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**A technique of improved steganography text based on chaos and BPCS
**

Peipei Shi

Nankai University, College of Information

Technical Science

Tianjin, China

shipei@mail.nankai.edu.cn

Zhaohui Li

Nankai University, College of Information

Technical Science

Tianjin, China

lizhaohui@nankai.edu.cn

Tao Zhang

Nankai University, College of Information

Technical Science

Tianjin, China

zhangtaonk@mail.nankai.edu.cn

**Abstract—Steganography is an important issue in the filed of
**

information safety. This paper concretely designs and carries

out a steganography of the text secret information. The

introduction of chaos theory conveniences to the test of

steganography characteristics and enhance the safe of

steganography. Adopting an improvement type BPCS

steganography, this scheme can resist the analysis of the

steganalysis. Results show that the design of the paper has

certain of application value.

Keywords-chaos; carrier image; steganography; bit-plane

blocks; threshold value

I. INTRODUCTION

In recent years, information security issues have been

paid more and more attention, and information hiding has

become a hotspot in the research field of information

security. Through embedding unnoticeable secrets into

digital media signals such as images, audio and video,

information hiding realizes the function of copyright

protection and secret communication

[1]

. Information hiding

mainly consists of two main branches, which are digital

watermark and steganography.

As an important branch of information hiding

[2]

,

steganography is mainly used in secret communication. It is

an information security technology about secure

transmission of secret information, which is using images,

audio and other digital media as a cover

[3]

, embedding the c

to be sent into the carrier signal, transmitting as an

unnoticeable way through public channels, especially the

internet, aiming at sending out the information secretly and

safely without causing suspicion of the behavior of hiding

message

[4-6]

.

The design of this paper is applied in secret information

of text, and introduces chaos theory into steganography; it is

easy to realize data encryption and simulation of binary data

flow. Adopting an improvement type BPCS steganography,

not only provides good visual imperceptibility and high data

embedding capacity, this scheme also is capable of resisting

the analysis of the whole complexity histogram.

**978-1-4244-5848-6/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE
**

II. CHAOS THEORY

Chaos is a kind of behavior about nonlinear dynamics

law control. This paper adopts Logistic-mapping method to

generate chaotic sequence:

1

(1 ), 0,1, 2,

k k k

a a a k

μ

The value traverses in the interval [0, 1], and μ is a

control parameter or a bifurcation parameter. When

3.5699456Ă<u<=4, the logistic map works in chaotic state.

The data stream gene- rated is disordered, and it’s similar to

random noise.

The new binary sequence, which is the binarization of

acquired chaotic sequence, has two main functions in this

paper.

1. It is used to the encryption of text data information,

which can enhance the security of the steganography.

2. It is used to stimulate the binary data stream, which

can facilitate the process of various experiments.

III. THE CONVERSION OF TEXT INFORMATION

The meaningful text messages need to be translated into

encrypted binary data stream. The data stream is used for the

embedding of carrier image, which makes preparations for

the steganography. The conversion is shown as Figure 1.

233

Original

Character

Information

ASCII

conversion

binary data

stream

Chaos

sequence

XOR

operation

encrypted binary

data stream

binary data

stream recovery

ASCII

recovery

Recover

Character

Information

Embedded

image

Binarization

Figure 1. The conversion of text information

IV. IMPROVED BPCS STEGANOGRAPHY

A. BPCS steganography

The arithmetic of BPCS steganography is as follows:

1) The carrier image is divided into 8 different Bit-

Planes. All the bit-planes are divided into small pieces of

the same size, which is called bit-plane blocks, such as 8 ×

8.

2) Calculate the complexity of every block. The

complexity is defined as the amount of all the adjacent

pixels that get different values ( one pixel is 0, and the other

is 1 ). The maximum possible value of the complexity is

denoted as

max

C .

3) Setting the complexity threshold of the bit-plane

block is

max

C D , here α is a parameter. The bit-plane block

whose complexity is larger than

max

C D is used to embed

secret information. The smaller the value of D , the more

secret information can be embedded.

4) Secret information is formed into bit-plane blocks.

The bit-plane block can replace the original one straightly if

its complexity is greater than

max

C D . Yet, it need to take

conjugate processing with the checkerboard pattern block

(as shown in Figure 1) if the complexity is less than or equal

to

max

C D , than take the new block replace the original one.

5) Make a record of the blocks that have taken

conjugate processing, and this information also need to be

embedded into the carrier. The embeddings of this extra

information can not produce an effect on the embedded

secrets, and it must be correctly picked up.

The process of secret information extraction is simple.

Firstly, pick up all the pieces of the carrier data whose

complexity is greater than

max

C D , and then pick up the extra

embedded information mentioned in step (5) to confirm the

blocks that have taken conjugate processing. These blocks

need take XOR operation with tessellated chock to get the

recovery of secret.

Figure 2. Checkerboard pattern block

B. Improved BPCS steganography

The original BPCS algorithm divides the carrier image

into serious bit-planes, and there is high correlation between

the bit-planes. The higher the bit-plane is, the stronger the

correlation between the pixels of the bit-planes is

[7]

. So

setting the same embedding strength for different bit-planes

is sure to have an influence on the correlation between the

bit-planes, leading to abnormalities of the complexity

histogram, consequently, the security of steganography will

be affect. Through detecting the complexity histogram and

discontinuity measure, the analyst can analysis the existence

of secret information, besides, he can estimate the

embedding threshold value accurately

[8]

. In order to resist

this statistical analysis method, this paper improves the

BPCS algorithm.

The correlation of adjacent pixels is relatively strong

when the bit-plane is high, and we can see the sketchy

outline of the image. There is a certain degree of regularity

among these pixels. Yet, the dates of the lower bit-planes are

similar to random noise. Therefore, we shall make better use

of HVS (human vision system) characteristic and consider

the local characteristic of the image when embedding secret

information, and treat different bit-planes with different way,

with setting greater threshold for the higher bit-planes and

smaller for the lower ones. Trough different bit-planes using

different embedding strength, not only does this scheme

resist statistical analysis, but also it can realize that

embedding less secret information in higher bit-planes to

have good visual imperceptibility and embedding more in

lower bit-planes to have high data embedding capacity,

234

solving the problem that keeps the balance on the

contradiction between embedding capacity and visual

imperceptibility.

Different bit-planes make different contributions to

carrier image, this design sets greater threshold for the higher

bit-planes and smaller for the lower ones. By testing for

many standard gray images sized 512`512, steganography

has good visual imperceptibility and high data embedding

capacity, when the values of α list as Table 1.

TABLE I. The values of α with different bit-planes

` ¯ b ¯ + 3 ? ! 0

α ` 0.b¯ 0.b0 0.¯¯ 0.¯0 0.+¯ 0.+0 0.30 0.?0

V. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT

The technique of improved steganography text based on

chaos and BPCS designs as Figure 3.

Carrier

image

Chaos

sequence

Translate into

bit stream

Text

information

Information

Encryption

bit-plane

division

Block

partition

Block

partition

Compute

complexity and

embed secret

Embedded

image

Public

Channel

Divide bit-

planes and

blocks partition

Compute

complexity and

extract secret

Information

decryption

Decoding

transformation

Embedded

image

Chaos

sequence

Text

information

Figure 3. the technique of improved steganography text based on chaos and BPCS

VI. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

This paper takes many simulations and tests to various

standard gray images. The experiments choose peak-signal-

to-noise ratio (PSNR) as objective criteria of visual

imperceptibility, the definition of PSNR as follow

[9]

:

1

' 2

0

255

PSNR=20lg

1

(I I )

n

i i

i

n

¦

Where

i

I represents the pixels of carrier image, while

'

i

I represents the pixels of image that embedded secret. The

greater the PSNR is, the better the fidelity is, and the similar

the two images are.

In order to facilitate the test and analysis, the experiments

apply chaotic sequence to simulate binary data stream

transformed by text, and lastly take a test and analysis to a

text randomly selected from internet.

A. Test for one image

Select standard gray image lena sized 512`512.

1) visual imperceptibility and data embedding capacity

The comparison between carrier image and stegano-

graphic image as Figure 4, the PSNR that steganography

induced is 38.0391dB, the embedded dates are 700864bit,

which is equivalent to 43804 Chinese characters. Then the

design has good visual imperceptibility and high data

embedding capacity.

Figure 4. the image lena before and after steganography

2) complexity histogram and discontinuity measure

235

0 20 40 60 80 100

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Block complexity C

O

c

c

u

r

r

e

n

c

e

t

i

m

e

s

before steganography

after steganography

(a) complexity histogram before and after steganography

0 10 20 30 40 50

-300

-200

-100

0

100

200

300

Block complexity C

V

a

l

u

e

o

f

d

before steganography

after steganography

(b) discontinuity measure before and after steganography

Figure 5. complexity histogram and discontinuity measure before and

after steganography

We can see that, there is no obvious difference in

complexity histogram and discontinuity measure before and

after steganography. Then the design has high security.

B. Test for serious images

Select serious standard gray images sized 512`512, test

results as Table 2.

TABLE II. Statistics of visual imperceptibility and data embedding capacity

Tmu_· \um· '·uu µ·µµ··: ·ouµ'· z·'du ··o»d tuul _o'dh`'' t·u·l

·m|·dd`u_

·uµu·`t)

¹|`t:)

¯008b+ ¯+8??+ ¯¯8¯9? b¯+880 b!!0¯? ¯930?+ ¯¯b38+ ¯3¯8¯?

lS\k¹db)

38.039! 3¯.¯3+3 3¯.?8+! 39.¯!¯0 38.++bb 3b.9¯¯¯ 3b.9¯99 3¯.9?b0

According to the statistics of these images, the average

PSNR is 37.8328dB, and the average embedding capacity is

724864 bits, which is equivalent to 45 thousand Chinese

characters. Then the design has good visual imperceptibility

and high data embedding capacity.

Besides, there is no obvious difference in complexity

histogram and discontinuity measure before and after

steganography. Then the design has high security.

C. Test for a text randomly selected from internet

It is a couple of contradiction between visual

imperceptibility and data embedding capacity, without

embedding full on (appropriate decrease of embedding

capacity), we can further enhance the visual imperceptibility

as required. As shown in Figure 6, the secret information is a

text about the introduction of Tang Jun randomly selected

from internet. There are 3072 characters in the text, and the

PSNR that steganography induced is 58.3274dB. After

validation, the accurate rate of the extraction is 100%.

Figure 6. The image lena before and after steganography

236

VII. CONCLUSION

The main performances of steganography include visual

imperceptibility and embedding capacity, The technique of

improved steganography text based on chaos and BPCS

apply to text secret information, the design has good visual

imperceptibility and high data embedding capacity, and furt-

hermore, it has a great advantage in resisting the analysis of

the steganalysis. By introducing chaos theory, it is

convenient to test the performance of steganography, and the

design has higher security and reliability. Results show that

the design of the paper has certain of theory value and

application value.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank the anonymous

reviewers for their valuable suggestions and thank the

authors of the references for their enlightenment. The work

described in this paper was supported by the Province Nature

Science Foundation of Tianjin (Grant NO. 08JCYBJC12800).

REFERENCES

[1] Bender W, Gruhl D, Morimoto N eta. Techniques for Data Hiding.

IBM System Journal, 1996, 35(3~4): 313~336.

[2] Petitcolas F A P, Anderson R J, Kuhn M G. Information hiding a

survey[J]. In: Proceedings of IEEE, 1999, 87(7): 1062-1078

[3] Wang S Z, Zhang X P, Zhang W M. Recent Advances in Image

Based Steganalysis Research[J].Chinese Journal Of Computer, 2009,

32 (7): 1247-1263

[4] ZHANG H L, ZHANG X Y. A secure BPCS steganography against

statistical analysis[C]. 8th International Conference on Signal

Processing. 2006: 990-992.

[5] Bu Y, Cao H Q. A modified algorithm of spatial BPCS steganogra-

phy[J]. Journal of Image and Graphics, 2008, 13(3): 406-410

[6] Zhang H L, Zhang X Y, Li L J. A New BPCS Steganography Against

Statistical Analysis[J]. 2007, 34(4): 68-72

[7] Wu J, Zhang R eta. Reliable Detection of BPCS Steganography[J].

Journal of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 2009,

32(4): 113-121

[8] ZHANG X P, WANG S Z. Statistical analysis against spatial BPCS

steganography[J] . Journal of Computer- Aided Design &Computer

Graphics, 2005,17(7):1625 – 1629.

[9] Hioki H.A data embedding method using BPCS principle with new

complexity measures[C]. Pacific Rim Workshop on Digital Stegano-

graphy, 2002.

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