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Projection Transformations

and

Vi i Pi li Viewing Pipeline

I mpl ement at i on of 3D Vi ew i ng I mpl ement at i on of 3D Vi ew i ng

Apply

li i

3-D world

coordinate

Clip against

canonical

normalizing

transformation

output

primitives

View

Volume p

Project

onto

Transform into

viewport in

onto

Projection

plane

p

2D device

coordinates

2D device

coordinates

plane

for display

Canonical view volume for parallel p

proj ection is defined by six planes:

X = 1; Y = 1; Z = -1.

X = -1; Y = -1; Z = 0;

X or Y

1

FP FP

BP

-Z

-1

-1 -1

Canonical view volume for perspective p p

proj ection is defined by six planes:

X Z; Y Z; Z Z ;

X = -Z; Y = Z; Z = -1.

X = Z; Y = -Z; Z = -Z

min

;

X or Y

1

FP

-Z

-1

-1

BP

View Specifications: View Specifications:

VP, VRP, VUP, VPN, PRP, DOP, CW, VRC

v

VUP VUP

(u

max

, v

max

)

VP

VRP

CW

VP

u

VRP

u

VPN

(u

min

, v

min

)

nn

v

VUP VUP

(u

max

, v

max

)

VP

(

max

,

max

)

VRP

CW

VP

uu

VPN

(u

min

, v

min

)

v

n

VRP

CW

VP

Diagrams for an

u

VPN

Diagrams for an

arbitrary 3D view

n

COP/PRP

Spec i f yi ng an Ar bi t r ar y 3D Vi ew

Viewing

Parameter

Example Values

Set 1 Set 2 Set 3

Parameter

Set 1 Set 2 Set 3

VRP (WC) (0, 0, 54) (16, 0, 54) (0, 0, 0) ( ) ( , , ) ( , , ) ( , , )

VPN (WC) (0, 0, 1) (0, 1, 0) (0, 0, 1)

VUP (WC) (0, 1, 0) (-1, 0, 0) (0, 1, 0)

PRP (VRC) (8, 6, 30) (12, 8, 30) (8, 6, 84) PRP (VRC) (8, 6, 30) (12, 8, 30) (8, 6, 84)

Window

(VRC)

(-1, 17,

1 17)

(-1, 25,

5 21)

(-50, 50,

50 50)

(VRC)

-1, 17) -5, 21) -50, 50)

Projection

Perspective Parallel Perspective

Type

Perspective Parallel Perspective

F & B

+1 23

(VRC)

+1, -23

- -

St eps f or i mpl ement i ng nor mal i zi ng

t r ansf or mat i on mat r i x f or

par al l el pr oj ec t i on p p j

• Translate the VRP to origin

• Rotate VRC such that VPN (n-axis) aligns

with Z-axis (also u with X and v with Y-axis) with Z-axis (also, u with X and v with Y-axis)

• Shear (not necessary for pure orthographic) • Shear (not necessary for pure orthographic)

such that DOP is parallel to the Z-axis

• Translate and scale into parallel-projection

canonical view volume (CVV) canonical view volume (CVV)

VRP) T( R SH T S N

par par par par

÷ =

p p p p

Step 2 in normalizing transformations:

Rotate VRC such that VPN (n-axis) aligns

with Z-axis (also, u with X and v with Y)

v

( , )

VUP

(u v ) (u

max

, v

max

)

CW

VP

VRP

CW

u

(u

i

v

i

)

VPN

(u

min

, v

min

)

n

Expressions for Step 2 must be derived.

Implement using the concept of combined

transformation (rotation).

(

0 0 0 1

Take R

x

=

(

(

(

(

÷ 0 ) sin( ) cos( 0

0 0 0 1

o o

x

(

(

¸

¸

1 0 0 0

0 ) cos( ) sin( 0 o o

• Rows are unit vectors, when rotated by R

x

,

ill li ith th Y d Z i ti l

¸ ¸

will align with the Y and Z axis respectively.

• When unit vectors along the principle axes • When unit vectors along the principle axes

are rotated by R

x

, they form the column

vectors. vectors.

(

(

0 0 0 1

R

x

=

(

(

(

÷

0 ) cos( ) sin( 0

0 ) sin( ) cos( 0

o o

o o

(

(

¸

¸

1 0 0 0

0 ) cos( ) sin( 0 o o

Row Vectors: [ 1 0 0 ]

[ 0 cos(o) -sin(o) ]

o

Z

[ 0 cos(o) -sin(o) ]

[ 0 sin(o) cos(o) ]

Column Vectors {consider R

x

(-o),

i hi }

Y

in this case}:

[ 1 0 0 ]

T

[ 0 ( ) i ( ) ]

T

o

Y [ 0 cos(o) -sin(o) ]

T

[ 0 sin(o) cos(o) ]

T

Consider a general

Y

scenario of combined

rotations and use the

d i d b d

P

3

property derived based

on the orthogonality

f th R t i

P

2

P

1

of the R matrix.

X

1

Y

X

P

n

P

Z

P

3

Before

Transformation

X

P

1

P

n

X

P

2

After

Transformation

Z

2

Transformation

Let the effective

(

3 2 1

r r r

rotation matrix be

a combination

(

(

(

3y 2y 1y

3x 2x 1x

r r r

r r r

Y

P

of three rows as:

(

(

¸

¸ 3z 2z 1z

3y 2y 1y

r r r

P

3

P

2 P

1 ¸ ¸ 3z 2z 1z

where,

X

P

1

| |

T

1 2

z 1z 2z 3z

1 2

PP

R =r r r =

PP

Z

P

n

Y

| |

1 2

T

1 2 1 3

1 2 3

PP

PP X PP

R =r r r =

Z

Y

P

| |

x 1x 2x 3x

1 2 1 3

R r r r

PP X PP

and

P

3

P

n

T

and

R = r r r =R X R (

¸ ¸

X

P

P

1

y 1y 2y 3y z x

R r r r R X R (

¸ ¸

Z

P

2

Y

P

Y

P

3

P

2 P

1

P

3

P

X

P

1

X

P

1

P

n

Z

P

n

Z

P

2

P

1

Z

Thus the rotation matrix of step 2 in

normalizing transformations, can be normalizing transformations, can be

formulated as:

(

(

0 r r r

3x 2x 1x

(

(

(

=

0 r r r

3y 2y 1y

R

(

(

¸

¸

1 0 0 0

0 r r r

3z 2z 1z

R

¸ ¸

1 0 0 0

Step 2 in normalizing transformations:

Rotate VRC such that VPN (n-axis) aligns

with Z-axis (also, u with X and v with Y)

v

( , )

VUP

(u v ) (u

max

, v

max

)

CW

VP

VRP

CW

u

(u

i

v

i

)

VPN

(u

min

, v

min

)

n

VPN

z

;

VPN

VPN

R =

where,

R VUP

R

×

,

z

z

x

;

R VUP

R VUP

R

×

=

x z y

z

R R R and × =

x z y

The overall combined transformation matrix The overall combined transformation matrix

for parallel projection (WCSVV - > PPCVV), is:

VRP) T( R SH T S N

par par par par

÷ =

The overall combined transformation matrix

f ll l j ti (WCSVV PPCVV) i for parallel projection (WCSVV - > PPCVV), is:

VRP) T( R SH T S N ÷ = VRP) T( R SH T S N

par par par par

where,

d

(

(

(

0 1 0

0 0 1

par

shy

shx

;

x

par

dop

shx

dop

= ÷

(

(

(

=

0 1 0 0

0 1 0

par

par

shy

SH

z

y

dop

dop

h

(

¸

¸

1 0 0 0

y

par

z

p

shy

dop

= ÷

y

DOP

y

DOP

y

-z

VPN

y

VPN Side view of

shearing of the VV

z

-z

shearing of the VV

The overall combined transformation matrix

f ll l j ti (WCSVV PPCVV) i for parallel projection (WCSVV - > PPCVV), is:

VRP) T( R SH T S N = VRP) T( R SH T S N

par par par par

÷ =

(

;

2 2

min max min max

FP

v v u u

T

par

(

¸

(

¸

+

÷

+

÷ =

2 2

¸ ¸

)

1

,

2

,

2

( S S = ) , , (

min max min max

BP FP v v u u

S S

par

÷ ÷ ÷

Implementing normalizing Implementing normalizing

transformation matrix

for perspective projection

v

CW

VRP

CW

VP

u

VPN

n

COP/PRP COP/PRP

Canonical view volume for perspective

proj ection is defined by six planes:

X Z; Y Z; Z Z ;

X = -Z; Y = Z; Z = -1.

X = Z; Y = -Z; Z = -Z

min

;

X or Y

1

FP

-Z

-1

-1

BP

Steps for implementing normalizing Steps o p e e t g o a g

transformation matrix for

perspective projection perspective projection

T l t th VRP t i i • Translate the VRP to origin

• Rotate VRC such that VPN (n-axis) aligns Rotate VRC such that VPN (n axis) aligns

with Z-axis (also, u with X- and v with Y-axis)

T l t h th t COP ( PRP) i t th • Translate such that COP (or PRP) is at the

origin

• Shear such that center line of view volume

(VVCL) becomes z-axis

• Scale such that VV becomes the canonical

view volume (CVV) view volume (CVV)

Scenario of the cross-section of the VV

ft fi t th t f ti after first three transformations.

X or Y

CW

-Z

VRP

VPN

VRP

VRP) T R PRP T SH S N

par per per

÷ ÷ = ( ) (

p p p

Comparison the overall combined p

transformation matrices for:

PARALLEL PROJECTION:

VRP) T( R SH T S N

par par par par

÷ =

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION:

VRP) T( R PRP) T( SH S N

par per per

÷ ÷ =

I mpl ement at i on of 3D Vi ew i ng I mpl ement at i on of 3D Vi ew i ng

Apply

li i

3-D world

coordinate

Clip against

canonical

normalizing

transformation

output

primitives

View

Volume p

Project

onto

Transform into

viewport in

onto

Projection

plane

p

2D device

coordinates

2D device

coordinates

plane

for display

(

(

d

z

d

0 1

x x

G li d

(

(

(

÷

d d

d

z

d

0 1

z

x

p

z

x

Generalized

formula

f ti

(

(

(

÷

=

d

d

z

d

d

1 0

M

2

z

y

p

z

y

of perspective

projection matrix:

(

(

(

(

+ ÷ Z

Qd

Z

Qd

Z

0 0

M

p

z

2

p

z

p

gen

(

(

(

¸

¸

+ ÷ 1

Qd

Z

Qd

1

0 0

Q Q

p

z z

(

¸

¸

Qd Qd

z z

(COP) X or Y

PP

(COP) X or Y

P´(x

p

, y

p,

Z

p

)

Q

L

Z O

Q

P(X,Y,Z)

(d

x

, d

y

, d

z

)

Z O

(0, 0, Z

p

)

Coor di nat e Syst ems and Mat r i c es

Perspective

y

p

Parallel

3-D modeling

(object)

Modeling

Transformation

(object)

coordinates

Transformation

i

3D W ld

View

Orientation

t i

3D World

Coordinates

R.T(-VRP)

R T(-VRP)

matrix

R.T( VRP)

Cont…

Vi

View

Orientation

View

Mapping

View

reference

Coordinates

Orientation

matrix

pp g

matrix

Coordinates

N li d

Clip, transform

into 2D screen

Normalized

projection

Coordinates

coordinates

Coordinates

2D d i

M

CVV3DVP

2D device

coordinates

M . S

per

. SH

par

. T(-PRP)

S

par

. T

par

. SH

par par par par

where after clipping, use

M

CVV3DVP

=

. ) Z , Y , T(X

vmin vmin vmin

) Z Z ,

Y Y

,

X X

S(

vmin vmax

vmin vmax vmin vmax

÷

÷ ÷

T(111)

) ,

2

,

2

(

vmin vmax

T(1,1,1) .

The 3D Vi ew i ng Pi pel i ne

• Objects are modeled in object (modeling)

space.

• Transformations are applied to the objects

to position them in world space.

• View parameters are specified to define

th i l f th ld j ti the view volume of the world, a projection

plane, and the viewport on the screen.

Obj t li d t thi Vi l • Objects are clipped to this View volume.

The results are projected onto the • The results are projected onto the

projection plane (window) and

finally mapped into the 3D viewport finally mapped into the 3D viewport.

Hidd bj t th d • Hidden objects are then removed.

• The objects are scan converted and

then shaded if necessary.

Fl owchar t of t he 3D Vi ew i ng Pi pel i ne

Model

Scale,Rotate,

Object

Space

g p

Model

Object

Scale,Rotate,

Translate

Objects

Space

Objects

World

Space

World

Space

Specify View,

Calculate Normal,

Apply Normalizing

Transformation

p

Calculate Normal,

Illumination,

Backface

Transformation

Clip

Cont

Eye

Cont…

Eye

Space

Perspective

Eye

Image

Perspective

Transformation

/Projection

Remove

Hidden

S f

Space

Space

/Projection

Surfaces

M t

Shade,

Texture

Map to

Viewport/

Draw to

Device

C di

Texture

Draw to

screen

Coordinates

The Comput er

Gr aphi c s Pi pel i ne

Vi ew i ng Pr oc ess Vi ew i ng Pr oc ess

The Camer a Model

We specify our initial camera model by

identifying the following parameters. identifying the following parameters.

1. A scene, consisting of polygonal elements sce e, co s st g o po ygo a e e e ts

each represented by their vertices;

2 A i t th t t th 2. A point that represents the camera

position: C = [C

x

, C

y

, C

z

];

3. A point that represents the “center-of

attention” of the camera (i.e. where the (

camera is looking): A = [A

x

, A

y

, A

z

];

4 A field of ie angle ep esenting the 4. A field-of-view angle, o ,representing the

angle subtended at the apex of the viewing

pyramid pyramid.

The specification of “near”

d “f ” b di l and “far” bounding planes.

These planes considered

di l t th perpendicular to the

direction-of-view vector

are at a distance of

A

are at a distance of

‘n’ and ‘f’ from the

camera

A

camera,

respectively.

F

a

rr

P

l

a

nn

e

o

C

The Viewing Pyramid

3D view of the

g y

A

3D view of the

viewing space

A

F

a

r

v

P

l

a

n

e

C

e

C

o

w

u

w

The image space

volume:

u

1 w v, u, 1 s s ÷

Side view of the viewing space

F

a

Nea

o

r

P

l

a

Near

Plane

n

a

n

e

n

f

Der i vat i on of t he vi ew i ng t r ansf or mat i on g

mat r i x , i n t er ms of c amer a par amet er s:

d.u d.v d.u d.v d.w

(u,v,w) ( , , d) ( , , ) ÷ ÷ =

w w w w w

Thus,

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

,

(u, v, w, 1) (d.u, d.v, d.w, w) ÷ ÷

P(u, v, w)

u or v

(u´, v´, w´)

PP

O (COP)

-w

(u , v , w )

dd

Express as transformation:

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 d

(

(

)

1

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

or ( ;

0 0 d 0

0 0 0 d

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

= P )

0 0 0 0

d

1

1 0 0

or ( ;

0 0 0 0

1 d 0 0

(

(

(

¸

¸

÷

(

(

(

¸

¸

÷

=

d

P

0 0 0 d

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

(

(

(

¸

¸

¸ ¸

| | | | w d.w d.v d.u

1 d 0 0

0 0 d 0

1 w v u ÷ =

(

(

(

÷

0 0 0 0

1 d 0 0

(

(

¸

¸

Transformation of the finite (truncated)

viewing pyramid to the

cube (CVV), -1 < u, v, w < 1.

The image space

volume:

Let us first analyze w-axis only.

h f i i

volume:

1 w v, u, 1 s s ÷

Use the transformation matrix:

0 0 0 1

(

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

(

(

(

such that,

(0 0 -n)P (0 0 1)

;

1 a 0 0

0 0 1 0

P

(

(

÷

=

(0, 0, -n)P (0, 0, 1)

and

(0 0 -f)P (0 0 -1)

0 b 0 0

1 a 0 0

(

(

¸

¸

(0, 0, -f)P (0, 0, -1)

0 b 0 0

¸ ¸

Solve for parameters a and b, using the p , g

above equations:

From the constraints of the

n b an = +

From the constraints of the

above two equations:

and

n b an = + ÷

f b af

and

÷ = + ÷ f b a.f ÷ = + ÷

;

n f

a

+

=

The

solution:

;

n f

a

÷

=

solution:

2f.n

f

n f

2f.n

b=

n f ÷

Hence the

(

(

0 0 0 1

transformation is:

(

(

(

+

1

n f

0 0

0 0 1 0

(

(

(

÷

÷

+

=

1

n f

n f

0 0

P

(

(

¸

¸

0

n f

2f.n

0 0

¸ ¸

÷ n f

Wh t b t d i t f ti What about u and v-axis transformations

in the pyramid ?

u and v-axis transformations

in the pyramid

t ( /2)

u or v

n.tan(o/2)

f tan(o/2)

o/2

f.tan(o/2)

O (COP) -w

o/2

(0, 0, -n) (0, 0, -f) ( ) ( , , ) ( , , )

Transformations for the two points

are as follows:

(0, n.tan(o/2), -n)

v

(0, f.tan(o/2), -f)

v

o/2

O (COP)

-w (0, 0, -n) (0, 0, -f)

(

0 0 0 1

(

(

(

f

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

Desired normalized 3-D

coordinates for both the

(

(

(

(

÷

÷

+

=

2f

1

n f

n f

0 0

P

points: [0, 1, +/-1, 1].

(

(

¸

¸

÷

0

n f

2f.n

0 0

| |. 1 f /2) f.tan( 0

(

÷ o P

f

n f

2nf

n f

n f

f /2) f.tan( 0

(

¸

(

¸

÷

+

÷

+

÷ = o

| | f f /2) f.tan( 0

n f n f

÷ =

¸ ¸

o

Thus modify P

to be:

(

(

0 0 ) 2 / ( 0

0 0 0 ) 2 / cot(o

(

(

(

+

=

1

n f

0 0

0 0 ) 2 / cot( 0

P'

o

(

(

(

÷

÷

=

2f n

1

n f

0 0

P

(

(

¸

¸ ÷

0

n f

2f.n

0 0

| | ' 1 n /2) ntan( 0 ÷ P o | |

2nf n f

0

. 1 n /2) n.tan( 0

(

(

+

+

P o

| |

n

n f n f

n n 0

(

¸

(

¸

÷

+

÷

÷ =

| | 1 1 0 =

Its inverse has the form:

(

(

0 0 0 tan ) 2 / (o

(

(

(

÷ n f

0 0 tan 0 ) 2 / (o

(

(

(

=

÷

2fn

n f

0 0 0 P

1

(

(

¸

¸

+

÷

2f

n f

1 0 0

f

¸ ¸

2fn

= P P P

The Vi ew i ng Tr ansf or mat i on Mat r i x

(

(

=

0 0 0 ) 2 / ( d.cot

.P P P

d f

o

(

(

(

÷ +

=

d

2 n) d(f

0 0

0 0 ) 2 / ( d.cot 0

fn

o

(

(

(

¸

¸

÷

÷

0 0 0 0

d

n f

) (

0 0

f

¸ ¸

0 0 0 1

(

(

)

1

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

or ( ;

0 0 d 0

0 0 0 d

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

d

P (

(

(

f

0 0 cot( 0

0 0 0 ) cot(

) 2 /

2 /

o

o

)

0 0 0 0

d

1

1 0 0

or ( ;

0 0 0 0

1 d 0 0

(

(

(

¸

¸

÷

(

(

¸

¸

÷

d

P

(

(

(

(

(

÷

÷

+

=

2f n

1

n f

n f

0 0 P

| | | | w dw dv du

0 0 d 0

0 0 0 d

1 w v u =

(

(

(

(

(

¸

¸

÷

0

n f

2f.n

0 0

| | | | w d.w d.v d.u

0 0 0 0

1 d 0 0

1 w v u ÷ =

(

(

(

¸

¸

÷

(

0 0 0 ) 2 / ( cot

or

o

using the regular expression of P

d

(

(

(

0 0 ) 2 / ( cot 0

0 0 0 ) 2 / ( cot

o

o

(

(

(

(

÷

÷

+

=

1

n) d(f

2fn - n) d(f

0 0

(

(

¸

¸

0 0 0 0

n) d(f

0 0 0 1

(

(

)

1

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

or ( ;

0 0 d 0

0 0 0 d

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

d

P (

(

(

f

0 0 cot( 0

0 0 0 ) cot(

) 2 /

2 /

o

o

)

0 0 0 0

d

1

1 0 0

or ( ;

0 0 0 0

1 d 0 0

(

(

(

¸

¸

÷

(

(

¸

¸

÷

d

P

(

(

(

(

(

÷

÷

+

=

2f n

1

n f

n f

0 0 P

| | | | w dw dv du

0 0 d 0

0 0 0 d

1 w v u =

(

(

(

(

(

¸

¸

÷

0

n f

2f.n

0 0

| | | | w d.w d.v d.u

0 0 0 0

1 d 0 0

1 w v u ÷ =

(

(

(

¸

¸

÷

End of Lectures on

3D Viewing – 3D Viewing –

Projection Transformations j

and

Vi i Pi li Viewing Pipeline

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