UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON SCHOOL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Bamboo Reinforced Concrete in Earthquake Resistant Housing
Interim Report

Andrew Jardine December 2009 Supervisor: Dr. Alan Bloodworth

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Abstract
This report outlines the structure, progress and aims of the dissertation titled “Bamboo Reinforced Concrete in Earthquake Resistant Housing”.

An introduction and understanding of the topic is given. Existing sources in the literature review provide justification for the research and highlight relevant information. Progress to date is summarized in findings from the literature review and design calculations that have taken place to date, and any other actions that further progressed the dissertation. This includes the outcomes of research and problems encountered and how they have affected the progress of the dissertation.

Expected dates for the completion of research, experimentation and write up are shown in a Gantt chart timeline. A draft copy of the contents page for the dissertation is also included. Together these show the plan of future dissertation work.

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Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................... 1
1.1 Project Aim ................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Bamboo ...................................................................................................................... 1 1.2.1 General .......................................................................................................... 1 1.2.2 Anatomy ........................................................................................................ 1 1.3 Reinforced Concrete .................................................................................................. 2 1.4 Earthquakes ................................................................................................................ 2 1.5 Indian Living Conditions ........................................................................................... 3

2.0 Literature Review....................................................................................... 4
2.1 Suitability of Bamboo for Seismic Resistant House Construction ............................ 4 2.2 General Properties of Bamboo ................................................................................... 4 2.2.1 Directional Strength ...................................................................................... 4 2.2.2 Node Properties ............................................................................................. 5 2.2.3 Water Absorption .......................................................................................... 5 2.3 Bamboo Species in India............................................................................................ 6 2.4 Mechanical Properties of Calcutta Bamboo............................................................... 6 2.4.1 Water Absorption .......................................................................................... 6 2.4.2 Tensile Strength ............................................................................................ 6 2.4.3 Bending Strength .......................................................................................... 7 2.5 Low-Cost Indian House Design ................................................................................. 7 2.5.1 House Size .................................................................................................... 7 2.5.2 Construction Materials .................................................................................. 7 2.6 Socioeconomic Effects of Earthquakes...................................................................... 8 2.6.1 Cost ............................................................................................................... 8 2.6.2 Residential Buildings .................................................................................... 8 2.7 Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Construction .............................................................. 9 2.7.1 Waterproof Coating ...................................................................................... 9 2.7.2 Assembly....................................................................................................... 9 2.8 Concrete Element Seismic Testing ............................................................................ 9 2.8.1 Loading Condition ........................................................................................ 9 2.8.2 Critical Section............................................................................................ 10

3.0 Progress Summary and Evaluation ......................................................... 11
3.1 Literature Review ..................................................................................................... 11 3.2 Design Calculations ................................................................................................. 11 II

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3.3 Material Acquisition ................................................................................................ 12

4.0 Methods .................................................................................................... 13
4.1 Bamboo Choice ........................................................................................................ 13 4.2 Bamboo Treatment ................................................................................................... 13 4.3 House Design ........................................................................................................... 13 4.4 Testing Method ........................................................................................................ 13

5.0 Future Work ............................................................................................. 15
5.1 Gantt Chart ............................................................................................................... 15 5.2 Dissertation Contents Plan ....................................................................................... 15

References ...................................................................................................... 16 Appendix A Experimental Properties of Calcutta Bamboo .......................... 19 Appendix B House and Frame Design Calculations ..................................... 21 Appendix C Draft Contents Page of Completed Dissertation ....................... 29 Appendix D Gantt Chart Outlining Future Targets ...................................... 31

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Table of Figures
Figure 1.0 - Anatomical Features of Bamboo Internode…………………………...2 Figure 2.0 - Bamboo Framed House on an Earthquake Shaker Platform………….4 Figure 2.1 - Expansion of Untreated Bamboo in Concrete Causing Cracking….....6 Figure 2.2 - Typical House Exterior…………………………………………….....7 Figure 2.3 - Typical unreinforced concrete block building………………………..8 Figure 2.4 - Test Set up………………………………………………………...…10 Figure 4.0 - Column-Beam Joint Section under Testing………………………….14

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1.0 Introduction 1.1 Project Aim
The aim of the project is to discover whether bamboo reinforced concrete is a viable alternative to steel reinforced concrete in earthquake resistant low-cost residential buildings. This will be tested by fabricating column-beam sections of bamboo reinforced frames for a typical house, and comparing them to their steel reinforced equivalents. The project is being researched for Engineers without Borders in conjunction with a research facility in India, Vigyan Ashram. Significant findings or solutions may be tested at Vigyan Ashram. The project will focus on a solution specific to the Earthquake prone Indian regions, but the findings may also be applied to other locations.

1.2 Bamboo
1.2.1 General Bamboos are giant arborescent grasses, not trees and are part of the Bambusoideae family. They grow naturally in all continents other than Europe and Antarctica (Liese, 1987). Over 1100 Species of bamboo have been identified (Grewal, 2009), some can withstand temperatures in excess of forty degrees Celsius, whilst others can grow at a rate of twenty four inches per day (Liang, 2005). 1.2.2 Anatomy The structure of the bamboo culm breaks down into two constituents, the nodes and the internodes (Fig 1.0). The internode is the cylindrical shell between the nodes that forms the majority of the culm. The thickness of the internode wall is a major factor in the strength of the bamboo. The wall thickness usually decreases with height causing the strength to change as a function of height. The hollow section inside the internodes is called the lacuna. The lacuna reduces the weight of the bamboo without reducing its strength, as only structurally unnecessary material is removed. The bulbous section along the culm is the node. The node creates a transverse diaphragm across the lacuna, maintaining the cylindrical shape of the culm. The node can limit the bending strength of the bamboo, as it is more brittle than the internodal sections (Khare, 2005).

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Fig 1.0 Anatomical Features of Bamboo Internode (Arrifin, 2005)

Bamboo is a composite material consisting of cellulose fibres embedded in a lignin matrix. The cellulose fibres run parallel to each other along the length of the bamboo (Ghavami, 2004). This causes bamboo to be orthotropic, with high strength in the longitudinal direction of the cellulose fibres and different strengths in the other principal directions, radial and tangential.

1.3 Reinforced Concrete
Reinforced concrete is a popular material with over 1.57x109 tons per year being produced (Vanderly, 2003). It is very popular in developing countries such as India because of its low initial cost compared to steel and its in situ design flexibility. This shows that if bamboo reinforced concrete can match the properties of reinforced concrete properties, then it will become a widely used material in developing countries.

1.4 Earthquakes
On average, 152 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than four occur every year (United States Geological Survey, 2009). These earthquakes can cause severe structural and socioeconomic damage, as in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which killed 73,709 and destroyed 450,000 homes (Peiris et al, 2005). If bamboo reinforced concrete can improve the build quality of housing then the impact of earthquakes may be reduced in future.

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1.5 Indian Living Conditions
The majority of India’s 1.1billion residents live in rural areas and work in agriculture, and 42% of these are at or below the poverty line (The World Bank, 2009). The annual average income for an Indian family is US$1068 (Department of Economics, 2009). If bamboo reinforced concrete is to be available to the majority of the population it will need to be affordable.

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2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Suitability of Bamboo for Seismic Resistant House Construction
International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (2009) has shown that bamboo can be used to produce affordable housing. This was done by running a housing project in Nepal, which pre-fabricated wall panels from woven bamboo and concrete. The cost for a 30m2 house was approximately $1000. The houses were claimed to be earthquake resistant and durable, but this was not quantified or proven. However, bamboo-framed houses can be highly resistant to earthquake loading. Central Power Research Institute researched earthquake loading with a 2.7m2 bamboo framed house tested on a shaking table (Fig 2.0) (Follet, 2004). The house withstood shaking equivalent to that of a 7.8 Richter earthquake. These sources show bamboo to be affordable and structurally capable in earthquake resistant housing, but they do not use bamboo reinforced concrete, showing further research is needed to determine the suitability of bamboo reinforced concrete.

Fig 2.0 Bamboo Framed House on an Earthquake Shaker Platform (Follet, 2004)

2.2 General Properties of Bamboo
2.2.1 Directional Strength Ghavami (2004) stated that bamboo is an orthotropic material, meaning it has different properties in different directions. Bamboos are strong in the direction of the cellulose fibres, but are weaker perpendicular to them. This gives bamboos high tensile strengths and low shear strength. Janssen (1981) confirmed this with compiled data from existing bamboo tests on a range of species, showing that tension and bending strengths are high in comparison to shear strength. The compressive strength of bamboo is also low compared to its tensile strength (Table 2.0). This is because the bamboo fibres are prone to buckling in compression.

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Table 2.0 Combined Strength Ranges for Different Bamboo Species (Janssen, 1981)

Stress Type Compressive Bending Shear Tensile

Range of Strengths (N/mm2) 35-74 33-143 3.1-19.8 200-300

Bamboo is a non-uniform material in its size and its properties. Liese (1987) stated that specific density of bamboo varies from the bottom to the top due to the reduced thickness of the culm wall. This causes the strength of the bamboo to reduce along the culm. Ahmad (2005) agreed with this, stating that it is impossible to standardise the specific gravity of bamboo as it constantly changes. This makes it crucial that similar sections of bamboo are used in structural elements to maintain uniform strength. 2.2.2 Node Properties Davies (2009) found that in tension bamboo culms with nodes would fail at the location of the node; however flaws in his experiment led the failure loads to be similar for specimens with and without nodes. Khare (2005) confirmed that failure occurs at the nodes, but showed that samples without nodes were up to 50MPa stronger. The failure of the bamboo culm often occurs at the node because the internal diaphragm and random direction of cellulose fibres at the nodes make it more brittle. It is critical to understand these non-uniform properties because using different sections of the bamboo in the reinforcement design will change the strength of the structural element. 2.2.3 Water Absorption Liese (1987) states that bamboos are naturally hygroscopic and absorb water even once seasoned, leaving them prone to insect and fungal attack. Ghavami (2004) confirmed this and highlighted that water absorption also causes bamboo to swell by up to 6%. Brink & Rush (1966) also recognised these properties and recommended that to stop bamboo expanding and cracking that a waterproofing agent is used to stop the deterioration of the bamboo and to stop it expanding causing cracking in the concrete as shown in Fig 2.1.

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Fig 2.1 Expansion of Untreated Bamboo in Concrete Causing Cracking (Ghavami, 2004)

2.3 Bamboo Species in India
The National Mission on Bamboo Applications (NMBA) (2009) has catalogued and characterised all available Bamboo types in India. It has shown that there are one hundred and thirty species available in India, from this sixteen have commercially significant properties. Dendrocalamus Strictus (Calcutta bamboo) was one of the sixteen species that was recommended for construction. It is also the most widely used bamboo in India (Ahmad & Kamke, 2005). The NMBA does not explain why Calcutta bamboo is suitable for construction, however separate tensile strength tests by Khare (2005) and Ahmad & Kamke (2005) show Calcutta bamboo to have a tensile strength of up to 160MPa. These sources show Calcutta bamboo to have suitable mechanical properties and availability for construction.

2.4 Mechanical Properties of Calcutta Bamboo
2.4.1 Water Absorption Ahmad & Kamke (2005) found from experimentation that the radial and tangential swelling of Calcutta bamboo in concrete is between 13-29% (Appendix A), which is larger than the 6% stated by Ghavami (2004) for bamboos in general. The experiment was repeated four times and carried out in accordance with the American Society of Testing and Materials standard, so is accepted as reliable. The difference between sources may show that swelling in Calcutta bamboo is more extreme than bamboo in general. 2.4.2 Tensile Strength Mean ultimate tensile strengths were found by Ahmad & Kamke (2005) in two experiments as 156N/mm2 and 185N/mm2 (Appendix A). These agree with results of Khare (2005) which show the strength to be between 120-250N/mm2. These results show

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that Calcutta bamboo is strong enough be used for the reinforcement for an element; however wide strength variability is shown in the results. 2.4.3 Bending Strength The ultimate bending strength found by Ahmad & Kamke (2005) ranged from 137189N/mm2 (Appendix A). This conflicts with results compiled by Janssen (1981) that range from 92-97N/mm2. This reduces the reliability of the results, and suggests that Calcutta bamboo varies in strength significantly.

2.5 Low-Cost Indian House Design
2.5.1 House Size Prasad et al (2005) showed that typical low-cost houses are categorised as either single rooms, double rooms or double rooms with kitchen facilities. Average areas for these categories are given as 11.25m2, 22.5m2 and 33m2. Kulkarni (2009) confirms these sizes. 2.5.2 Construction Materials Prasad et al (2005) states that the construction of the houses is usually from 40mm thick bamboo concrete panels. The common frame used is timber, this can be susceptible to rot and insect attack. A concrete frame replacement can be justified as it would remove these problems and extend the lifespan of the building. Photos from Vigyan Ashram confirm these construction methods are used (Fig 2.2).

Fig 2.2 Typical House Exterior (Engineers Without Borders, 2008)

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2.6 Socioeconomic Effects of Earthquakes
2.6.1 Cost The Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT) (2008) field report states that the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in India killed 13,800 and cost US$4.6bn in aid and recovery costs. The scale of the damage was greater than expected for the size of the earthquake. This was because of limited economic resources resulting in sub-standard building quality. Jain et al (2001) agreed that the damage was severe because design codes were ignored in order to reduce building costs. If an affordable construction method was available that had sufficient earthquake resistance then the impact of the earthquake may have been reduced. 2.6.2 Residential Buildings EEFIT (2008) stated that 97% of the damage during the 2005 Kashmir earthquake was in residential buildings. The residential buildings were mostly constructed from unreinforced concrete blocks and could not withstand earthquake loading (Fig 2.3). Commercial buildings were affected less because they were usually reinforced concrete frame buildings which had better earthquake loading resistance. Jain et al (2001) agrees that residential buildings were badly affected due to their construction methods, but states that only government built reinforced concrete buildings resisted earthquake loading well, because they followed the design codes. This suggests that if reinforced concrete frames are used for residential buildings, and built using design codes then earthquake damage could be reduced.

Fig 2.3 Typical unreinforced concrete block building (EEFIT, 2008)

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2.7 Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Construction
2.7.1 Waterproof Coating Waterproofing agents are needed to prevent the bamboo from swelling when in concrete. Brink & Rush (1966) suggests the use of asphalt emulsion, latex, coal tar, paint, varnish or sodium silicate. In reality, the most easily available coating will be used. Hot tar is currently used at Vigyan Ashram as a coating for bamboo in construction (Kulkarni, 2009).

The bond strength of a coating with concrete will limit shear stress transferred between the concrete and bamboo. This would reduce the effectiveness of the reinforcement, as it would not be able to carry as much stress. Brink & Rush (1966) stated that an allowable bond stress between bamboo and concrete is 0.34MPa, whilst Jung (2006) found the maximum stress to be 1.11MPa, both of these values are small; impregnating the coating with sand to increase the bond strength is recommended by Ghavami (2004). Ghavami (1995) confirmed this with pullout tests that showed negrolin sand coating increased the bond strength by up to 90%. 2.7.2 Assembly Brink & Rush (1966) advise when assembling a bamboo cage for a structural element to secure the cage to the formwork; otherwise the bamboo will rise in the concrete. Ahamad & Kamke (2005) shows that the specific gravity of Calcutta bamboo to be approximately 0.65, which is less than the specific gravity of concrete, this confirms it will float in concrete.

2.8 Concrete Element Seismic Testing
2.8.1 Loading Condition Kankam & Odum-Ewuakye (2005) tested Babadua reinforced slabs in direct and cyclic loading conditions, applying the load to the centre of the slab, and measuring the deflection of the slab with load until failure (Fig 2.4). The test showed that cyclic loading made no notable difference to the load capacity or deflection of the slab, and that it was more convenient to simply test the slabs using direct loading. The similarity between direct and cyclic loading is not confirmed by other sources, however Mukherjee & Joshi (2004) and Zhao (2009) both used cyclic loading on beams whilst applying a constant load to the column in their seismic testing of reinforced concrete frames. There is no

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definite conclusion from these sources, but testing using cyclic loading is not less realistic than direct loading.

Fig 2.4 Test Set up (Kankam & Odum-Ewuakye, 2005)

2.8.2 Critical Section The critical section of a reinforced concrete frame is the joint between the column and the beam according to Uma & Prasad (2009). This is because it sustains the greatest bending moment. This is agreed in Mukherjee & Joshi (2004) and Zhao (2009) where tests on reinforced concrete frames are focused on the critical load of the beam-column joint.

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3.0 Progress Summary and Evaluation 3.1 Literature Review
The literature review covered: • • • • • Types of current bamboo structures currently used. Bamboo properties and its suitability for reinforced concrete construction in India. Typical Indian house requirements and construction. Socioeconomic effects of previous earthquakes in the Indian region. Seismic testing of concrete elements.

A review into the affordability of bamboo and reinforced concrete construction is needed, as no information on the subject has currently been reviewed. This information will be critical to achieving an affordable earthquake resistant design.

3.2 Design Calculations
A design for a suitable house was produced from the information on property sizes provided in Prasad et al (2005). The dimensions of the design are (4 x 5 x 2.4m). This was used to determine the areas affected by wind loading, and the necessary frame size. These calculations are available in Appendix B.

The typical wind and earthquake loads were calculated using the Indian Standards design codes from Bureau of Indian Standards (1987) and Bureau of Indian Standards (2002) (Appendix B). These loads were used in a plastic analysis to determine the failure mechanism and plastic moment of different frame designs. The plastic moment was used to calculate the bamboo or steel reinforcement required for the different frame designs in accordance with BS EN 1998-1:2004 (British Standards Institute, 2005), calculations are available in Appendix B. The most suitable frame design is a 150 x 150mm section. This size was chosen because bending rebar for sections any smaller than this becomes too difficult.

The details for the reinforced section are: Cross Section = 150 x 150mm Concrete = C25/30 Plastic Moment = Mp = 7796N.m Max Shear Force = Usd = 5248N 11

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Bamboo Tensile/Compressive Reinforcement Area = 965mm2 Bamboo Shear Reinforcement Area = 600mm2 Bamboo Percentage Reinforcement = 7% Steel Tensile/Compressive Reinforcement Area = 186mm2 Steel Shear Reinforcement Area = 600mm2 Steel Percentage Reinforcement = 3.5%

Although the Bamboo Percentage Reinforcement is greater than would be allowed in steel reinforced concrete, it is acceptable. This is because bamboo is weaker than steel and so the section will not be over-reinforced even at a reinforcement percentage greater than four.

3.3 Material Acquisition
To be able to test the properties of a bamboo reinforced concrete frame, bamboo has to be sourced for the production; however India does not allow the export of Calcutta bamboo poles. A source in South America was found to export the bamboo, but it has not been done before and it is still in the process of being purchased. The delay of the bamboo will reduce the length of time available for experimentation and may hinder the project.

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4.0 Methods 4.1 Bamboo Choice
Calcutta bamboo is the bamboo chosen to be the reinforcement in the reinforced concrete frame. This is because Ahmad & Kamke (2005) and NMBA (2009) have shown Calcutta bamboo to be widely available throughout India. This means that this method of construction would be available and affordable in different regions. The mechanical properties of Calcutta bamboo were also suitable for construction. The tensile and bending strengths were shown to be relatively high although they varied widely by Ahmad & Kamke (2005), Khare (2005) and Janssen (1981).

4.2 Bamboo Treatment
The bamboo will be given an asphalt emulsion coating to prevent water absorption when in concrete. Asphalt emulsion was chosen because it is similar to the hot tar coating, which is the method currently used at Vigyan Ashram, but safer to use. Therefore, when the concrete element is tested it will produce results that will be comparable to the construction techniques that would be used in India. Asphalt emulsion was also recommended in Brink & Rush (1966).

A sand coating will be impregnated into the asphalt emulsions to improve the bond strength between the bamboo and concrete. This was proven to be effective in Ghavami (1995) and should allow the concrete to transfer more stress to the bamboo increasing the strength of the element.

4.3 House Design
The house that the bamboo concrete frame will be designed for will be approximately 20m2 and have walls and a roof made from concrete encased bamboo weave. This is because in Prasad et al (2005) and photos of Vigyan Ashram it is shown to be typical.

4.4 Testing Method
Only the column-beam joint section of the designed bamboo and steel reinforced concrete frames will be fabricated. This is because it is stated to be the critical section of the frame in Uma & Prasad (2009), and so it is the strength of this section that determine the failure load of the whole frame.

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Figure 4.0 shows that sections will be tested under cyclic loading on the beam with a constant imposed load on the column. Measuring the forces along with the deflection of the sections will allow comparison between the two. This loading scenario mimics the load that would be experienced during earthquake loading and is used in Mukherjee & Joshi (2004) and Zhao (2009) in the testing of column-beam joints.

Fig 4.0 Column-Beam Joint Section under Testing

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5.0 Future Work 5.1 Gantt Chart
A Gantt chart outlining the duration and date of experimental and research tasks needed for the completion of the dissertation is provided in Appendix D.

5.2 Dissertation Contents Plan
An outline of the contents for the dissertation titled “Bamboo Reinforced Concrete in Earthquake Resistant Housing” is available in Appendix C.

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References
Ahmad, M. and Kamke, F. (2005) ‘Analysis of Calcutta bamboo for structural composite materials: physical and mechanical properties’, Wood Science and Technology Journal, 39, pp. 448-459. Arrifin, W. (2005) Numerical analysis of bamboo and laminated bamboo strip lumber. Fig. [Online]. Available at: www.iem.bham.ac.uk/computation/wan.htm (Accessed: 9 November 2009). Brink, F. Rush, P. (1966) Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Construction. U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. British Standards Institute (2005) BS EN 1998-1:2004 Eurocode 8. Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance. General Rules, Seismic Action and Rules for General Buildings. bsol.bsigroup.com [Online]. Available at: https://bsol.bsigroup.com/BsiBsol/BsolHomePage (Accessed: 04 December 2009). Bureau of Indian Standards (1987) IS-875 Part 3. A Commentary on Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than Earthquake) for Buildings and Structures, Part 3 Wind Loads (Second Revision).I Roorkee, India, Indian Institute of Technology. Bureau of Indian Standards (2002) IS-1893. Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures. .I Roorkee, India, Indian Institute of Technology. Davies, A. (2009) Bamboo as a Structural Component. MEng Dissertation. University of Brighton. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. (Accessed: 28 November 2009). Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (2008) KashmirPakistan Earthquake of 8 October 2005. Institution of Structural Engineers. Engineers Without Borders (2008) Picasaweb [Online]. Available at: http://picasaweb.google.com/ewb.uk.org/BioDieselInPabal (Accessed: 04 December 2009). Follet, P. (2004) ‘Earthquake-proof House Shakes Bamboo World’, Trada News [Online]. Available at: http://www.trada.co.uk/news/view/85407B85-2BB9-4DD1-91840320B32BD4C9/Earth (Accessed: 18 November 2009). Ghavami, K. (1995) ‘Ultimate Load Behaviour of Bamboo-Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Beams’, Cements and Concrete Composites, 17, pp 281-288 [Online]. Available at: www.sciencedirect.com (Accessed: 28 November 2009). Ghavami, K. (2004) ‘Bamboo as reinforcement in structural concrete elements’, Cements and Concrete Composites, 27, pp 637-649 [Online]. Available at: www.sciencedirect.com (Accessed: 14 October 2009). 16

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Grewal, J. (2009) ‘Bamboo housing in Pabal’, EWB-UK Research Conference 2009. Royal Academy of Engineering 20th February. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan (2009) Bamboo Housing. Available at: http://www.inbar.int/housing/current%20activities-Nepal.htm (Accessed: 8 September 2009). Jain, S. Lettis, W. Murty, C. and Bardet, J. (2001) Bhuj, India, Earthquake of January 26, 2001 Reconnaissance Report. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Janssen, J.J.A. (1981) Bamboo in Building Structures. PhD thesis. Eindhoven University of Technology. Jung, Y. (2006) Investigation of Bamboo as Reinforcement in Concrete. MEng Dissertation. University of Texas Arlington. Kankam, C and Odum-Ewuakye, B. (2005) ‘Babadua Reinforced Concrete Two-Way Slabs Subjected to Concentrated Loading’, Construction and Building Materials, (20), pp. 279-285. Khare, L. (2005) Performance evaluation of bamboo reinforced beams. MEng Dissertation. University of Texas at Arlington. Kulkarni, Y. (2009). Interviewed by Andrew Jardine, 21 September. Liang, C. (2005) Bamboo as a permanent structural component. Imperial College London, Department of Aeronautics. Liese, W. (1987) ‘Research on bamboo’, Wood Science and Technology, 21 (3), pp. 189209. Mukherjee, A and Joshi, M. (2004) ‘FRPC Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Under Cyclic Exitation’, Composite Structures, 70, pp 185-199. National Mission on Bamboo Applications (2009) Species. Available at: http://www.bambootech.org/ (Accessed: 18 November 2009). Peiris, N..,Rossetto, T., Burton, P., Mahmood, S. (2008) Kashmir Pakistan Earthquake of 8 October 2005. Institution of Structural Engineers. Prasad, J. Pandley, B. Ahuja, R. and Ahuja, A. (2005) ‘Low Cost Housing For Hilly Regions Using Locally Available Material’, Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 6 (4), pp.257-265. The World Bank (2009) New Global Poverty Estimates. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org.in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/I NDIAEXTN/0,,contentMDK:21880725~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:2955 84,00.html (Accessed: 28 November 2009) UGA Geology Department (2009) Geological Diagrams. Available at: http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/GeologicalDiagrams1.html (Accessed: 10 November 2009). Illus. 17

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Uma, S. Prasad, A. (2009) Seismic Behaviour of Beam Column Joints in Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames. [Online]. Available at: http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/IITK-GSDMA/EQ31.pdf (Accessed: 04 December 2009). United States Geological Survey (2009) USGS. Available at: http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/eqstats.html (Accessed: 10 November 2009). Vanderly, J. (2003) ‘On The Sustainability of Concrete’, UNEP Journal Industry and Environment.[Online]. Available at: http://vmjohn.pcc.usp.br (Accessed: 09 November 2009). Zhao, H. (2009) ‘Reconsideration of Seismic Performance and Design of Beam-Column Joints of Earthquake-Resistant Reinforced Concrete Frames’, Journal of Structural Engineering, 135, pp 762-773.

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APPENDIX A Experimental Properties of Calcutta Bamboo

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Table A1 Mean Dimensional Stability at Different Sections and Directions of Dendrocalamus Strictus Culms (Ahmad & Kamke, 2005)

Section Internode Internode Internode Internode Internode Internode Internode Internode Internode Internode Internode Internode Node Node Internode Internode Internode

Direction Radial Radial Radial Radial Tangential Tangential Tangential Tangential Longitudinal Longitudinal Longitudinal Longitudinal Radial Tangential Radial Tangential Longitudinal

Shrinkage % (SD) 2.50 3.10 3.20 3.70 2.90 3.70 3.20 3.30 0.43 0.16 0.17 0.19 2.85 0.71 3.08 3.25 0.18 (0.75) (0.64) (0.68) (1.25) (1.07) (1.71) (1.05) (1.19) (1.41) (0.10) (0.09) (0.08) (2.89) (1.58) (0.96) (1.15) (0.09)

Swelling % (SD) 13.8 24.3 24.0 28.7 14.6 20.5 16.3 24.7 0.64 0.51 0.60 0.59 18.7 20.6 22.4 18.8 0.59 (8.40) (11.7) (13.3) (17.9) (9.03) (8.59) (9.25) (17.7) (0.32) (0.33) (0.28) (0.20) (13.7) (11.6) (14.1) (12.2) (0.29)

Table A2 Mean Tensile Strength at Different Sections of Dendrocalamus Strictus Culms (Ahmad & Kamke, 2005)
Section Mean tensile strength (N/mm2) Stress at proportional limit Ultimate stress (SD) (SD) Internode Internode Node 95.5 (33.8) 136.7 (26.7) 71.0 (22.3) 156.1 (37.7) 185.3 (41.8) 106.2 (26.8) Young modulus (SD) 16,779 (6952.0) 12,723 (4496.3) 17,771 (5354.9)

Table A3 Mean Bending Strength at Different Sections and Directions of Dendrocalamus Strictus Culms (Ahmad & Kamke, 2005)
Mean bending strength (N/mm2) Stress at proportional limit (SD) Internode Internode Internode Internode Node Internode Internode Radial Radial Radial Radial Radial Radial Tangential 91.2 (30.5) 99.5 (33.1) 100.0 (26.3) 113.5 (38.4) 101.0 (30.3) 90.9 (38.7) 91.9 (33.9) Ultimate stress (SD) 152.3 (39.5) 149.3 (42.1) 151.2 (49.1) 185.5 (52.8) 149.9 (42.4) 137.1 (52.3) 148.4 (45.1) Young modulus (SD) 10,428 (3073.0) 11,305 (3473.5) 11,426 (2919.0) 12,358 (3824.8) 9,691 (2774.1) 9,791 (3341.9) 9,878 (3413.8)

Section

Direction

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APPENDIX B House and Frame Design Calculations

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APPENDIX C Draft Contents of Completed Dissertation

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1.0 Introduction
1.1 Project Aims 1.2 Bamboo 1.2.1 General 1.2.2 Anatomy 1.3 Reinforced Concrete 1.4 Earthquakes 1.5 Indian Living Conditions

2.0 Literature Survey 3.0 Literature Review
3.1 Suitability of Bamboo for House Construction 3.2 General Properties of Bamboo 3.2.1 Directional Strength 3.2.2 Node Properties 3.2.3 Water Absorption 3.3 Bamboo Species in India 3.4 Mechanical Properties of Calcutta Bamboo 3.4.1 Water Absorption 3.4.2 Tensile Strength 3.4.3 Bending Strength 3.5 Low-Cost Indian House Design 3.5.1 House Size 3.5.2 Construction Materials 3.6 Affordability of Bamboo Reinforced Concrete 3.7 Socioeconomic Effects of Earthquakes 3.7.1 Cost 3.7.2 Residential Buildings 3.8 Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Construction 3.8.1 Waterproof Coating 3.8.2 Assembly 3.9 Concrete Element Seismic Testing 3.9.1 Loading Condition 3.9.2 Critical Section

4.0 Methods 4.1 Bamboo Choice
4.2 Bamboo Treatment 4.3 House and Frame Design 4.4 Reinforcement Design 4.4.1 Wind and Earthquake Loading 4.4.2 Earthquake Design Detailing 4.5 Element Choice 4.6 Testing Method

5.0 Test Results 6.0 Discussion of Test Results 7.0 Conclusions
References Bibliography Appendices

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APPENDIX D Gantt Chart Outlining Future Targets

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