematical problem presented at the beginning of the brief. Students who have difficulty representing math problems will have difficulty solving them. usually have difficulties using visualization as an effective learning strategy for remembering information and representing problems. they are poor at visual representation. Many students do not develop the ability to use visual representation automatically during math problem solving. or in one’s imagination. These students need explicit instruction in how to use visualization to represent problems. So. many of whom rely almost exclusively on mathematics textbooks to guide instruction. still do not understand the problem and therefore cannot make a plan to solve it. with paper and pencil. During this developmental period. teachers must provide systematic. Successful problem solving is not possible without first representing the problem appropriately. symbolic representation may not be possible without explicit instruction that incorporates manipulatives and other materials that will help students move from a concrete to a more symbolic. Most mathematics textbooks simply instruct students to draw a picture or make a diagram using the information in the problem. Second. Appropriate problem representation indicates that the problem solver has understood the problem and serves to guide the student toward the solution plan. These are called schematic representations (van Garderen & Montague. computing or doing the arithmetic. Problem solving has two stages: problem representation and problem execution. Mathematical problem solving also requires self-regulation strategies. however. it is not simply a matter of “drawing a picture or making a diagram. Warger.” rather. Developmentally. schematic level. show the relationships among the problem parts. and checking to make sure the plan was appropriate and the answer is correct (Montague. Students who have difficulty solving math word problems usually draw a picture of the problem without considering the relationships among the problem components and. Students with LD at the upper elementary level may be incapable of developing an appropriate representation of the problem for a variety of reasons. as a result. which is a comprehension strategy. One of the most powerful problem representation strategies is visualization. 2003). Students with LD. First.

self-question (ask themselves questions). and self-monitor (check themselves as they solve the problem). .themselves what to do).

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