You are on page 1of 7

BULETINUL INSTITUTULUI POLITEHNIC DIN IAŞI Publicat de Universitatea Tehnică „Gheorghe Asachi” din Iaşi Tomul LVI (LX), Fasc



Abstract. The heat transfer of nanofluids in a coaxial heat exchanger is studied numerically using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The present study indicates an increase of the thermal performances with 50% of nanofluids compared to water. The nanofluid is composed of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles dispersed in water for various concentrations ranging (1, 3 and 5%). Key words: nanofluid; Nusselt number; Reynold’s number; heat transfer.

1. Introduction Convective heat transfer is very important for many industrial heating or cooling equipments. The heat convection can passively be enhanced by changing flow geometry, boundary conditions or by enhancing fluid thermophysical properties. An innovative way of improving the thermal conductivities of fluids is to suspend small solid particles in the fluid. M a x w e l l [1] showed the possibility of increasing thermal conductivity of a mixture by more volume fraction of solid particles. These fluids containing colloidal suspended nanoparticles, have been called nanofluids. Several investigations revealed that nanofluid heat transfer coefficient could be increased by more than 20% also in the case of very low nanoparticles concentrations [2], [3]. A k b a r n i a and B e h z a d m e h r [4] reported a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model based on single phase model for investigation of laminar convection of water/Al2O3 nanofluid in a horizontal curved tube. In

( ) c) Energy eq. u r ∇ ρV = 0. in a coaxial heat exchanger. b) Thermal conductivity The effective thermal conductivity of a mixture can be calculated using the relation of M o h o r i a n u and A g o p [7] . The use of CFD reduces the number of necessary experiments and gives results. the thermo-physical parameters of nanofluids such as: density. centrifugal force and nanoparticle concentration have been discussed. Z e i n a l i et al. [5] proposed a dispersion model to account for the presence of nanoparticles in nanofluid. ( ) b) Momentum eq. They showed that the dispersion and random movement of nanoparticles inside the fluid change the structure of flow field and led to heat transfer enhancement. and thermal conductivity.74 Răzvan-Silviu Luciu and Theodor Mateescu their study. The detailed flow field for the single-phase flow in a circular tube with constant wall temperature can be determined by solving the volume-averaged fluid equations. These parameters are defined as follows: a) Density and heat capacity The relations determined by P a k and C h o [6] have the form ρ n = (1 − φv ) ρ 0 + φv ρ m . Al2O3 with 10 nm particle-sizes. viscosity. In this work we have numerically studied the heat performance of water-based nanofluids. effects of buoyancy force. ( ) ( ) In order to solve above-mentioned eqs. u r ∇ ρVC p T = ∇ k ∇T − C p ρ vt . must be evaluated. as follows: a) Continuity eq. The Mathematical Model The CFD approach uses a numerical technique for solving the governing equations for a given flow geometry and boundary conditions. Cn = (1 − φv ) C0 + φv Cm . heat capacity. 2. which would hardly be accessible by measurements. u ru r ∇ ρVV = ∇P + ∇ (τ − τ t ) .

Bul. These equations were used to perform the calculation of temperature distribution and transmission fields in the geometry studied. inner tube diameter d = 10 mm and outer tube diameter D = 20 mm. Geometry and Boundary Conditions ( ) Fig. where we consider that rf rp ≅ 0.043 and keff = knf . Fluid is containing a dilute suspension of small rigid spherical particles.05%. Finally we choose the polynomial approximation based on experimental data [8]. 1 shows the geometric configuration of the studied model which consists of a coaxial heat exchanger with length L = 64 cm.5 . Iaşi.043 k f (1 − ε1 ) k p ε1 . 2010 75 knf kf = 1 + 0. Unfortunately results reveal that Brinkman’s formula underestimates the few experimental data present in literature. This formula is restricted for low volumetric concentration of particle. c) Viscosity The viscosity of the nanofluid can be estimated with the existing relations for the two phase mixture. Inst. Brinkman proposed to extend Einstein’s formula by μ n = μ0 (1 − φv ) 2. Polit. 3. Each relation has it own limitation and application. Some complex reaction has been observed by N g u y e n C o m T a n g [8]. LVI (LX). 4. By inner tube will circulate a nanofluid as primary agent. for water – γ Al2O3 nanofluid μ n = μ0 306φv2 − 0. and by the outer tube will circulate pure water as . under 0. t. Drew and Passman introduced Einstein’s formula for evaluating the effective viscosity μ n = μ0 (1 − 2. f.5φv ) . Other relations of effective viscosity of two phase mixture exist in the literature.19φv + 1 μ0 .

“velocity inlet” boundary condition was used.76 Răzvan-Silviu Luciu and Theodor Mateescu secondary agent. The convective coefficient value. momentum and energy equations are non-linear partial differential equations. 4.8 Nu nf = 0. remaining constant at the value of 0.4 nf .12 m/s and 0. Results and Discussions For mixing between the base fluid and the three types of nanofluids were performed numerical simulations to determine correlations between flows regime. 70°. Temperatures used are 60°. relation established following experimental determinations by X u a n and L i [9] 0. α.0023 ℜenf Pr 0. The Reynold’s number is defined by ℜenf = um D ν nf . The continuity. the flow is turbulent and we choose a corresponding model (k – ε) for solve the equations. is calculated using Nusselt number for nanofluids. imposing the heat flux to be null at the outer wall of heat exchanger. Fig. 90°C for the primary agent and for the secondary agent is 30°C. 3% and 5%). The nanofluid used is composed of aluminium oxide Al2O3 particles dispersed in pure water in different concentrations (1%. The magnitude of the inlet velocity varies for the inner tube between 0. Using this values for velocity. and convective coefficient values. . Heat loss to the outside were considered null. characterized by Reynold’s number.64 m/s. The interior wall temperature is considered equal to the average temperature value of interior fluid. subjected to the following boundary conditions: at the tubes inlet.21 m/s for the outer tube. 1 – Geometry of coaxial heat exchanger.

In Fig. t. 2010 77 Prandtl number is Pr nf = and consequently α = Nu ν nf α nf λnf d . Iaşi. 2 – Temperature profile. 70° and 90°C). LVI (LX). f. at a constant Reynold’s number (8. Fig. the volume concentration of particles at imposed temperatures (60°. . depending on the boundary conditions imposed. temperature and nanofluids concentrations. Polit.Bul. The temperature and velocity profiles can be viewed post processing. 2 is illustrated one example of the temperature profile visualization in a case study. In what follows we analyse the variation of convective heat transfer coefficient in comparison with flow regime. Inst. In Fig. 3 is represented the variation of convective heat transfer coefficient vs.000). 4.

φv – volumetric concentration. [W/m.K]. [m]. Intensification of heat transfer increases proportionally with increasing of volume concentration of these nanoparticles. u – velocity. [J/kg.K]. 0 – base fluid. [%]. the values of this coefficient increase. [m2/s]. index m – medium. [m/s]. nf – nanofluids.78 Răzvan-Silviu Luciu and Theodor Mateescu ℜe = 8000 Fig. N u – Nusselt number. When temperature is higher. Pr – Prandtl number. 5. ν – kinematic viscosity. [kg/ms]. α – convective coefficient. Conclusions The obtained results clearly show that the addition of particles in a base fluid produces a great increase in the heat transfer. 3 – Variation of convective heat transfer coefficient vs. Pe – Pectelt number. We can notice a significant increase of approximately 50% for convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid at the concentration of 5% compared with water at 90°C. D – diameter. . temperature at constant Reynold’s number. k – thermal conductivity. [W/m2. In the present model.K]. ℜe – Reynold’s number. Notations C – heat capacity. μ – dynamic viscosity. ρ – density. the values of convective heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number depend of flow regime and temperature values. [kg/m3].

8. Heat Transfer Enhancement of Nanofluids. 4. 2010 Received.. Congrès Français de Thermique. Reims. in Circular Tube. 30 mai-2 juin 2005. 5. 9. 1.. Akbarnia A. Refroidissement des microprocesseurs à haute performance en utilisant des nanofluides.U. of Heat a. Mohorianu S. Yimin REFERENCES 1.. 11. . Maxwell J. 5. Internat.. Exp. Xuan Y. 3.. SFT 2005. Cambridge. 58-64 (2000). Studiul efectuat indică o creştere a performanţelor termice a nanofluidelor cu 50% în comparaţie cu apa. Numerical Study of Laminar Mixed Convection of a Nanofluid in Horizontal Curved Tube. Inst. 3 şi 5%). Lajoie P. Exp.. Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids with Submicron Metallic Oxide Particles.. Agop M. Fluid Flow. Experimental Investigation of Oxide Nanofluid Laminar Flow Convective Heat Transfer.C. Polit. Zeinali Heris S. Press. Nasr Esfahany M.H. Nguyen Com Tang. 1741-1743 (2006). 7. 27. 21. 8. Commun. Cho Y.. 6. 2. Estimation of Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluid Using Experimental Effective Particle Volume. Heat Transfer. 529-533 (2006). Heat Transfer Enhancement of Nanofluids. Nanofluidul este compus din particule de oxid de aluminiu (Al2O3) dispersate în apă în diferite concentraţii (1. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. 1881. November 7.R. 5. f. 58-64 (2000).Bul.. STUDIUL TRANSFERULUI TERMIC ÎNTR-UN SCHIMBĂTOR DE CĂLDURĂ COAXIAL UTILIZÂND NANOFLUIDE (Rezumat) Transferul termic al nanofluidelor într-un schimbător de căldură coaxial este studiat numeric folosind abordarea CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). Internat. Pak B. 4. 2..M. Roy G.C. 181-191 (2006). Behzadmehr A.. LVI (LX). JOAM. Thermal Sci.. Etemad S.. 2010 79 „Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iaşi. Iaşi. t. 33. 1327-1337 (2007). Kim S. Heat and Fluid Flow. Appl. Qiang Li. Heat Transfer. Mass Transfer. Kang H.H. in Heat a. Oxford Univ.. J. Oh J. 151-170 (1998). Li Q. Department of Building Equipment Engineering e-mail: mateh_theodor@yahoo.... A Theoretical Approach of the Heat Transfer in Nanofluids. 19.