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1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Introduction

Basic Concepts of Concrete

Types of Concrete Grades of Concrete Proportioning of Materials of Concrete Importance of Concrete Advantages of Concrete Disadvantages of Concrete Selection of Material Reinforcement in Concrete
1.10.1 1.10.2 1.10.3 Workability Freedom from Segregation Freedom from Bleeding

1.10 Properties of Concrete in Plastic Stage

1.11 Properties of Concrete in Hardened Stage 1.12 Process Diagram of Concrete 1.13 Concrete Operations
1.13.1 1.13.2 1.13.3 1.13.4 1.13.5 1.13.6 1.13.7 1.13.8 Storage Batching Mixing Transporting Placing Compaction Curing Finishing

1.14 Summary 1.15 Answers to SAQs

Concrete is the most widely used material in construction industry. In this unit, you shall be studying definition and importance of concrete, properties of concrete in plastic and hardened stage and process diagram of concrete and concrete operations.

After studying this unit, you should be able to
• • • •

identify the ingredients of concrete, describe the importance and properties of concrete, draw the process diagram of concrete, and explain different operations of concrete along with their sequence. 5

PCC is. As concrete is weak in tension. sand. the use of PCC is normally restricted to situations. Hence. coarse aggregate and water in some specific proportions.2 TYPES OF CONCRETE Concrete plays very important role in construction industry as a construction material. Sometimes to reduce the size of concrete member or if the concrete member is subjected to reversal of stresses then steel reinforcement may be provided in compression zone also. special ingredients added in concrete to improve its some of the properties are called as __________________. sand (fine aggregate) and water combine to form mortar. Sometimes special ingredients known as ‘Admixtures’ are also added to improve some properties of concrete. It is a stone like hard material obtained by mixing cement. therefore. coarse aggregate and water in plastic stage are called as ‘Fresh Concrete’. steel bars (reinforcement) are used in concrete. The fresh mixture of cement. coarse aggregate and __________ in certain proportion. Concrete’s strength increases with age. sand. Steel reinforcement is generally placed in the tension zone of the member before concreting is done. coarse aggregate and water in some specified proportion. arches and gravity retaining walls. Cement concrete can be defined as a mixture of cement. As time passes. Such a concrete is called as Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC). etc. where high compressive strength and weight are of the primary requirements. columns. The chemical reaction between cement and water binds the aggregate into a solid mass. Cement. What is meant by PCC and RCC? Differentiate between PCC and RCC. Plain Cement Concrete (PCC) has considerable strength in compression but it has very little strength in tension. 6 . massive gravity dams. dock-walls. The concrete can be mould in any desired shape in plastic stage. What do you understand by fresh concrete and hardened concrete? Differentiate them properly.Concrete Technology 1. Sometimes. SAQ 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Define concrete and state the ingredients of concrete. sand. used in the construction of bed blocks. which fills the voids in coarse aggregate to form concrete. the mixture of ingredients of fresh concrete gets hardened which is called as hardened concrete. What role does cement play in concrete? Fill in the blanks Concrete is a mixture of cement. sand (fine aggregate).

3 GRADES OF CONCRETE Concrete is graded according to its compressive strength. the concrete upto grade M15 is used for plain concrete works.2000) Lean Mix Basic Concepts of Concrete SAQ 2 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) What do you mean by M20 grade concrete? Define characteristic strength. M7.1. Minimum grade of concrete for RCC is M20 (as per IS : 456 . Which are the concrete grades generally used for lean concrete? Which are the concrete grades used for normal RCC? Which grade of concrete do you prefer for column? State any two situations where lean concrete is useful. Generally.5 M10 M15 M20 M25 M30 M35 M40 M45 M50 M55 M60 Designed Mix Proportion 1 : 5 : 10 1:4:8 1:3:6 1:2:4 1 : 1½ : 3 1:1:2 Characteristic Compressive Strength in N/mm2 5 7. M5. The characteristic strength is defined as the strength of concrete below which not more than 5% of the test results are expected to fall. letter M refers to the mix and the number to the specified characteristic compressive strength of 15 cm × 15 cm × 15 cm cube at 28 days curing expressed in N/mm2.1 : Grades of Concrete Designation M5 M7. In this classification the concrete is designated by M followed by a numerical number.2000).5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 High Strength Concrete Standard Concrete Ordinary Concrete Group (as per IS : 456 .5 grades are generally used for lean concrete bases and simple foundations for masonry walls. Grades M15 and M20 are used for normal reinforced concrete works. Grades lower than M40 cannot be used in pre-tensioned pre-stressed concrete and lower than M30 cannot be used in post-tensioned concrete. Table 1. 7 .

column. When hardened. 4. There are various methods of mix design but there are also methods which give rough proportioning used in day-to-day works. heavily loaded structure 1:3:6 1:2:4 1 : 1½ : 3 1:1:2 8 . plastic and harden. etc. sand and coarse aggregate is also termed as mix design. but not excessively fluid.Concrete Technology 1. it must be kept in mind that the fresh concrete be workable enough for uniform placement and once hardened has sufficient strength and durability. slab. Maximum and minimum size of aggregate. Factors governing the choice of mix proportion are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Strength of concrete. while proportioning these and water cement ratio. Involves minimum cost for material and labour. Table 1. Grading and type of aggregate.2 : Mix Proportion Sl. Type of Construction Mass concrete foundation Mix Proportion (by Volume) 1 : 6 : 12 1 : 5 : 10 1:4:8 2. it has sufficient strength and ability for its purpose. The choice of proportion is governed by both these conditions. Impermeable construction and heavy concrete works Long span arches. In general cement. coarse aggregate and water should be so proportioned that the resulting concrete has the following properties: (a) (b) (c) While fresh it is workable enough for economical and uniform placement. 1. Quality control.4 PROPORTIONING OF MATERIALS OF CONCRETE Concrete must be satisfactory in two states namely. Once the quality of cement and aggregate is selected next is to decide the proportion of cement : fine aggregate : coarse aggregate. 5. No. Aggregate cement ratio. 3. Durability and workability. The proportioning of cement. Mass concrete in superstructure All normal reinforced concrete works such as beam. fine aggregate. Water cement ratio.

Concrete has following important characteristics : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) It has good compressive strength. durable and fire proof. These two materials have approximately same coefficient of expansion. hence places where spaces for material storages are not available it can be transported through pipe line. etc. State the advantages of concrete. Bridges. requires less maintenance if used properly. It is further economical in long run compared to other materials. Concrete can be used as grouting material to fill up cracks. It has good durability. It has good fire resistance. Following are the important projects in Civil Engineering where we use the concrete as a basic construction material. It can be pumped.6 ADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE The advantages of using concrete are : (a) (b) (c) (d) It is quite strong. Basic Concepts of Concrete Concrete is weak in tension. (e) (f) SAQ 3 (a) (b) (c) What do you mean by proportioning of concrete? State five structures where concrete plays an important role. Dams. 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Roads. Railways. It has abrasion resistance. Buildings. The weakness of concrete in tension can be overcome by providing reinforcement and pre-stressing techniques. Airports. concrete has unlimited structural uses. It has required impermeability. and develop very good bond with each other.1. It is quite strong in compression and along with steel as reinforcing material to resist tension.5 IMPORTANCE OF CONCRETE Concrete is the most important basic construction material because it is difficult to get another versatile and mouldable material like concrete at such a low cost. It can be moulded to any shape and size for architectural and decorative purposes. 9 .

This further reduces life of electric fittings. Water to be used for concreting should be potable. Materials selected for concrete must conform to required specifications depending on strength of concrete.7 DISADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE It has hardly any disadvantage if constructed properly. 1. Fresh cement of approved quality should be used and stored properly to prevent deterioration. (i) One bag of cement is __________________ litres. Concrete itself is a brittle material. free from silt. Concrete cannot be made impervious hence water soluble salts cause efflorescence which gives bad appearance to concrete. (a) It has low tensile stresses hence surface cracks develop which lead water to penetrate and cause corrosion of steel. hence expansion joints provided take care of it. Following are the disadvantages of concrete. SAQ 4 (a) (b) State the disadvantages of concrete.Concrete Technology (d) Tick the correct word.8 SELECTION OF MATERIAL The quality and characteristics of concrete mainly depends on the quality of materials used. (iii) Reinforcement is present/not present in RCC. (i) (ii) Concrete is more strong in tension/compression. Concrete subjected to sustained loads causes creep. further some deficiencies can be overtaken by using some admixtures. Concrete is liable to sulphate attack and alkalies attacks hence deteriorates and disintegrates with time. 10 . Fill in the blanks. organic matter and other undesirable impurities. Admixture selected should be such that it should not have any adverse or deteriorating effect on other materials and on concrete as a whole. etc. Many times admixtures are used to improve various properties of concrete. But this drawback can be minimized by using steel bars and meshes. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 1. Provision of expansion joints is made which minimizes it. Concrete further expands and contracts. Concrete can be moulded/cannot be moulded in any shape. It shrinks on drying and expands on wetting. free from all impurities. Aggregate used should be well graded.

shells and concrete roads. it cannot resist equal amount of compressive force due to its buckling. Following are the advantages of steel reinforcement. Bars of greater diameter. Following are the grades of steel reinforcement. It can develop good bond with concrete. the use of plain round bars is gradually reducing.9 REINFORCEMENT IN CONCRETE Concrete is very strong in compression but weak in tension. sections like rolled steel beams. Mild and medium tensile steel bars of round section are most commonly used in RCC work. 16 mm. 12 mm. It has high tensile strength. 18 mm. (a) (b) Mild steel (Fe250) : Grade I is known as mild steel (m. For works of large dimensions like massive foundations. bend. 45 mm and 50 mm are only used in exceptionally heavy foundations. Tick the correct word. 25 mm. The diameter of round bars used in normal building are 6 mm. 32 mm. Basic Concepts of Concrete (iii) One bag of cement is _______________ kg. channels or angle iron are also used as reinforcement. With the introduction of deformed bars and twisted bars. Sometimes expanded metal fabric or fabric made by welding or weaving steel wire in the form of oblong or square mesh are also used as reinforcement in slabs. large girders or counterforts. i. Deformed bars or high yield strength deformed bars 11 .s.) High Tensile Deformed Steel : It is further classified as follows : (i) (ii) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Grade Fe 415 Grade Fe 500. bind or weld. the combination of steel and concrete is made to take up the stresses. (v) (c) (i) (ii) Compressive strength of concrete is measured in ___________. 10 mm. (iv) __________________ is lubricant in concrete mix. twisted bars. It is easy to cut. Thus. 8 mm. Such combination of steel and concrete is called as reinforced concrete. 36 mm and 40 mm. Its coefficient of thermal expansion is nearly equal to that of concrete. Concrete is not producing any harmful effect on the embedded steel. Aggregate used for concrete should be well graded/poorly graded. square bars and flats. etc.e. deformed bars. It is easily available. The various forms in which steel is used as reinforcement in RCC work are round bars. 20 mm. Steel is equally strong in tension and compression but for long steel bars. 28 mm. Quality of concrete depends/not depends on quality of aggregates.(ii) Strength of concrete depends upon quality of its ____________. etc. 1.

10. tensile strength and bond strength. Cement when mixed with water forms hydrated compounds of very low solubility. shape. The reaction releases a lot of heat which is called as heat of hydration. proper proportioning. 1. size and grading of the aggregates.Concrete Technology (HYSD) are furnished with lugs. What are the advantages of steel reinforcement? What is the function of ribs present on steel? 1. etc. use of optimum quantity of water. On account of increased bond strength such bars do not need end hooks and require reduced length for overlaps. SAQ 5 (a) (b) (c) State types of reinforcement. compacting and finishing. The reaction of cement with water is exothermic in nature. Segregation makes a concrete weak in hardened stage. Workability is generally measured by the slump test. ratio of coarse and fine aggregates and the use of admixtures.2 Freedom from Segregation The separation of cement water paste from the rest of the material is called as segregation. The workability of concrete depends upon water content. proper handling. Segregation can be avoided by proper grading. It is an undesirable property which should be prevented in all circumstances as it is very harmful to concrete properties. 12 . The following properties of fresh concrete are of significance. It is seen that the process of twisting a plain or deformed bar results in the increase in yield stress. if any. It can also be defined as the amount of internal useful work required to fully compact the concrete to optimum density in the mould. thereby leading to reduction in the cost of reinforcement and labour.1 Workability The ease with which the concrete can be placed on the forms and compacted is called workability of concrete. Twisted plain or deformed bars not only have high yield stress but also have strength that is 40 % more than that of plain round bars. Different compounds of cement hydrate at different rates and liberate different quantities of heat.10 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE IN PLASTIC STAGE The reaction between cement and water is called as hydration of cement. 1. placing.10. Differentiate between mild steel and tor steel. ribs or other form of surface deformations for the purpose of increasing their bond strength with concrete. optimum compaction. The extent of hydration of cement and the resultant microstructure of hydrated cement affects the physical properties of concrete. transporting.

Workability is the property of concrete in ___________ stage. Basic Concepts of Concrete SAQ 6 (a) (b) Enlist properties of concrete in plastic stage. The strength is further classified as : (a) (b) (c) (d) Compressive strength.1. (iii) Workability of concrete increases with the increase of cement content. Define the following terms. air entraining agents and fine sand. State true or false.11. Bleeding indicates the presence of excess water in concrete or deficiency of fine material or too much finishing.3 Freedom from Bleeding The appearance of water on the surface of concrete after compaction is called bleeding. (i) (ii) Segregation is essential for good concrete. Bleeding gives more strength to the concrete. richer concrete. It is harmful to the concrete and it reduces the strength of hardened concrete. Bleeding can be reduced by using proper mix. (iv) Segregation is the property of concrete in plastic stage (e) Fill in the blanks. 13 .1 Strength The ability of concrete to bear loads is called its strength. Tensile strength. porous and weak. constant water-cement ratio. 1. degree of compaction and curing. (i) (ii) (c) (d) Workability Segregation (iii) Bleeding Enlist factors affecting workability.10. Bond strength. (i) (ii) The sand used should be fine in order to prevent __________. Bleeding disturbs the uniformity of the surface and makes it dusty. The strength of hardened concrete mainly depends upon water-cement ratio.11 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE IN HARDENED STAGE The following properties of hardened concrete are of significance : 1. Shear strength. quality of cement.

2 Durability Durability of concrete is its resistance to disintegration under the forces of environment such as weathering. sound cement.11. Due to low tensile strength.Concrete Technology Compressive Strength High compressive strength is the most important property of the concrete. concrete is not used to resist tensile forces. It is only 10 percent of the compressive strength. Therefore. Generally. durable aggregates. fire and corrosion of steel. etc. etc. 14 . The strength of concrete is measured in N/mm2 (MPa). placing. Bond Strength The property of adhesion between concrete and steel reinforcement is called its bond strength. Concrete can also be made impermeable by covering the surface by special gasoline-proof members. plastic films. dense and strong concretes have better durability in extreme weather conditions. degree of compaction. The bond strength can be increased by using deformed bars instead of plain bars and by decreasing the water cement ratio.11. careful batching. Bond strength of concrete depends on its compressive strength and the surface characteristics of the steel bars. etc. reinforcement is provided for bearing tensile stresses. Generally. Impermeability is important specially for exposed and water-retaining structures. dense and well graded aggregate. type and quality of cement. The most practical method is to measure the tensile strength in bending which is usually called flexural strength. full compaction. mixing. Shearing of concrete is always accompanied by tension and compression due to bending. The tensile strength is of great importance in resisting cracking due to change in moisture content or temperature. 1. In reinforced cement concrete works. Excess water during manufacturing of concrete leaves a large number of continuous pores leading to permeability in concrete. dense grading of aggregates. temperature at which the concrete is hardened. Impermeable concrete can be obtained by using low water cement ratio. etc. 1. The compressive strength of concrete is affected by water-cement ratio. Concrete fails in shear due to diagonal tension. chemical attack. Tensile Strength Concrete has low tensile strength. compaction and long periods for curing give concrete of better durability.3 Impermeability The resistance provided by concrete to the flow of water through it is called impermeability. type and texture of aggregate. concrete is used to resist compressive stresses. The measurement of tensile strength of concrete is very difficult. sufficient curing. curing. Durability of concrete depends upon the quality of materials used and optimum water cement ratio. Bond strength is more for bars in compression than bars in tension. time of hardening. Shear Strength Shear strength is about half of the compressive strength.

The extent of shrinkage depends upon the efficiency of the curing arrangements. It has been determined that strain due to creep is three times the strain that occurs when the load is first applied.000 to 50. The deformation which occurs immediately after the application of the load is called as instantaneous deformation. Creep is a function of time. Shrinkage During hardening and dryings of concrete. there is slight reduction in its volume which is known as shrinkage. The shrinkage is higher with higher cement or water content. Basic Concepts of Concrete 15 . The deformation beyond instantaneous strain is creep. It measures the stiffness of concrete members. and Thermal expansion. It is assumed to be constant for design purposes. Shrinkage. moisture content. Sometimes. Creep is the permanent deformation. It reduces the development of cracks. water absorbed by the formworks.1. richness of mix and amount of water. The shrinkage and creep occur simultaneously and they are assumed to be additive for simplicity.000 N/mm2. crystalline flow in aggregates. The mineral character of the aggregate also affects shrinkage of concrete in which it is used. viscous flow of cement water paste. Concrete shrinks due to the chemical action of the colloids produced by water when it reacts with cement and due to physical drying out of concrete. Shrinkage can be reduced by using low water cement ratio. types of cement. The advantage of shrinkage in concrete is that it grips the reinforcement tightly and help in preventing its slipping. Creep The continuous and permanent deformation of concrete under sustained loading is known as creep or time-yield or plastic flow. Creep occurs both in compressive and tensile loading and it is assumed that the magnitude of the creep is the same in both the cases. type of aggregate and age of concrete. Creep. Elasticity. saturating aggregates.11. The modulus of elasticity depends upon the strength. The modulus of elasticity for concrete is defined as the ratio of unit stress to unit strain and varies from 30. It relives the concrete stress and adds to the steel stress.4 Dimensional Changes The dimensional changes of concrete depends upon (a) (b) (c) (d) Elasticity Concrete is not truly elastic material but has an approximately linear compressive stress-strain curve within the range of normal working stresses. The value of modulus of elasticity is not constant for all stresses. designing the concrete mix properly. non-absorbent formworks and reducing the height of fall of concrete during placing operations. It is due to closure of internal voids.003. creep is desirable in RCC structures as it helps in uniform distribution of stress. Average coefficient of total shrinkage for cement concrete may be taken as 0. It is the main cause of bond between reinforcement and concrete.

Thermal Expansion The expansion of concrete takes place due to rise in temperature. What do you know about strength of concrete? Define bond strength. SAQ 7 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Enlist the properties of concrete in hardened stage. The thermal expansion in concrete causes considerable deformation and cracks. Curing Creep decreases as the hydration of cement proceed. Concrete prepared from siliceous aggregate expand more than those concretes which are prepared from calcareous aggregates. It is controlled by providing special expansion joints in big concrete structures.Concrete Technology The rate of creep depends upon the following factors : Strength Increase in strength causes reduction in creep. 16 . The expansion of cement paste is more than that of aggregate. What do you mean by shrinkage of concrete? State true or false (i) (ii) Durability is the property of concrete in hardened stage. Type of Cement Fineness of cement affects the strength development at early ages and this affects creep of concrete. It is not uniform throughout the mass of concrete. Proportion of Mix Creep decreases as the water cement ratio and volume of cement paste decreases. Age The rate of creep decreases with the increase in time. The resistance provided by concrete to the passage of water through it is called creep. Thermal expansion depends largely on the cement content and type of aggregate used. What do you mean by durability of concrete? What are the factors affecting creep of concrete? State the practical example where impermeable concrete is required. The value of the thermal coefficient varies a little with the richness of mix and the amount of water present in the mix. Aggregate Creep increases as the aggregate becomes finer and is greater with porous aggregates. (iii) Creep is temporary deformation.

(v) The resistance provided by concrete to the flow of water through it is called _________________.12 PROCESS DIAGRAM OF CONCRETE Procurement of Ingredients of Concrete Mixing of Ingredients Storage and Handling of Ingredients Batching of Ingredients Transporting of Concrete Placing of Concrete Curing of Concrete Compaction of Concrete Finishing of Concrete Testing of Concrete Process diagram of concrete as depicted above consists of following operations in sequence: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) Procurement of ingredients of concrete. Placing the fresh concrete in moulds or formwork. Compacting the concrete in formwork. Proper storage and handling of ingredients of concrete. Strength of concrete ______________ with age.(h) Fill in the blanks. (vi) The expansion of concrete takes place due to _____________ in temperature. Finishing of concrete to get good appearance. 1. Transporting the fresh concrete to the required place or site. Batching of materials for making concrete. Curing of concrete. Testing of concrete in plastic and hardened stage 17 . Basic Concepts of Concrete (iii) ISI has specified the strength of concrete for ________ days. (i) (ii) Thermal expansion depends largely on ______________. (iv) A rich mix of concrete provides ___________ strength of concrete. Mixing of ingredients in proper proportion.

1 Storage The cement should be stored carefully. It should be protected from moisture. It is also advisable to remove cement in order of its storage period. The cement. 18 . it is found that cement will maintain its quality for large period. The loose cement may be stored indefinitely in airtight containers. it should be stored in airtight containers. Hence. The cement bags are stacked in piles. 1. State the different operations of concreting. cement which is stored previously should be taken out first. Concreting operations include storage of materials. 1. the cement becomes useless. transporting. mixing. more precautions should be taken to store finely ground cement. the steps should be formed by taking out two or three bags from front piles. If moisture is kept away from cement. Cement should be stored in dry condition. If it is unavoidable. when cement is to be stored for a long period. Hence.13 CONCRETE OPERATIONS To obtain good quality concrete not only materials and their proportions are important but the concreting operations also play a very critical role. is more active and consequently it absorbs moisture rapidly from the atmosphere. which is finely ground. the top and bottom of piles should be covered with waterproof paper or tarpaulins. i. Aggregate should be stored in such a manner that its size and grading is not disturbed as it does not get mixed with deleterious impurities. finishing and curing. The concreting operations affect the strength and other properties of concrete can be achieved as per requirements by using suitable controls on various concreting operations. A distance of about 30cm should be kept between the piles of cement bags and exterior walls of building. The distance between two piles should be about 90 cm. placing. For long storage. compacting.13. Cement is easily affected by water and even atmospheric humidity. When cement bags are to be removed from piles of sufficient height.Concrete Technology SAQ 8 (a) (b) Draw process diagram of concrete. the cement should be tested to check its quality. proportioning and batching. It is advisable to avoid storing of cement in jute bags for a period longer than three months.e. Absorption of one to two percent of moisture has no appreciable effect on quality of cement but if it exceeds five percent. It is economical to form a pile of 10 bags of cement. It may absorb moisture from the atmosphere and may become useless for the structural work if not properly stored.

800NT. 400R. The mixing should ensure that the mass becomes homogeneous. 340NT.13. ingredients are mixed in dry state three times on a watertight platform to avoid loss of water from the mix. Then water is added in correct quantity and wet mixing is done thoroughly till concrete becomes uniform in colour and consistency. Non-tilting type – 200NT. 280NT. There are two methods of batching – volume batching and weigh batching. 140T. 8 to 10 % extra cement is added for hand mixing. materials are taken in litres.1.3 Mixing Thorough mixing of the materials is essential for the production of uniform concrete. Now-a-days. Machine Mixing It ensures a better and uniform mixing of concrete ingredients. Even for small jobs mixers are preferred. materials are measured in kg. Aggregates are measured by containers of volume of 35 litres. There are two methods adopted for mixing concrete. If proper care is taken it gives good results. 340R. Volume batching is preferred for minor works and where quantity is very less. 200T. It produces concrete of better quality at a faster rate and at less cost more efficiently. Generally. Hand Mixing In this method. Weigh Batching In weigh batching. It gives accurate results. 1. Number indicates the quantity of materials in litres in one batch. The precaution to be taken while transporting concrete is that the homogeneity obtained at the time of mixing should be maintained while being transported to the final place of deposition. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Drum type Pan type Paving mixer Transit mixer Tilting type – 85T.2 Batching The measurement of materials for making concrete is known as batching. Following are the types of mixer. 280R. 400NT. Selection of methods depends on type of work and site situation.13. Volume Batching In volume batching.4 Transporting Concrete can be transported by a variety of methods and equipment. Reversing – 200R. The methods adopted for transportation of concrete are : 19 . Cement should always be measured in kg. Water is measured in litres. Basic Concepts of Concrete 1. 100T. uniform in colour and consistency. concrete mixers are very common.13.

) Placing concrete within large earth mould or timber plank formwork. the water and slush must be removed completely to expose firm bed before placing concrete. (a) (b) (c) Placing concrete within earth mould.5 Placing It is not enough that a concrete mix is correctly designed.6 Compaction Compaction of concrete is the process adopted for expelling the entrapped air from the concrete. must be just made wet. Therefore. (Example : Mass concrete in dam construction or construction of concrete abutment or pier. batched. charred or tarred effectively to prevent its further growth and piercing the concrete at a later date. so that the earth does not absorb water from concrete. it is imperative that 100 percent compaction of concrete is one of the most important aim to be kept in mind in good concrete-making practices. it is of utmost importance that the concrete must be placed in a systematic manner to yield optimum results.Concrete Technology (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Mortar Pan Wheel Barrow. 1. In the process of placing and mixing of concrete. (Example : Road slab and airfield slab. Concrete is invariably laid as foundation bed below the walls or columns. 5 percent voids reduce the strength of concrete by about 30 percent and 10 percent voids reduce the strength by over 50 percent. 20 . if dry.) (d) Placing concrete within usual formwork.13. Hand Cart Bucket and Rope Way Truck Mixer and Dumpers Belt Conveyors Chute Skip and Hoist Pumps and Pipe Line. beams and floors.) 1. On the other hand if the foundation bed is too wet and rain-soaked. The surface of the earth. (Example : Foundation concrete for a wall or column. (Example : Columns. If this air is not removed fully. The precautions to be taken and methods adopted while placing concrete in the under-mentioned situations will be discussed. Before placing the concrete in the foundation all the loose earth must be removed from the bed. air is likely to get entrapped in the concrete. Any root of trees passing through the foundation must be cut.) Placing concrete in layers within timber or steel shutters. the concrete losses strength considerably. If there is any seepage of water taking place into the foundation trench. mixed and transported. effective method for diverting the flow of water must be adopted before concrete is placed in the trench or pit.13.

slab. It is also of common knowledge that the mix should not be too wet for easy compaction. Although there is sufficient water at the time of mixing yet it is necessary to ensure that the water is retained to enable the chemical action to continue till the concrete is fully hardened. The development of these stresses will result into the formation of plastic shrinkage cracks. 1.g. wear resistance and volume stability improve with the passage of time. concrete roads.In order to achieve full compaction and maximum density. wear resistance.e.g. which also reduces the strength of concrete. durability.g.g. i. Platform vibrator – e. If the loss due to evaporation is more from newly placed concrete. External vibrator (Formwork vibrator) – e. water-tightness. Compaction by Spinning – e. strength. it is necessary to use a mix with adequate workability.g. Table vibrator – e. which accompany the setting of concrete. column. footing. Basic Concepts of Concrete Compaction by Vibration Compaction by Pressure and Jolting – e. tiles. the chemical reaction between water and portland cement. thin sections. blocks. It is one of the important factors for obtaining better strength. The chemical actions. For maximum strength driest possible concrete should be compacted 100 percent. with reasonable compacting efforts available at site. the hydration process will stop and concrete will shrink thus creating tensile stresses at the drying surface. etc. cube testing. The following methods are adopted for compacting the concrete : Hand Compaction (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Rodding Ramming Tamping Internal vibrator (Needle vibrator) – e. It improves properties of concrete such as watertightness. volume stability and durability. cement pipes. curing is important. Properties of concrete such as strength. The concrete hardens because of hydration.7 Curing The process of hardening the concrete mixes by keeping its surface moist for a certain period after compaction is called curing of concrete. industrial flooring. Methods of Curing (a) (b) (c) Water curing Membrane curing Application of heat 21 . Thus. are dependent on the presence of water.g.g. The overall economy demands 100 percent compaction with a reasonable compacting effort available in the field. Three gallons of water are required approximately to hydrate one bag of cement.13. column. Curing must be organized immediately after concrete is placed and compacted. Surface vibrator (Screed vibrator) – e. pre-cast units. beam.

(g) Fill in the blanks. careful finishing is of great importance. What is compaction? State types of compaction. Surface finishes may be grouped as under : (a) (b) (c) Formwork finishes Surface treatment Applied finishes SAQ 9 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Enlist different concreting operations. What is batching? Differentiate between volume batching and weigh batching. Hand mixing/machine mixing should be used for large work. (i) 22 (j) What precaution should be taken before placing of concrete? State different types of vibrator. Tick the correct word. Weigh batching is more accurate than volume batching. airfield pavement or for the flooring of a domestic building. State methods of transporting of concrete. (iv) The chemical reaction between water and cement is called as hydration of cement. State true or false.8 Finishing Finishing operation is the last operation in making concrete. (v) (h) (i) (ii) Compaction is the process adopted for expelling the ________.Concrete Technology (d) Miscellaneous 1. materials are measured in ____________. .13. (i) (ii) Vibration of concrete should be penetrated in _________ direction. The measurement of materials for making concrete is called as ______________. Finishing in real sense does not apply to all concrete operations. (i) (ii) All concrete ingredients are measured by volume batching only. (iii) Cement should be protected from moisture. What is curing? Enlist methods of curing. Compaction increases/decreases the density of the concrete. whereas for the concrete road pavement. For a beam concreting. (iii) In volume batching. (iv) In weight batching. materials are measured in ____________. finishing may not be applicable. (iii) The process of hardening the concrete mixes by keeping its surface moist/dry for a certain period after compaction is called curing of concrete.

grades of concrete. you have studied definition of concrete.15 ANSWERS TO SAQs Refer the relevant preceding text in the unit or other useful books on the topic listed in the section ‘Further Reading’ given at the end of the booklet to get the answers of SAQs. field tests of cement. physical properties of cement. etc. properties of concrete in plastic and hardened stage and process diagram of concrete. chemical composition of cement. 1.Basic Concepts of Concrete 1. you will study about manufacturing process of cement. 23 .14 SUMMARY In this unit. Now. in the next unit. importance of concrete. types and uses of cement.