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EE – 3410 Electric Power
Fall 2003 Instructor: Ernest Mendrela

Generation of Electrical Energy
1.Fundamentals on generation of the voltage and mechanical force (torque) 1.1 Linear system Fig.1.1 illustrates the generation of electromotive force (EMF) voltage e, and mechanical force F. Symbols: B – magnetic flux density, Φ – magnetic flux, i – current, v - speed (a)
Φ (Β) N v
N

(b)

Φ (Β) N

e
l

B v

e

B F

i

S

e = B ⋅v ⋅l

+

F

i

l

N

S

F = B ⋅i ⋅l

Fig.1.1 Generation of: (a) EMF e (right hand rule), (b) force F (left hand rule) Fig.1.2 shows linear machines where in Fig.1.2.b is illustrated the generation of EMF e, in Fig.1.2.b – generation of mechanical force F, and in Fig.1.2.c – linear generator where the both e and F are produced if the winding circuit consisting of N turns is closed through the load impedance Zl. (a)
e Φ N +
a

(b)

v
N

E = B ⋅v ⋅l ⋅ N = e⋅ N

Φ i N
F

+
a

F = B ⋅i ⋅l ⋅ N

-

N

2 (c) Φ e F N v i l V + ZL E = e⋅ N generator E >V i (d) Φ e N F + E < V motor l V v - Fig. (c) linear generator.3 Cylindrical machine with a single-coil and permanent magnet rotor: a) machine.1.3.2. It induces the electromotive force e (EMF) (a) Single-coil stator winding permanent magnet (b) ω salient-pole rotor 2 f Coil e A1 A2 Fig. (b) generation of force F. (d) linear motor 1. Rotary system Two-pole machine with a single coil (phase) is shown in Fig.1. The rotor with permanent magnets rotates at speed ωm.2 Linear electric machines: (a) generation of voltage e.1. b) coil .

The direction of force acting on the coil is opposite to the force (electromagnetic torque Tem) acting on the rotor. Τ f e 2 Fig.a) and sinusoidally in time (Fig. (b) as a function of time If the coil is supplied by the current i the force (electromagnetic torque Tem) is produced.1.3 changing sinusoidally with respect to the rotor position φ (Fig.1.1.4.4.b) according to the function: e = E fm sin ω t where: ω = 2π f .5 Force F (electromagnetic torque Tem) developed in the motor .1.4 Voltage induced in the coil: (a) as a function of rotational angle. and ω = 2 p ⋅ ω m (a) e (EMF) (1) (b) e (EMF) 1 2 3 4 1 ϕ 0 π/2 π 2π ωt τ (Pole pitch) Fig.

The stator winding is a 3-phase winding and is sometimes called the armature winding. turbo-generators).g. which is connected to dc supply through the slip rings and brushes.1.1.2.a) – for low-speed machines (e.2.1. The rotor winding is called the field winding. hydro-generators) • Cylindrical rotor (Fig.1 Construction and principle of operation The 3-phase synchronous machine is shown in Fig. Three-phase synchronous generator 2.2. There are two types of rotors: • Salient-pole rotor (Fig.g. (a) 3-phase stator winding X X A1 X rotor field winding C2 B2 f brushes X X B1 X X slip rings salient-pole rotor f A2 (b) 3-phase stator winding X X A1 X B2 X X X X X X A2 Fig. It consists of two parts: stator and rotor. stator and rotor have windings.b) – for high-speed machines (e. Both. (b) cylindrical rotor X X C1 X X C1 cylindrical rotor rotor field winding C2 f brushes X B1 X slip rings f .2.1 Construction scheme of synchronous machine with: (a) salient-pole rotor.4 2.

2. N is the number of turns in each phase. The frequency of the induced voltage is related to the rotor speed by: . so called.5 The cylindrical rotor has one distributed winding and an essentially uniform air gap.2.2) where: Φf is the magnetic flux due to the excitation current.2): e A = E fm sin(ω t ) e B = E fm sin(ω t − 120o ) eC = E fm sin(ω t − 240o ) (2.2 Waveforms of 3-phase voltages induced in the armature winding of the synchronous generator The rms excitation voltage in each phase is Ef = E fm 2 = 4.1) e eA eB eC t Fig. If the rotor rotates the rotating magnetic field induces voltages in the stator windings. Since the three-phase windings are shifted by 120o angle from one another the induced. The salient pole rotors have concentrated windings on the poles and a nonuniform air gap.1. Kw is the winding factor. excitation voltages are shifted in time from one another by the angle of 120o (Fig.2.44 fΦ f NKw (2.1 Synchronous generators When the field current flows through the rotor field winding it establishes a sinusoidally distributed flux in the air gap.

It means.b). that the rotor should rotate with the same speed as the rotating flux produced by the stator (Fig. steady with respect to the rotor. The field winding connected to dc source produces the magnetic flux. To produce the torque these two magnetic fluxes cannot move with respect to one another.1. When operating as the synchronous motor the rotor follows the stator rotating field by the angle (. and (b) synchronous motor .6 n= 120 f p n⋅ p 120 (2. The stator currents produce the rotating magnetic flux.4) where: n is the rotor speed in rpm.3a).3. (a) s f a (b) s a s f s Fig.2 Synchronous motors If the synchronous machine operates as a motor the 3-phase armature winding is connected to 3-phase ac supply. When the machine operates as a generator the rotor is driven by the external machine and the stator rotating field follows the rotor being shifted with respect to the rotor by the angle δ (Fig. The motor at zero rotor speed does not develop any torque.2. To make the motor operate the rotor should reach first the synchronous speed. p is the number of poles 2. The methods of starting the synchronous motor will be discussed later.2.2.δ) (Fig.2.3) f = (2.3).3 Explanation to the operation of: (a) synchronous generator.

Ef 0 Fig. The resultant air gap flux Φ is therefore due to the two components fluxes Φf and Φa.7 In the following sections. first the steady-state performance of the synchronous machine with cylindrical rotor and unsaturated magnetic circuit will be studied. The excitation voltage Ef can be found from the open circuit curve of Fig.4 Open-circuit characteristic of the synchronous generator If . However.a. This is shown in the equivalent circuit of a synchronous machine (only stator circuit is considered) in Fig. Each component flux induces a component voltage in the stator winding: Φf → Ef . Φ as → Eas .5. the voltage Ear (known as the armature reaction voltage). and the voltage Eas depend on armature current.4. Part of it Φas. The current Ia in the stator produces flux Φa. The current If in the field winding produces the Φf flux. and the resultant flux: Φ → E . A major part Φar. Φ ar → Ear . Therefore they can be presented as the voltage drops across the reactances: Xar – reactance of armature reaction and Xas – leakage reactance. 2. Then.2.2.2.2 Equivalent circuit model The equivalent circuit will be derived on a per-phase basis. the effect of saliency in the rotor poles will be considered. known as the leakage flux does not links with the field winding. known as the armature reaction flux links with the field winding.

(b) synchronous reactance Xs. (c) armature impedance Zs . armature leakage reactance Xas.5 Synchronous machine equivalent circuit: (a) armature reaction reactance Xar.2.8 (a) Ia X ar X as Ra Ef E V ZL (b) Ia Xs Ra Ef V ZL (c) Ia Zs Ef V ZL Fig.

5. The angle δ between V and Ef.9) The phasor diagram for generator and motor operation is shown in Fig. In generating operation the rotor flux Φf (the rotor is driven by the external machine-turbine) is pulling the stator flux and the angle δ is positive. The terminal voltage is taken as the reference phasor.5) (2.2.b) (2.synchronous reactance Z s = Ra + jX s . is positive for generating action and negative for the motoring action.2.2. (a) Ef δ ϕ Ia V RaI a Ia (b) Ef δ O ϕ V C Qi ϕ Xs I a A P B Xs I a . known as the power angle.3.synchronous impedance (2.7) V = E f − Ra I a − jX s I a or (Fig.c) (2.9 The relations between these voltages are as follows: E = E f − E ar or (2.2.5.2.6.a): V = E f − Ra I a − jX as I a − jX ar I a or (Fig.5.6) E = E f − jX ar I a The voltage equation for the whole circuit is (Fig. while in motoring operation the stator flux Φa is pulling the rotor. This angle referred to the mutual position of field winding flux and armature winding flux is shown in Fig.8) V = E f − Zs I a where: X s = X ar + X as .

10 (c) V ϕ Ia Ef δ Ra Ia Xs I a O ϕ Ia δ V C Xs I a ϕ Ef (d) Qi B P A Fig.10) The stator current from the equivalent circuit (Fig.c): ∗  E f −V  E f V ∗ I =  = ∗− ∗ Zs Zs  Zs  ∗ a ∗ = = Ef ∠ −δ Zs ∠ − ϕs Ef Zs − V ∠0 Zs ∠ − ϕs V Zs ∠ϕ s (2.12) 2  V Ef  V S = m cos(ϕ s − δ ) − cos ϕ s   Zs  Zs   2  V Ef  V S = m sin(ϕ s − δ ) − sin ϕ s   Zs  Zs   (2.13) (2.2.14) .6 Phasor diagrams for: (a) synchronous generator with the armature resistance Ra and (b) without Ra. (c) synchronous motor with the armature resistance Ra and (d) without Ra 2.11) ∠(ϕ s − δ ) − 2  V Ef  V ∠(ϕ s − δ ) − ∠ϕ s  S = m  Zs  Zs   (2.5.3 Power and torque characteristics The complex power at the terminals is ∗ S = mVI a (2.2.

2. the active power P = mVI a cos ϕ (2. From the above equations: P=m V Ef Zs sin(δ ) (2.20) From these two formulae: X s I a cosϕ = E f sin δ . and I a cos ϕ = Combining Eq.23) Because the stator losses are neglected in this analysis.19) (2. or AB = E f sin ϕ (2.17) and reactive power Q = mVI a sin ϕ (2.17 we get: Ef Xs sin δ (2.11 In large synchronous machines Ra << Xs.2.22 and 2. the power developed at the terminals is also the air gap power. thus Zs = Xs and Θs = 90o.15 can be directly derived from the phasor diagram drawn for Ra = 0 (Fig.6.18) From the phasor diagram the section: • • AB = X s I a cosϕ .16) The Eq.22) P=m VE f Xs sin δ (2.2.21) (2. The torque developed by the machine is: T= P ωs (2.15) 2  V Ef V   cos(δ ) − Q = m  Zs Zs    (2.b and d).24) . In general.

4 Power factor control Looking at phasor diagram we see that: AB = X s I a cosϕ ≈ P . perpendicular to phasor V.23 to 2. and If = const is shown in Fig. T Tmax π −π/2 π/2 π δ motor generator Fig. and the power on the rotor shaft P = const. At the same time the current Ia changes too and its locus is also straight line i. When the field current changes the section CB . This state is called under-excitation.12 Inserting Eq. which symbolizes the reactive power Q changes too.2. the stator current Ia1 is large and leading. The machine will lose synchronism if δ > 90o.27) If the synchronous machine is connected to the system with V = const. known also as the pull-out torque is at δ = 90o.26) (2.2. . then changing the field current If the induced voltage Ef changes too and the locus of the voltage Ef (Fig.7.2.7 Torque-power angle characteristic 2. and CB = X s I a sin ϕ ≈ Q (2.2.25) The torque-power angle characteristic drawn at V = const.8) is the horizontal line p (point A slides on p line).24: T= m VE f sin δ ω s Xs (2. and f = const. The pull-out torque can be increased by increasing the excitation current If. The maximum torque. For the low field current If1 (point A1) the reactive power is capacitive.

This state is called normal excitation. Ia PF PF PF = 1 P>0 P=0 PFc = 0 (capacitive load) PFi = 0 (inductive load) 0 underexcitation overexcitation If Fig.9 V-curves characteristics of machine operating at constant voltage V and frequency . For larger field current If = If3 (point A3) the stator current Ia3 is large again and is lagging and the reactive power Q is inductive.2. the armature current is minimum Ia2 and is in phase with voltage V (PF = 1) and the reactive power Q (section CB ) is zero.8 Operation of synchronous generator at constant active power P and constant voltage and frequency At point A2 the field current is equal If2.2.13 E f1 E f2 A1 A2 E f3 A3 P V p I a1 O I a2 I a3 i Qc Q i Fig.

consider the equivalent circuit in Fig.9. This feature of the power factor control by the field current is utilized to improve the power factor of a plant. Fig.10 Operation of the synchronous machine as a synchronous condenser: machine deliver to the load (infinite bus) (a) capacitive reactive power. In such a system.2. At open circuit V = Ef. the power factor is zero. the terminal voltage V will change from Ef to zero. . To determine the terminal characteristics of an independent synchronous generator.2. As an example.12 illustrates these changes in form of V-I characteristics drawn for various PF of the load. small synchronous generators may be required to supply independent electric loads. Therefore.14 The variation of the stator current with the field current for constant-power operation is shown in Fig.2. However.5 Operation of synchronous machine as an independent generator Synchronous machines are normally connected to an infinite bus. The machine behaves like a variable inductor or capacitor as the field current is changed. (b) inductive power 2. the terminal voltage tends to change with varying load.2. The variation of the power factor with the field current (dashed curves) are inverted V-curves.10).2. a gasoline engine can drive the synchronous generator at constant frequency. (a) Ia Ef Xs I a V (b) Ef O A O V Xs I a Qi A Ia Fig. The stator current either leads or lags the stator voltage by 90o (Fig. Ia = Isc = Ef/Xs.11. Ia = 0. If the load current is changed from 0 to Isc. but the stator current is always reactive. The set of characteristics drawn for different power are known as Vcurves because of their shape. For the purely reactive load: V = E f − jX s I a (28) and from the phasor diagram the straight line V-I characteristic is concluded for pure inductive and pure capacitive load. The magnitude of the stator current changes as the field current is changed. and at short circuit V = 0. the unloaded synchronous machine is called a synchronous condenser and may be used to regulate the receiving-end voltage of a long power transmission line. If the synchronous machine is not transferring any power but is simply floating on the infinite bus.

13).15 Ia Xs Ef V ZL Fig.2.2. Such a reactance experiences the stator .2.6 Salient pole synchronous machine Low speed multipolar synchronous machine has salient poles and nonuniform air gap (Fig.11 Equivalent circuit of synchronous generator operating on the load ZL V PFc = 0 Ef PF = 1 PFi = 0 0 I sc Ia Fig. If the flux Φa produced by the armature (stator) current is aligned with daxis the current Ia experiences reactance Xad. The magnetic reluctance is low along the poles (d-axis) and high between poles (q-axis).12 V-I characteristics of synchronous machine operating as an independent generator 2.

14.2. the armature reaction reactance changes vs.2. Thus. power angle δ as is shown in Fig.13 Armature reaction magnetic flux Φa of synchronous machine with salient poles.14 Variation of armature reaction reactance Xa along the stator circumference of the salient pole synchronous machine . When the stator flux takes the position parallel to the q-axis the armature reaction reactance for the stator current is Xaq. independently on the rotor position with respect to stator flux Φa. directed along q-axis Xa X ad X aq π/2 π δ Fig. δ = 90 o a Fig.16 current for cylindrical rotor. smaller than Xad.2.

15 Torque-power angle characteristics of synchronous machine with salient-pole rotor The torque-power angle characteristics drawn at different excitation currents and constant terminal voltage V are shown in Fig. what illustrates Fig. For salient pole machine the field current may be reduced to zero and the reluctance torque can keep machine still in synchronism.29) The excited salient synchronous machine develops the resultant torque that is the sum of electromagnetic torque and reluctance torque: T= 1  m VE f m V2  1 sin δ + sin 2δ = Tem + Tr −    ωs X s ωs 2   Xq Xd  (2.2.30) T Tmax TEm + TR TEm TR π −π/2 π/2 π δ motor generator Fig.16. .17 When the power angle varies (the mutual position of stator flux and the rotor) the unexcited rotor experiences the torque called reluctance torque. This torque changes according to equation: Tr = m V2  1 1  − sin 2δ    X X ωs 2  q d   (2.15.2.2.

18 T < < < I f1 I f2 I f3 If = 0 π/2 π δ Fig. but voltages and frequencies are are the same: .17.16 Torque-power angle characteristics of synchronous machine with salient-pole rotor at various field currents 2. in general.17.c 4) Phase is not the same.17 illustrates the situation when one of the above mentions quantities are not equal: 1) Rms voltages are not the same. but voltage.2. the incoming generator and the infinite bus must have the same: • Voltage.d.2. These generators.2. Frequency. but voltages and phase sequences are the same: Fig. Fig.17.a 2) Frequencies are not the same.b 3) Phase sequences are not the same.2. • Phase sequence.2. • Phase. The operation of connecting a synchronous generator to the infinite bus is known as paralleling with the infinite bus. but frequency and phase sequence are the same: .Fig. The voltage and frequency of the infinite bus hardly change.2.Fig.17. • In the power plant the satisfaction of these conditions is checked by an instrument known as a synchronoscope.7 Connection of a synchronous generator to the infinite bus Synchronous generators are rarely used to supply the individual loads. frequency and phase sequence are the same: .Fig. are connected to a power system known as an infinite bus or grid. Before the generator can be connected to the infinite bus. .

2.19 (a) V VS EG (b) ωG VS ω EG V ωG= ω (c) VS EG C A A (d) V A VS ωG EG EG A A V A ω ωG= ω V C VS EG B C V B VS B Fig. .17 Phasor diagrams illustrating the situation when one of the conditions for equal instantaneous generator and infinite base voltages are not met Each case mentioned above causes the voltage difference across the switch (between generator and infinite bus terminals) and if are connected it will produce a disastrous situation for the generator.