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Review Paper Cognitive Radio: Making Software Radios More Personal

JOSEPH MITOLA III AND GERALD Q. MAGUIRE, JR. ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY This paper is a review paper from ''Cognitive Radio : Making Software Radios More Personal''. The main idea is about the implementation and introduction of RKRL(Radio Knowledge Representation Language) as a natural language that is used for realizing implementation of Cognitive Radio. This report is organized as follow. Introduction in section I, RKRL(Radio Knowledge Representation Language) in section II, Conclusion in section III and Reference in section IV

I. INTRODUCTION Software radio has attracted a lot of attention in recent years because its flexibility. The development of mobile communication technology will affect the improvement of hardware technology. For example, when the mobile communication operator decide to implement new technology such as Long Term Evolution (LTE) they have to consider to change the equipment that support with the technology. On the contrary, in past 10 years the technology of mobile communication has increased rapidly, from Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) , Universal Mobile Telecommunication System(UMTS) , High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) and now LTE. It means that they have to allocate a lot of money if they want to follow the improvement of mobile communication since the technologies will always increase. Software radio give a solution from that problem since the improvement is not based on hardware but based on software. So if operator wants to improve the technology they just update the software which is embedded in the same hardware. In users perspective, the improvement of software radio can offer them personal service such as, the network can give them information about their location, and how to get the place they want to reach.

II. RADIO KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION LANGUAGE Software radio give some opportunities in service enhancement for user. For example, if user need direct cash or to request taxi to a specific direction. In order to provide the software radio, there is a demand for language that can support interaction between the network that do not need to wait for standard bodies to create the standard for it. Recently software radio do not have ability to create communication between network. There are several natural languages that supporting software radio. For example Specification and Description Language (SDL) which is adopted by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) and ITU (International Telecommunication Union) but it has a drawbacks, namely lacks primitive for general ontological knowledge, Unified Modeling Language (UML) has a strong presence in software design and development, but is weak in the modeling of hardware devices, Interface Definition Language(IDL) which is used by Software-Defined Radio (SDR) Forum has an advantages at architecture integration but it has drawbacks in computational power of general language, Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language (KQML) it has weakness in translate the rules into a convenient internal form ,Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) same problems like IDL and KQML which is

not specifically for internal use [1]. In addition, most general problem of natural language recently has a limitation as a formal language because ambiguities and complexity. Radio Knowledge Representation Language (RKRL) offers the solution for that problem. Moreover, RKRL offer integration those all natural language through model based on reasoning rather than try to compete others natural language. RKRL was a language for describing the features and capabilities of a radio. Overall, Mitola proposed Radio Knowledge Representation Language (RKRL) to describe the knowledge a radio may have about its own capabilities and its environment. In addition, RKRL is designed to achieve future implementation of radio network called cognitive radio. However, from facts that the development of software radio make radio network more intelligent rather than conventional radio network there are some question and maybe several weakness point that should be considered. For example, with the improvement of the software radio and using natural language like RKRL how the complexity will impact to the network itself, considering complex algorithm and more computational needed? Moreover the complexity of computation will bring the problem like how large the memory needed and the consumption of energy for that computation since we have to consider efficiency of energy (green communication). Since the radio is more intelligent is there a possibility the competition exist between themselves since each of them doing what the best for themselves (for example to get resource, i.e power, bandwidth etc)?or maybe is there a solution for making them cooperative rather than compete each other? The improvement of radio itself will bring the improvement of their intelligence to organized their network by themselves (SON), so it will be decreasing demand from operator to maintain their network using drive test engineer and it will make CAPEX (Capital Expenditure) and OPEX (Operational Expenditure) of operator more efficient, but from engineer perspective it will decrease the vacancy and maybe a lot of engineers will lose their job. With software radio using RKRL it gives an opportunity to access private information, such as withdraw money using radio network, so how can the security issues be ensured using software radio? Even though it has already mentioned that waiting standard organization to accomplish the standardization for natural language take years, I think it should need a standardization for RKRL since there are some differences perspective between industry (in this case operator, vendor) with researcher and among all researchers in this field, so the standardization will give the obvious requirements about the development of RKRL.

III. CONCLUSION

Cognitive radio bring some new idea how radio can learn and know their environment. RKRL bring some insight in the development of software radio and can be integrated with others natural language. In addition, RKRL is considered to increase software radio more cognitive . Even though there are a several question that should be considered in the development of cognitive radio, the idea of cognitive radio bring new concept in order to develop radio technologies in future.

IV. REFERENCES [1]. J. Mitola III and G. Q. Maguire, Jr., “Cognitive Radio: Making Software Radios More Personal,” IEEE Personal Communications, vol. 6, pp. 13 - 18, 1999.