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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resourceefficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close cooperation of the design team, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Although new technologies are constantly being developed to complement current practices in creating greener structures, the common objective is that green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:  Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources  Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity  Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Other related topics include sustainable design and green architecture. Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Although some green building programs don't address the issue of the retrofitting existing homes, others do. Green construction principles can easily be applied to retrofit work as well as new construction.
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A 2009 report by the U.S. General Services Administration found 12 sustainably designed buildings cost less to operate and have excellent energy performance. In addition, occupants were more satisfied with the overall building than those in typical commercial buildings.

Goals of green building

Reducing environmental impact Green building practices aim to reduce the environmental impact of buildings, so the very first rule is: the greenest building is the building that doesn't get built. New construction almost always degrades a building site, so not building is preferable to building. The second rule is: every building should be as small as possible. The third rule is: do not contribute to sprawl (the tendency for cities to spread out in a disordered fashion). No matter how much grass you put on your roof, no matter how many energy-efficient windows, etc., you use, if you

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contribute to sprawl, you've just defeated your purpose. Urban infill sites are preferable to suburban "greenfield" sites. Buildings account for a large amount of land. According to the National Resources Inventory, approximately 107 million acres (430,000 km2) of land in the United States are developed. TheInternational Energy Agency released a publication that estimated that existing buildings are responsible for more than 40% of the world‘s total primary energy consumption and for 24% of global carbon dioxide emissions

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Government and European research and development programmes such as Joule/Thermie. When the four main principles set out above are taken into account.P. Many others see the issue purely in terms of energy efficiency or more specifically fuel efficiency and are largely unconcerned about the environmental impacts of the materials which they use to achieve reductions in gas. it becomes clear that the building materials industry. sometimes inhabit or build dreadful buildings using toxic materials and high embodied energy materials.I.CHAPTER 2 WHY GREEN BUILDING In order to understand the thinking behind green building principles it is necessary to remember why we should be so concerned with such issues in the construction industry. Save and Altener or the UK Clean Technology programme seem largely designed to encourage high technology development. their construction on site and then the pollution and energy wastage coming from buildings collectively has a surprisingly wider impact on the environment than most other human activities. of V. habitats and so on. the transport of materials and products. wildlife. The Vales have suggested that 66% of total UK energy consumption is accounted for by buildings and building construction and Civil Dept. Perhaps producing more energy from renewable sources and protecting wildlife and habitats is much more important? Indeed there are many who do not give green building a high priority. appear to attach a low priority to their built environment. It is surprising how many environmental groups. Groups concerned with the natural environment. for instance. oil and electricity bills. leading to new and more products and systems which will expand industry and create new markets. Sitasaongi 4 .

such as oil. destruction of natural habitats and so on. social and economic concernsby assessing a full range of impacts associated with all cradle-to-grave stages of a process: from extraction of raw materials through materials processing. toxic chemical manufacture and emissions.services. and disposal or recycling. if not the most important user of energy and resources in advanced society. Sitasaongi 5 .P. the last few years have seen a shift away from a prescriptive approach. which assumes that certain prescribed practices are better for the environment. water pollution. air pollution. of V. transportation etc. Life cycle assessment (LCA) A life cycle assessment (LCA) can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental. the loss of forested areas. is required. repair and maintenance. Impacts taken into account include (among others) embodied energy. tackling the built environment is going to go a long way to addressing these issues. Thus if we are concerned about ozone depletion. Major savings will not be achieved only by putting more insulation in homes or using low energy light bulbs. a much more fundamental review of all building materials production and construction methods. manufacture. In terms of green building. wastage of limited natural resources. and waste.10 Thus the importance of buildings and the construction industry has to be seen as one of the most. Civil Dept. gas and minerals. toward the scientific evaluation of actual performance through LCA. global warming potential.I. resource use. use. distribution.

ANSI/GBI 01-2010: Green Building Protocol for Commercial Buildings. it is not yet a consistent requirement of green building rating systems and codes. Sitasaongi 6 . despite the fact that embodied energy and other life cycle impacts are critical to the design of environmentally responsible buildings. In North America.P. Civil Dept. though a decision has not been made as to whether it will be incorporated fully into the next major revision. and is part of the new American National Standard based on Green Globes.Although LCA is widely recognized as the best way to evaluate the environmental impacts of buildings (ISO 14040 provides a recognized LCA methodology). LCA is rewarded to some extent in the Green Globes® rating system. The state of California also included LCA as a voluntary measure in its 2010 draft Green Building Standards Code. LCA is also included as a pilot credit in the LEED system.I. of V.

composed of a multitude of materials and components each constituting various design variables to be decided at the design stage. is one of the major steps in a project life cycle. building as a process is not as streamlined as an industrial process.I. The concept stage. Sitasaongi 7 . never repeating itself identically. A variation of every design variable may affect the environment during all the building's relevant life-cycle stages Energy efficiency Civil Dept. buildings are much more complex products. However. In addition. and varies from one building to the other. as it has the largest impact on cost and performance In designing environmentally optimal buildings. in fact.CHAPTER 3 EFFICIENCY OF GREEN BUILDING Siting and structure design efficiency The foundation of any construction project is rooted in the concept and design stages.P. of V. the objective is to minimize the total environmental impact associated with all life-cycle stages of the building project.

effective window placement (daylighting) can provide more natural light and lessen the need for electric lighting during the day.P. Solar water heating further reduces energy costs. of V. In addition. designers use details that reduce air leakage through the building envelope (the barrier between conditioned and unconditioned space). LCI Database Project show buildings built primarily with wood will have a lower embodied energy than those built primarily with brick. Civil Dept. ceilings. and floors. To reduce operating energy use. wind power. Designers orient windows and walls and place awnings. porches. Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. or biomass can significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building.S. is often implemented in low-energy homes.I. They also specify high-performance windows and extra insulation in walls. Another strategy. transport and install building materials and operating energy to provide services such as heating and power for equipment. As high-performance buildings use less operating energy. Sitasaongi 8 . and trees to shade windows and roofs during the summer while maximizing solar gain in the winter. Studies such as the U. concrete or steel. passive solar building design. hydro power. embodied energy has assumed much greater importance – and may make up as much as 30% of the overall life cycle energy consumption. process.An eco-house at Findhorn Ecovillage with a turf roof and solar panels Green buildings often include measures to reduce energy consumption – both the embodied energy required to extract.

calcium sand stone. Bidets help eliminate the use of toilet paper. used. flax linen. and reused on-site. expanded clay grains. panels made from paper flakes. seagrass. Point of use water treatment and heating improves both water quality and energy efficiency while reducing the amount of water in circulation. baked earth.g. The protection and conservation of water throughout the life of a building may be accomplished by designing for dual plumbing that recycles water in toilet flushing. Trass.Water efficiency Reducing water consumption and protecting water quality are key objectives in sustainable building. wood fibre plates. renewable. Sitasaongi 9 . vermiculite. The use of non-sewage andgreywater for on-site use such as site-irrigation will minimize demands on the local aquifer Materials efficiency Building materials typically considered to be 'green' include lumber from forests that have been certified to a third-party forest standard. recycled stone. and other products that are non-toxic. Linoleum.I. purified. of V. adobe. One critical issue of water consumption is that in many areas. clay. reusable. sheep wool. sisal. rammed earth. coconut. concrete (high and ultra Civil Dept.. cork. Waste-water may be minimized by utilizing water conserving fixtures such as ultra-low flush toilets and low-flow shower heads. the demands on the supplying aquifer exceed its ability to replenish itself. rapidly renewable plant materials like bamboo and straw. and/or recyclable (e. reducing sewer traffic and increasing possibilities of re-using water on-site. compressed earth block.P. recycled metal (see: copper sustainability and recyclability). To the maximum extent feasible. facilities should increase their dependence on water that is collected.dimension stone.

less noise and dust. dry cleaners. The LEED IEQ category addresses design and construction guidelines especially: indoor air quality (IAQ). one of the five environmental categories. Energy efficient building materials and appliances are promoted in the United States through energy rebate programs. which are increasingly communicated to consumers through energy rebate database services such as GreenOhm. etc. of V. maximising recycling (because manufacture is in one location). filtered air as well as isolated operations (kitchens. and lighting quality.high performance. was created to provide comfort.) The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) also suggests using recycled industrial goods. foundry sand. During the design and construction process choosing construction Civil Dept. etc. roman self-healing concrete). Indoor environmental quality enhancement The Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) category in LEED standards. thermal quality. well-being. Indoor Air Quality seeks to reduce volatile organic compounds.P. better OHS management. and productivity of occupants. building elements should be manufactured off-site and delivered to site. such as coal combustion products. Where possible. and other air impurities such as microbial contaminants. high quality elements. or VOCs. Sitasaongi 10 .) from other occupancies. and demolition debris in construction projects Building materials should be extracted and manufactured locally to the building site to minimize the energy embedded in their transportation. Buildings rely on a properly designed ventilation system (passively/naturally or mechanically powered) to provide adequate ventilation of cleaner air from outdoors or recirculated.I. to maximise benefits of off-site manufacture including minimising waste.

and productivity. some of them toxic. particularly flooring. cleaning. A well-insulated and tightly sealed envelope will reduce moisture problems but adequate ventilation is also necessary to eliminate moisture from sources indoors including human metabolic processes. no other VOCs. such as many VOCs including formaldehyde. are often specified in environments where occupants are known to have allergies to dust or other particulates. Personal temperature and airflow control over the HVAC system coupled with a properly designed building envelope will also aid in increasing a building's thermal quality. Most building materials and cleaning/maintenance products emit gases. These gases can have a detrimental impact on occupants' health. HQ and Green Star contain specifications on use of low-emitting interior. Also important to indoor air quality is the control of moisture accumulation (dampness) leading to mold growth and the presence of bacteria and viruses as well as dust mites and other organisms and microbiological concerns. bathing. BREEAM limits formaldehyde emissions.materials and interior finish products with zero or low VOC emissions will improve IAQ. and other activities. Solid wood products. The Asthma and Allergy Civil Dept. cooking. Avoiding these products will increase a building's IEQ.P. Water intrusion through a building's envelope or water condensing on cold surfaces on the building's interior can enhance and sustain microbial growth. Draft LEED 2012 is about to expand the scope of the involved products. LEED. comfort. of V. Sitasaongi 11 . Creating a high performance luminous environment through the careful integration of daylight and electrical light sources will improve on the lighting quality and energy performance of a structure.I. Wood itself is considered to be hypo-allergenic and its smooth surfaces prevent the buildup of particles common in soft finishes like carpet.

Foundation of American recommends hardwood. vinyl. linoleum tile or slate flooring instead of carpet.I.P. Sitasaongi 12 . Every aspect of green building is integrated Civil Dept. Ensuring operations and maintenance(O&M) personnel are part of the project's planning and development process will help retain the green criteria designed at the onset of the project. it can only remain so if it is operated responsibly and maintained properly. Interactions among all the indoor components and the occupants together form the processes that determine the indoor air quality. The use of wood products can also improve air quality by absorbing or releasing moisture in the air to moderate humidity. Operations and maintenance optimization No matter how sustainable a building may have been in its design and construction. of V.

by providing on-site solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills. in California nearly 60% of the state's waste comes from commercial buildings During the construction phase. it is in the O&M phase that green practices such as recycling and air quality enhancement take place. owner/operators and individuals/homeowners looking for information on wood recycling. For example. The addition of new green technologies also falls on the O&M staff. of V.into the O&M phase of a building's life. To reduce the amount of wood that goes to landfill.com. construction and demolition phases of a building's life-cycle. The site includes a variety of resources for regulators. Sitasaongi 13 . Waste reduction Green architecture also seeks to reduce waste of energy. they are typically demolished and hauled to landfills.I. Deconstruction is a method of harvesting what is commonly considered "waste" and reclaiming it into useful building material. developers. municipalities. Extending the Civil Dept. Neutral Alliance (a coalition of government.P. When buildings reach the end of their useful life. Well-designed buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well. one goal should be to reduce the amount of material going to landfills. NGOs and the forest industry) created the website dontwastewood. water and materials used during construction. contractors. Although the goal of waste reduction may be applied during the design.

Photo-voltaics. wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing machines. Also.. Civil Dept. Practices like these provide soil with organic nutrients and create carbon sinks that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. new appliances.g. but yield 10 times as much over the entire life of the building. several options exist. of V. This concept was demonstrated by a settlement in Lubeck Germany in the late 1990s. Sitasaongi 14 . higher worker or student productivity can be factored into savings and cost deductions. It is projected that different sectors could save $130 Billion on energy bills.I. offsetting greenhouse gas emission. Centralized wastewater treatment systems can be costly and use a lot of energy. Producing artificial fertilizer is also more costly in energy than this process. "Greywater". for non-potable purposes. and modern technologies tend to cost more money. Most green buildings cost a premium of <2%. can be used for subsurface irrigation. By collecting human waste at the source and running it to a semi-centralized biogas plant with other biological waste. liquid fertilizer can be produced. To reduce the impact on wells or water treatment plants.useful life of a structure also reduces waste – building materials such as wood that are light and easy to work with make renovations easier. The savings in money come from more efficient use of utilities which result in decreased energy bills. life-cycle cost. which avoids these costs and shows other benefits. Cost and payoff The most criticized issue about constructing environmentally friendly buildings is the price. The stigma is between the knowledge of up-front costvs. An alternative to this process is converting waste and wastewater into fertilizer. or if treated. to flush toilets and wash cars. Rainwater collectors are used for similar purposes.P. e.

are sets of rules created by standards development organizations that establish minimum requirements for elements of green building such as materials or heating and cooling. building professionals and consumers embrace green building with confidence. a number of organizations have developed standards. The number of credits generally determines the level of achievement. Civil Dept. codes and rating systems that let government regulators. They award credits for optional building features that support green design in categories such as location and maintenance of building site.Regulation and operation As a result of the increased interest in green building concepts and practices. codes are written so local governments can adopt them as bylaws to reduce the local environmental impact of buildings. energy. of V. conservation of water. such as the International Code Council‘s draft International Green Construction Code. Sitasaongi 15 .I. and building materials. Green building codes and standards.P. In some cases. DGNB (Germany) and CASBEE (Japan) help consumers determine a structure‘s level of environmental performance. Green building rating systems such as BREEAM (United Kingdom). and occupant comfort and health. LEED (United States and Canada).

Sitasaongi 16 . of V. During non-daylight-hours lighting is provided by lowconsumption eco friendly lighting by LED lights.Recycle. CFL bulbs.Water Conservation Features. Natural Light is used extensively for lighting majority of the building/factory during daylight hours. The waste water. Water and Fire (energy source) For ―Air‖ the mantra is defined as enabling Green Buildings/factories to have uninterrupted access to fresh / clean air inside the building while generating clean Civil Dept. Care is taken to ensure low dependence on the ground-water table and/or any other municipal source of water. is used in the buildings‘ vicinity for purposes of greening the areas inside and outside. Solar generated power-backed lighting. Green Buildings/Factories ensure that they have uninterrupted access to fresh / clean water for drinking and grey water for Bathrooms and facility management. recycle and reuse‖ is importantly addressed in Green Buildings for three basic requirements – Air. if any. The Mantra ―reduce.I. reused and disposed-off judiciously. Reuse & Recharge Water‖ management in Green Buildings/Factories is critical.P. While great attention to detail is given to ensure that the waste water generated is treated.

Similarly for ―Water‖ the mantra in Green Buildings/Factories is to have uninterrupted access to fresh / clean water inside the building while generating lowest possible levels of waste water. Again. the idea is to innovatively use design. Sitasaongi 17 . if any. of V. Though most countries / continents have their own ratings system but all translate into one slogan – reduce. technology.P.I. sustainable practices to ensure fresh / clean water inside and outside the building/factory. commercial and personal use have become virtually mandatory in every country.air in its vicinity (while being constructed or later when the building is being used by its occupants) The idea is simply to innovatively use design. recycle and reuse Civil Dept. sustainable practices to ensure fresh / clean air inside and outside the building. technology. Energy ratings for all machines industrial. be used in the buildings vicinity for purposes of greening the areas inside and outside. construction practices and when occupied. The waste water. To lower dependence on the ground-water table and/or any other municipal source of water. construction practices and when occupied.

originated from the need and desire for more energy efficient and environmentally friendly construction practices. employed in green building are constantly evolving and may differ from region to region. and social benefits. and reduction of rainwater run-off.S. Green building brings together a vast array of practices. Energy Efficiency.I. of V. and Waste and Toxics Civil Dept. Sitasaongi 18 . Indoor Environmental Quality Enhancement. e.g.The green building movement in the U. rain gardens. techniques. or using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance replenishment of ground water. Operations and Maintenance Optimization. active solar. including environmental.P. this approach integrates the building life-cycle with each green practice employed with a design-purpose to create a synergy among the practices used. fundamental principles persist from which the method is derived: Siting and Structure Design Efficiency. and skills to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impacts of buildings on the environment and human health. such as using wood as a building material. However. While the practices. Materials Efficiency. or technologies. There are a number of motives for building green. using sunlight through passive solar. economic. and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs.CHAPTER 4 THE GREEN CONCEPT The concept of sustainable development can be traced to the energy (especially fossil oil) crisis and the environment pollution concern in the 1970s. Water Efficiency. modern sustainability initiatives call for an integrated and synergistic design to both new construction and in the retrofitting of existing structures.. Many other techniques are used. It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources. Also known as sustainable design.

On the aesthetic side of green architecture or sustainable design is the philosophy of designing a building that is in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the site. optimize systems.  Main aim is to Civil Dept. Also. Sitasaongi 19 . With rising energy costs. increasing populations and diminishing resources.building practices help to create healthier and more resource – efficient models of:       Construction Renovation Operation Maintenance Demolition Green symbolizes environment friendly practices in all facets of human endeavor WHAT IS A GREEN BUILDING?  A green building depletes the natural resources to the minimum during its construction and operation. it is becoming increasingly important that business and individuals conserve or ―go green‖ Green – or sustainable.P. with the proper synergistic design. reduce loads. The essence of green building is an optimization of one or more of these principles.Reduction. There are several key steps in designing sustainable buildings: specify 'green' building materials from local sources. and generate on-site renewable energy.I. tightening budgets. individual green building technologies may work together to produce a greater cumulative effect. of V.

o Water and waste management o Selection of ecologically sustainable materials(with high recycled content. lighting. minimize the demand on non renewable resources  maximize the utilization efficiency of these resources. Sitasaongi 20 .) o Indoor environmental quality WHY MAKE A GREEN BUILDING? All over the world we are finally beginning to recognize the threat that building construction is posing to the civilization. the following aspects of building design are looked into an integrated way in a green building: o Site planning o Building envelope design o Building system design (HVAC. of V. ventilation and air conditioning. heating .  Uses efficient equipments to meet its lighting.  In sum. rapidly renewable resources with low emission potential. air condition and other needs  Use efficient waste and water management practices  Provides comfortable and hygienic indoor working conditions.I. Buildings have major environmental impacts over their life cycle. when in use  maximize the reuse.  Optimizes the use of on-site resources sinks by bio-climatic architectural practices.P. electrical and water heating) o Integration of renewable energy resources to generate energy on site. There are various problems arising in the present scenario: Civil Dept. etc. recycle and utilization of renewable resources.

steel and other raw materials 1 acre gets developed every 12 seconds!!! PROBLEM 2.I.P. of V. Building contribute 40-50% of green house gas (GHG) emissions 2. Building creates 65% of all solid waste.BUILDING POLLUTE: 1.PROBLEM 1. 90-95% of construction and demolition waste could be recycled Civil Dept.BUILDINGS CONSUME: 40% of all energy  71% of all electricity  50% of all gas demand  12% of all fresh water  88% of all potable water  40% of all wood. Sitasaongi 21 .

 Indoor pollution often 2-100 times worse than outdoors PROBLEM 3.Figure A pie chart showing the percentage of construction waste obtained from various activities.IMPACT OF ASIA ON GLOBAL WARMING In next 25 to 30 years 1. CO2 emissions will increase more than three fold 3. of V. Energy consumption of developing Asian countries will more than double 2. Sitasaongi 22 .I. Electricity generation in asian countries is expected to make the greatest contribution to CO2 emmisions SOLUTION IS A GREEN SUSTAINABLE BUILDING  Energy efficiency is the most effective way to address climate change Civil Dept.P.

reduce energy usage and life cycle cost . Who knows. a building would last for a 50 years or 60 years or 100 years! Over its life cycle. The incremental cost is always relative and depends on the extent of eco-friendly features already considered during design. Sitasaongi 23 . The cost could be slightly higher than conventional building. Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of additional energy supply and the most cost effective way to reduce GHG  An efficient sustainable building will : . The incremental cost would appear small if the baseline design is already at a certain level of good eco-design. This kind of an approach could be revealing. It would appear huge if the base design has not considered green principals. The second and rather critical paradigm is to look at the incremental cost in relation to the life cycle cost.reduce use of water and consumption of natural resources ECONOMIC BENEFITS Green buildings are costlier REALITY: Considerable research and analysis has been carried out with regards to the cost impacts of a green building. the operating cost would work out to 80-85 % while the incremental cost which is one-time cost is only about 8-10% Civil Dept.I. this need to be seen in a different paradigm. of V.create a better environment for occupants . But then. The question is how do we compare the cost? There needs to be a baseline cost for all comparisons to be alike.P.

is the rate enough? And the answer is of course NO‗. It certainly needs more and more people‗s involvement to get visible and desired result. Sitasaongi 24 .GREEN BUILDING MOVEMENT IN INDIA India is witnessing tremendous growth in infrastructure and construction development. Certainly. Here thousands of students come every year.P. The key is awareness. they Civil Dept.I. To increase the awareness what would be a better place than an educational institution. they learn. The construction industry in India is one of the largest economic activities and is growing at an average rate of 9. They stay. GREEN CONCEPT IN INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING The green movement is gaining momentum rapidly.5% as compared to the global average of 5%. of V. they need to know it to get involved. But. One can‗t blame anyone for noninvolvement if they aren‗t aware of green concept. The construction sector therefore needs to play its role and contribute towards environmental responsibility. preserving the environment poses lot of challenge and at the same time presents opportunities. As the sector is growing rapidly.

They too may start thinking green and finding out new and better green ways. of V. Material selection 5.P. Sitasaongi 25 . RATING SYSTEMS FOR GREEN BUILDINGS The United States Green Business Council (UGBC) has developed The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System. construction and operation of high performance green buildings. So if they get to see a live example of green initiative. They of course take their ideas with them and influence the people at their work place. LEED gives Building owners and operators the tools they need to have an immediate and measurable impact on their building‗s performance. Energy Efficiency 4. which in turn further increasing the awareness.I. but will be able to judge and see the benefits. And then thousands of students go out every year to different places of their work field. they won‗t only know. which is the internationally accepted benchmark for design. Water savings 3. Indoor Environmental Quality Civil Dept.grow here. It‗s the place to share new ideas and concepts. LEED promotes a whole building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in 5 key areas of human and environmental health 1. Sustainable site development 2.

seriously misleading. Sitasaongi 26 . in itself. ―to suggest that buildings and designs are themselves capable of creating sustainable societies could be. Others may believe that by designing green buildings that this is. Architects might similarly decide to adopt a green style of design without any fundamental concern for the underlying principles.LIMITATIONS OF GREEN BUILDING Another danger of eco-labelling and similar systems is that of ‗green consumerism‘ where some people decide to adopt a ‗green‘ life style which remains only superficial in its impact. for instance can generate electricity using the power of the sun and reducing our dependence on fossil fuels. sufficient to solve the world‘s environmental problems.P. but they are currently very expensive Civil Dept. of V. warning of a fetish of so-called environmentally friendly commodities which are simply new forms of consumer product. rather than simply being labelled green that makes the difference in green building practice. He argues for the need to change the relationships and processes which are causing the problem in the first place. to say the least. how they are manufactured and the impact that this has on society. Peter Dickens tells us of the danger of suggesting that green design can ―save the world‖. It is how materials and products are produced and then used.I. Photo-voltaic cells.‖17 Thus simply having a green image is dangerous without any understanding of where materials and products come from.

unless such a practice is making a sustainable contribution to a particular economy and can be justified in global terms. of V. Such costs are likely to reduce dramatically over the next few years.I.P.to produce and can hugely increase the embodied energy costs of a building. Civil Dept. but at present other solutions may be a lot less hi-tech and flashy. Sitasaongi 27 .18 Importing green products from around the world can also be hard to justify. but just as effective in reducing heating and electricity costs.

It is accepted that it should involve all parts of a product‘s life. Marks on each Table will only indicate poor records relative to other products on the same Table. The Green Building Handbook‘s Product Tables amalgamate these for ease of presentation. production. production and distribution are presented in the nine columns grouped under the heading ‗Production‘. and still contentious field. Those we have used are based on those used by other LCA professionals.CHAPTER 5 PRODUCT ANALYSIS & MATERIALS Specification Life Cycle Analysis The Green Building Handbook‘s Product Tables present a summary of the environmental impact of each product covered in an ‗easy-to-read‘ format. the last two. distribution. extraction. Life Cycle or ‗cradle-to-grave‘ analysis of a product‘s environmental impact is a relatively new. Civil Dept. Sitasaongi 28 . of V. extraction.I.P. so that issues involving the first three. but developed specifically for this particular use—presenting information about building products in a simple table format. which explain why each mark was made against each particular product. are presented together under the heading ‗Use‘. use and disposal. A circle in a column will indicate that we have discovered published comment on a particular aspect of a product‘simpact. The larger the circle the worse an environmental impact is thought to be (in the opinion of the author). Every mark on the product Table has a corresponding entry in the Product Analysis section. Less well accepted are the more detailed headings under which life cycle analysis is performed. use and disposal.

in the end the balancing of these different factors is a political rather than scientfic matter. Civil Dept. In the absence of information on other aspects of a product‘s environmental impact. for example. Energy Use More than 5% of the UK‘s total energy expenditure goes on the production and distribution of building materials.P. Sitasaongi 29 . These can only be counted as renewable resources if they are actually being renewed at the same rate as their depletion. and so are in limited supply for future generations.I. whether of timber in tropical forests or of productive land at home. if not already. 50g emission ozone depleting CFC with a hardtoquantify destruction of wildlife habitat. energy use is often taken to be an indicator of the total environmental impact. This energy is almost always in the form of nonrenewable fossil fuels. Resource Depletion (non-biological) Non-biological resources are necessarily non-renewable. Resource Depletion (biological) Biological resources. of V. This would entail trying to judge the relative importance of.The most fundamental problem with LCA is in trying to come up with a single aggregate ‗score‘ for each product. processing. can all be destroyed by industrial activity. production and distribution of a product. These include all minerals dug from the ground or the sea bed. Production This group heading covers the extraction.

Sitasaongi 30 . the subsequent in-situ life and the final disposal of a product. Hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions are chiefly responsible. none of which can ever be completely traced or understood. material and human health. causing damage to ecosystems and to the built environment. Toxics Toxic emissions. Use This group heading covers the application at the site. nitrous oxides and methane. and low-level ozone. Civil Dept.I. Other No ‗check-list‘ can ever cover all aspects of environmental impact. causing damage to vegetation. Acid Rain A serious environmental problem.P. Ozone Depletion The use of CFCs and other ozone-depleting gases in industrial processes still continues despite many practicable alternatives. of V. See the specific Product Analysis section for an explanation of each case under this heading. Photochemical Oxidants The cause of modern-day smog. Caused mainly by emissions of the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen. can have serious environmental effects. to land.Global Warming Global warming by the greenhouse effect is caused chiefly by the emission of carbon dioxide. CFCs. water or air.

in use or after. See the specific Product Analysis section for an explanation of each case.Energy Use Nearly 50% of the UK‘s total energy consumption is in heating. Civil Dept. and therefore potential savings. Recycling/Reuse/Disposal When a building finally has to be altered or demolished the overall environmental impact of a product is significantly affected by whether or not it can and will be reused. is listed here on the Table.I. repaired or recycled. of V.P. lighting and otherwise serving building. Durability/Maintenance A product that is short lived or needs frequent maintenance causes more impact bthan one built to last. The potential impact. or that we have come across in the literature that is not dealt with elsewhere. Alert Anything that we feel deserves special emphasis. Health Hazards Certain products cause concerns about their health effects either during building. are enormous. or if it will bio-degrade. Sitasaongi 31 . Other Again no list like this can ever be complete.

many builders and design professionals utilize green building methods.S. there are also disadvantages to consider. These technologies create a healthier and Civil Dept. and building materials. of V. LEED is a nationally accepted benchmark for producing high-performance green buildings. Construction employers and design professionals should take the following items into consideration: Efficient technologies: Green buildings incorporate energy and water efficient technologies that are not as readily available in traditional buildings. water. Green Building Council. water savings. including: sustainable site development. while taking into consideration the building impacts on human health and the environment. an initiative developed by the U. Various programs throughout the U. encourage professionals within the construction industry to utilize green building methods.CHAPTER 6 ADVANTAGES &DISADVANTAGES OF GREEN BUILDING Advantages To preserve natural resources and reduce environmental wastes.I. Green building focuses on the efficiency of resources including energy.S.P. and indoor environment quality. The initiative takes into account a five-step approach to building. The most prominent program is Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). material selection. Sitasaongi 32 . energy efficiency. Although many benefits are involved with green building.

resources. the indoor air quality is improved via natural and healthy materials: green buildings utilize clean energy sources such as solar and wind power. Easier maintenance: Green buildings typically involve less maintenance. For example. green buildings generally do not require exterior painting every three to five years: this simple method helps saves the environment. as well as a consumer time and money. Improved indoor air quality: With green buildings. Energy efficiency: Green building methods make the most out of energy.P.more comfortable environment as they utilize renewable energy. can yield a strong return on investment and lead to higher resale values. Sitasaongi 33 . As enforced by The Department of Energy (DOE). of V. and decrease heating and cooling expenses. reduce waste. certain green building measures. rather than burning coal.I. builders and design professionals Civil Dept. such as installing solar panels or doubling the amount of installation. and materials. Return on investment: Considering the average lifecycle of a building (50-100 years).

Civil Dept.I.P. Tax incentives: Incentives exist on a local. Sitasaongi 34 . visitBuilding to Energy Code. For more information. and federal level to support building green initiatives. state.must adhere to energy code requirements. of V.

drainage or water storage. blinds. and roof support. green roofs are comprised of multiple layers including a vegetation layer. Civil Dept. Green roofs: In general. green building may demand structural positioning opposite of other neighborhood homes. differences in structural orientation will affect how natural daylight enters the building structure: with this in mind there may be a need to install more overhangs. In addition. of V. growing medium. causing friction among neighbors. Since they are usually heavier than a traditional roof.Disadvantages Cost: Many believe the costs associated with green building make the building methods cost-prohibitive. or shades. Structural Orientation: In order to best optimize sun exposure. consumers do not have a precise mechanism to increase or decrease exact temperatures: This is a difficult hurdle for many green building occupants to overcome. such as natural ventilation. insulation. builders need to improve upon the existing roof‘s strength in order to install a green roof. Sitasaongi 35 . Air Cooling Features: When utilizing green building cooling components.P.I. a waterproofing membrane.

in regards to green building. have not fully solidified. it is advisable to seek experienced legal counsel in order to avoid costly liabilities.I. Sitasaongi 36 .Labor Laws: Labor law compliance requirements. Civil Dept. For this reason. of V.P.

I.P. but don‘t be afraid to innovate Civil Dept. Sitasaongi 37 .CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS Green Building Certifications present a moving target Critical to work with clients early and continuously to determine goals and objectives Focus on objective performance measures and clear allocation of risks and responsibilities Green building issues are presented in nearly every phase of development – look for opportunities to improve old practices and ―boiler plate‖ Don‘t get bogged down. of V.

). [Internet. Z. 6th Nordic symposium. Architectural press. Inc. Dekay.BIBLIOGRAPHY i. ―Sun. of V. ―Thermal Behavior of Buildings in Warm and Humid Climatic Conditions‖. vi. vii. John Wiley & sons. [Accessed: 20 February 2011] Brown.(2007) ―Sustainability at cutting edge‖ –Emerging technology for low energy building. Sweden). Vol 3. Indian Journal of Science And Technology. ―Passive and low energy cooling of buildings‖ (U. v. wind and light: architectural design strategies‖. 2001. P.. Basam. Indian Institute of Technology F. ―Ground water response to artificial recharge of rainwater‖. WWW]. Caroline.. Baruch. John Wiley & sons. Master‗s thesis.P.. G. (Canada. Givoni.I. iii. 2001. TERI & TVPL. (Building physics. ADDRESS: http://newlearn. ii. iv. (2008) ―Environmental Building Guidelines for Greater Hyderabad‖— Ver. Behsh.S.) Lobo. Inc. 1994. ―Building form as an option for enhancing the indoor thermal conditions‖. Sitasaongi 38 .1. Ravichandran S and Karunakaran K. Civil Dept.info/learn/packages/clear/thermal/buildings/configuration/images/form thermalperformance.A. Smith. M. Burlington. 1995.1 Mahesh Kumar L.pdf.