Temperaments Visualized

About Temperaments • Pythagorean • Meantone • Modified Meantone • Well • Victorian Well • Quasi-Equal • Equal • Modern Well • EBVT • Return to rollingball home

About Temperaments
Historical Overview This section contains a brief graphic overview of types of temperaments in the context of classical composers. The bottom half of the graphic has live hotspots, but the upper half (with the names of composers) is sadly lacking in interactivity. If you click on a miniature and get the full-size chart, you can press backspace to return to the current History image. Homage to Jorgensen Reading the Charts About "Key Color" Temperamental links - other websites sites of interest will appear in the frame to the right, and you can explore while remaining at rollingball.com...

Click on a type of temperament (meantone, modified meantone, well, victorian well, quasi-equal, or equal).

The temperament dates and detailed temperament information are drawn primarily from Jorgensen's tome, Tuning. The composer dates were quickly abstracted from Classical Net's Timeline of Composers. Consider two aspects of this: (1) What temperament would the composers have heard when they were children? (2) What temperament would they have had their keyboards tuned to?

http://www.rollingball.com/TemperamentsFrames.htm10/2/2006 4:13:04 PM

About Temperaments

About Temperaments
Historical Overview This section contains a brief graphic overview of types of temperaments in the context of classical composers. The bottom half of the graphic has live hotspots, but the upper half (with the names of composers) is sadly lacking in interactivity. If you click on a miniature and get the full-size chart, you can press backspace to return to the current History image. Homage to Jorgensen Reading the Charts About "Key Color" Temperamental links - other websites sites of interest will appear in the frame to the right, and you can explore while remaining at rollingball.com...

http://www.rollingball.com/A01.htm10/2/2006 4:13:05 PM

Pythagorean Temperaments

Pythagorean
Favors pure fifths. Thumbnails Boulliau (1373) Grammateus (1518) Neidhardt (1732) Neidhardt-Marpurg-De Morgan (1858) Moscow (1895)

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the red and blue "ET horizon" lines are not accurate in the meantone or modified meantone graphs.com/A03.rollingball. Yet. The Wolf becomes a factor.] Thumbnails Aaron (1523) Zarlino (1558) Huygens (1661) Holder (1694) Keller (1707) Silbermann (1714) Smith (1749) Romieu (1755) Holden (1770) Marsh (1809) http://www.htm10/2/2006 4:13:07 PM . [Note. Eight keys are playable.Meantone Temperaments Meantone Favors pure thirds.

com/A04. Thumbnails D'Alembert (1752) Britannica (1797) Hawkes (1807) Fisher (1818) Secor #3 (1975) http://www.rollingball. This is a transition to Well.htm10/2/2006 4:13:08 PM .Modified Meantone Temperaments Modified Meantone Attempting to mitigate the Wolf and get nine playable keys.

Thumbnails Werckmeister (1691) Prelleur (1731) Tans'ur (1746) D'Alembert (1752) Rousseau Equal-Beating (1768) Rousseau Theoretical (1768) Kirnberger (1771) Handel (1780) Vallotti (1781) Preston Equal-Beating (1785) Preston Theoretical (1785) Young (1799) Vallotti-Young (1799) Stanhope Equal-Beating (1806) Stanhope Theoretical (1806) Bemetztrieder (1808) Prinz Equal-Beating (1808) Prinz Theoretical (1808) Jousse (1832) Kellner (1978) Jorgensen's Prinz (2002) http://www.com/A05.Well Temperaments Well Key Color emerges as all 24 keys can be used.rollingball.htm10/2/2006 4:13:09 PM .

htm10/2/2006 4:13:10 PM .Victorian Well Temperaments Victorian Well While maintaining key color. Thumbnails Tuner's Guide #1 (1840) Tuner's Guide #2 (1840) Tuner's Guide #3 (1840) De Morgan (1843) Broadwood's Best (1885) Broadwood's Usual (1885) Moore (1885) http://www. objectionable thirds are toned down.com/A06.rollingball.

Quasi-Equal Temperaments Quasi-Equal Conceptually driving for equal temperament.rollingball.com/A07.htm10/2/2006 4:13:11 PM . without the critical understanding of where to listen for beat rates. Thumbnails Merrick (1811) Graupner (1819) Hummel (1829) Viennese (1829) Jousse (1832) Becket (1840) Marsh (1840) Best Factory (1840) Ellis (1875) Ellis (1885) Broadwood (1885) Wicks (1887) Pyle (1906) http://www.

Equal Temperament Equal The first mathematically sound method of tuning truly equal temperament appeared in 1911. Equal Temperament http://www.com/A08.rollingball.htm10/2/2006 4:13:12 PM .

0 (2002) Wendell's Well (2002) Wendell's ET Equivalent 2002 Wendell's Synchronous Victorian 2002 Wendell's Tweaked Synchronous Victorian #1 Wendell's Tweaked Synchronous Victorian #2 George Secor #2 (1975) http://www.5 (2002) Koval Variable 1.htm10/2/2006 4:13:13 PM .rollingball.0 (2002) Koval Variable 5.com/A09.9 (2002) Koval Variable 3. there has been a resurgence of key color in a variety of well temperaments.Modern Well Temperaments Modern Well With the advent of electronic tuning devices. Thumbnails Di Veroli (1978) Bailey (1993) Bailey (2002) Coleman 4 (1994) Coleman 10 (2001) Coleman 11 (1999) Coleman 16 (2001) Koval Penny (2002) Koval Variable 1.

very little." (8/29/02) http://www. 6 beats per second? A3-C#4 and Bb3-D4 beating exactly the same.EBVT History EBVT "Equal-Beating Victorian Temperament". less than in ET? These are the features of my EBVT. Kent Swafford. about 2 beats per second? Ab3Eb4 and Bb3-Eb4 tempered exactly the same.htm10/2/2006 4:13:14 PM . Jason Kanter. Ron Koval. A Graphic History of the EBVT "Do the results create: F3-C4 pure? C4-F4 pure? F3-Bb pure? Bb3-F4 pure? F#3-C#4 pure? G#3-C#4 pure? F3-A3. Homegrown by Bill Bremmer and eventually refined with Jorgensen's and Swafford's assistance after imbalances were pointed out by Ed Foote. G3-E4 and C4-E4 all beating exactly the same. G3-B3.rollingball. and Owen Jorgensen. about 9 beats per second? G3-D4 and A3-D4 tempered exactly the same.com/A10.

com/images/HT1.htm10/2/2006 4:13:17 PM .rollingball. victorian well. The composer dates were quickly abstracted from Classical Net's Timeline of Composers. or equal). Tuning. Consider two aspects of this: (1) What temperament would the composers have heard when they were children? (2) What temperament would they have had their keyboards tuned to? http://www. well. quasi-equal. The temperament dates and detailed temperament information are drawn primarily from Jorgensen's tome.1-Historical Tuning Systems Click on a type of temperament (meantone. modified meantone.

and you're done. once the page has loaded you can "add to Favorites" and on that dialog box you can click Make available offline. If you click the Customize button. Di Veroli. and I take full responsibility for that. To save space. Secor. This will store all the images on your computer. Tuning: Containing The Perfection of Eighteenth-Century Temperament. This is a large file. Koval. My effort here should be thought of as a supplement to Jorgensen.. you can save everything within a couple of clicks. I am staggered by the amount of research that Jorgensen managed to capture.rollingball. click Download links 3 levels deep and Skip links to other sites. please let me know and I will promptly fix it. I have summarized Jorgensen's wording and decided in many places to eliminate quotation marks and just admit at the outset that it is all taken from his book. http://www. Later on. go to Favorites menu and choose Update Subscriptions. you can accomplish the same thus: Go to the menu item Favorites>Subscribe. over 6 MB.com/A01a. and The Science of Equal Temperament. Bremmer. There are temperaments here that you will not find in Jorgensen: Coleman. Again. There.. and click the Customize button. On the Mac. if I have misrepresented anything. It is regrettable that the book has gone out of print. In each case I have made comments drawn from personal emails or website postings. You may download a somewhat current PDF file (9/29/06) of these charts here. Check the box for Download site for offline browsing and click the Options button. generally a page in Jorgensen. Wendell. and Jorgensen's own improvement on Prinz/Kirnberger. Click OK twice to get out of here.htm10/2/2006 4:13:18 PM . Suggestions to speed things up: if you are using Internet Explorer. Then click the Offline tab.New Page 2 Homage to Jorgensen Most of the information in this website is cheerfully lifted from Owen Jorgensen's monumental tome. when I have updated the site. I must say that as a professional organizer of information. There may be places where I have misinterpreted the data. Each image contains a citation for the source of the information. so expect it to take a while. The Lost Art of Nineteenth-Century Temperament. Bailey.

This can serve as a quick guide to the degree of key coloring in the temperament. The fifth CG. (In the example triad shown on this page.0 bps.7 beats per second (bps). Watch this space for an announcement of a printed reference guide containing all these charts (and more) in high-resolution. the minor third bars should be shown below zero. C is offset by 6. and major third of CE are thus seen together. Below the graph is a data table that shows every number in the graph. [Technically...] Therefore. so that they are beating together . The red CE major third is expanded by a little more than 5 cents.com/A01b. The "feeling" of C Major is represented in the mingling beat rates of these three intervals.) There is a red "horizon" line (ET reference line) representing 13.New Page 2 Reading the Charts The charts display thirteen major triads in a cycle of fifths. These are busy charts.. Fifths are blue. and beats at 2. since minor thirds are contracted (not expanded like thirds and fourths). The green EG minor third is contracted by about 8 cents and beats at 4. 11 x 8. But I think they look better behind the major thirds. The dotted curves are polynomial trendlines that help to show the degree of balance in the temperament.. starting with the C3E3G3 triad at the left and proceeding up by fifths and down by fourths until you reach C4E4G4 at the right.7 cents.5 format.96 cents. The large red numbers in the upper right of the chart indicate the minimum and maximum size of the Major Thirds (in cents). Immediately below each triad is the offset for the fundamental of that triad. the blue CG fifth is contracted by about 3 cents and beats at 0. major thirds are red. minor third of EG.htm10/2/2006 4:13:19 PM .rollingball. which are all contracted by 1. there is something that happens in the soul of the listener. the numbers represent beats. The bars indicate cents. the amount by which Equally Tempered major thirds are expanded. and there is some overlapping data.20 cents sharp. When those beats are synchronous (equal or in whole-number ratios such as 3:2) . Likewise there is a blue ET horizon representing equally-tempered fifths. minor thirds are green. http://www. in the example C major triad shown at the left.9 bps.

laughing pleasure and not yet complete.Translated by Rita Steblin in A History of Key Characteristics in the 18th and Early 19th Centuries. naivety. B Minor: This is as it were the key of patience.rollingball. sighs of disappointed friendship and love lie in its radius. composed from the most glaring colors. every tender gratitude for true friendship and faithful love. the marches. despair and every burden of the heart lies in its sphere. Thus. D Major: The key of triumph. Its character is: innocence. the friend and help-meet of life. the color of this key is everything struggling with difficulty. G-B D-F# A-C# F# Minor: A gloomy key: it tugs at passion as a dog biting a dress. fury. idyllic and lyrical. heart squeezed until it suffocates. womanly innocent declaration of love.com/A01c. rage. lament without grumbling. satisfaction with one's state of affairs. B Major: Strongly colored. every calm and satisfied passion. the inviting symphonies. 18th and 19th centuries. --text drawn from from Christian Schubart's Ideen zu einer Aesthetik der Tonkunst (1806). holiday songs and heavenrejoicing choruses are set in this key. sighs accompanied by few tears. of Hallelujahs.--in a word every gentle and peaceful emotion of the heart is correctly expressed by this key.Key Color About "Key Color" Each of the 12 major and 12 minor keys was thought to have its own emotional quality. These descriptions are arranged according to the circle of fifths. Resentment and discontent are its language. This is primarily due to the varying sizes of the major thirds in the Well temperaments. of victoryrejoicing. C# Minor: Penitential lamentation. children's talk. E Major: Noisy shouts of joy. of war-cries. G Major: Everything rustic. UMI Research Press (1983) Major Third C-E Keys containing the major third C Major: Completely pure. difficult struggle. simplicity. announcing wild passions. intimate conversation with God. this key speaks of the imminent hope of resolving in the pure happiness of C major. youthful cheerfulness and trust in God. A Major: This key includes declarations of innocent love. E-G# B-D# http://www. E minor: Naïve. wailing lament. Anger. A minor: Pious womanliness and tenderness of character.htm (1 of 2)10/2/2006 4:13:20 PM . of calm awaiting one's fate and of submission to divine dispensation. You can see that the descriptions change from more peaceful around C major / A minor to more struggling/distressed around F# major / D# minor. full delight lies in E Major. which dominated European music during the 17th. in a word. hope of seeing one's beloved again when parting. Ab Minor: Grumbling. jealousy.

degenerating into grief and rapture. breathes out of horrible D# minor. simplicity. Death. Db-F Db Major: A leering key. worry about a failed scheme. judgment. it cannot howl. All languishing. every hesitation of the shuddering heart. grave. sighing of the love-sick soul lies in this key.htm (2 of 2)10/2/2006 4:13:20 PM . in a word: resentment and dislike. longing. naivety. groans of misery and longing for the grave. F Major: Complaisance & Calm. F-A C-E http://www. Eb Major: The key of love. putrefaction. children's talk. D# Minor: Feelings of the anxiety of the soul's deepest distress. clear conscience.com/A01c. of devotion. Bb minor: A quaint creature. of brooding despair. Ab-C Eb-G Bb-D Bb Major: Cheerful love. hope aspiration for a better world. their speech would approximate this key. the spleen and humours brood. Every fear. often dressed in the garment of night. Its character is: innocence.rollingball. uneasiness. C Minor: Declaration of love and at the same time the lament of unhappy love. D Minor: Melancholy womanliness. free sigh of relief uttered when hurdles are surmounted.Key Color F#-A# F# Major: Triumph over difficulty. It cannot laugh. It is somewhat surly and very seldom takes on a pleasant countenance. of blackest depression. but it can smile. funereal lament. eternity lie in its radius. bad-tempered gnashing of teeth. Mocking God and the world. discontented with itself and with everything. A minor: Pious womanliness and tenderness of character. echo of a soul which has fiercely struggled and finally conquered lies in all uses of this key. of intimate conversation with God. G Minor: Discontent. If ghosts could speak. F Minor: Deep depression. Consequently only unusual characters and feelings can be brought out in this key. of the most gloomy condition of the soul. preparation for suicide sounds in this key. but it can at least grimace its crying. C Major: Completely pure. Ab Major: Key of the grave.

In a perfect ET. because all fifths are the same size. Regular.com/images/HT8. because it obeys the cycle of fifths. Circulating.htm10/2/2006 4:13:25 PM . It contains no key-coloring and no tonality.8-Equal Temperament The math for tuning equal temperament (ET) wasn't worked out correctly until 1911. all semitones are exactly the same size.rollingball. because modulation through all keys is free from wolf intervals. What have we lost? http://www. Equal temperament is: q q q Unrestrictive.

Broadwood's Best: This tuning was done by one of Broadwood's "best tuners". These charts represent three of them.6-Victorian Well In 1885.rollingball. the scientist Ellis analyzed the work of seven tuners.com/images/HT6. Moore (sometimes called "Representative Victorian"): This tuning was done on a harmonium by a tuner from Moore & Moore.htm10/2/2006 4:13:27 PM . we can see that the differences between the "smoothest" and "harshest" major thirds have been reduced. A shade less color contrast than the Broadwood Usual. Comparing these Victorian-era tunings to the earlier Well temperaments. http://www. A shade more color contrast than the Broadwood Best. a "usual tuner" from Broadwood. Note that there is some key-coloring but no M3 is expanded beyond 16 cents. Broadwood's Usual: This was done by Ellis's personal piano tuner.

Pyle: Pyle and William Braid White both used the same bearing plan. without benefit of the correct math for setting the temperament. 407) Viennese: Also by Hummel. On hearing the piano played.com/images/HT7. This temperament became popularly known as the Viennese. Ellis: "New Equal-Beating" (1885). known as "Europe's greatest pianist".rollingball. p. Pyle started using this variation in 1884. Most of these tunings have each note within 1 cent of "correct" equal temperament. Hummel: An Austrian musician. A scientist.htm10/2/2006 4:13:32 PM .7-Quasi-Equal These were tuning methods aiming at equal temperament. a student of Mozart. it is unlikely that even a discriminating ear would be able to distinguish any of these tunings from perfect ET. and developed this plan to help solve the problem. Graupner: The founder of the Boston Philharmonic. Ellis concluded that no one was able to tune mathematically exact equal temperament. Graupner wanted the fifths "rather flat" and the thirds "rather sharp than otherwise"." (Jorgensen. He had concluded that it was impossible to count beats faster than 5/second. q q q q q http://www. Braid-White's became the standard for Equal Temperament. which is the standard still in use today. and hence most of them would pass the strict PTG Tuning Examination. "The only concern for piano tuners in 1829 was that all twelve fifths should be smooth sounding.

51 cents. The remaining six fifths are pure. A "very conservative" temperament. (For example. C Major. Kirnberger.htm10/2/2006 4:13:34 PM .51 cents wide of just.. and Prinz. Young: Jorgensen lavishes this praise on the Young temperament: "Notice the complete symmetry… the even changes in the sizes of thirds…the most perfect idealized form of well temperament ever published…a summation of the best ideals of well temperament." Prinz: The major third CE is just. This version is 1/4 ditonic comma well.the greatest perfection possible.rollingball.com/images/HT5.. These widest thirds are called Pythagorean Thirds because they are formed by the Pythagorean rule of tuning a series of four perfect fifths. and keep the most extreme M3s to exactly or just under the "maximum" of 21. Vallotti: The fifths on the white keys CDEFGA are each one-sixth ditonic comma narrow. G Major. and a fifth lower in Vallotti and Young. They all minimize the size of the major thirds in the vicinity of C on the circle of fifths. G. resulting in a major third Ab-C that measures 21. composer. the sequence C-F-Bb-Eb-Ab is tuned with perfect fifths. achieved by compromising the D and A fifths. Kirnberger: German theorist. This assured that the Prinz contains as much color-contrast as the original Kirnberger.) Werckmeister showed that excellent well-temperaments were possible with about eight pure fifths. Contains some of the purest harmony acoustically possible. E minor and B minor triads were all completely just. student of Bach. D and B. with tempered fifths on C. This principle can be observed exactly in Werckmeister.5-Well Temperament These well temperaments share certain characteristics. q q q q q http://www.

Another characteristic is the augmented fifth (actually a diminished sixth) at Ab.3-Meantone The Meantone family of temperaments strives for extremely clean major thirds in 8 keys. one-third of the potential harmony was intolerable. and all fifths as flat as the ear will permit. Although Well temperament was quite prominent. Romieu: 1/7 comma.com/images/HT3. Marsh's philosophy was that is better to have only two-thirds of the keyboard harmony tolerably in tune… he disapproved of tempering for the sake of the characters of the keys. the "wolf" fifth. Zarlino: 2/7 syntonic comma.rollingball. pushing all imperfection into the four remaining major thirds. Theoretically correct meantone temperaments have eleven fifths exactly the same size. q q q q q q http://www. A German harpsichordist who lived in England.htm10/2/2006 4:13:37 PM . Keller: Almost 1/5 Ditonic. Huygens: Based on 31 equal divisions of the octave. In any meantone temperament. Aaron: 1/4 syntonic comma. Marsh: 4/25 syntonic. He wrote: "Sharp thirds must be as sharp as the ear will permit." Keller had equal-beating major triads.

Britannica: By 1797.htm10/2/2006 4:13:40 PM . tuners had learned to modify the meantone temperament so that nine keys could be used. The Britannica described this temperament as "better adapted than any other to keyed instruments. D and A major thirds would be perfect. q q q q http://www. G.com/images/HT4. F." Hawkes: "Improved Modified Meantone" (1807) Fisher: A Yale mathematics professor. D'Alembert: French mathematician.4-Modified Meantone The purpose of modified meantone was to increase the number of good M3s to nine or more. The price paid for this was harmonic waste in the major triads C#. Fisher studied musical compositions for interval usage. Eb.rollingball. and constructed this temperament so that the C. Bb.

com/A02z.htm10/2/2006 4:13:41 PM .Pythagorean Thumbnails http://www.rollingball.

com/images/Boulliau2.rollingball.gif10/2/2006 4:13:42 PM .http://www.rollingball.com/images/Boulliau2.gif http://www.

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Meantone Thumbnails

.. Zarlino ... Smith ... Aaron ... Huygens

.. Holder ... Keller ... Holden ... Silbermann

.. Marsh ... Romieu

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.. Fisher . Secor http://www.com/A04z.... Hawkes .. d'Alembert .Modified Meantone Thumbnails .rollingball.... Britannica .htm10/2/2006 4:14:11 PM .

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The last two (Preston) are actually modified meantones.rollingball. http://www.htm10/2/2006 4:14:21 PM . not Well temperaments.Well Thumbnails Hover over the thumbnail for a second to see the name of the temperament.com/A05z. Click on the thumbnail to see the detailed chart. as you can see from the characteristic rectangular profile and the augmented fifth.

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htm10/2/2006 4:14:53 PM .Victorian Well Thumbnails http://www.rollingball.com/A06z.

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htm10/2/2006 4:15:54 PM . To see this history as a slide show. then click on each successive image..com/A10z.rollingball.EBVT Thumbnails A Long Road to a Balanced Temperament. http://www.. click on the first thumbnail.

EBVT Slide Show http://www.htm10/2/2006 4:16:00 PM .rollingball.com/EBVT01.

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EBVT Slide Show

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EBVT Slide Show

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EBVT Slide Show

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htm10/2/2006 4:16:31 PM .EBVT Slide Show http://www.rollingball.com/EBVT20.

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