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What are the sources of energy? Energy is the ability of a system (human, mechanical etc) to do work.

Practically all things on Earth require one form of energy or the other to function as designed or desired. Humans, animals, and mechanical/ electrical systems require energy inputs to perform. Electricity, heating, and lighting for home and industrial uses are all derived through energy. Energy comes in different forms: kinetic, mechanical, electrical etc. Energy can be transformed from one form to the other. However, overall energy within a system is conserved i.e. does not change - net energy lost balances net energy gained within the system. There are various forms of energy sources. Most sources are traceable to the Sun. The traditional energy source, fossil fuels, received the initial energy from the light used by plants for photosynthesis and animal metabolic needs. Organic matters from the plant and animal remains later turn into the fossil fuels (Coal, oil and natural gas) which are currently widely in use for energy supply. Energy are broadly classifies into two main groups: renewable and Non-renewable. Renewable Energy Renewable energy is energy which is generated from natural sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides and can be generated again and again as and when required. They are available in plenty and by far most the cleanest sources of energy available on this planet. For eg: Energy that we receive from the sun can be used to generate electricity. Similarly, energy from wind, geothermal, biomass from plants, tides can be used this form of energy to another form. Here are some of the pros and cons of using renewable sources of energy:Pros        The sun, wind, geothermal, ocean energy are available in the abundant quantity and free to use. The non-renewable sources of energy that we are using are limited and are bound to expire one day. Renewable sources have low carbon emissions, therefore they are considered as green and environment friendly. Renewable helps in stimulating the economy and creating job opportunities. The money that is used to build these plants can provide jobs to thousands to lakhs of people. You don't have to rely on any third country for the supply of renewable sources as in case of non-renewable sources. Renewable sources can cost less than consuming the local electrical supply. In the long run, the prices of electricity are expected to soar since they are based on the prices of crude oil, so renewable sources can cut your electricity bills. Various tax incentives in the form of tax waivers, credit deductions are available for individuals and businesses who want to go green.

Cons      It is not easy to set up a plant as the initial costs are quite steep. Solar energy can be used during the day time and not during night or rainy season. Geothermal energy which can be used to generate electricity has side effects too. It can bring toxic chemicals beneath the earth surface onto the top and can create environmental changes. Hydroelectric provide pure form of energy but building dams across the river which is quite expensive can affect natural flow and affect wildlife. To use wind energy, you have to rely on strong winds therefore you have to choose suitable site to operate them. Also, they can affect bird population as they are quite high.

BIOMASS: Biomass is a renewable energy because it contains the energy which comes from the sun. Biomass is basically an organic material made from plants and animals. Through the process of photosynthesis, chlorophyll present in plants absorbs the energy from the sun by converting the carbon-dioxide present in air and water from the ground in carbohydrates. The chemical energy that is present in plants is passed onto the animals and people that eat them. So, when these plants and animals are burned they turn back into carbon dioxide and water and release the sun's energy they contain. In this way, we can say that biomass is renewable source of energy because we can always produce more crops and plants and waste will always exist. As long as biomass is produced this source of renewable energy will last for ever. Examples of biomass include: plants, crops, trees and garbage. Biomass in itself contains chemical energy. So, when you burn wood which is a biomass fuel, the chemical energy inside releases as heat. It can also be used to produce steam which can further be used to generate electricity. Using biomass for energy can cut back on waste and can also help in reducing the landfill. With the increase in costs people are trying to turn to more biomass and less fossil fuels. The energy of biomass is extracted from three distinct sources: Chemical composition: Biomass is carbon based and is composed of a mixture of organic molecules containing hydrogen, usually including atoms of oxygen, often nitrogen and also small quantities of other atoms, including alkali, alkaline earth and heavy metals. These metals are often found in functional molecules such as the porphyrins which include chlorophyll which contains magnesium.How it works For a biomass power station making electricity, it's pretty much like a fossil fuel power station: For other biofuels, we may burn it to get the heat for our home, or burn it to get energy for a car engine, or for some other purpose. Uses of biomass: biomass provides us a little over four percent of the energy we use. It has been replaced by coal, natural gas, petroleum, and other energy sources. Today, most of the biomass energy we use comes from wood. It

accounts fortwo-thirds of biomass consumption. Other biomass sources include biofuels (alcohol fuels), crops, garbage, and landfill gas. Burning: wood supplies only a little of our country’s energy needs. Wood is not the only biomass that can be burned. Wood shavings, fruit pits, manure, and corn cobs can all be burned for energy. Garbage is another source of biomass. Garbage can be burned to generate steam and electricity. Power plants that burn garbage and other waste for energy are called waste-to-energy plants. Bacterial Decay: Bacteria feed on dead plants and animals. As the plants and animals decay, they produce a colorless, odorless gas called methane. Methane gas is rich in energy. Methane is the main ingredient in natural gas, the gas we use in our furnaces and stoves. Methane is a good energy source. We can burn it to produce heat or to generate electricity. Fermentation: We can add yeast (a fungus) to biomass to produce an alcohol called ethanol. For centuries, people have fermented crops to make alcoholic drinks like beer and wine. Wine is fermented from grapes. Wheat, corn, and many other crops can be used to make ethanol. Conversion: Conversion means changing a material into something else. Today, we can convert biomass into gas and liquid fuels. We do this by adding heat or chemicals to the biomass. The gas and liquid fuels can then be burned to produce heat or electricity, or it can be used as a fuel for automobiles. In India, cow manure is converted to methane gas to provide heat and light. ADVANTAGES:              Biomass can be used for fuels, power production and products that would otherwise be made from fossil fuels. It does not add CO2 to the atmosphere as it absorbs the same amount of carbon in growing as it releases when consumed with fuel. It can be used to generate electricity with the same equipment or power plants that are now burning fossil fuels. It is sensible to use waste products where we can. The use of biomass energy has the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The use of biomass can reduce dependence on foreign oil. It makes sense to use waste materials where we can. Biomass is very abundant. It can be found on every square meter of the earth as seaweed, trees or dung. It is easy to convert to a high energy portable fuel such as alcohol or gas. It is cheap in contrast to the other energy sources. It may also use areas of unused agricultural land and provide jobs in rural communities. If it is produced on a renewable basis using biomass energy does not result in a net cabon dioxide increase as plants absorb it when they grow. It is very low in sulphur reducing the production of acid rain.

DISADVANTAGES:            Collecting sufficient quantities of waste can be difficult. Burning the fuel creates greenhouse gases, although only a very little. Could contribute a great deal to global warming and particulate pollution if directly burned Still an expensive source, both in terms of producing the biomass and converting it to alcohols On a small scale there is most likely a net loss of energy--energy must be put in to grow the plant mass Although the net addition of carbon dioxide is zero but the burning of biomass is a polluted procedure. The plan may not be effective in terms of cost. Like fossil fuels the product is not ready to use. The processing of biomass is comparatively expensive. Hazardous chemicals like sulphar dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are produced as a result of biomass burning. It is not environment friendly method as the number of trees cut down affects the ecological balance. Animals lose protection and natural habitant as a result of cutting trees. Large lands are required to grow enough amount of biomass that are necessary for producing bio-fuels. The growth and collection of fuel on such massive level is also very tough.

Geothermal Energy : Geothermal comes from the greek word Geo which means earth and therme which means heat. So, Geothermal energy means energy or power extracted from beneath the earth. The energy inside the earth was formed by the decay of minerals and forests several years ago. Traditionally, it was used for bathing and heating purposes but today it is also used for generating electricity. Geothermal energy is called renewable source of energy because heat is continuously produced inside the earth. This heat is brought to the near-surface by thermal conduction and by intrusion into the earth's crust of molten magma originating from great depth. As groundwater is heated, geothermal energy is produced in the form of hot water and steam. Geothermal energy is produced inside the earth's surface. The earth's layer consists of innermost layer called Iron Core which itself has two layers: solid iron core and an outer core made of hard rock, called magma, mantle which surrounds the core and the outermost layer called crust which forms oceans and continents. When magma comes close to the earth's surface i.e. crust it heats up the ground water which gets trapped in porous rocks. They may also flow along faults and fractured rock surfaces. Now

these hydrothermal resources have 2 ingredients: water (Hydro) and heat (thermal). When these hydrothermal resources occur naturally these are called Geothermal reservoirs. Various tools and techniques are used nowadays to detect geothermal reservoirs. How it works? Hot rocks underground heat water to produce steam. We drill holes down to the hot region, steam comes up, is purified and used to drive turbines, which drive electric generators.There may be natural "groundwater" in the hot rocks anyway, or we may need to drill more holes and pump water down to them. The first geothermal power station was built at Landrello, in Italy, and the second was at Wairekei in New Zealand. Others are in Iceland, Japan, the Philippines and the United States. In Iceland, geothermal heat is used to heat houses as well as for generating electricity. If the rocks aren't hot enough to produce steam we can sometimes still use the energy - the Civic Centre in Southampton, England, is partly heated this way as part of a district heating scheme with thousands of customers. Uses:  Geothermal energy has more uses than you might imagine. For instance, many farmers use geothermal power to heat their greenhouses. In Tuscany, Italy, farmers have used water heated by geothermal energy for hundreds of years to grow vegetables in the winter. Hungary is also a major user of geothermal power. Eighty percent of the energy demand from vegetables growers is met by using geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is also used in fishing farms. The warm water spurs the growth of animals ranging from alligators, shellfish, tropical fish, amphibians to catfish and trout. Fish farmers from Oregon, Idaho, China, Japan, and even Iceland use geothermal power. Industry is another consumer of geothermal energy. Its uses vary from drying fruits, vegetables, wood, dying wool to extracting gold and silver from ore. Geothermal energy is also used to heat sidewalks and roads to prevent freezing in the winter. Geothermal power is a good electricity generator as well: Flashed Steam Plants- The water "flash" boils and the steam is used to turn turbines. Dry Steam Plants- These plants rely on the natural steam that comes from the underground reservoirs to generate electricity. Binary Power Plants- These plants use the water to heat a "secondary liquid" which vaporizes and turns the turbines. The vaporized liquid is then condensed and reused. Hybrid Power Plants- In these plants binary and flash techniques are utilized simultaneously. The most common use of geothermal energy is for heating residential districts and businesses.

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Advantages:        Geothermal energy generally involves low running costs Dependence on fossil fuels decreases with the increase in the use of geothermal energy. does not create any pollution and help in creating clean environment. cheaper and affordable. The power stations do not take up much room, so there is not much impact on the environment. No fuel is needed. Once you've built a geothermal power station, the energy is almost free. It may need a little energy to run a pump, but this can be taken from the energy being generated.

Disadvantages:    It is not widely used therefore the unavailability of equipment, staff, infrastructure, training pose hindrance to the installation of geothermal plants across the globe. Not enough skilled manpower and availability of suitable build location pose serious problem in adopting geothermal energy globally. Geothermal sites can run out of steam over a period of time due to drop in temperature or if too much water is injected to cool the rocks and this may result huge loss for the companies which have invested heavily in these plants. Due to this factor, companies have to do extensive initial research before setting up the plant. It is only suitable for regions where temperature below the earth are quite low and can produce steam over a long period of time. Geothermal sites may contain some poisonous gases and they can escape deep within the earth, through the holes drilled by the constructors. the big problem is that there are not many places where you can build a geothermal power station. You need hot rocks of a suitable type, at a depth where we can drill down to them. The type of rock above is also important, it must be of a type that we can easily drill through. Hazardous gases and minerals may come up from underground, and can be difficult to safely dispose of.

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HYDROELECTRICITY: Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower, which means the production of power with the use of the gravitational force of flowing or falling water. It really is really by far the most extensively utilised type of renewable power. This sort of renewable power will be the most frequently utilized on remote locations that are not getting reached by commercial electric power providers. Hydro power systems might be effortlessly installed in small rivers or streams with no disrupting water migration; no direct environmental effects on fish life. These sources of power are cleaner option that helps lessen pollution. The most effective thing about using these energy sources is the fact that they do not promote extra damage to global warming, therefore saving the earth from destruction in the future. It is a timeless and renewable resource. Huge generators convert the potential energy of falling or fast moving water into electrical energy. The potential energy of the water is first converted into mechanical energy and then into electrical energy. Water, usually stored in dams, is led down through large pipes or tunnels to lower levels, and in the course of the fall, the water rotates turbines. The mechanical energy produced is converted to electricity by the generators connected to it. The structure that houses the turbines and generators is called the powerhouse. Transformers change the alternating current produced by the generators into current of very high voltage for easy transmission through long distances. How it works: A dam is built to trap water, usually in a valley where there is an existing lake. Water is allowed to flow through tunnels in the dam, to turn turbines and thus drive generators. Notice that the dam is much thicker at the bottom than at the top, because the pressure of the water increases with depth. Hydro-electric power stations can produce a great deal of power very cheaply. When it was first built, the huge "Hoover Dam", on the Colorado river, supplied much of the electricity for the city of Las Vegas; however now Las Vegas has grown so much, the city gets most of its energy from other sources. Although there are many suitable sites around the world, hydro-electric dams are very expensive to build. However, once the station is built, the water comes free of charge, and there is no waste or pollution. The Sun evaporates water from the sea and lakes, which forms clouds and falls as rain in the mountains, keeping the dam supplied with water. For free. Uses:  Transport Trains, buses, trams and cars all use electricity. Many use it as the motive power, meaning that electricity drives the wheels to make the vehicle move. Even gas and diesel powered vehicles use electricity to start the engines, control the engine and power the ancillary devices. Home Heating, lighting, television, radio, computer, telephones all rely on electricity. Even wireless lights such as solar powered lamps will convert sight to electricity. Communication As well as providing power for computers, cell phones, fixed phones, electricity is used as the medium for the transmission of signals. Even high speed optical fibers rely on an electrical signal at each end of the line. Without electricity, communication would be reduced to letters, flag waving and lighting fires and shouting at each other. None of the electricity free methods are as flexible as any that we are used to using today Industry Manufacturing relies on electricity to drive virtually every moving part in a factory. Saws, cutters, conveyor belts, furnaces, chillers - whatever the process, electricity is involved somewhere. Entertainment The MP3 player, the portable battery powered radio, memory stick are all accepted as part of our everyday lives. All rely on electricity to operate. Whether connected to a mains supply or battery, they all use electricity.

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advantages:            Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate. The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure / pleasure activities. Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right. The lake's water can be used for irrigation purposes. When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases. They do not pollute the atmosphere. Hydropower is a domestic source of energy, produced locally near where it is needed. Reduces greenhouse emissions Relatively low maintenance costs Does not depend on costs of uranium, oil, or other fuels Pollution is rarely created It doesn't require as many employees Stations can operate and run for long periods of time

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Hydropower relies on the water cycle, which is driven by the sun, thus it's a renewable power source so long as the rain keeps falling on the dam catchment area. Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free. Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power. Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with peaks in demand. Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly, unlike other power stations. Electricity can be generated constantly.

Disadvantages:               Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard. The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable. The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed. People living in villages and towns that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out. Fish populations can be impacted if fish cannot migrate upstream past impoundment dams to spawning grounds or if they cannot migrate downstream to the ocean. Hydro power can impact water quality and flow Hydro power plants can be impacted by drought. Dependent on precipitation Loss of fish species destroys wildlife and habitats of any creatures living in the area. The dams are very expensive to build. However, many dams are also used for flood control or irrigation, so building costs can be shared. Building a large dam will flood a very large area upstream, causing problems for animals that used to live there Finding a suitable site can be difficult - the impact on residents and the environment may be unacceptable. Water quality and quantity downstream can be affected, which can have an impact on plant life.

Solar Energy: The sun is the key to the existence of life on the earth. Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces. Solar panels are becoming extra effective, portable and even flexible that permits for effortless set-up. Photovoltaic (PV) technologies was initially been utilised to give power to tiny and medium sized applications like in calculators. It was inside the 70s that the use of solar power raised due to the oil crisis. The production of PV somehow enabled most people to go through the crisis and save income. Solar energy is energy that is derived from the suns rays. The light and the heat provided by the sun is “collected” or harnessed by solar panels and then converted into a more useful form of energy. There are two main forms of solar energy – passive solar energy and active solar energy. 1) Passive solar energy is solar power in its most archaic and practical form. Basically, the suns energy is being used as is for lighting or heating purposes. For example, using a solar blanket to heat a pool or using solar panels to redirect light onto an agricultural crop would both be examples of passive solar energy. 2) On the other hand, active solar energy uses photovoltaic technology. The main purpose of photovoltaics is to harness the energy from the sun and then use special semiconductors to convert it to usable direct current energy. Large solar farms and solar panels on top of peoples homes used for energy generation are examples of active solar energy. How it works: There are 4 main ways that we use the Sun's energy:-1) Solar Cells: (really called "photovoltaic", "PV" or "photoelectric" cells) that convert light directly into electricity. in a sunny climate, you can get enough power to run a 100W light bulb from just one square metre of solar panel. This was originally developed in order to provide electricity for satellites, but these days many of us own calculators powered by solar cells. People are increasingly installing PV panels on their roofs. This costs thousands of pounds, but if you have a south-facing roof it can help with your electricity bills quite a bit,and the government pays you for any extra energy you produce and feed back into the National Grid (called the "feed-in tariff"). 2) Solar water heating: where heat from the Sun is used to heat water in glass panels on your roof. This means you don't need to use so much gas or electricity to heat your water at home. Water is pumped through pipes in the panel. The pipes are painted black, so they get hotter when the Sun shines on them. The water is pumped in at the bottom so that convection helps the flow of hot water out of the top. This helps out your central heating system, and cuts your fuel bills. However, with the basic type of panel shown in the diagram you must drain the water out to stop the panels freezing in the winter. Some manufacturers have systems that do this automatically. Solar water heating is easily worthwhile in places like California and Australia, where you get lots of sunshine. Mind you, as technology improves it's becoming worthwhile in the UK. This "Thermomax" panel is made of a set of glass tubes. Each contains a metal plate with a blue-ish coating to help it

absorb solar energy from IR to UV, so that even in diffuse sunlight you get a decent output. The air has been removed from the glass tubes to reduce heat loss, rather like a thermos flask. Up the back of the metal plate is a "heat pipe", which looks like a copper rod but contains a liquid that transfers heat very quickly to the top of the glass tube. A water pipe runs across the top of the whole thing and picks up the heat from the tubes. 3) solar boilers: The main way that a conventional gas "combination boiler" continually wastes energy is by replenishing stored water as soon as the volume or temperature decreases. With solar powered boilers, this is instead fuelled by the solar power collected through panels on the roof of your home. The power collected through the solar tiles is used to fuel and therefore heat a separate water cylinder, thus saving energy throughout the course of every day. Another smaller tank, still powered by gas, is provided with most solar boiler installations as a backup. 4) solar furnaces: use a huge array of mirrors to concentrate the Sun's energy into a small space and produce very high temperatures. There's one at Odeillo, in France, used for scientific experiments. It can achieve temperatures up to 3,000 degrees Celsius. Solar furnaces are basically huge "solar cookers". A solar cooker can be used in hot countries to cook food. This one is in the UK, making tea and coffee, although it does take a long time! Uses: Residential: The solar energy is also used in residential homes for heating the water with the help of solar heater. The photovoltaic cell is been installed on the roof of the residents to collect the solar energy and is used to warm the water. Solar energy can also be used in producing the electricity. Batteries will store energy captured in day time and supply power in night. Commercial and industrial purpose: Solar energy is frequently used to power the radio and TV station as it is reliable, renewable, affordable, and need less maintenance. Solar energy is also used to supply power to lighthouse and warning light for aircraft. It is also used in office, warehouse and industry for power supply generated through solar energy. The solar energy is also used in major industries for providing power for manufacturing process. Remote building like school, community hall and clinic also use the solar energy. Specialized water pump is used which run on solar energy to pump water in remote area for portable water supply. Solar energy has been used frequently to power TV and radio repeater stations (automated stations that transmit signals). Because it is renewable, relatively affordable, very reliable and requires little upkeep, it is also used to power lighthouses, buoys and aircraft warning lights on buildings and other structures. Transportation: Solar energy is also used for public transportation such as trolleys, buses and light-rails. There are also plan to use solar energy for bus shelter lighting. Solar pool heating The most popular domestic use of solar energy is the solar pool heating, this allows swimming even during cold seasons. The cost of electricity that used to heat up water in a pool is huge compared to solar heating system installation and maintenance charges. Water: In many parts of the developing world solar energy is harnessed to pump water in remote areas. Solar energy is also used to power off-grid desalination plants. Heat: Solar energy can be used to heat residential homes; many people use solar energy to heat their water supply and, particularly in Florida, their swimming pools as well. A photovoltaic cell is installed on the roof to collect solar energy and is used to warm a heat transfer fluid that is used to heat the water itself. Transportation: Increasingly, solar energy is being used to power public transportation vehicles such as buses, trolleys and light-rails. Plans for solar-powered bus shelters are in the works as well. Consumer Products: Small gadgets that require little energy, such as calculators and watches, often use solar energy. Recreational vehicles and some boating equipment may also run on solar energy. Advantages:                    incentives and rebates from governments and utility companies offset the initial investment new financing vehicles such as leasing and Pace offset the initial investment while preserving the incentives and rebates net metering gives you the opportunity of selling your excess electricity or getting a credit from the utility company reduce or completely eliminate your electric bill cost of solar panels are decreasing while efficiency is increasing numerous solar solutions are being developed that are less obtrusive and easier to install clean, renewable energy source no transmission costs, your energy is produced where it is consumed all or some of your electric needs can be supplied by solar energy, it’s up to you and your budget you can be totally independent of the electric company by using batteries to store your excess energy or you can remain tied to the grid and use net metering solar systems are long lasting systems with warranties that are 20-30 years virtually no maintenance and no recurring costs ideal for remote locations that cannot be tied to the grid no noise or smells, solar operates totally silent reduce dependence on foreign oil do-it-yourself options in the forms of kits are available and installation is easy Solar energy is free - it needs no fuel and produces no waste or pollution. In sunny countries, solar power can be used where there is no easy way to get electricity to a remote place. Handy for low-power uses such as solar powered garden lights and battery chargers, or for helping your home energy bills.

Disadvantages:        high initial cost to purchase solar panel system a relatively large area is required to install a solar system the highest efficiency is dependent on full sun exposure no electricity can be produced at night, and reduced production on cloudy/rainy days Doesn't work at night. Very expensive to build solar power stations, although the cost is coming down as technology improves. In the meantime, solar cells cost a great deal compared to the amount of electricity they'll produce in their lifetime. Can be unreliable unless you're in a very sunny climate. In the United Kingdom, solar power isn't much use for high-power applications, as you need a large area of solar panels to get a decent amount of power. However, technology has now reached the point where it can make a big difference to your home fuel bills.

Tidal energy: The energy of the tides which is transformed into useful electricity and other power sources is known astidal energy or tidal power. The term tide means rise and fall of ocean and sea level due to gravitational strength from moon and rotation of earth. This is a renewable energy source which is under development and not many people know about it. Tidal energy or Tidal power is more efficient and reliable way of generating electricity as compared to wind mills and solar energy systems.How it works: Tidal Barrages: These work rather like a hydroelectric scheme, except that the dam is much bigger. These work rather like a hydro-electric scheme, except that the dam is much bigger. A huge dam (called a "barrage") is built across a river estuary. When the tide goes in and out, the water flows through tunnels in the dam. The ebb and flow of the tides can be used to turn a turbine, or it can be used to push air through a pipe, which then turns a turbine. Large lock gates, like the ones used on canals, allow ships to pass. If one was built across the Severn Estuary, the tides at Weston-super-Mare would not go out nearly as far - there'd be water to play in for most of the time. But the Severn Estuary carries sewage and other wastes from many places (e.g. Bristol & Gloucester) out to sea. A tidal barrage would mean that this stuff would hang around Weston-super-Mare an awful lot longer! Also, if you're one of the 80,000+ birds that feeds on the exposed mud flats when the tide goes out, then you have a problem, because the tide won't be going out properly any more. Uses:     Generation of tidal electricity used for the mechanical crushing of grains in Grain Mills.The movement of Turbines due to Tidal Energy was used in the crush Grains. used as a store of Energy.Like many of the hydroelectric dams which can be used a large Energy Storage ,so Tidal Barrages with their reservoirs can be modified to store energy. Tidal Barrages can prevent Damage to the Coast during High Storms and also provide an easy transport method between the 2 arms of a Bay or an Estuary on which it is built.

Advantages:  It is very cheap to maintain  There is no waste or pollution  Very reliable  We can predict when tides will be in or out  The barrage can help to reduce the damage of very high tidal surges or storms on the land Once you've built it, tidal power is free. It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste. It needs no fuel. It produces electricity reliably Not expensive to maintain. Tides are totally predictable. Offshore turbines and vertical-axis turbines are not ruinously expensive to build and do not have a large environmental impact.

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Disadvantages: · It changes the coastline completely and the estuaries are flooded so any mud flats or habitats that birds or animals live on are destroyed · Initial building cost is very expensive · Water is not replenished, it cannot flow away so any dirt or pollution lingers around the coast much longer · Silt builds up behind the barrage

· Disrupts creatures’ migration in the oceans · Needs a very big piece of sea to be cost effective · Not many sites suitable for this kind of power generation; building the barrage · Only produces power for about 10 hours of the day  A barrage across an estuary is very expensive to build, and affects a very wide area - the environment is changed for many miles upstream and downstream. Many birds rely on the tide uncovering the mud flats so that they can feed. Fish can't migrate, unless "fish ladders" are installed. Only provides power for around 10 hours each day, when the tide is actually moving in or out. There are few suitable sites for tidal barrages

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Wave power: Waves are caused by the wind blowing over the surface of the ocean. In many areas of the world, the wind blows with enough consistency and force to provide continuous waves. There is tremendous energy in the ocean waves. Wave power devices extract energy directly from the surface motion of ocean waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Waves are a result of the effects of wind on the oceans and seas. This wind originates from the major influx of energy to this planet: solar energy from the sun. The energy contained within waves is around the world is huge; in some places values of 70MW/km of wave front are experienced. Waves are not as consistent as the tide and therefore there is a definite problem with matching supply and demand. This is one of the main reasons that Wave power has so far been restricted to small scale schemes, no large scale commercial plant is in action. There are three main categories that wave power can be split into, these are Near Shore, At Shore and Off Shore. There are obvious environmental and social considerations to go with both of these conditions. 1) Near Shore operations have to consider the aesthetic influence they will have on what could be a picturesque area, they also will have a definite impact on shipping and marine life but again this will be no greater than current offshore installations. It has been suggested that a distance of 12 miles from shore is the distance within which a device is said to be near shore. 2) The issues discussed previously will also obviously be experienced by off shore wave installations. It has been suggested that a depth greater than 50m will constitute an offshore device. 3) On shore wave power will have a marked effect on the area it is deployed. There are ways of incorporating it into existing structures to minimise the effect, such as harbour walls. How does it work: There are several methods of getting energy from waves. One of them works like a swimming pool wave machine in reverse. At a swimming pool, air is blown in and out of a chamber beside the pool, which makes the water outside bob up and down, causing waves. At a wave power station, the waves arriving cause the water in the chamber to rise and fall, which means that air is forced in and out of the hole in the top of the chamber. We place a turbine in this hole, which is turned by the air rushing in and out. The turbine turns a generator. A problem with this design is that the rushing air can be very noisy, unless a silencer is fitted to the turbine. The noise is not a huge problem anyway, as the waves make quite a bit of noise themselves. Ocean waves are caused by the wind as it blows across the sea. Waves are a powerful source of energy. The problem is that it's not easy to harness this energy and convert it into electricity in large amounts. Thus, wave power stations are rare. Example: A company called Wavegen operate a commercial wave power station called "Limpet" on the Scottish island of Islay. Limpet (Land Installed Marine Powered Energy Transformer) is a shoreline energy converter sited on the island of Islay, off Scotland’s west coast. The current Limpet device – Limpet 500 – was installed in 2000 and produces power for the national grid. Limpet uses the principle of an oscillating water column. Example: A company called Pelamis Wave Power are developing a method of offshore wave energy collection, using a floating tube called "Pelamis". This long, hinged tube (about the size of 5 railway carriages) bobs up and down in the waves, as the hinges bend they pump hydraulic fluid which drives generators. Example: Another company is called Renewable Energy Holdings. Their idea for generating wave power (called "CETO") uses underwater equipment on the sea bed near the coast. Waves passing across the top of the unit make a piston move, which pumps seawater to drive generators on land. They're also involved with wind power and biofuel. Uses:     Wave power is the capture of energy from surface ocean waves for either the generation of electricity, desalination plants or water pumping. Waves produce a huge amount of energy and they have the potential to become a viable source of energy in the future. Wave power is not widely used to date, but there are several active testing programs operating in different parts of the world There are several different types of wave energy generating devices which can be located on coastal, offshore and even far offshore sites. While all devices are installed on or near the water’s surface, their orientation and manner in which they convert the waves to energy differs. The following devices are currently being used in different locations:Terminator devices, point absorbers, magnetic linear generators and overtopping devices are all being trialled by various companies around the globe. Desalination plants, power plants, and water pumps are common places that utilize wave energy.

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Advantages: The energy is free - no fuel needed, no waste produced. Not expensive to operate and maintain. Can produce a great deal of energy. Waves are free and will not run out so the cost is in building the power station. Wave power does not produce greenhouse gases. There are very few safety risks with wave power generation.

Disadvantages:         Depends on the waves - sometimes you'll get loads of energy, sometimes almost nothing. Needs a suitable site, where waves are consistently strong. Some designs are noisy. But then again, so are waves, so any noise is unlikely to be a problem. Must be able to withstand very rough weather. Ocean wave energy is captured directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Waves can be big or small so you may not always be able to generate electricity. You need to find a way of transporting the electricity from the sea onto the land. Not many people have tried to generate electricity this way yet so the equipment is expensive.

Wind power: Wind energy is the kinetic energy of air in motion; Total wind energy flowing through an imaginary area A during the time t is: where v is the wind speed; ρ is the air density; Avt is the volume of air passing through A (which is considered perpendicular to the direction of the wind); Avtρ is therefore the mass m passing per unit time. Note that ½ ρv2 is the kinetic energy of the moving air per unit volume. Power is energy per unit time, so the wind power incident on A (e.g. equal to the rotor area of a wind turbine) is: Wind power in an open air stream is thus proportional to the third power of the wind speed; the available power increases eightfold when the wind speed doubles. Wind turbines for grid electricity therefore need to be especially efficient at greater wind speeds. Wind energy is the kinetic energy associated with the movement of atmospheric air. It has been used for hundreds of years for sailing, grinding grain, and for irrigation. Wind energy systems convert this kinetic energy to more useful forms of power. Wind energy systems for irrigation and milling have been in use since ancient times and since the beginning of the 20th century it is being used to generate electric power. Windmills for water pumping have been installed in many countries particularly in the rural areas. Wind turbines transform the energy in the wind into mechanical power, which can then be used directly for grinding etc. or further converting to electric power to generate electricity. Wind turbines can be used singly or in clusters called ‘wind farms’. Small wind turbines called aero-generators can be used to charge large batteries. How it works: The Sun heats our atmosphere unevenly, so some patches become warmer than others.These warm patches of air rise, other air blows in to replace them - and we feel a wind blowing. We can use the energy in the wind by building a tall tower, with a large propellor on the top. The wind blows the propellor round, which turns a generator to produce electricity. We tend to build many of these towers together, to make a "wind farm" and produce more electricity. The more towers, the more wind, and the larger the propellors, the more electricity we can make. It's only worth building wind farms in places that have strong, steady winds, although boats and caravans increasingly have small wind generators to help keep their batteries charged. Uses: 1) Energy-generating wind turbines: Wind turbines are installed to capture the power of the wind and be able to convert it to energy. This can be on a broad scale, such as the wind turbines found on wind farms or can be on a smaller scale, such as individual wind turbines people use to generate power for their home. Companies even want to take advantage of the wind. 2) Wind-powered vehicles: You’ve probably heard about this one recently. A car, powered primarily by wind (using kites), just completed a 3,100 mile journey across Australia. While it wasn’t 100% powered by the wind, it was a good example of how cars can also be powered using alternative energies. It used a combination of wind, kite and batteries. 3)Wind/Kite-Powered Cargo Ships: Another great example of tapping into the power of the wind, can be found with Cargill. Cargill has stepped up and gone with the innovative idea of installing a large kite on one of its cargo ships in order to tap into the power of the wind and thus reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Now, of course wind has been used for hundreds and thousands of year to “power” sailing and smaller vessels, but now it is being used to help power larger cargo ships as well.4) Wind-Powered Sports: For many, many years the wind has been used to power our love of sports, both literally and figuratively. Everything from simple kite-flying to sailing, windsurfing, kite-surfing, hang-gliding, para-sailing, wind-skiing and more.5) Wind-Powered Water Pumps: Using the wind to help pump water out of the ground is not something new. It is however a very helpful and sometimes much needed tool when it comes to some communities and countries. Tapping into the power of the wind makes sense, esp when it comes to the work needed to pump water.

Advantages:             Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel. Produces no waste or greenhouse gases. The land beneath can usually still be used for farming. Wind farms can be tourist attractions. A good method of supplying energy to remote areas. The wind is free and with modern technology it can be captured efficiently. Once the wind turbine is built the energy it produces does not cause green house gases or other pollutants. Although wind turbines can be very tall each takes up only a small plot of land. This means that the land below can still be used. This is especially the case in agricultural areas as farming can still continue. Many people find wind farms an interesting feature of the landscape. Remote areas that are not connected to the electricity power grid can use wind turbines to produce their own supply. Wind turbines have a role to play in both the developed and third world. Wind turbines are available in a range of sizes which means a vast range of people and businesses can use them. Single households to small towns and villages can make good use of range of wind turbines available today.

Disadvantages:             The wind is not always predictable - some days have no wind. Suitable areas for wind farms are often near the coast, where land is expensive. Some people feel that covering the landscape with these towers is unsightly. Can kill birds - migrating flocks tend to like strong winds. However, this is rare, and we tend not to build wind farms on migratory routes anyway. Can affect television reception if you live nearby. Can be noisy. Wind generators have a reputation for making a constant, low, "swooshing" noise day and night, which can drive you nuts. The strength of the wind is not constant and it varies from zero to storm force. This means that wind turbines do not produce the same amount of electricity all the time. There will be times when they produce no electricity at all. Many people feel that the countryside should be left untouched, without these large structures being built. The landscape should left in its natural form for everyone to enjoy. Wind turbines are noisy. Each one can generate the same level of noise as a family car travelling at 70 mph. Many people see large wind turbines as unsightly structures and not pleasant or interesting to look at. They disfigure the countryside and are generally ugly. When wind turbines are being manufactured some pollution is produced. Therefore wind power does produce some pollution. Large wind farms are needed to provide entire communities with enough electricity. For example, the largest single turbine available today can only provide enough electricity for 475 homes, when running at full capacity. How many would be needed for a town of 100 000 people?

Non-Renewable EnergyRenewable energy is energy which is taken from the sources that are available on the earth in limited quantity and will vanish fifty-sixty years from now. Non-renewable sources are not environmental friendly and can have serious affect on our health. They are called non-renewable because they can be re-generated within a short span of time. Non-renewable sources exist in the form of fossil fuels, natural gas, oil and coal. Pros     Cons   Non-renewable sources will expire some day and we have to us our endangered resources to create more non-renewable sources of energy. The speed at which such resources are being utilized can have serious environmental changes. Non-renewable sources are cheap and easy to use. You can easily fill up your car tank and power your motor vehicle. You can use small amount of nuclear energy to produce large amount of power. Non-renewable have little or no competition at all. For eg: if you are driving a battery driven car your battery gets discharged then you won't be able to charge it in the middle if the road rather it is easy to find a gas pumping station. They are considered as cheap when converting from one type of energy to another.

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Non-renewable sources release toxic gases in the air when burnt which are the major cause for global warming. Since these sources are going to expire soon, prices of these sources are soaring day by day.

Fossil fuels:Fossil fuels are fuels formed from the decomposition and compaction of plant and animal remains of the prehistoric age. Scientists believe these fuels date as far back as 300 million. The common fossil fuels are Coal, Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Petroleum. These fuels are buried far deep below the ground. A lot of effort is required first to discover where these fuels are buried (exploration) and secondly to "mine" or "dig out" or "pump out" these resources. They have been the World's main source of energy for centuries. They are burned in power plants to provide energy required to power the energy plants. However, due to concerns about the negative impact of these fuels on the environment, there is a recent shift towards using cleaner and renewable energy sources for the following reasons: Fossil fuels are DIRTY. When burnt they release pollutants like CO2 that contribute to global warming and SO2 that contributes to acid rain. Fossil fuels are NON-RENEWABLE. The fossil fuels we are using now took over 300 million years to form (according to scientists). When we use up what we have now, we cannot replace then within our or the next several generations life time. Coal: Coal is a fossil fuel formed from the remains of plants and animals of ancient times having undergone tremendous decomposition and compaction. It is a sedimentary rock formation which is black or brownish black in colour. It is a highly combustible rock and it has been used for centuries to provide heat in power generating plants. Coal is probably used to power close to 60-70% of the historical and current world Power plants. Coal is buried far deep in the ground and requires a lot of efforts to mine it from the ground. It is also very dangerous to mine because it is always underground and requires some excavation (horizontal drilling) or digging of holes through the ground (vertical drilling) to reach. Many miners have either been trapped for months, died or contacted various disorders for exposure to dusts form coal mines. Besides the difficulty in mining, coal produces pollutants that have, potentially, negative impacts on humans and on the environment. Burning coal in power plants generate Mercury, SO2, and CO2 emissions. Mercury is toxic to humans and animals, SO2 leads to acid rain and CO2 is one of the greenhouse gases that trap heat in our atmosphere leading to rising global temperatures and producing other several devastating effects. Uses of coal:          electricity generation, steel production, cement manufacturing and as a liquid fuel. Different types of coal have different uses. Steam coal - also known as thermal coal - is mainly used in power generation. Coking coal - also known as metallurgical coal - is mainly used in steel production. alumina refineries, paper manufacturers, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Several chemical products can be produced from the by-products of coal. Refined coal tar is used in the manufacture of chemicals, such as creosote oil, naphthalene, phenol, and benzene. Thousands of different products have coal or coal by-products as components: soap, aspirins, solvents, dyes, plastics and fibres, such as rayon and nylon. Coal is also an essential ingredient in the production of specialist products: Coal gasification and coal liquefaction (coal-to-liquids) are also possible uses of coal for producing synthetic fuel.

Advantages:           Easily combustible, and produces high energy upon combustion helping in locomotion and in the generation of electricity and various other forms of energy; Widely and easily distributed all over the world; Comparatively inexpensive due to large reserves and easy accessibility Good availability Inexpensive Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in one place using coal, fairly cheaply. A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere, so long as you can get large quantities of fuel to it. Most coal fired power stations have dedicated rail links to supply the coal. Coal can be found in lots of places in the world and there is still plenty in the UK. Coal can be easily transported to the power stations. Coal is a relatively cheap energy source.

Disadvantages:    Coal storage cost is high especially if required to have enough stock for few years to assure power production availability. Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide, a powerful greenhouse gas, that had been stored in the earth for millions of years, contributing to global warming. It leaves behind harmful byproducts upon combustion, thereby causing a lot of pollution;

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Mining of coal leads to irreversible damage to the adjoining environment; Mining and burning of coal pollutes the environment, causes acid rain and ruins all living creature's lungs. It will eventually run out. It cannot be recycled. To dig up coal, we have to create mines which can be dangerous and not very nice to look at. Transporting coal by lorry and train from the mine to the power station causes pollution. Burning coal produces polluting gases like sulphur dioxide which make acid rain. Of all energy sources, burning coal releases the most greenhouse gases which may add to global warming. Coal is a non-renewable source and will run out in about 100 years. Coal miners can be affected by black lung disease or pneumoconiosis and also emphysema if they breathe in too much of the coal dust.

Crude oil: Crude oil is a fossil fuel formed deep down in the ground from the remains of plants and animals from ancient times. It is also referred to as petroleum. It comprises of a mixture of several hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are molecules containing carbon and hydrogen (C-H) bonds. In crude oil, the hydrocarbon molecules are of different sizes. Some are very small (having small chain lengths) while others are large with very many C-H chains. The smallest hydrocarbon in crude oil is methane - CH4, which is a very light gas, much lighter than air. Other smaller hydrocarbons are BTEX - Bezene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and xylenes. These substances are volatile and possess low boiling points of around 40 - 85 C. Natural gas: Natural gas is a fuel that’s used to heat buildings, cook food, dry clothes, heat water, and even to help produce electricity. It’s sometimes called “gas” for short, but don’t confuse it with the gasoline that runs your ca r. Gasoline is aliquid, while natural gas guessed it...a gas! In fact, natural gas is really a mixture of gases that formed from the fossil remains of ancient plants and animals buried deep in the earth. The main ingredient in natural gas is methane. Methane is odorless and colorless. So, why does natural gas smell? The gas company adds a chemical called mercaptan, which gives natural gas that funny sulfur-like or rotten egg odor.Natural gas gives off a lot of heat and light when it burns, but doesn’t produce smoke. That makes it a good fuel for use in the home. Today, more than half the homes in the U. S. are heated by natural gas.Natural gas is a popular fuel choice because it burns cleaner, hotter, and brighter than other fossil fuels like coal and oil. It’s also reliable. Because natural gas pipes are buried safely underground, you aren’t likely to lose service during stormy weather. Uses:  Energy to run electrical power plants. Similar to coal and crude oil, and indeed most power plants including Nuclear, hydroelectricity natural gas is burn to produce the heat that heats generating steam used to run a turbine connected to the generator that produces electricity provide heating and cooling at homes and industries, power manufacturing companies, used as fuels in cars and in the manufacturing of several products (watch the video: Facts about Natural Gas above).

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Advantages:  Is more environment friendly than oil or coal. It is largely because of the fact that it has only one carbon, and hence, produces less emissions. It is a known fact that for same amount of heat, natural gas emits 30% less carbon dioxide than burning oil and 45% less carbon dioxide than burning coal, thereby, improving the quality of air. Is cheap (less expensive than gasoline), and therefore, very cost-effective. Can be safely stored and burned. Most of the natural reserves of natural gas fields are still underutilized. Emits 60-90% less smog-producing pollutants. Due to clean burning process, doesn't produce ashes after energy release. Has high heating value of 24,000 Btu per pound.

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Disadvantages:    One disadvantage of natural gas that is often credited as an advantage by experts, is that it's a non-renewable energy resource. It's availability is finite. Critics also point that their extraction leaves out large craters within the earth. Is highly volatile (highly flammable), and can be dangerous, if handled carelessly. Is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, that makes detection of its leak very difficult.

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In gas pipelines, a substance (contains carbon monoxide) that has a strong odor is added to help detect a leak. But, these substances may be harmful and cause deaths. In fact, natural gas use is the most common cause of carbon monoxide deaths. Constructing and managing such pipelines cost a lot.

Petroleum: Petroleum is a fossil fuel. Petroleum is often called crude oil, or oil. It is called a fossil fuel because it was formed from the remains of tiny sea plants and animals that died millions of years ago. When the plants and animals died, they sank to the bottom of the oceans. Here, they were buried by thousands of feet of sand and sediment, which turned into sedimentary rock. As the layers increased, they pressed harder and harder on the decayed remains at the bottom. The heat and pressure changed the remains and, eventually, petroleum was formed.Petroleum deposits are locked in porous rocks almost like water is trapped in a wet sponge. When crude oil comes out of the ground, it can be as thin as water or as thick as tar. Petroleum is called a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form. We cannot make new petroleum reserves.Petroleum is a naturally occurring mineral primarily made up of hydrogen and carbon. It
can be found in a gaseous, liquid or solid state.Today, refined products of these natural resources have incredibly widespread functionality in the world we live in. Some examples of these include:

Nuclear energy: Nuclear energy is another non-renewable source that has gained popularity in the last few years. With the depleting resources and high energy demand the world is looking towards the nuclear energy as its source that is created from the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear energy, as the term says, is released from the very nucleus of an atom. This happens as a result of its mass being converted to energy. Even though nuclear power is safer than burning electricity for fossil fuels, it is still a hazard to our health and the environment. Nuclear power is produced through two different processes: Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion. Nuclear fission is the process of releasing the atomic energy by splitting the nucleus thus creating two products of roughly half the mass of the original. A nuclear reactor splits the nuclei of uranium atoms, creating large amounts of energy. This process also creates radioactive waste and radiation, which can contaminate the environment. Nuclear fission is the physical process responsible for all types of power generation, including that used in both nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants. Nuclear fusion is the energy source of the future. It is what provides the sun and the stars with the energy to shine continuously for billions of years. Nuclear fusion is when multiple atomic particles join together to create a larger atom. Fusion reactors join hydrogen atoms together to form helium atoms, neutrons and other forms of energy. This is the same type of nuclear energy used in hydrogen bombs. Fusion has been used here on earth to produce nuclear bombs, but has not yet been controlled so that we can obtain useful energy. Unlike nuclear fission, there is no limit on the amount of the fusion that can occur. Uses: 1) Nuclear Transport - There are a number of transport modes like Ships and Submarines which use Nuclear Based Propulsion.Note for the Military,Nuclear Submarines are of the most lethal weapons capable of staying under water for very long periods which diesel submarines are incapable of. 2) Medical Applications – Nuclear Energy finds wide applications in Medical Science.Use of Nuclear Energy for XRays,Chemotherapy Treatments is widely known and accepted. 3) Space and Futuristic Applications – While this technology is still immature and not widely used,Fission Reactors for powering rockets and space vehicles is very useful as the energy generated by small mass is possible which is not possible by chemical energy means.Nuclear Fusion has been said to be the holy grail for generating almost infinite amounts of energy at low cost.R&D continues to be done to develop this and other forms of Nuclear Power like Breeder Reactors etc. 4) Food and Agriculture – Radioisotopes and radiation used in food and agriculture.Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) involves rearing large numbers of insects then irradiating them with gamma radiation before hatching, to sterilize them. The sterile males are then released in large numbers in the infested areas. When they mate with females, no offspring are produced. With repeated releases of sterilized males, the population of the insect pest in a given area is drastically reduced. 5) Electricity - This is the greatest use of Nuclear Power using Nuclear Fission.According to WNA “Sixteen countries depend on nuclear power for at least a quarter of their electricity. France gets around three quarters of its power from nuclear energy, while Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Slovenia and Ukraine get one third or more. Japan, Germany and Finland get more than a quarter of their power from nuclear energy, while in the USA one fifth is from nuclear. Among countries which do not host nuclear power plants, Italy gets about 10% of its power from nuclear, and Denmark about 8%.” Advantages:        Nuclear fuel does not make harmful greenhouse gases. You only need a very small amount of nuclear fuel to make a lot of energy Nuclear power costs about the same as coal, so it's not expensive to make. Does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Produces huge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel. Produces small amounts of waste. Nuclear power is reliable.

Disadvantages:   The waste that is produced when using nuclear fuel is radioactive and very harmful. It needs to be disposed of carefully

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Nuclear power stations are at risk from terrorist attack and sabotage. World uranium supplies may run out in about 50 years. Although not much waste is produced, it is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for many thousands of years to allow the radioactivity to die away. For all that time it must be kept safe from earthquakes, flooding, terrorists and everything else. This is difficult. Nuclear power is reliable, but a lot of money has to be spent on safety - if it does go wrong, a nuclear accident can be a major disaster. People are increasingly concerned about this - in the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest-growing source of power in much of the world. In 2005 it was the second slowest-growing.

Why should we conserve energy? Energy needs to be conserved to protect our environment from drastic changes, to save the depleting resources for our future generations. The rate at which the energy is being produced and consumed can damage our world in many ways. In other words, it helps us to save the environment. We can reduce those impacts by consuming less energy. The cost of energy is rising every year. It is important for us to realize how energy is useful to us and how can we avoid it getting wasted. To start saving energy is not a big thing at all. We can start saving the energy from our home itself, just by turning off the lights during day hours, washing clothes in cold water or using public transport instead of using our own vehicle and later can implement these things on much wider scale at society level, then at city level then district level and finally at country level. You might notice a small change in your monthly bills by implementing these changes as they would be getting decreased more and more. With so many alternatives and so many techniques about there, if millions of people like us start doing these things, it will help us to save much more money and also help the environment. Addenda: Biomass: Sugar cane is harvested and taken to a mill, where it is crushed to extract the juice. The juice is used to make sugar, whilst the leftover pulp, called "bagasse" can be burned in a power station. The station usually provides power for the sugar mill, as well as selling electricity to the surrounding area. 2008: plans have just been announced by the energy company E.on for a biomass-fuelled power station Portbury, near Bristol. The fuel would be wood, brought in by boat, and the station would produce 150MW of electrical power. E.ON is planning to develop one of the UK’s largest biomass renewable energy plants at the Royal Portbury Dock in North Somerset. We submitted a planning application to the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) in August 2009 to build a 150MW renewable energy plant, which could produce enough renewable energy for more than 200,000 homes by burning sustainably sourced wood materials that would largely be brought to the plant by ship. The proposed renewable energy plant will displace almost 400,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions annually by burning sustainably sourced biomass. If the project gets the green light, construction could begin in 2012 and be fully operational as early as 2015. It’s expected that the site would create 35 full-time jobs within the local area once completed. Angus Grahamslaw, Project Developer for E.ON Climate & Renewables, said: “We believe that this is a great location for the plant and underlines the south west region’s reputation as one of the country’s leading green areas.“We’re hopeful that the Local Planning Authority and DECC will see the benefits of the scheme, both to local stakeholders and also to the environment.”Our planning application follows three public exhibitions we held across the region in June 2009, which gave residents and stakeholders the opportunity to learn more about our proposals for the site and meet the project team. The Portbury Dock scheme is the latest addition to our biomass portfolio. Our first biomass renewable energy plant, Steven's Croft near Lockerbie in Scotland, produces enough electricity for 70,000 homes and prevents emissions of around 140,000 tonnes of CO2 annually. And we have received planning permission to build a new biomass plant at Blackburn Meadows in Sheffield, which we hope to begin constructing in 2011. Geothermal: Geothermal energy is an important resource in volcanically active places such as Iceland and New Zealand. How useful it is depends on how hot the water gets. This depends on how hot the rocks were to start with, and how much water we pump down to them. Water is pumped down an "injection well", filters through the cracks in the rocks in the hot region, and comes back up the "recovery well" under pressure. It "flashes" into steam when it reaches the surface. The steam may be used to drive a turbo generator, or passed through a heat exchanger to heat water to warm houses. A town in Iceland is heated this way. The steam must be purified before it is used to drive a turbine, or the turbine blades will get "furred up" like your kettle and be ruined. Hydroelectricity: Gravitational potential energy is stored in the water above the dam. Because of the great height of the water, it will arrive at the turbines at high pressure, which means that we can extract a great deal of energy from it. The water then flows away downriver as normal. In mountainous countries such as Switzerland and New Zealand, hydro-electric power provides more than half of the country's energy needs. An alternative is to build the station next to a fast-flowing river. However with this arrangement the flow of the water cannot be controlled, and water cannot be stored for later use. Solar: Solar cells provide the energy to run satellites that orbit the Earth. These give us satellite TV, telephones, navigation, weather forecasting, the internet and all manner of other facilities. The graphic shows a GPS satellite. A satellite navigation receiver in a car gets signals from a whole host of these and works out its own position. In California, the Solar One power station uses the Sun's heat to make steam, and drive a

generator to make electricity. The station looks a little like the Odeillo solar furnace , except that the mirrors are arranged in -circles around the "power tower". As the Sun moves across the sky, the mirrors turn to keep the rays focused on the tower, where oil is heated to 3,000 degress Celsius, The heat from the oil is used to generate steam, which then drives a turbine, which in turn drives a generator capable of providing 10kW of electrical power. Solar One was very expensive to build, but as fossil fuels run out and become more expensive, solar power stations may become a better option. There are solar powered electric boats on Coniston Water in the Lake District, England. One idea that is being considered is to build solar towers. The idea is very simple - you build a big greenhouse, which is warmed by the Sun. In the middle of the greenhouse you put a very tall tower. The hot air from the greenhouse will rise up this tower, fast - and can drive turbines along the way. This could generate significant amounts of power, especially in countries where there is a lot of sunshine and a lot of room, such as Australia. Tidal: The largest tidal power station in the world (and the only one in Europe) is in the Rance estuary in northern France, near St. Malo. It was built in 1966.A major drawback of tidal power stations is that they can only generate when the tide is flowing in or out - in other words, only for 10 hours each day. However, tides are totally predictable, so we can plan to have other power stations generating at those times when the tidal station is out of action. There have been plans for a "Severn Barrage" from Brean Down in Somerset to Lavernock Point in Wales. Every now and again the idea gets proposed, but nothing has been built yet. It would cost at least £15 billion to build, but other figures about the project seem to vary depending on where you look. For example, one source says the Severn Barrage would provide over 8,000 Megawatts of power (that's over 12 nuclear power station's worth), another says it would be equivalent to 3 nuclear power stations. The variation in the numbers is because there are several different Severn Barrage projects being proposed, so be careful about which numbers you quote if you're a student researching this topic. There would be a number of benefits, including protecting a large stretch of coastline against damage from high storm tides, and providing a ready-made road bridge. However, the drastic changes to the currents in the estuary could have huge effects on the ecosystem, and huge numbers of birds that feed on the mud flats in the estuary when the tide goes out would have nowhere to feed. Another option is to use offshore turbines, rather like an underwater wind farm. This has the advantage of being much cheaper to build, and does not have the environmental problems that a tidal barrage would bring. There are also many more suitable sites. The University of Wales Swansea and partners are also researching techniques to extract electrical energy from flowing water. The "Swanturbines" design is different to other devices in a number of ways. The most significant is that it is direct drive, where the blades are connected directly to the electrical generator without a gearbox between. This is more efficient and there is no gearbox to go wrong. Another difference is that it uses a "gravity base", a large concrete block to hold it to the seabed, rather than drilling into the seabed. Finally, the blades are fixed pitch, rather than actively controlled, this is again to design out components that could be unreliable. December 2008: A "Tidal Reef" across the Severn Estuary is being proposed. At first glance this looks like a tidal barrage, but this design does not block the water movement as much, so it wouldn't affect the tides as severely and the environmental consequences would be much less. It could be built in sections, so power could start being generated sooner. Migratory fish could get through, mud flats could still be exposed at low tide, and it would be able to generate power for more hours in the tidal cycle. Sections of it would open to allow shipping through, and it could be used to control tidal levels further upstream, for example preventing storm surges from flooding low-lying land. (Author's note - I live on low-lying land near the Severn Estuary, so I'm quite keen on this!)Tidal barrages have been built before, whereas this idea is untested - so it'll be interesting to see if it gets approved. Huge tidal turbine arrives in Orkney ahead of testing. A device thought to be the largest tidal turbine of its type to be built in the world has arrived in Orkney for testing. Atlantis Resources unveiled its AK1000 at Invergordon last week ahead of it being shipped to Kirkwall. Trials on the device will be run at a European Marine Energy Centre test site off Eday. The device stands 22.5m (73ft) tall, weighs 1,300 tonnes and has two sets of blades on a single unit. It has been designed to harness ebb and flood tides and could generate one megawatt of power - enough electricity for about 1,000 homes. Atlantis said it was the largest bladed turbine of its type because of its rotor diameter of 18m (59ft). The AK1000's two sets of blades have also been designed to move slowly underwater and Atlantis said they would not pose a threat to sea life. Wave power: More ideas about how to extract energy from waves are being proposed all the time. This page only shows a few examples. Once you've built a wave power station, the energy is free, needs no fuel and produces no waste or pollution. One big problem is that of building and anchoring something that can withstand the roughest conditions at sea, yet can generate a reasonable amount of power from small waves. It's not much use if it only works during storms! Wind power: The best places for wind farms are in coastal areas, at the tops of rounded hills, open plains and gaps in mountains - places where the wind is strong and reliable. Some are offshore. To be worthwhile, you need an average wind speed of around 25 km/h. Most wind farms in the UK are in Cornwall or Wales. Isolated places such as farms may have their own wind generators. In California, several "wind farms" supply electricity to homes around Los Angeles. The propellers are large, to extract energy from the largest possible volume of air. The blades can be angled to "fine" or "coarse" pitch, to cope with varying wind speeds, and the generator and propeller can turn to face the wind wherever it comes from. Some designs use vertical turbines, which don't need to be turned to face the wind. The towers are tall, to get the propellers as high as possible, up to where the wind is stronger. This means that the land beneath can still be used for farming. Fossil fuels: Coal provides around 28% of our energy, and oil provides 40%. Mind you, this figure is bound to have changed since this page was written, so check the figures if you want to quote them. Burning coal produces sculpture dioxide, an acidic gas that contributes to the formation of acid rain. This can be largely avoided using "flue gas desulphurization" to clean up the gases before they are released into the atmosphere. This method uses limestone, and produces gypsum for the building industry as a by-product. However, it uses a lot of limestone.

Crude oil (called "petroleum") is easier to get out of the ground than coal, as it can flow along pipes. This also makes it cheaper to transport. I ought to point out that some scientists are claiming that oil is not a 'fossil' fuel - that it is not the remains of prehistoric organisms after all. They claim it was made by some other, non-biological process. Natural gas provides around 20% of the world's consumption of energy, and as well as being burnt in power stations, is used by many people to heat their homes. It is easy to transport along pipes, and gas power stations produce comparatively little pollution. Other fossil fuels are being investigated, such as bituminous sands and oil shale. The difficulty is that they need expensive processing before we can use them; however Canada has large reserves of 'tar sands' , which makes it economic for them to produce a great deal of energy this way. As far as we know, there is still a lot of oil in the ground. But although oil wells are easy to tap when they're almost full, it's much more difficult to get the oil up later on when there's less oil down there. That's one reason why we're increasingly looking at these other fossil fuels. Nuclear: Natural uranium is only 0.7% "uranium-235", which is the type of uranium that undergoes fission in this type of reactor. The rest is U238, which just sits there getting in the way. Modern reactors use "enriched" uranium fuel, which has a higher proportion of U-235.The fuel arrives encased in metal tubes, which are lowered into the reactor whilst it's running, using a special crane sealed onto the top of the reactor. With an AGR or Magnox station, carbon dioxide gas is blown through the reactor to carry the heat away. Carbon dioxide is chosen because it is a very good coolant, able to carry a great deal of heat energy. It also helps to reduce any fire risk in the reactor (it's around 600 degrees Celsius in there) and it doesn't turn into anything nasty (well, nothing long-lived and nasty) when it's bombarded with neutrons. CONCLUSION:As has been seen, petroleum serves as an extensive source for the energy need as well as feed stock for the spectrum of industries. Petroleum is a non-renewable natural resource and the industry is faced with the inevitable eventual depletion of the world’s oil supply. By the very definition of non-renewable resources, oil exploration alone will not save off future shortages of the resource. Resource economists argue that oil prices will rise as demand increases relative to supply, and that this will spur further exploration and development. However, this process will not increase the amount of oil in the ground, but will rather temporarily prolong production as higher prices make it economical to extent oil that was previously not economically recoverable.Conversion of coal into other chemicals (especially olefins and other higher hydrocarbons) is still not economically attractive. So research effort should be made to convert the available natural gas into value added chemicals. In Indian context, natural gas can be considered as an alternative source of chemical feedstock for the petrochemical industries in order to reduce the dependence on imported mineral oil. The development of an active and selective catalyst is necessary to make the process of conversion of natural gas into olefins and liquid fuel economically viable. Oxidative coupling of methane into higher hydrocarbons shows promise in near the future. Natural gas is one the viable short and middle term energy for transport application along with its industrial and residential applications.Wave:      Biomass:      "Biomass" means burning wood, dung, sugar cane or similar Renewable - we can plant more trees, grow more sugar cane or keep feeding the pigs! We burn the fuel to heat water into steam, which drives turbines, which drive generators. Or we use the heat for our homes Biofuels can be used for vehicles instead of petrol or diesel. Burning anything causes pollution There's a lot of energy in waves on the sea. The hard part is getting it. Waves can make something bob up and down, and that can drive a generator. A wave power station needs to be able to stand really rough weather, and yet still be able to generate power from small waves. Renewable - the waves will keep on coming whether we use them or not. Needs to be built where there are plenty of reliable, strong waves.

Geothermal:       Geothermal energy means getting heat from hot rocks underground Hot water comes up out of the ground, and we use the heat to make steam to drive turbines, or to heat houses. We may have to pump water down first, or it may come up anyway Renewable - so long as we don't take out too much, the energy keeps on coming Not many places you can do it - the rocks must be suitable Sometimes we get poisonous gases coming up too

Hydroelectric:   Hydro-electric power means getting energy from flowing water Usually we build a dam, and let the water turn turbines & generators as it goes through pipes in the dam

   

Renewable No pollution, no fuel needed, no waste Expensive to build Building a dam means flooding a lot of land

Solar:Solar Power is renewable3 main ways to use it:-Sun heats water in panels on your roofSolar cells ("photovoltaic cells") make electricity from sunlightSolar furnaceSolar cells are expensiveSolar power isn't much use unless you live somewhere sunnyDoesn't cause pollution, doesn't need fuel Tidal:        Wave: Wave power has a potential to play an important part in the long-term goal of utilising renewable energy in Scotland. The deployment of the LIMPET 500 has brought recognition to the technology available in Scotland. This interest will stimulate the growth of the industry allowing other technologies to advance and realise their potential. Until they become economically viable and more competitive with other renewables such as wind, it is more likely that wave powered generation will supply islands or small communities within Scotland. Wind:     Wind Power is renewable Doesn't cause pollution, doesn't need fuel Need a lot of generators to get a sensible amount of power Need to put them where winds are reliable Tidal Power is renewable Doesn't cause pollution, doesn't need fuel A tidal barrage is very expensive to build Only works when tide is going in or out A tidal barrage affects a large area There are very few places that you could sensibly build a Tidal barrage Underwater turbines may be a better bet than a barrage - they are cheaper and don't have the huge environmental impact.

Fossil fuels:     Nuclear:      Nuclear power stations use uranium as fuel Sometimes called "atomic power" Non-renewable Heat from the reactor turns water into steam, which drives turbines, which drive generators Doesn't cause pollution unless something goes wrong Coal, Oil and Gas are called "Fossil Fuels" They are non-renewable We burn them to heat water into steam, which drives turbines, which drive generators Burning fossil fuels causes pollution and releases carbon dioxide, contributing to ther 'greenhouse effect'.