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B a mb o o a s a S t r u c t u r a l M a t e r i a l

P r o d u c t D e v e l o p me n t P a r t n e r s h i p( P D P2 ) 5 65 0 2 T e a mL K y l eT o o l e2 0 0 5 1 4 2 0 2 P a v e l D i v i s 2 0 0 6 1 5 4 2 2 Ga v i nL e a k e2 0 0 6 4 1 8 2 1 S u p e r v i s o r : Ca r me nT o r r e s S a n c h e z

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION BAMBOO ARCHITECTURE EXAMPLES BAMBOO CONNECTION EXAMPLES MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO INITIAL STRUCTURE CONCEPTS INITIAL CONNECTION CONCEPTS DEVELOPED STRUCTURE CONCEPTS DEVELOPED CONNECTION PLATE CONCEPTS DEVELOPED CONNECTION STRAPPING CONCEPTS FINAL STRUCTURE CONCEPT Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA) DFMA - DESIGN FOR PUNCHING DFMA - DESIGN FOR ASSEMBLY DETAIL DESIGN OF THE CONNECTION PLATE STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE CONNECTION STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE - ONLY VERTICAL LOAD STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE - COMBINED LOAD STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE MULTI-HEXAGON STRUCTURE MECHANICAL TESTING - TEST 1 & 2 MECHANICAL TESTING - TEST 3 FINAL DESIGN FINAL PROTOTYPE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS MANUFACTURING DRAWING - CONNECTION PLATE 2 3 4 5 6 7-8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23-24 25-26 27 APPENDIX

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INTRODUCTION PROJECT AIM
DEVELOP A LOW COST HOUSING SOLUTION THAT UTILISES BAMBOO AS A STRUCTURAL MATERIAL

PROJECT OBJECTIVES
1. RESEARCH PROPERTIES AND TYPES OF BAMBOO AVAILABLE IN PABAL/PUNE. 2. REVIEW, INVENT AND DEVELOP JOINING METHODS FOR BAMBOO STRUCTURES. 3. DESIGN STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR WIDE-SCALE IMPLEMENTATION IN PABAL/PUNE. 4. TESTING OF PROTOTYPES.

PROJECT DELIVERABLES
1. DEVELOP BAMBOO JOINING TYPES. 2. PROTOTYPE BAMBOO STRUCTURE AND PROPOSE METHODS FOR IMPLEMENTATION IN PABAL/PUNE AFTER ASSESSING FEASIBILITY OF THE PROTOTYPES. 3. RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE TYPE OF STRUCTURES THAT CAN BE BUILT USING THE PROPOSED METHODOLOGY.

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BAMBOO ARCHITECTURE EXAMPLES
Simón Vélez nomadic museum in Mexico City Guadua Tech Awning with Steel Roof

Simón Vélez ZERI pavilion prototype in Colombia

Guadua Tech Modular Low Cost House

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BAMBOO CONNECTION EXAMPLES

Gusset Plate and Bolting

Simple Lashing

Sleeve Joint

Expandable Joints

Steel Insert and Concrete

Wood Core Insert

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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO
Change of the bamboo properties through the cross-section Change of the bamboo strength through the moisture content

Distance = 0 Distance = 1
5

INITIAL STRUCTURE CONCEPTS

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INITIAL CONNECTION CONCEPTS

1) This connection concept uses rounded insertion that is secured by bolt joint. The other end of the insertion is equipped by thread that enables to tighten the end into any threaded hole. This would enable parallel, perpendicular and angular connection where more than two bamboo beams can be linked together.

2) Using shape of cup would not weaken the bamboo end. It is vulnerable to break if a hole is drilled perpendicularly to the bamboo beam axis. This connection uses either glue to fix bamboo in the right position or wedge that would automatically lock the bamboo material in the cavity. The other end of the cup is equipped with a flat extension with a hole in the middle that enables free connection into any similar joint by bolt and nut. It is possible to connect the bamboo beams either in any possible direction.

3) Simple multi-hole stripe of a metal or plastic material that would fit to any bamboo diameter. This stripe can be connected in any way to other bamboo beam. Alternatively more beams can be fixed in row using such stripe. This is a low cost, and flexible solution for cladding-like connection.

4) Conical thread, tightened into the bamboo end and equipped with a holding right that prevents the bamboo from cracking. This is an representative of simple, cheap and attractive solution of the bamboo connection. The other end is threaded which enables connection into any block with a threaded hole. The main weakness of such connection is its relatively low strength compared to other types of the connections. Also the manufacture of threaded cone would require a CNC lathe or specially equipped workshop. This is beyond Fablab manufacturing capabilities. 6) This metal sheet connection uses a metal base-plate with slots. The bamboo is tightened to the baseplate via metal stripes. Such type enables bamboo beam connection in any angle. Only simple shapes can be created that is difficult when constructing complex joints consisting of 3 and more bamboo beams. The main disadvantage is the localized pressure that acts on the bamboo beam in the contact with the metal sheet.

5) The connection is similar to the type 2 however instead of glue or wedge that holds bamboo inside the cup, this cup has a snap mechanism that would firmly connect both pieces. The key disadvantage on this system is a low adjustability to various bamboo diameters. The second important disadvantage of such system is damaging of the bamboo end which weakens the connection strength and the last disadvantage is its accuracy requirements.

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INITIAL CONNECTION CONCEPTS
Long term strength sustainability Long term strength sustainability Skill requirements for installation Applicability to variable bamboo diameter High volume manufacturing cost Severity of the bamboo damage Low volume manufacturing cost Strength in the radial direction Ability to assemble a complex structure Labour requirements for the bamboo prep. Strength in axial direction

Design No.

1 2 7) The connection uses three components and was inspired by PET rubber connector that squeezes a conical spacer that bites into a pipe by its snap shaped teeth. This connection has almost zero requirements on the construction worker. The mechanism has relatively low range adjustability to the bamboo diameter. Also its disadvantage is a complicated shape that would have to be manufactured by injection moulding, currently unavailable in the Indian workshop (Fablab). Many components of the connection make it an expensive one. 8) This mechanism uses a conically shaped end of a bolt. If the bolt is tightened by the threaded ring (green) the four sides of the insertion opens and create a tight bond between the bamboo inner wall and the mechanism. Such connection has small capability to adjust to different bamboo diameters. Complicated shape of the particular components would require special equipment to manufacture. Another option would be to injection mould. Possible disadvantage is when the bolt is over-tightened the bamboo end can easily break. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

2 5 5 4 2 5 5 5 5

3 5 4 1 5 4 5 5 5

5 5 4 5 5 3 5 5 4

4 3 1 2 3 3 2 2 4

3 5 5 1 1 4 5 5 5

4 4 1 5 5 4 4 5 2

1 1 5 3 1 5 1 1 5

2 1 3 3 1 4 1 1 4

4 4 3 4 3 4 2 2 3

2 2 3 3 1 4 4 3 4

4 4 4 3 3 2 4 5 4

34 39 38 34 30 42 38 39 45

9) This connection uses a base-plate that is connected to the bamboo end via multipurpose jubilee clips or stripes that are used for palette packing. The connection is very simple to manufacture and easy to assemble. It is possible to make a wide range of connection with the base-plate as the mild steel plate can be cut and bend into any direction. Another advantage of the connection is possibility to use it for any bamboo diameter. Its assembly can be carried out by completely unskilled person for its simplicity.

The initial design number 9 was selected for further stages as it scored the highest compared to other alternatives. An Finite Element Analysis is carried out in other sections in order to tune and optimise the raw design.

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SUM

DEVELOPED STRUCTURE CONCEPTS
Scale Models
25:1

Scale Man
25:1

•Large canopy roof •Support beams for roof overhang, enables over hang to be extended •Triangular roof form is structurally very strong •Small floor area • No wall support beams •No floor support beams •Aesthetically not ‘homely’ •The aesthetic of roof would not be accepted by consumers

Concept: A

•Large roof •Triangular roof form is structurally very strong •Roof overhang •Structure is inherently stable •Large floor area •Walls have support beams •Home is raised of off ground; Stops bamboo culms (floor beams) being in contact with wet ground, eliminates the risk of flooding and improves ventilation •Structure is very large •Structure would be complicated to build •Aesthetically very ‘homely’ •The aesthetic of the structure would be accepted by consumers

Concept: B

•Large roof •Triangular roof form is structurally very strong •Hexagon form is inherently strong •Hexagon form is inherently stable •Hexagon form enables highly modular structures •Large floor area •Structure would be easy to build •Aesthetically very ‘homely’ •The aesthetic of the structure would be accepted by consumers

Concept: C

Analogical Thinking
Honeycomb Structure

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DEVELOPED CONNECTION PLATE CONCEPTS
Top Hexagon Connection Point Proof of Concept Model Drawing of Top Connection Plate

One section of the full hexagon structure

Bottom Hexagon Connection Point

Bamboo Culms Length: 1:2 Bamboo Culms Diameter: 1:1 Connection Plates: 1:1

Scale:

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DEVELOPED CONNECTION STRAPPING CONCEPTS
Low Carbon Steel/PET Pallet Strapping Stainless Steel Jubilee Clip Stainless Steel Cable Tie

•Flexible: suitable for any diameter of bamboo •Commercially available •Fast & strong joint •High Repeatablity •Minimal training requirements

Benefits of All Systems

Inspiration came from palette strapping mechanism. The clipping wrench is relatively heavy (10kg) which would be cumbersome to tie the bamboo to the base-plate in 3m height. Further, the metal stripe is mechanically strengthened by cold rolling therefore is not much flexible to be bend around the bamboo with smaller diameters. The ultimate force to break the palette strap would be 3kN, far too much for this purpose, it would rather break the bamboo.

Jubilee clips were also considered to be suitable strapping component. However, during the manual experimentation with the jubilee clips they were found to be very rigid and fully bend around the bamboo beam. This would create only localized pressure resulting in collapse of the bamboo. The second disadvantage was long assembling time. The tightening with screw driver has to pass whole length of the clip, taking several minutes per one strip.

The stainless cable tie was identified to be the most appropriate for the bamboo tightening to the baseplate. Stainless steels are softer than strengthened low carbon strap, therefore can nicely bend around the bamboo circumference. The steel material is still strong enough to create sufficient friction force and hold the bamboo in the place. Third advantage is fast tightening of the stripe just by hand. The tool is relatively light 0.4kg therefore can be carried on a 11 belt.

FINAL STRUCTURE CONCEPT

•Inherently strong •Enables highly modular structures

Hexagon Form

•ensures rain runs quickly off the roof

Sloped Roof

•Traditional style, culturally accepted •Easy to clad

Large Square Roof Panels

•Protects the walls from rain thus increasing the life-span of the bamboo

Overhanging Roof

Raise the bamboo house up from the ground •Stops bamboo culms (floor beams) being in contact with wet ground •Eliminates the risk of flooding •Improves ventilation

Plinths

•Increase the strength of the overall structure

Diagonal Support Struts

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FMEA
Occurrence Detection Part Function Potential Failure Mode Potential effects of Failure
The house may collapse

Severity

Potential Causes of Failure

Means of Detection

RPN

Actions

Bamboo culm (All culms)

Structural component

Bamboo culm buckles/breaks

10

Bamboo culm is not structurally sound (split/rotten/diameter is too small)

5

Visual Inspection (consumer and supplier)

3

150

•Set detailed Instructions to ensure consumer knows how to validate safe bamboo culms, for size and structural integrity. •Set detailed instructions on how to detect degraded bamboo culms. • Prevent degradation by ensuring bamboo culms do not rest on the ground and are adequately protected by cladding. •Only use treated bamboo culms. •Establish maximum load that each individual coloumn can support. •Set appropriate instructions for assembly, e.g. One person on the roof at a time (if required).

Bamboo culm (All culms)

Structural component

Bamboo culm buckles/breaks

The house may collapse

10

Bamboo Culm degrades over time

4

Maintenance checks: Visual Inspection (consumer)

6

240

Bamboo culm (upright columns)

Structural column (walls)

Bamboo culm buckles/breaks

The house may collapse

10

Person assembling the roof positions themselves directly on top of one beam

2

FEA Analysis

2

40

Connection Plates (All Connection nodes)

Connection Nodes

Connection plate bends/warps under load
Bamboo Culms and connection plates fail

The house may collapse

10

Material (steel) used is too weak (thin)
Extreme loading (earthquakes, high winds)

1

FEA Analysis & Mechanical Testing

2

20

•Establish maximum load that the connection plate can support.
•Determine maximal loading. •Set Instructions of when to vacate the structure. •Use installation tool for applying strapping to ensure that clips are consistently secure. •Set detailed instructions on how to validate a connections strength.

Full Structure

Home

Structure collapses

10

2

FEA & Mechanical Testing

2

40

Clip for Connection strapping

Secures connection strapping

Clip has not been ‘crimped’ properly

Strapping becomes loose (structure becomes unstable)
The house may become unstable or partial sections of the house may collapse The house may become unstable or partial sections of the house may collapse

8

Clip is not ‘crimped’ with enough force

4

Visual Inspection (consumer)

3

96

Connection Strapping (all connection nodes)

Fastens bamboo culms to the connection plates

Strapping snaps

10

The strapping is too weak for purpose

2

Manual Calculations, FEA & Mechanical Testing

2

40

•Select appropriate connection strapping (with regards to tensile strength).
•Select appropriate strapping material. •Set detailed instructions on how to detect degraded strapping. •Determine maximum safe lifetime of strapping under set environmental conditions. •Set detailed instructions to ensure consumer knows how tight the 13 strapping should be. •Redesign connection node so no slippage should occur.

Connection Strapping (all connection nodes)

Fastens bamboo culms to the connection plates

Strapping snaps

10

The strapping may degrade over time (rust or wear)

4

Maintenance checks: Visual Inspection (consumer)

5

200

Connection Strapping (for roof beams connections)

Fastens the roof beams to the top connection nodes

Bamboo culm (roof beam) slips through strapping

Section of roof collapses

9

Strapping is not tightly fastened

4

Visual Inspection (consumer)

3

108

DFMA - DESIGN FOR PUNCHING
The original position of the straps was inside of the metal sheet so that extra punch would be needed to cut off the rectangular hole. Therefore to reduce the tooling cost without compromising the slot functionality the slot was moved to the edge of the metal sheet so that the slot shape could be included in the main body of the die.

Amount of the waste material was also reduced by designing the diagonal strengthening shoulder only on one side of the blank. Based on the FEA simulation diagonal strengthening of the structure is sufficient in every second plane so one diagonal shoulder was modelled on one side. Therefore, the blank can be compounded on one sheet of the metal very efficiently. Proper material utilisation should be achieved during the stamping process. Individual part has to fit on the blank of the metal to leave minimum waste after the stamping process. For this reason corner of the diagonal shoulder was cut off. This modification saved 8% of the raw material and therefore significantly reduced the manufacturing cost.

Boothroyd, G. (2002),Product design for manufacture and assembly, 2nd ed., New York: Marcel Dekker

Despite some features on the blank are not used in every joint, they are kept in the design in order to reduce diversity of the base-plate types and lower the manufacturing cost. For example the diagonal strengthening shoulder is not used in the roof joint. The blank shape is identical for all joints of the structure. The wing is used for fixing of the structure to the base concrete however in the roof connection it does not have any purpose.

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DFMA - DESIGN FOR ASSEMBLY
The second purpose of the slots being placed at the edge of the baseplate is simple assembly. The metal strap does not have to run in a slot so accurately and can be wind around both base-plate and bamboo beam. The plastic deformation of the low carbon stripes is undesired when the straps are bent to fit in a hole.

Distance of the slots was estimated to enable assembly of the base-plate, bamboo and metal straps. Each position of the slot was optimized in CAD assembly model. Real model of the base-plate was cut from PS plastic to see how the assembly fits together in reality. Some positions of the slots and also their dimensions were modified based on the real scale model.

Holes that are used for fixing of the structure to the concrete base were designed so that the worker can easily access the bolt for tightening even at maximum diameter of used bamboo. Chart in from adjacent figure was used to determine minimum clearance between the spanner and the shoulder. The clearance was set to 75mm.

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DETAIL DESIGN OF THE CONNECTION PLATE

1

2

3

of the base Upper limit m ness, 12m plate thick

of the base Lower limit ness, 1mm plate thick

ed to the Force appli including baseplate, ent displacem location of constrains

Parametric 3D model has been created in order to automatically optimise the design. Figures 1 and 2 show how the model had automatically changed when ‘Thickness’ parameter was adjusted to 12mm and 1mm respectively. The optimization analysis in ProEngineer Mechanica was carried out. Placement of the constrains and applied load are displayed in Figure 3.

ESTIMATION OF THE LOAD
• Load of the bamboo beams used as support for the roofing material was calculated from the weight of the accomplished roof cowered by corrugated roofing sheets and one technician standing on top of the construction. • The metal thickness generally used for such corrugated roofing is 0.5mm . Planar weight of such material is (7800kg/m3 density of metal) 7.8kg/m2. Assuming hexagonal shape of the base with maximum length of the beam 2m, area of one roof segment is 1.73m2 creating force of 13.5kg. • There are 6 such segment creating total load of 81kg – 810N.

Assuming that there will be no column in middle of the room, this load of 810N will be carried by 6 bamboo columns each in one corner. Additional force of 10kg due to bamboo own weight is added to the calculations. Workers has to climb up in order to assemble the roof therefore in worst case scenario the joint is subjected to the force of (135N+100N+900N) 1135N. • This force was distributed as follows, assuming that none of the workers will be staying on single bamboo beam therefore 600N was load of the roof beam (a) and remaining 300N and 300N were applied on the side bamboo beams (b) displayed in Figure 4.

One worker on one beam weight of 90kg
2m max

Area = 1.73m2 Equal to 13.5kg weight of roofing

Bamboo weight of 10kg

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STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE CONNECTION

alye stress an Result of th ised metal tim sis with op thickness.

of the load w ie v k c a B d te, stresse ed base pla eck” “n zone of the

tress localized s m u im x a of the m trains. Detail view ment cons e c la p is d tion of the

at the loca

The 3D model displayed above was optimised to the minimal sheet metal thickness in order to minimize amount of material for connection to reduce its weight and cost. Simulation of the internal stresses was run with maximum allowed stress. The maximum allowed stress in the base-plate was determined from standard allowed stress of the mild steel with yield stress of 300Mpa, safety factor k=2 and assumption that the material in the slots is subjected to the shear stress in which case the maximum allowed shear stress can be calculated as 60% of the maximum allowed tension

stress. These considerations led to the final value of 75MPa as maximum allowed complex stress in the mild steel sheet. As predicted the local maximum stress was found to be at the slot corners where the movement constrain was placed. In reality, the friction between the tightening stripe and the mild steel would absorb majority of the sheer stress. The optimization study identified the ideal metal sheet thickness to be 3.5mm, however, as there is likely to be the friction between the tightening stripe and the base plate the local maximum stress moves to the “neck” section of the baseplate (light blue colour). It is possible to

reduce the sheet thickness even more. The light blue colour of the stressed area refers to the stress of 25 MPa (30% of the maximum allowed stress). It is reasonable to assume that the sheet thickness can be reduced below 3.5mm without evident plastic deformation. If the product is going to be manufactured in more than 100,000 pieces the hydraulic press system of punches and dies should be employed in which case a protrusions to reinforce the piece can be added to the model without increase of its manufacturing costs.

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STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE - ONLY VERTICAL LOAD

cture Basic stru

eams gthening b n e tr S d n vel Ribba e ceiling le placed at th

ing beams Strengthen e middle placed in th f beams of the roo

A force F=1810N was applied on the roof of the bamboo house to find out the critically stressed locations. This process was particularly efficient for improving static performance of the structure. The figure shows extensive stress in the upper joint area. Based on orientation os the stressed corner, it is suggested to be tension stress. It could be eliminated by adding a ribband. The maximum stress in this structure was 4.1MPa (10% of the bamboo ultimate strength)

The ribband (dotted red line) that strengthens the upper corner was added to the structure and the maximum local stress decreased by 20% to 3.2MPa. Aim of this optimization was to load all beams of the construction equally so that the roof load would be more equally distributed. Therefore the ribband was moved to the middle of the roof beam.

Placing Ribband to the middle of the roof resulted in even better reduction of the maximum stress to 2.3MPa equal to 10% of the bamboo ultimate stress which proofs the robustness of the hexagonal structure.

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STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE - COMBINED LOAD

ithou Structure w beams.

t diagonal

ith diagoStructure w ry seceve nal beams ond plane.

simp ucture for tr s e th f o design Alternative l hexagons a n io it d d a tion with

ler connec

Also horizontal force of 7kN was added to the simulation to simulate wind from side of the structure. Location of the maximum stress moved from the upper corner to the bottom of the construction. Its value was 42MPa, considerably higher than effect of the vertically oriented load. Diagonal bamboo beams were added to the structure to support walls of the building in horizontal direction.

Adding the diagonal supports reduced the local stress at the base of the construction to 21MPa. Detailed design of the base connection has to be carefully optimised and tested. The maximum stress at the connection is as 50% of the bamboo ultimate stress, equal to safety factor 2. Mechanical testing of the connections would be appropriate to assure stability of the structure.

Second alternative of the roof shape was also simulated. Its benefits are simple flat shape of the roof that would simplify work of the roofer laying the corrugated metal. Lower number of connections the lower probability of leaks. The second advantage of such shape of the roof is simple connection of additional hexagon and extending the building. As can be seen on next page.

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STRESS ANALYSIS OF THE MULTI-HEXAGON STRUCTURE
Example of the assembly of two hexagons that create twice larger space for a family than the simple design. The sides of the roof can be connected face to face and the corrugated roof can be easily attached to the bamboo beams. Such structure is even more rigid than singe hexagon resulting in internal stresses of 0.8MPa.

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MECHANICAL TESTING - TEST 1 & 2
Bending test A
Displacement [mm] -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 0
This bending test was derived from the real situation scenario where the vertical and diagonal beams are fixed to the base-plate and on the top the beam is loaded by a roofing worker. Such situation would create identical setup. The first bending test begins at 0N load and 0mm displacement. The baseplate behaves according to the Hooks law and the flexible deformation continues until reaching the yield point. From this point, the plastic deformation takes place and the base-plate starts to collapse. One can read out the maximum load from the diagram to be 6.5kN before the base-plate collapses if fixed at the bottom. When the stress reached the yield point during the test 1, the base-plate was clamped in upper location. This was to simulate behaviour of the base-plate when subjected to the maximum load when top section of the base-plate is fixed. This could occur when a roofer is laying down the corrugated metal sheets and standing at the top of the bamboo structure. This clamping setup of the tested sample resulted in change of the curvature of the diagram. The flexible deformation of the sample continued up to the force of 11kN after which the sample buckled (collapsed). After that point, even lower force than 11kN would lead to bending of the base-plate.

-2,000

-6,000

-8,000

-10,000

-12,000

Buckling of the baseplate under 11kN load

Load [N]

-4,000

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MECHANICAL TESTING - TEST 3

Bending test B
Displacement [mm] -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 -600 -700

Load [N]

The third test was carried out in order to simulate the force that would be required to bend the shoulder in planar orientation. This force can be in reality created by wind in horizontal direction that acts as a force perpendicular to the structure wall. Such bending force can be found at the bottom of the structure or at the base of the roof. Significantly lower force was needed to bend the base-plate in planar direction compared to vertical direction of test 1 & 2. The ultimate bending force when yield occurred was 650N, 20 times lower than test 1 and 2. The moderate gradient after the yield can be explained as movement of the dislocations in the ferrite crystals. The process is called plastic strengthening for instance used for improving mechanical properties of Ultra Fine Grained materials.

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Bending of the baseplate under 600N

FINAL DESIGN

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FINAL DESIGN

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FINAL PROTOTYPE

•Top Hexagon & Roof

Connection Point

Scale
1:2

Less than 2 hours

Build Time

Prototype Kit

Prototype Connection Plate
•6mm Acrylic •formed with a strip wire heater

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FINAL PROTOTYPE

Prototype Modular Bamboo House •Scale 1:2

Connection Plate
•3mm Mild Steel •Scale 1:1

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THANK YOU !!!

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ROHAN CHOUKKAR OF VIGYAN ASHRAM KATIE CRESSWELL-MAYNARD OF EWB-UK LARA LEWINGTON CARMEN TORRES-SANCHEZ DAVID CUNNINGHAM DUNCAN LINDSAY DREW IRVINE

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60
60

20

45°

76

150 103 13 30

177

150 103 30 DETAIL A SCALE 2:1

11 3

40

20 SLOTS 13x6

400

60

13 SEE DETAILA
R5

120

R12

150

103

30

13

60 359

6

Project: PDP: Team L: Bamboo Sheet Connection Drawing: 3mm Thick Mild Steel Sheet Date: 5 May 2010

Dimensions in mm Scale 1:2 Sheet 1of 1

General Tolerances Linear ±0.1 mm Angular ±0.5 °

PDP Team L
University of Strathclyde
DMEM Design, Manufacture & Engineering Managment