Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions

Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake)

21.09.2010

Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS / INTRODUCTION This set of instructions has been adapted by myself (Rebecca Drake) from a document produced by Strathclyde University. The original document was developed as a piece of final year research in association with EWB-UK to develop “a low cost housing solution that utilised bamboo as a structural member”. The work was carried out by Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis & Gavin Leake over the academic year 2009-10 supervised by Carmen Torres Sanchez. I visited rural Maharashtra over the summer of 2010 and as part of an engineering teaching placement made a bamboo house with students from an impoverished village. The house was built using the original assembly instructions as a guideline, they were however adapted in the field to suit local conditions and availability of materials & skills. Thus, this document is a record of the alterations that were made and any further suggestions post-construction of the house. The alterations have been made in order for the document to be returned to rural India (Warwati & Ambajogai, Maharashtra) for further houses to be built by the community [it was confirmed on my departure that further building would take place following the example created over the summer 2010] and for further research to be carried out under the supervision of Carmen Sanchez. CONTENTS 1.0 Parts List ................................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 Bamboo Culms ............................................................................................................ 3 1.2 Connection Plates ....................................................................................................... 4 1.3 Connection Straps ....................................................................................................... 5 1.4 Roof & Wall Material ................................................................................................... 6 1.5 Foundation Materials ................................................................................................. 6 2.0 Construction ............................................................................................................................ 7 2.1 Site Location & Levelling ................................................................................................ 7 2.2 Foundation ................................................................................................................... 7 2.3 Columns ...................................................................................................................... 9 2.4 Beams ......................................................................................................................... 9 2.5 Diagonal Support Struts ................................................................................................. 10 2.6 Roof Frame .................................................................................................................. 10 2.7 Roof Covering ............................................................................................................... 11 2.8 Walls ........................................................................................................................... 12 3.0 Modular Construction ............................................................................................................ 12 4.0 Maintenance & Lifespan........................................................................................................ 13 2

Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions 1.0 Parts List 1.1 Bamboo Culms Bamboo culms can be sourced from the local market (expect roughly 50Rs per piece), generally bamboo over 3-4inches is very difficult to find locally; a minimum diameter (3 inches) at the larger end is specified. Culms should be picked carefully to ensure:  Minimum diameter 3 inches  Culms straight as possible  No cracks or splits  No insects or evidence of insects (small holes)  Relatively heavy pieces (rotten & weak if very light)

PART C1 DIAGONAL SUPPORT STRUTS C2 COLUMNS & ROOF ARMS C3 BEAMS & ROOF BEAM C4 ROOF SUPPORT STRUTS TOTAL LENGTH Minimum Bamboo Culm Diameter

LENGTH / metre 2.7 2.3 2.0 1.7 53.9 76mm

LENGTH / feet 8.9 7.6 6.6 5.6 177.9 3inches

QUANTITY 5 10 7 2

The maximum required length of bamboo is 53.6metres or 177.9feet, thus 10 culms are the minimum number required, but it is advised to purchase 12 culms (600Rs) in order to allow for discrepancies in the quality of the bamboo. Most of the ends of the bamboo will be too thin to use meaning there will be some necessary waste of material to ensure overall strength of the structure. Bamboo culms normally come in a length of 18feet, thus the most economical method of cutting the correct lengths (above) out of the total 12 culm’s is as follows:      2 number (2.7m + 2.3m) or 2 number (8’9” + 7’6”) 1 number (2.7m + 2.0m) or 1 number (8’9” + 6’6”) 2 number (2.7m + 1.7m) or 2 number (8’9” + 5’6”) 1 number (2.3m + 2.3m) or 1 number (7’6” + 6’6”) 6 number (2.3m + 2.0m) or 6 number (7’6” + 7’6”) 2 1 2 1 6
2.7m 2.7m 2.7m 2.3m 2.3m 2.3m 2.0m 1.7m 2.3m 2.0m

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Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions 1.2 Connection Plates Material should be mild steel, which can be sourced as a roll or sheets from metal workshops. Thickness used on the house constructed in summer 2010 was 0.5mm thick with an imperial gauge of 26, although this was suitable for hand cutting of the connections; it was not strong enough to prevent twisting & tearing of the joint. A new suggested thickness for a stronger joint but still allowing for hand cutting would be 1.52.0mm with an imperial gauge between 16-14. (This is not a tested joint so individual judgment should be used and care taken when constructing.) The templates for the 2 types of joint are attached as an appendix in scale size and shown below as a guide.

Template Type 1 – 8 Joints required – 2 roof joints & 6 top of column joints.

Template Type 2 – 6 Joints required at base of columns

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Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions 1.3 Connection Straps Although the originally suggested connection strapping system was available via internet in India, it was not easy to source on the ground and proved to be far too expensive in relation to the other materials. It may be considered a worthwhile investment if several structures are to be built in one village. Otherwise a different method should be sourced.

Originally Suggested Strap System A similar approach but a far more labour intensive method was used on the bamboo house built over the summer 2010. Metal clasps were sourced from the local market; these came with predrilled bolt holes at each end but were too large to fit tightly around the bamboo.         Method: Purchase smallest available “clasps” Metal joint and bamboo held in correct position Clasp wrapped around bamboo and joint until as tight a fit as possible Mark new bolt hole Drill or hammer new hole Return clasp to bamboo and joint Bolt clasp and tighten until maximum so bamboo does not move within joint If movement arises later in construction re-do clasp until tight fit

This was effective when the clasp was tight and remained so, however some clasps became loose due to movement of the structure during construction of remaining sections. Thus I would advise careful drilling and bolting of the joint and bamboo in some key positions. Bamboo should be directly bolted to the joint twice on each column and likewise twice on each end of the roof beam to give further stability and rotational prevention.

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Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions 1.4 Roof & Wall Material The example material used on the summer 2010 structure consisted of weaved bamboo sheets for the walls and roof as well as plastic tarpaulin sheet as waterproofing for the roof. This was a trial of the materials and for the final few weeks of the monsoon season they were working well as a choice. However, they are yet to be effectively tested so care should be taken whilst constructing to give optimum protection, individual judgment should be used as to whether the materials are suitable for the specific situation in question. Both materials can be locally sourced at around 60Rs for a 4’x6’ bamboo sheet (roughly 12 are required for the walls, with a further 12 used on the roof – 24 pieces dependent on actual size as can vary), and 70Rs per metre length of a 3.75m wide strip of tarpaulin (5m length is required for the rectangle section of roof, and two 5m lengths are adequate to give overlap for the sides of the roof – total of 15m length [unfortunately there will be waste material but this is essential to ensure accurate covering of the roof area with minimal jointing]).

1.5 Foundation Materials A shallow depth of concrete (0.15-0.2m) will provide a stable base to the structure and a more habitable finish to the floor. 6 lengths of metal pipe with a diameter larger than that of the bamboo culms (roughly 3.5” diameter) are required to be placed within the concrete foundation in order to provide environmental protection and stability to the bamboo columns. The pipes should be 0.3m or 1 foot in length with a hole drilled horizontally through the pipe 2.5” from the top end. Once placed in the concrete, roughly half to a third of the pipe will remain visible (including the bolt hole which should remain at the top of the visible pipe). The bamboo columns will each then be placed into the pipes, a hole marked and drilled through the bamboo and a bolt placed through the pipe, the bamboo column, and then the other side of the pipe again in order to fix the bamboo within the pipe. Depending on the efficiency of the fit, any gap can be filled with sand to allow drainage of any collecting water.

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Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions 2.0 Construction 2.1 Site Location & Levelling Ideal site location should be:  Flat ground  Raised ground  Not near running water / stream / sewage outlet  Not next to steep embankment especially if showing signs of instability Once the site is chosen, ensure ground is slightly raised above surrounding area to allow water to drain away from house and create a 5m x 5m flat / level square ready for preparing the foundation. 2.2 Foundation The foundation for this structure is more to provide a level stable base for construction and function than for structural support. Although of course it will give a level of structural stability dependent on other components in the system (shown below). This arrangement was developed on site over the summer as a better solution than the proposed base considering the local site conditions. I would advise a foundation to be utilised in all cases, though detailing of the foundation joint could be accurately tested and other methods proposed. Method:  Mark out 5m x 5m square using tape and string (dori!) between poles at the 4 corners  Use tri-square to ensure corners are at right-angles.  Set string level at slightly above the highest ground level using a basic level or dumpy level & staff if available.  Decide on depth of foundation below current ground level – 0.15-0.2m is advised.  The side that the ground is lowest is taken as the datum string level, the distance between string and ground level should be measured. For example this value is 0.3m.  This value is then added to the chosen value between 0.15-0.2m. Our example value is now 0.5m.  The ground within the 5mx5m square should then be dug to a level of the value below the string line throughout the square. Thus in the example dig to 0.5m below the string line.  This ground level should now be flattened as accurately as possible.  The 6 metal tubes should be placed within the square and immediately concreted into place whilst still being held in the correct position.  Once all 6 are placed, the remaining area should be filled with concrete to a level depth of 0.15-0.2m.  Ground around the square can be flattened as necessary.  Allow the concrete to dry for roughly 4 days, longer if there has been heavy rain.

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Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions

Collage of Images Showing the Construction of the Foundation

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Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions 2.3 Columns     Place the bamboo columns in the metal protector pipe. Mark location of drill hole. Remove and drill hole. Replace and bolt into place

2.4 Beams    Attach the appropriate connection plates to the top of the bamboo columns. Screw plates onto top of columns in two places. Attach the beam culms to the connection plates using the clasp method described in section 1.3, to make the top hexagon.

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Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions 2.5 Diagonal Support Struts  As with the other bamboo members, attach diagonal support beams to the walls of the bamboo house. A minimum of 3 walls must be supported. 5 diagonal members are advised.

2.6 Roof Frame     Assemble roof as one separate unit using joints and members as shown below. Lift the roof and position it on top of the hexagon with one person holding each arm. Attach the roof at each of the connection points of the top hexagon, ensuring an overhang of 0.3m is left over each connection point. At least 8 people are required to safely construct this stage. 6 people to hold the roof in place whilst the 2 remaining people attach the roof to the existing structure.

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Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions

2.7 Roof Covering     Mark & cut plastic tarpaulin into three 5mx3m rectangles. Place one centrally over the middle of the roof frame. Wrap excess under the bottom edges back up to meet the 2 beams and tie, leaving the sides free and overlapping the remaining roof area. Place the remaining pieces one on each side of the roof giving an overlap of 0.5m at the join. Hold in place and cut off excess but leaving enough material to fold back up and tie at the beams as before [should be two small triangle shapes off of 4 edges]. Ensuring the overlap remains at 0.5m, pull the tarpaulin tight and tie up edges to beam. Sew bamboo sheets together as one piece to cover the entire roof area (one rectangle of roughly 5mx3m dimensions with 2 extra pieces cut and sewn to create the triangle sides). Place on roof – at least 6 people will be required to lift into place. Using a large tapestry needle and binding thread (plastic) sew all roof components together around bamboo members.

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Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions 2.8 Walls   Sew all 12 remaining bamboo sheets together as a strip of 6 pairs (pairs to be sewn long sides together and the 6 resulting sheets sewn short sides together). Hold up to bamboo structure and like with the roof, sew through bamboo sheet attaching to all bamboo members.

3.0 Modular Construction The bamboo house structure is modular in design thus allowing multiple structures to be attached together creating a much larger structure. Attaching the bamboo houses together also makes the overall structure more stable as they support each other. The bamboo houses can be attached together using the same clasps as in the construction of the individual structures.

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Adapted by Rebecca Drake (University of Bath) from the Original Produced by University of Strathclyde Engineering (Kyle Toole, Pavel Divis, Gavin Leake) Adapted Bamboo House Assembly Instructions 4.0 Maintenance & Lifespan The lifetime of other similar bamboo structures in the local area (mainly used as shelters for livestock) were considered to be up to 5 years old according to people in the local area. It is thus hoped that with maintenance of the joints, roof and walls the structure built in the summer of 2010 will also have a lifespan of at least 5 years. This structure is however the first of its kind in the area and is thus acting as a prototype to determine the actual lifetime. Joints should be maintained by replacing any loose clasps to ensure movement is minimal. The roof material should always remain tight, if after a particularly heavy period of rainfall there is sagging of the material, it would be advised to cut through the stitching and re-sew. This will however weaken the tarpaulin material over time so it may need replacing before 5 years. The bamboo sheet should be monitored for mould and general decay. The overhang of the roof is expected to protect the walls from most aspects of rain and wind damage, however due to the extreme nature of the monsoon season it may not be adequate and bamboo sheets may also need to be replaced. Feedback on how the original structure reacts with the local conditions would greatly aid the further development of the design and will hopefully be received after a few months and a year since construction.

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