You are on page 1of 7

DOWRY (DAHEJ

)

Definition of Dowry:Dowry or Dahej is the payment in cash or/and kind by the bride's family to the bridegroom’s family along with the giving away of the bride (called Kanyadaan) in Indian marriage. Kanyadanam is an important part of Hindu marital rites. Kanya means daughter, and Dana means gift.

Introduction:Dowry is practiced in our country long time ago. It is seen as easy demand of our society Moreover; people of village are used the term “demand” as usually. But we are laughing to hear the term from these illiterate people. But, when the bride’s family sends many things such as freeze, television and so on before the marriage, we think that the family is very cultural. Dowry is accepted socially through social custom in Bangladesh. Though the power among relationship of husband and wife in our familial structure is unidentified but strong in our society. The imbalanced power of husband in our family is naturally over wife. As a result, when the balance is hampered and used negatively, then happened the violence. If we observed recent day, one would not be surprised to find Bangladesh is in the first position in violence against women. Many of that violence come from dowry prohibition. Dowry related violence has proved to be highly complicated violence in Bangladesh. Due to dowry related violence many women have been killed and the rest victimized by physical and mental abuses. Sometime husband alone or in collaboration with in laws or with the help of other family members torture and kill wives for failing the dowry demands. Dowry violence is the part of male’s power implement. Dowry completely demolishes the dignity of women and makes them very helpless in their so called homes. Total 1683 women were the victim of dowry related violence and during this time total 1088 women had been killed and other 440 women had gone through severe physical torture within 2002to 2006.Moreover, poverty, lack of awareness, uses of drug, social custom, prestige and other elements increased the violence. Dowry has no religious sanction & it is not very old. In fact it seems a recent phenomenon grown out of greed. It is also interesting to note that brides are often driven to suicide not by the husband but by the mother in law, sister in law, or other close relations.

Dowry is not very ancient origin. It assumed abnormal proportion in later items only. Among the ancient Hindus, the custom of dowry did exist in simpler from through under different names. This custom of giving presents at the time of marriage if a universal phenomenon & the same continues as such. Such type of custom prevails in India where parents of girl give presents to bride. The rational behind this presenting of gifts in the affection of parents towards their children in course of time, they said custom has grown rigid & became associated with the social status & family prestige leading to grate social evil. In the Hindu society dowry may be in any form but it is regarded to be a sacrament tie and an indissoluble union of flash and bone to be continued even in the next world. In the Brahma from of marriage, Varadakhina was used to be given like a gift in the olden days. In assure form, Kayna Sukla was prevalent and without the bride price marriage was not approve then. Similarly, another view was taken by Justice Patanjali Sastri, who said ,gift given to girl is having support of Hindu Sastra and meant only for girl. He custom of dowry thus originated from Hindu system in the form of a gift but later on changed in shape and extended in marriage system of all other religions. In one way dowry become a price of the bridegroom in the marriage market. Though women were victim of various dowry related violence, it were not recognized till half past of the century. By 19771978, it could be raised that most of the marriage women who were registered as accidental deaths or causes of suicides were in fact murder or induced suicides. Further probe into such cases revealed that large percentage of such cases involved newly marriage girls and postmarriage dowry demands in cash and kind had been important factors in their harassments. Everyone knew that the root cause of such death was greed for more and more dowry. Therefore such death began to be called dowry deaths. The modern dowry system has realized gargantum properties; it however had a humble beginning, as stray incidents show. A groom would refuse to precede with the marriage rituals half way through unless the demand for a cycle, a radio, a watch, was not met. The girl’s parents succumbed to this hold up due to social and economic pressure as in olden days marriage was the only career of women. Parents were always too eager to get their daughters married lest they remain a burden on the family.

Objectives of the study:The aims of the study are the position of a woman into a family for dowry how much dowry is responsible for violence. We know that girls are victim of various violence and a significant part is come from home members. Marriage is a change of a lifestyle of women and lives with new inmate. So I have various objectives. Main objectives are given as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. To find out the root causes of dowry related violence. To find out the impact of dowry in the relationship of women with her family. To find out the feelings of security of a women after marriage. To find out the nature of violence for dowry demand.

5. To find out the effect of legal system in resisting dowry violence. 6. To find out the socio-demographic position of a women who are victim of violence.

Statement of the problem:Dowry is a widespread & growing problem in practically all societies. No society, even no area, especially in rural area is not free from this bad practice. Disputes over dowry payments led to numerous causes of “dowry violence” against bride, resulting in injuries & even death. Dowry has widely criticized legally banned, but a few people are conscious about the bad effects of our society in rural setting. Though it effects is large so it is the best time to control it & create consciousness about it as early as possible. Otherwise the balance position of our society in our rural setting is reduced bridegroom’s interest is increased day by day for taking dowry randomly. The bad effects of dowry not only fall on rural women but also fall on children. As a result most of the children of our rural setting s are involved unlawful activities from very childhood & crime rate is increased day by day. So it is the main duty to change our mind. Otherwise we face grate crisis & this practice is continued. By violence is meant any action that compels any other persons to act against own will. It encompasses all forms ranging from physical violence to verbal, emotional, psychological abuse. Domestic violence against women, dory violence has been common in all areas of Bangladesh. But its rate is much higher in rural settings than urban area. Their husband for dowry tortures women. According to the CPD’s study of violence against women shows that - “about one fourth of the households had sell property, about 3l% had borrow money from money Landers to arrange for the dowry money. A wide majority among belonging to age group 15-24 years were found to face constant pressure for further dowry. Young wives whose family can’t meet their husband demand for dowry might be abounded, divorced, tortured, attacked with acid & even murdered. Dowry is also closely related with women in productive activities. Since women are regarded as an unproductive burden, dowry is given to bridegroom as compensation. As to methods of killing women for dowry, 54 percent was accounted for by beating, 34 percent by physical torture, which add up to a gruesome 88 percent of deaths by direct physical violence, while the remaining 12 percent of deaths were caused by use of acid & poison. Basically, in the rural side of our country in every moment their husband for dowry tortures women. As a result the favorable situation of our rural setting is threaded victimization rate is increased. The violence of dowry also impacts on their children, whether they only witness of violence. This impact includes behavioral problems, which are often associated with child management problems, schooling problems, lack of peer relation.

Review of the related literature on Dowry:-

Literature on dowry related violence’s are very limited as the victim of that violence’s do not want to give any information related to dowry. They are fear of giving such information. Woman is fear of husband’s family in case of dowry death or attempt to suicide for dowry. Again, in case of dowry torture, burning and beating, she does not give information as she must live with the husband’s family. Women are always feared of becoming helpless as she they are not well accepted to their parental home after their marriage without husband. Though there is much limitation, there is some literature which is given below related to violence’s Uttar Pradesh, India, 1984; 162 dowry deaths, bride burning and suicide took place. Maharashtra, India; Dowry deaths were 124 in 1984, 136 in1985 and 32 in the first three months of 1984. Crimes in India; In 1981, in this country there were 6587 deaths of women due to burning and this rose to 7314 in 1982.Dowry death registered 220% increase in 1982 over 1980. Orissa, India, 1990; There were 261 dowry cases reported. In the year 2006 a total 323 women had been victimized of the dowry related violence and among them, 243 women had been killed by their husbands or in laws. In 2005, total dowry related violence; victims were 382 women and among them 227 were killed due to that violence. In 2004, total166 women had been killed and total 1270 were the victim of such violence. In 2003, total 261 women were killed of 384 victims. In2002, Total 191 had been killed when 324 were victimized of dowry related violence. So from statistical analysis dowry relate violence and killing in Bangladesh from 2002-2006 are 324 and 191. Official Release in India; There were 2690 dowry deaths in 1976 and 2917 in 1977.So record said that dowry was increasing though previous year. Police Record, Delhi, India; 690 women died in 1983 of which 290 were between 18-25 years of age, out of this 23 were alleged dowries burning in Delhi alone. Female Law Organization, 2002;

144 female were murdered by her husband, 25 of them were murdered by in law of husband.58 females were severely hurt by her husband and 112 were suicide for husband’s molestation. August 2004 in Bangladesh; 51 women were victim of violence because of dowry related problems, of which 25 were killed, 15 were tortured, and 4 died by suicide.

Case studies:Case 1: Selina is victim of dowry violence. She lives in Charabari in a poor family whose father earning money as a day laborer. They are three sisters & two brothers. In very early age her marriage is conducted with Rabin by side of her village, who earns money as a shopkeeper. Though he was a shopkeeper but he demands dowry as 30,000/=. Though Salina’s father is a day laborer but completing her marriage her father was agreed with this. After the married Salina’s father is died. For this reason she can’t pay full money as dowry. Only for dowry they always quarrel with each other. His husband always tortures her for dowry. Sometimes he threats her if she can’t pay money he will divorce him. But Selina has nothing to do. Once a day her husband went away another place nothing to say her. She is now completely alone. She doesn’t know what she will do. Case 2: Boby was a daughter of a labor named Hikmot Mia of village Porabari. But unfortunately her father was died and she becomes orphan. One day her marriage was happened with labor, Abul Hasan in side village. Boby’s husband was expecting dowry about 20,000 taka to her uncles within one year. Boby was strongly rebuked for not to giving the money. At last he began to beating her for dowry. Case 3: Nurunnahar ,a girl of village Porabari. She is 25 years aged women. She was living in Santosh.Her father was farmer and her mother was housewife. Her father had three daughters and one son. He had one bigha land of his own. Nurunnahar was studied till five classes. When he was 14 years old she was married with a farmer named Altaf Mia of her near another village named Porabari. When her marriage was happened the husband demands 50000 taka as dowry. Her father fulfilled 25000 taka at the time of marriage. Again rest of the dowry was fulfilled after one year. But Altaf Mia had one acre land and sold that for gambling. As a result he becomes poor. Then he tries to pressure his wife for 25000 taka again. But the father of Nurunnar was harmed for giving previous dowry and become poor. He cannot fulfilled more demand. Altaf Mia rebuked Nurunnar. The tortures become increased day by day. Often he has beaten her for taking money. Altaf’s father and mother encourage him for taking money as dowry. One day Altaf seriously injured her with bamboo. She needs to take hospital for treatment and her hand was broken. She came back to her house after this incident. But she went back to her husband’s family with 5000 taka. Though she was seriously injured, she cannot stay her father family as pressure of her family.

Conclusion:Women are physically weak Again; they are mentally and socially become weak for socialization process. Society labels them like that. Dowry is a gift for bridegroom by bride through social custom. As men are in dominated portion and women tolerate this which leads dowry violence. As dowry is a gain for something, it is easy way to gain something. Again, socio-economic factors are related to dowry violence. Excessive greed, poverty, unemployment, social custom, and prestige are the main causes for dowry violence .Moreover ineffectiveness of law and silence action of law are significantly responsible for violence. In most cases, women do not inform as she need to stay with the husband and husband’s family. Lack of social security of women also leads violence as women are bound to marriage someone in her life. Abetting of other members and dependency on others are responsible for the vulnerable situation pf women which create dowry violence. violence. Greed of material and monorail gain is another reason for dowry. As human being is a nature of taking something through pressure and dowry is a social custom which encourage them for taking more without own achievement. Again family member with husband is stable in a dominated role. It encourages them to gain something with stress and social custom. Dowry related violence is common phenomenon for everybody. Dowry is a social custom. For the existence of human being man and women make a contract between them called marriage. Major economical problem of our society is poverty which leads a man to take dowry through Dowry is a custom originated from Hindu custom. It is familiar in our country and allover Asia. Dowry related violence is the violence occurred for dowry. Various study mention that a significant part of domestic violence come from dowry problem. The violence is so much severe the results may be death, suicide, burning beating and various types of physical and mental torture. Dowry violence is a way of gain something. So, greed for material and monorail gain is a major cause for dowry through the respondents. Again domination, social custom, poverty, prestige and unemployment are another cause for dowry violence. In society the violence of dowry originates either from a sacred bond or from a social contract and committed by near relatives, who live under one roof. As it is committed lonely apartments of husband’s house, and both families of husband and wife are social recognitions and relationships, practicably it is improbable to get evidence for success of the prosecution. In these crimes, perpetrators get the benefit of dowry property, but due to prosecution failures, they are acquitted in long drown legal battles and escape punishments. For the change of this situation we should precede with newer process. There are various recommendations for curbing dowry violence. The recommendations are the followings: 1. The women should be conscious about their rights. 2. The women should not tolerate the violence. 3. State should take swift technology to give aid women for violence.

4. Various human rights organization should take advance facilities for counseling women. 5. Women should educated and enter into empowerment. 6. Legal agency should take special program for curbing the violence. 7. Poverty reduction is the most important step for stop of violence. 8. Excessive empowerment can reduce the violence. 9. Eradicate dowry as social custom is another way to stop violence. 10. Giving and taking dowry should stop nationally. 11. Special helping agency should create for dowry victim as dowry is the root cause for domestic violence.

THE END