fire Dream
Essays on the Near Edge of In

Wyn Wachhorst

A Member of the Persew Books Group

Copyright 2 W by Wjln Wachhorsf Published by Basic Books, A Member of the Perseus Books Croup Ail1 dghts reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner whamever without wriEen pemlssion except in the case of brief quotations embodied in c~ticafarticles and reviews, For information, address Basic Boolts, 2 0 East 53" Street, New York, PJV 1W22-5299.

Library of Congrea Catatoging-in-PublicationData Wachhorst, Wyn The dream of spaceflight I Wyn Wachhorst.

p. cm,
f ncludes bibliographical references and X S B N 0-465-09057-5

index.

1. Manned space Right, TL873,W33 2000 629.454~21

I. Title,

98-086067 CIP

I n memory of my father Nevvtan EdMn Wachh~mt abiding like the steeple in, the vilIage and of my mother Narma Harve-y Mchfitomt whose passing prekstined tbis book

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The mind of the scientist exploring space and malter. but he keeps insisting that the new data rnuft be insovomted into a moml uniwerse. . Like the sGientist the poet is enchanted with an expanding univerx of howledye. the universe that poetfy originally created as m p h and for which fie must pepemally seek new metaphors. whose task is to explore inner space and the realiv of things. is dosely related ts the mind of the poet.

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Contents Acknowledgments Foreward by Buzz AIdrin &face: The Inner Reaches of Outer Space + rtepler's l Children: The Dream of Spaceflight 2 The Romance of Spaceflight: Nrrstaigia for a Bygone Future 3 Seeking the Center at the Edge 4 Abandon in Place Append&: Space CFrronology PJotczs Bibliography h & .

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also to Dr. Heidi Downey. whose support has been indispensable. Staige Blackford. McClatchy. 1. Rita. William Fmcht. my wife. Lee Enright. the rainbow through the gray mists of a writing life. Nor can I forgo mentioning two teachers who tower over all others in my 28 years of schooling--Crayton Thorup and Ted Hinckley. and my editor at Basic Books. my agents Michaei Larsen and Elizabeth Pomada. But above ail. D. Tom jenks.I am indebted to Buzz Aldrin. . Michelle Gillett.

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Foreword Space journalists have long lamented the lack of poet-astronauts. A half-century of ting has seemed to harbor a tacit belief that the deeper motives for spaceflight are inexpressible. space ten have implied by omission that the inner meaning is ineffable. . of course. philosophy and history. Apparently the inner experience is expressible. valuable histories and an array of exdting projections. and scientists might capture what has eluded the writers themselves. Lewis Thomas. economic. Poised between poetry and psychology. engineers. There are. Probing beneath the political. that pilots. Wyn Wachhorst's book is thus a long-awaited departure. the book is written in a lyrical style reminiscent of Loren Eiseley. hoping. but beyond a few well-worn phrases. perhaps. or Chet Raymo's The Soul of the Night.

Watching the moonwalks on film. we feel like it all happened yesterday. so titanic were the achievements of Apollo and so timid our subsequent efforts. Robotic probes have returned impressive pictures and invaluable information. there was also a desire to be part of something larger. As this book contends. it has to move outward on a broad base of permanent support." The people who settled our continent were not afraid of risk. but if you send a robot with a camera to Paris and peruse the pictures at home. it is humans who must go into space. something epochal. A lasting human presence in space won't result from sudden leaps like Apollo. Of course our ancestors did not disembark at jarnestown and Plymouth and suddenly build Los Angeles. to "wander far worXds and meet once more the dread unS. you haven't really done Paris. the dry-mouthed fears of the old explorers. But what we lack at present is less the . Yet those images are now more than a quarter-century old. and beyond personal ambition. If we balk before the challenge of space we will become less than the people who lifted us into the present.Foreword and tribal rationales. Wachhorst reminds us that the cold war alone cannot account for Apollo.

Waving history. Probing the soul of exploration. My hope is that it will find a large audience. Beyond robotics and Earth-sewing space stations lies the infinite journey. The Dream of Spaceflight is not just for space buffs. acutely independent-minded. Escaping dependence on one vulnerable world. and personal narrative. and we will inhabit the solar system in the next. "an imperfect people of irrepressible spirit . a merging of inner and outer that offers a new way of looking at spaceflight. It is for anyone who seeks a meaning beyond the self. who dare to dream of reaching the stars. Wyn Wachhorst has written a book unlike any before.technology than the vision.99 . thematically ambitious. We have covered the globe in this millennium. This is a truly outstanding book. spreading consciousness into the casmos. a destiny beyond ephemeral ills. it is for everyone who sees the mystery of the cosmos as analog to the human soul. intellectually vibrant. . we will found new cultures and new species of awareness. poetry. and downright moving. it reaffirms the nobility of the human species. .

Henry David Thoreau .Many men go Ashing their entire lives without knowing it is not fish they are after.

Beyond all the political and economic rationale~. spaceflight is a spiritual quest in the broad- . Hubble revealing that our galaxy is only one among billions. We are aware of the stars only because we have evolved a corresponding inner space. Freud exposing the rational mind as a tiny clearing in the dark forest of the soul.Preface Perhaps it is more than coincidence that Sigmund Freud and Edwin Hubble shared the same moment in history. that the heavens are immense beyond imagination. To gaze into the night sky and feel the vasmess and passion of creation is to glimpse a n equally vast interior.

to find the center by completing the edge. as the signature of our century. We know from the new science of chaos and complexity that an open system "perturbed" at its frontier may restructure itself. The inner experi- . They explore or expire. Living systems reach out to their environment. It stands with the cathedrals and pyramids among those epic social feats that embody the spirit of a n age. rooted less in means than in meaning itself. The quest for the larger reality is the basic imperative of consciousness. a thousand years hence. Living systems cannot remain static. the hallmark of our species. they evolve or decline. The moon landing will be seen.Preface est sense. They are the dreams of the child in man. escaping into higher order. Riding the crest of evolution. we explore our horizons as children probe their world in play. longing to perfect a grand internal model of reality. one promising a revitalization of humanity and a rebirth of hope no less profound than the great opening out of mind and spirit at the dawn of the modern age. merging with larger systems in the fight against entropy. arising less from the ethic of work than from the spirit of play.

more personal concerns of philosophy to the subjed of space exploration. It is also a confluence of edectic ideas. Probing the poetic perception of our first steps out into the cosmos. and to place that larger meaning in historical perspective. Perhaps the core message is that evolution and exploration are inseparable. offering new perspectives on the psychology of wonder and the significance of the spacefaring vision in the evolution of Western culture. from the romantic vision in the decades prior to Sputnik.Preface ence of this drive is curiosity and awe-the of wander. sense My purpose has been to bring the deeper. when fantasy and reality seemed almost in balance. to bond the wonder of the night sky to the workings of the human psyche. subjective sense of what it means to explore other worlds. Much of the book is in fact a series of prose movement montage of images and reflections on the dream of spaceflight. to the meaning of the moon landings and their premature demise. that the cu- . Perhaps the deeper motifs are more suited to poetry or musi n "Apollo" symphony or a "Voyager" concerto. I have tried to capture the inner.

"was the size of each new event and the paucity of its rtsver'beration." Norman Mailer once wrote.rious intellect and the wondering spirit are the evolutionary process seen from inside. philosophical. and spiritual implications for our own time."Vt seems time. . only three or four show more than a passing interest in its psychocultural significance. more than a quarter-century after the last moonwalk. "The horror of the twentieth century. nonfiction books in English on spaceflight. to look for the larger meaning of humanity in space. They are the hallmarks of humanity and the true propellants of spaceflight. Though it may be millennia before spacefaring humanitj.views its past as either the dawn of a new world or an exile from Eden. the leap into space has profound psychological. Yet among hundreds of nontechnical.

The Dream of Spaceflight .

Epigraph far Pwms . W 11.Let us honar if we can The veaieaf man Though we value none But the horizontal one. Audewr.

scunying through namw cobblestone streets. huddled in the twilight of an age. the boy and his mother moved across a new-mown field and up a small hill in the last purple aura of dusk. the six-year-oldboy ran beside his mother. The boy and his mother stood on the crest of the hill in the drone of the night wind. Peddlers pushed their ironwheeled carts. They had . At the edge of . and lepers shook their rattles as night fell on the Swabian village of Weil. The sounds of the village gave way to a silent canopy of stars.Chapter One Kepler's Children: The Dream o ULLED BY THE HAND. dwarfing the stern little steeple and its flock of houses. an ocean of light spanning the world from edge to edge. players and musicians passed in procession.

A precocious adolescent. pasty. a mercenary adventurer who ." the boy saw little of his vicious father. selfloathing. He was a spindly. the periods of hard field labor that kept him from school. and prone to wild fits of anger. piles. welcoming. she would never know that there at her side stood the earthly counterpart to that cosmic aberration. and multiple vision. anogant. and vociferous. sending a shudder through the whole medieval order. Raised by an extended family that Arthur Koestler describes as "mostly degenerates and psychopaths. plagued with worms. belligerently defensive. myopia. sowing the seed of the modern age. He was frequently beaten up for being an intolerable egghead. violent rashes. For the Great Comet of 1577 had fired the soul of Johannes Kepler.The Dream of Spacefigfit come to behold a streak of cosmic fire hanging motionless in the heavens. neurotic. mange-eaten boy with a bloated face-sickly. he was an introspective loner. and putrid sores. who would pass through the world like the wind in the grass. boils. perhaps. It was a moment burned into the boy's memory. chronically covered with scabs. slashing across a full third of the sky. Though his mother had heard that the comet foretold a new age.

a quarrelsome eccentric who was nearly burned as a witch. Nor was he a special concern of his mother. swept about in the storms of seventeenth-century Europe. Kepler's laws of planetary motion-the first "natural laws" in the . and who finally wandered away forever." johannes Kepler stood aswde? the intellectual divide bemeen medieval and modem. for the new empiricism was oeen incidental to their search for a harmony and symmetry that would reveal the mind of God in nature.FieplerssChildren barely escaped the gallows. Out of this "childhood in hell. fhe Podc S t r u d u n of the Wadd Like the seafarers of their time. for celestial harmony in an age of upheaval. sought a new image of God to transcend the misfortunes of a persecuted exile." His lifelong quest for larger meaning. came "the most reckless and erratic spiritual adventurer of the scientific revolution. A strange and tormented genius whom Kant called "the most acute thinker ever born." as Koestler put it. seventeenthcentury scientists left well-worn paths to seek their own East in the west.

defined the orbital spheres of the six known planets. and Pythagorean mysticism. theology. he compared his . He founded celestial mechanics. a grandiose fugue woven of science. and that their relative motions matched the mathematics of musical harmony-the music of the spheres. poetry. His famous empirical laws were to him mere tools in a lifelong obsession to prove his mistaken notion that the vertices of the five symmetrical solids (pyramid. Ironically. Kepler had seen that empirical observation was key. philosophy.The Dream of Spaceflight modern sense--not only rescued the Copernican system from philosophic obscurity but were also prerequisite to the law of gravity.). cube. Kepler's transcendent goal--to map the mind of God-was more medieval than modern. upon which Newton built the modern universe. which was to seek no less than the poetic structure of the world. etc. Yet the founding of modern science was a byproduct of Kepler's larger purpose. Yet in this quest for his summa of the Renaissance. Driven by a cosmic vision. the grand geometric symmetry of all creation. the perfection of which eluded him all his life. moving astronomy from theology to physics. inscribed or nested one within the other.

By a stroke of luck. Attempting to derive the orbit from Brahe's data. the astronomer Tycho Brahe. he was unwilling to accept a discrepancy of even a few minutes of arc. whose obsemations were the most accurate to date. covering nine hundred folio pages in small handwriting. Only the orbit of Mars. It was neither Copernicus nor Galileo but johannes Kepler who launched the scientific revolution. Kepier came finally to question the orbits themselves. Failing to match the paths of the planets to the vertices of his symmetrical solids. could have forced Kepler to abandon the dream of symmetry. little knowing that he himself had discovered his America believing it was India.Kepier's Children voyage of discovery to that of Colurnbus. He labored six years on the problem. so prominent in subsequent dreams of spaceflight. he settled sadly on the lowly ellipse. having the largest eccentricity. Looking first for a n egg-shaped orbit. was so protective of his data that he would give Kepler only his figures for Mars. at one point repeating seventy times a process involving thousands of calculations. Thus the planet Mars. This in t-um led him to two additional discoveries: . led Kepler to the first natural law: planets move in elliptical orbits.

No longer in the supernatural province of God. Seeking the Past in the Future "Let us create vessels and sails adjusted to the heavenly ether. as Koestler notes. "and there will be plenty of people unakaid of the empty wastes. hidden away. we shall prepare for the brave sky-travelers maps of the celestial bodies. Though Kepler salvaged his vision of harmony with his motion of musical intewals." With those laws NeMon laid the hundation of the pyramid that would put man on the moon. Yet the three laws had no apparent relationship before the invention of calculus and analytic geometry. "like forget-me-nots in a tropical flower bed. he had opened the universe to infinity."z The reducfion of the planets from ethe- . and that the squares of the periods of revolution of any two planets are as the cubes of their mean distances kom the sun-the revelation that led Newton to the law of gravity. the planets now belonged to man. In the meantime." Kepler wrote to Galileo.that a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. one of Newton's greater achievements was to spot the laws in Kepler's writings. thus.

shedding their diseased skin. and Europe a girl bending down to kiss it. dswn to the poor reptilian creatures in perpetual flight. . Thus Kepler's Somnium (16341. The planets had become real places in the sky. it was in fact a heretical scientific hypothesis. providing a model for later works. Kepler took great pains to envision the lunar surface and its inhabitants. Kepler poured his soul into Somniurn."3 And the same tension of old and new that had defined his life colored. published four years after his death. where the continent of Africa resembled a head. Though the moonflight itself was a dream. the first seriously to suggest extraterrestrial life. it was Kepler who deciphered its principles and founded the science of optics). for if the hero was whisked to the moon by spirits. it. In. were "afl the dragons which had beset his life-kom the witch Fiolxhilda and her vanished husband. became the first cosmic voyage in modern science fiction.real orbs to rocky worlds like our own resuited from both Kepler's work and the advent of the telescope (which was neither invented nor understood by Galileo. observes Koestler. he was also first to see Earth afloat in the lunar sky. Disguised as fiction. this fast work.

Travelers were swept to the moon by angels and witches.The Dream of Spaceflight In projecting a lunar reality based on the best science of the day. But even these tales were virtually nonexistent until the fabulous voyage flowered in Elizabethan literamre. Somnium was ahead of its time. by ships borne on whirlwinds or waterspouts. tales before the nineteenth century were the tongue-in-cheek gimmicks of sermon and satire. were those who simply arrived on the moon unexplained. early seventeenth-century England straddled old and . Though the literary history of voyages beyond the Earth dates from second-century Greece. ar ascended the heavens in an iron car by lobbing lodestones continuously upward. others sailed a n angular framework suspended from a team of swans. donned botNes of dew that rose with the dawn. Like twentieth-century America. and in chariots dra red horses. perhaps. a yearning to escape the present by seeking a simpler past in a purified future.4 The sudden popularity of the cosmic voyage in the 1630s found fertile ground in an ambivalence toward accelerating change. One voyager wore the wings of a vulture. Shrewdest of all.

severed Er-om irzstihtional contexts of identity. the new visions of Kepler. promised escape from history.new. brought the loss of innocence that has made the reconquest of Eden the organizing image of the last half-millennium. The New World became the idyllic setting for utopian tales. Galileo. the medieval world-picture was surfacing into critical consciousness. Like present-day materialism. and Kepler's notion of a world in the moon prompted fables of escape to simpler but superior peoples on exemplary planets. The vast resources of the New World so liberated human potential that the imaginative mind felt a new rela~oxt with the urzivers of control over destiny. with their expansive belief in humanity's ability to improve on nature. But the consequent rise of the self-reflexive individual. Amid political and economic turmoil. a metaphysical shudder. experiencing what literary historians have called a failure of nerve. oscillating between extremes of hope and pessimism. and Descartes.5 But if a melanchoiy sense of mutability and decay reinforced the Christian notion that history must unwind to its end.6 if the Copernican expulsion from the literal center . Bacon. it was losing the power to provide axiomatic order and meaning.

which put final meaning at the highest point in the heavens. Rites of Passage Certainly curiosity has been prerequisite to our success as a species. In contrast to the horizontal expansion of modem xnalericnfism. the forerunners of spaceflight have been keepers of this lost vertical vision. embodied in the cathedral's soaring vaults. and novelists to pulp writers and rocket pioneers. the why over the how. But what drove a man like Magellan. they have carried the quest for meaning across the modern desert. From early explorers.The Dream of Spaceflight symbolizes this loss of larger meaning. seeking the East in the West. this longing for meaning has been a vertical vision--seeking the whole over the part. Imbued with curiosity and wonder. scientists. the . the center at the edge. the past in the future. meaningful ends over endless means-akin to the medieval penchant for spirit over matter. then the leitmotif of the longing to return-from Kepler in the seventeenth century to von Braun in the Wentieth-has been the dream of spaceflight. who sought the mythic el paso. which has conhsed Paradise with power itself.

unable to get their fill of that delicacy the rat. But the hardy redhead Spaniard reached the westernmost mountain with sixtyseven men. forging defiles and dark troughs of swampy rain forest. and poison arrows? A nineteenth-century expedition following the same route lost every man. only to find himself on the far side of a globe many times larger than imagined. putrefied meat. beset by snakes. The price of exploration has been high. mutilated by native knives and spears. And what drove the Spanish adventurer who trekked across the Isthmus of Panama in 15 13 with 190 men in heavy armor. Climbing the last peak alone with his dog. even today no road traverses it. or becalmed in a stillness that roasted the flesh.Kepfer's Children passage to the Orient. Vasco Nuiiez de Balboa stood silent on the bare summit. scaling steep mountains. predators. Beyond the virgin forest glistened the vast blue of the Pacific stretching away with the other half of the world. and fouled water casks with green scum? He and his men ate worm-filled biscuits turned to powder and the ox hides off the masts. On the far side of the Earth. lay on a barren . Magellan's body. hurled about in howling winds amid mo~ntains of water.

So it is fitting that the impetus for Kepler's grand internal model of the solar system was . suspended between an authoritarian past and an existential future. his head displayed on a stake. in fact. In a sense. a five-century quest for self-definition. What motivates those who venture over the edge. to broaden the context of meaning. and his body thrown to the vultures. What the biographies of most explorers reveal. the age of exploration. At the heart of exploration.The Dream of Spacefli&t beach. only to yearn for the relentless red desert of Mars? Surely it is more than gold and glory. is the attempt to complete the grand internal model of reality. just as the adolescent's desire to remain dependent in a maternal Eden conflicts with a growing sense of autonomy. Balboa. the modern age. who trek over barren plains. geographic and scientific. has been man's rite of passage. it seems. through tangled jungle. is the whole of modern history. or across the Arctic waste. The adolescence of humanity began with the age of exploration. a victim of political intrigue. to find the center by completing the edge. was beheaded in a public square. who ride on fire over the rocks of the moon. is a sometimes selfless obsession with reaching the pristine edges of reality.

wiry figure. heartbreaking computations. Copernicus found refuge kom lonely isolation in secret and incessant elaboration of his system. fanatically patient and violently irritable. and Newton. He was a "dark." his Mephistophelian profile "belied by the melancholia of the soft. obsessed with his work. but the architects of the modern age seem themselves to have lived in that limbo between childhood and maturity. For not only was the seventeenth century a torn and restless era of nascent individualism. charged with nervous energy. a tension resembling that of adolescence. Galileo was a self-centered egomaniac. of the "explosive yet painstakingly elaborate paintings by schizophrenics. and a lifelong celibate. shortsighted eyes. also a rational mystic. burdening his sweeping fantasies with pedantic obsessions over kaction-of-a-decimal deviations."7 In that .Kepler's Children both a priori and inductive. his labors were suggestive. Kepler himself. says Koestler. alienated from his parents. the true significance of which he never perceived. Set against twenty years of dreary. as Koestler observes. ideal and real. seemed polarized to a point verging on insanity. regressive and progressive." He was both n a W and profound. was a sickly reduse.

In the end. pleading for his fees. stretching away before him like Balboa's Pacific. he was excommunicated and exiled. He was chronically ill and ever in fear of penury and stanration. forced to migrate from city to city with his family. accustzd af Wtchcraft and hained in prison for fourteen months. simple-minded. His first wife. when Kepler himself glimpsed the true scope of the cosmos. Perhaps there was a brief moment. food-stained suit. But Kepler. his household goods piled in a wagon. Seldom understood. had paid the price of beaching his boat on the shore of a new world. too.The Dream of Spacefiight tension lay the spark of the scientific revolution and the drer~m of reaching the stars. died of typhus at thirty-seven. sulking woman who viewed with contempt his position of stargazer. His mother. died shortly after he . a nagging. Kepler lost six of his twelve children. For attempting to stand above the political and religious forces of the Thirty Years War. he was desperately lonely amid the ignorance and provinciality of his time. on some bare summit of imagination. trekking fronl court to court in his baggy.

the tides of war erased his grave and all trace of his bones. One day in the fall of 1631 he set out on a skinny nag in search of funds with which to feed his children. Three days out. the fugitive odyssey of johannes Kepler drifted on that great divide belttveen Aristotle and Newton. For decades after his death. scholars saw only the wild-minded apriorist whose speculations had included an Earth soul and radiaitions from the planets that shaped human lives. stood in the same positions at the moment of his death as they had on the day of his birth.secured her release. which his labors had so demystified. the . As befit an outcast who wandered the edge. he died in a fever at the age of fifty-eight. spirit and matter. animism and mechanism. a wind bemeen worlds. The ironic postscript was that the planets. Kepler wrote his Harmony of the WorM con~nced that the world that so miskeated him was nonetheless beautiful. Through all this. until Newton unearthed his significance. Like the Great Comet itself. Embodying the vertical mind of the medieval while setting the modern mind in motion. fluctuating between ecstatic discovery and frequent depression.

8 A similar loss of meaning has befallen spaceship Earth. where dreams of enlarging the grand internal model. has forgotten the origin and purpose of the journey. of moving toward some final cosmic perspective. the prophets of spaceflight--from the astronomers who mapped imaginary Martian canals to the writers who peopled them with exotic beings to the rocket pisneers themselves-were realis& in search of the ideal. when Enlightenment rationalism was itself becoming the exhausted . intended to reach its destination after countless generations.two sides of this wholly original man foretold the tension of our collective adolescence-the oved drive to recapture Eden with the rational mind and the covert need to restore the old mysteries. yield to the cancerous individualism that devours the social organism. reflecting the expansive spirit of the age while preserving the transcendent vision. to humble man once more before Nature. Epitomizing this polarity. The Romance of the Red Planet Two centuries after Kepler. A classic Heinlein story comes to mind in which the community aboard a starship.

Hermann Oberth. the Romantic revolt seeded the future genres of popular culture. Its rising popularity over the past two centuries owes much. Exemplifying the nineteenth-century vision of technological salvation. to its paradoxic embodiment of the ever more polarized modern temper.9 . G. the tales of jules Verne were by far the most popular. from Mary Shelley to H. Once again a literary awakening sought an Edenic past in a purified utopian future. But like its Romantic roots. Wells. in fact. The list of nineteenth-century proto-science-fiction authors. As Enlightenment faith in the rational perfectibility of man descended from the moral to the material. reads like a roll call of Romantic reaction. the father of German rocketry. a cultural crisis similar to that of seventeenth-century England arose in the wake of the French Revolution amid the first signs of urban-industrial stress. reread Verne's classic From Zhe Earth to the Moon (1865)until he knew it by heart. science fiaion has always reflected both progressive and regressive responses to social change. all of whom explored the dark side of the machine age. looming large in the childhood of virtually every spaceflight pioneer.aid order.

Settled by millennia1 sects and shaped by Enlightenment principles. the dosing of Western civilization's four-century frontier. geographic insulation. from the rejection of political and ecclesiastic authority to dreams of success. the cosmic voyage.The Dream of Spacefli&t But it was in Amehca. each free (and condemned) to find their own separate meanings. a shrinking globe. and the consequent lack of traditional instimtions exacerbated the kagmenting forces of recent centuries. that science fiction. The absence of limits-heedom-became the core of the American faith. producing a pluralistic society of disconnected individuals. Abundant resources. and the quest for an idealized past in a limitless hture found their greatest appeal. America rode the leading edge of modern history. manifest destiny. a restless physical and social mobility. and unlimited economic growth. Near the end of the nineteenth century. Verne's land of t o m r row. waves of uprooted immigrants. and the loss of local autonomy marked a transformation even more profound than that of the early . A partial explanation may be that America has colledively reenacted the passage fiom childhood to adolescence. industrial expansion.

Wells. for the vertical vision. however. brother of the poet Amy Lowell and Haward president james Russell Lowell. and others. It began with a Boston Brahmin and U. Like Kepler. Soon. Bumughs.KeplerpsChildren seventeenth century. Its ponderantly outsiders. idealizing the cowboy as the last areas of free land disappeared. diplomat named Percival Lowell.S. The response resembled that of an adolescent encountering the world of communal responsibility: a wave of exapist fantasy swept over popular culture.10 A major catalyst was the rise of speculation on the possibility of life on Mars. Campbell. men who saw in science Action a haven. science fiction became a popular alternative to the Western. Lowell's earliest memory was of a cometDonatits of 1858-which sQetched across an . a means of transcending mundane modernity. Gemsback. just as in Elizabethan and Smart England an organic medieval order gave way to a new existential freedom. late-nineteenth-century ericans began the search for a mechanical order to counter the logical extremes of that freedom. An early sign was the dime novel. following the lead of Veme. It was fitting that this mythology appealed most strongly to adolescent males.

Arizona. he dev&ed the later part of his life to a study of the planet. building an observatory on "Mars Hill" near Flagstaff. the features of which. in any event. Over the years he developed the theory of an ancient.The Bream of Spaceflight entire quadrant of the sky. his destiny was shaped by the planet Mars." he wrote. would have been too small to see. Interpreting Schiaparelli's 1877 reports of Martian canali (channels) as literal eanals. In the end. Yet a few observers did see some of the same straight lines that Lowell had so carefully penciled on . Earthlike planet. "gazing with all his soul into the evening sky where the stranger stood. and sighting more than seven hundred canals bemeen 1894 and his death in 1916. as the Masiner and Viking probes revealed. Nothing on Lowell's maps matches the real topography of Mars. wiser civilization. withered. the canals were figments of a fervent and wishful imagination."lI Also like Kepler. Controversy raged for decades. heroically trying to delay extinction. "I can see yet a small boy half way up a turning staircase. with most astronomers denying any such canals. driving Lowell into long periods of nervous exhaustion. a frigid desert irrigated by a vast system of canals built by an older.

" Car1 Sagan has said."~~ Though what Lowell called his "far wandering" in the night sky went beyond Mars and laid groundwork for the discovery of Pluto. and for Edwin Hubble's expanding universe of numberless galaxies. it remains the larger legacy of this much-maligned man that the notion of inhabited planets and superior Martian intelligence passed into the public imagination. So deeply had Lowell penetrated the public mind that the nation panicked the novel that won when The War of" the WO .&pier's Children countless long cold nights at the twenty-six-inch telescope on Mars Hill. engendered more than two hundred works in English on interplanetary voyages. Between 1880 and World War I. One of these was Robert Goddard. "I have the nagging suspicion. who had been fascinated by Lowell's lectures a t MIT. "that some essential feature of the Martian canal problem still remains. which at its peak in 1907 overshadowed the national depression. resuscitating the seventeenth-century belief that extraterrestrial life was commonplace and convincing young pioneers that exploring the planets was a human imperative. inventor of the liquid fuel rocket. the thirty-year Mars furor. undiscovered.

The Dream of Spaceflight H. gold prospector.lost cit-ies. and appeals to simple emotions. the first of ten books about john Cafier on Mars. down long green valleys to the gates of crystal cities. Another author who emerged from the Mars mania had no illusions of writing literature on a higher plane. formulaic plots. 6 . beckoning generations of youths to wander the grassy banks of the great canals. railroad cop. selling pencil sharpeners at the time he wrote Under the Moons of Mars. Edgar Rice Burroughs had gone from failure to failure. Wi"c their clumsy prose. scantly clad women are threatened by hideous monsters and saved by muscular heroes who re- . Mars had come to incarnate the mystery of the cosmos. It is a world of decadent. Wells his initial fame-was drama. An ex-cavalryman. and candy vendor. sword-carrying barbarian cultures. a blood-red beacon burning low in the night sky. and exotic races.tized as a simulated news broadcast in 1938. serialized in All-Story Magazine in 1912. living off superscientific technologies from an ancient past. In stories smffed with V-ictorian values of love and honor. yet he bears major responsibility for the mythic image of Mars. the books depict a dying world of mass-covered sea bo@oms.

and the beautiful. owed a great debt to that pencil-shalpener salesman whose seventy-some books. hollow- . capturing the likes of Carl Sagan. and Ray Bradbury while spawning myriad progeny. Afihur Clarke.s he has met are beholden to some romanlic encountered in childhood."''3 Bradbury himself. Bumughs's stories of Barsoom. Yet Burroughs had a genuine inventiveness." he adds. egg-laying princess Dejah Thoris. Bradbury notes that mast af the scientists and asQonaut. from Buck Rogers and Flash Gordon to Star Wars and Star Trek.Kepler's Children spect their virtue utterly. uvith sales over fOO million. as he called Mars. We need this thing which makes us sit bolt upright when we are nine or ten and say. included adventures in the steamy jungles of Venus. ""ea start: Mth romance and build to reality. sharp-tusked Tharks. red-skinned. a mastery at populating imaginary landscapes. four-armed. who published his dassic Madan Chronicles in 1950. launched the genre of scientific romance and space opera. 'I want to go out and devour the world. the symbiotic relationship of the headless rykors and the bodiless kaldanes. "It is part of the nature of man. fifteen-foot. A true sense of wonder surrounded the green.

California. reading a comic book. he conceived the dream that would consume his life: to find some principle. he suddenly envisioned a whirling machine. sitting in bed. and to the strange civilizations that beckoned from the pages of books he had read and reread.Earth stories. At a time when even the airplane was unknown. at his home in Tarzana. One-Dream Man One of those whose imagination had been "gripped tremendously" by the Boston Post's serialization of War of the Worlds was a boy who went out to pmne his grandmother's cherry tree one autumn afternoon in 1899. some great machine that would take man to the stars. out of Earth itself to the canals of Mars. and tales of Tarzan. That same year. Robert Hutchings Goddard marked the day in his diary. rising above his grandmother's house. his invalid mother. and his own chronic infirmity. spinning until it began to lift. Lying in the high limbs and gazing into the New England sky. Edgar Rice Burroughs died at the age of seventyfour. some mechanism. he would remember it as a private an- .

Although the Russian Konstantin Tsiolkovsky had written on the potential of the rocket as early as 1903. fiuled. however. Yet the reclusive Goddard invented every principle of propul- . or failed to ignite. put the Germans ahead. Charles Lindbergh. including multistage projectiles. Goddard independentiy came to the same condusions after considering a number of methods. military motives and the independent theories of Hermann Oberth. Goddard was a practical engineer who went beyond theory to build and test working models. this stooped. along with a standing order for all of Goddard's patents. Unlike Tsiolkovsky. near VVarcester. tubercular man found meager financial support for his rockets until another soaring idealist. and later in Eden Valley. A withdrawn professor of physics who wore shabby clothes for comfort. in the desert of New Mexico. Goddard always concealed his cherry tree vision of Mars behind military and meteorological rationale~.niversary during decades of disappointment. Working with a handful of helpers in a place called Hell Pond. intervened on his behalf. Massachusefis. launching the world's first liquid fuel rocket in 1926. Meanwhile. as the rockets he invented exploded.

who always laughed at the simplest of jokes and who was described by a friend as possessing an "overwhelming averageness. to his last days in the desert. In it he once wrote. C. "How many more years I shall be able to work on the problem I do not know. for 'aiming at the stars' is a . staggering home after each defeat with fatigue visible over his whole body." he once wrote to H. "There can be n s thought of finishing. through years of failure and "moonman" ridicule.The Dream of Spaceflight sion and guidance. Goddard still labored from three in the morning until eight at night in the broiling desert heat. his shoulders bent fomard to accommodate his weak lungs.'Qd In his later years. always noting the day in his diary. From his first experiments on a farm in Auburn." a "boy scout conventionality. this tireless man. Wells. Now and then he returned to the cherry tree where his vision began." remained the Yankee optimist. after his fiancke had tired of his obsession and left him: "God pity a onedream man. Massachusetts. anticipating all the essential elements of the modern multistage rockets that have taken man to the moon and sampled the soil of Mars.

before he succumbed at sixty-two to pulmonary problems and throat cancer." When the spaceship was still pulp fantasy. . the day affer the atomic bomb ended the war and launched the space age. a small rocket.Keplets Children problem to occupy generations. there is always the thrill of just beginning. and pastel continents. at White Sands. the V-2 that his work had inspired. from massive stone blocks creeping over the Egyptian desert to the gargan- . when the impossible not only seems possible. ." have felt had he seen the glowing arc of the Earth on the black of spac he vivid planet of swirling clouds. mounted on. 1945. No matter how much progress one makes. New Mexico. he wrote of "morning in the desert. Goddard spent sleepless nights sitting outside in a blanket watching the stars. the "moony" and "crackpot."15 During his last days. floating below orbiting astronauts like a great mothership? Goddard's life belongs to the epic of humanity's great projects. but easy. crossed the threshold of space. He died on August 1 0 . where Goddard's launch tower gathered rust. cerulean seas. Only four years later. What might Goddard. . not far from Eden Valley.

and an eagle-beak nose. shimmering moment-as though it were still a dream-then thundered into history. As Goddard had set up his crude apparatus against the first glow of day. biinoczllars. Also in. Perhaps her memory of the homemade Xaunch tower dissolved to the distant view of the great gantry at the cape as the thiq-sixstory. A decade earlier at Redstone Arse- . despite his cameo appearances at major junctures in spaceflight history. It is unlikely that many recognized him. she recalled the predawn excursions into the desert with their rocket roped to a rickety truck. an old alarm clock to drive a =cording drum. the VIP stands for that launch was a little gray-haired man with sparkling eyes. three-thousand-eight-hundred-ton Saturn rocket rose slowly for a silent. a small moustache. as Esther Goddard sat in the VIP stands watching the launch of Apollo-Saturn to the moon. Esther had readied the telemetry-the home movie camera. Perhaps.man crawler inching Apollo toward the pod.

As a shy. not a man of action. more than anyone else. gangling boy in Transylvania. he wandered about the buildings in similar anonymity. where he was a token employee of the team that launched the first American satellite. like Kepler's. Hermann Oberth had memodzed Verrze and dreamt of going to the moon. Even at PeenemUnde on. after he had nearly lost his sight and hearing in a disastrous attempt to build a working rocket for the premiere of the German film Woman in the Moon. And in 1929. he abandoned the study of medicine for mathematics and physics. who set the space age in motion. whose interests. For he was a theorist. he was unfamiliar to many as he stood watching the Ant successful launch af the V-2. wearing a gray beret and c a v i n g a briefcase that contained only his lunch. even practicing weightlessness in a swimming pool. were philosophic at heart. the Balac. he slipped unrecognized into a Berlin theater on the film's opening night and watched from a cheap seat. To his father's disappointment. writing . Yet it was this man. not an engineer. an absent-minded visionary.nal in Alabama.

his thesis in 1923 on the rocket as the key to spaceflight. Had Die Rakete appeared later the V-2 would have missed its military moment. he received little credit in the end. Finding no professor who would support the paper. Van Braun and his team of engineers and military exploiters accomplished the dream while Oberth languished in the wings. The book led directly to the founding of the German Rocket Society and inspired the eighteen-year-old Wernher von Braun to devote his life to reaching the moon. Van Braun and other members of the society were given $100 million by the German army to develop the V-2 at Peenemunde. laying the theoretical groundwork for the V-2. Die Rakete zu den Planetenraumen (The Rocket into Planetary Space) sold out immediately and launched the dream of real spaceflight in the twentieth century. It was this rocket team that later fled to A m e ~ c a and ultimately put man on the moon. thin pamphlet ignored or belittled by the scientific establishment. he scrapped his scholastic hopes and published it on his own. A small. . and the moon landing might have been delayed indefinitely. Although Oberth had independently reached the same conclusions as Goddard.

Arthur Clarke spotted him among a crowd of visitors being guided through the great space center in Greenbelt." who survived Siberian prisons and lifelong anonymity to launch Sputnik and the space race. Although it is difficult to designate the man. in which he had lost a daughter at Red Zipf test site and a son on the Russian korrt. the decisive rnoment is clear. making the initial sacrifices only to move directly from ridicule to obsolescence and pensioned obscurity. Hidden away in an ancient forest on the reedy .Kepier" Children ridiculed by scientists. A few years before Oberth's death. the "Chief Designer. Spaceflight was born on a brooding stretch of land along the Baltic Sea. Maryland. noted Clarke. After the war. that now bears Goddard's name. no single figure emerges clearly as the father of spaceflight. Perhaps it was Sergei Korolev. He had been the key innovator. he rehmied home to teach school for most of his remaining years. and sidelined by governments. In the end. at the mouth of the River Peene on the north coast of Germany. It was likely. Perhaps it was Goddard or Oberth or Tsiolkovsky or von Braun. strung along by financiers. that even the young scientist guide had never heard of him.

where the team was decorated one night in a dark dining room. "Today. and the fourteen-tonA4. the rocket rose out of the woods. 1942. poised like a Gothic spire against the tall trees.The Bream of Spacefright marshlands of Peenemiinde." said team leader Walter Dornberger. from Hitler's own Wagnerian megalomania (""But what E w n t is annihilation. was later renamed Vergeltungwaffe." The day was October 3. "vengeance weaponJ'-the V-2. when an experiment with a bicycle-wheel centrifuge had put a ring of mouse blood on the . A ant of modem Gothic also touched Wernher von Braun. annihilating effect!") to the forest castle sunounded by missiles. allowing the room to flash with the light and reverberate to the thunder of the rocket. A curtain was opened in the direction of each firing. His fixation on spaceflight dated from his student days. Everything about Peenemiinde suggested the Gothic. a forty-seven-footA4 rocket stood on the firing table like a monstrous mimicry of Wolgast Cathedral. "the spaceship was bom. each presentation foliowing a launch. son of Baron Magnus von Braun and kchrrical chief at BeenemGnde. howling to a record height of sixty miles on its first successful test. visible on the western hills. Shedding its chain.

once walking away unscathed when an explosion blew the metal doors off the test shed. solemn men in wave-beaten boats retrieved rocket parts from the bay in the icy dusk. bent steel girders. At seventeen. Developing rockets for the army during icy winter nights in the Brandenburg w a d s south of Berlin. the cavalier von Bmun often lit them with a cigarette. graduating to a twelve-foot match as the models grew larger. as Dornberger reminisced. powerful. laughed. At Peenemiinde. he would sit into the wee hours of the morning sketching plans for flights to the moon and Mars.walls of his rented room. making another 65.000 changes before the V-2 . leaped. and embraced as the V-2 soared away that crisp October day--it also exacted o great price. reveling. he introduced himself to the German Rocket Society--secretary Willy Ley came home one fall day in 1929 to find a polite young man playing the Moonlight Sonata on his piano. immeasurable and far in the future. where he used the military to further his covert vision of space. and embedded fragments in the bees."'6 But if PeenemUrrde was a labor of love for von Brctun and his teammatrts-who had danced. in the dream of "anything that was big. For another twenty-three months.

But the figure pales before the 8. similar in cost to the atomic bomb. the first .The Dmarn of Spaceflight was operational. a shimmering sea of sunbaked gypsum stretching to the horizon. Like black and white scenes kom old science fiction films. Vigil in the Desert Some ninety miles north of El Paso. lay a barren expanse of flat desert called White Sands Proving Ground. Robert Goddard had spent his last tortuous years testing rockets in the neighboring county. its progeny will take us to the stars. was reborn to its creators' purpose. The vengeance weapon was the fruit of a vengeance war. together they would launch the dark side of the space race. In the process. A few miles away.380 V-2 casualties in London alone and the suffering of thousands of enslaved workem who assembled the rockets in the huge underground factory at Nordhausen. conceived in suffering and sent in the wake of war to the deserts of the world. Yet the V-2. Texas. 735 lives were lost in two bombing raids on Peenemiinde. a long. in the desolate Tularusa Basin of New Mexico. straight road followed power poles over the desert to distant mountains.

It was here that the V-2s were redeemed.Kepier's Children atomic bomb had turned the terrain to glass. having reached the . the romance of spaceflight and the dawning reality seemed counterpoised. White Sands suited the adolescent dream. they stood like steeples oddard's "morning in against the dawn s the desert. To a twelve-year-old boy. when Heinlein wrote of a boy and his uncle building a backyard rocket and flying to the moon. Like its cold war counterpart." when all things seemed possible. lonely desert where an isolated few secretly sought the power to break the bonds of Earth. the vision of spaceflight had the innocence of the early pioneers. It was a harsh. inserting CO. worlds still closer to Kepler's Lavania and Burroughs's Barsoom than to future photographs from Apollo and Viking. who tinkered with rockets in the belief that they would soon be riding them. In that time of beginnings. In 1950. Kapustin Yar. a magic portal to the moon and Mars. Symbols of the postwar promise. when I was carving balsa copies of the silver ship from Destination Moon. The drive to the edge. capsules to send them hissing in camheels over the neighbor's fence. "White Sands" had the sound of a holy place.

awaiting the morning launch. we awaken from what Blake called the "single vision of Newton's sleep. from Kepler to Korolev. cosmonaut Alexei Leonov was born into the starry deep. had come through a long desert night. . All about him was a blackness so intense it seemed he caulld reach out and touch its texture. or the vigils of Lowell searching the sands of Mars. severed from the mothering Earth--who seemed at long last to have borne a space creature like herself. Leonov tumbled slowly in the windless. now reached out to "conquer" space. But like the rocket team. haloed against the black abyss. With the view from space restoring Earth to the spiritual center.The Dream of Spaceflight ice di% at the litercxl ends of the Eafth." Coming of Age in the Cosmos Wriggling from his orbiting capsule for man's first walk in space. odorless void. Before him lay the vast curvilinear presence of planet Earth--soft. the quest for the center. a darkness so deep that the hair rose on his neck and the flesh crawled on his back. hearing only the rhythms of his body. floating at the end of his umbilical. glowing.

From the blue marbled Mediterranean. and Napoleons and put them out there that spring morning with Alexei Leonov. Though some see our severance from Earth as symbolic of this deepening isolation-the last . all of Europe and Africa sprawl away in soft pastels. Images on film lack the subtle shades. a vividness uncaptured by photographs. which bulges out of the blackness.Kepler's Children Those who have shared Leonov" view of Earth report a pristine clarity. the brightness. of waking from the long. tenestrial astronauts adrift in urban bubbles and left to invent their own lives. One longs to summon back all the Caesars. with the radiant arc of Earth floating up like a great leviathan surfacing on the stellar ocean. The image of Leonov drifting alone in space is the consummation of modern history. innocent of political boundaries. and the depth of the living sphere. For the five-century rise of spacefaring man saw the ascent of the free-floating individual. murky dream of man" moment on the surface. severed from sources of meaning. Pizarros. There is an aura of utter reality. And humanity itself comes to the end of the age listening like Leonov to the sound of its own breathing.

the unifying circle of world mythology. paradise regained by the same inflation through which it was lost. One awakens from a dream carrying fresh symbols from the unconscious.great Faustian act-others see a communal awakening with the image of a living Earth. the image of our fragile. lonely world rising over the dead moon encouraged a rebalance from outer toward inner space. Riding his space pod out of the blue planet on a pillar of flame. marking the end of man's adolescence. just as the attempt to crown the glory of Europe with the wealth of the Orient relinquished the future to the opposite hemisphere. the prophet wanders into the desert to reappear with the word of God. If the fivecentury age of exploration is the collective . Leonov was bome b m the flat world of our fathers in a fiery rite of passage. the self-awareness that comes when we realize that the parent is finite and mortal. From such cultural eversions come the new mythologies. the leap into space stands with the voyage of Colurnbus as the last act of a n old order and the first of a new. and the astronaut reaches the moon to return with a new image of Earth. the new Zeitgeister. In truth.

his pilgrimage into the desert.17 Standing between two unfathomable infinities. just as Kepler's medieval quest launched the modern age. . The longings that bore Leonov into the starry deep sought a new equation of inner and outer space. If Leonov's odyssey is symbolic of the present transformation. Seeing Earth not as an extension of man. we grasp the one only as it reflects the other. Perhaps evolution is a narrowing spiral. From his literal alienation. each turn bringing a new depth of vision. the reenchantment of the world. the rise of spaceflight itself is the metaphor of modern history. the dreamers of spaceflight sought the rebirth of wonder--the remystification. we come of age in the cosmos. the cxskorzautfsseverance &am the source is the final inflated act. Yet in this cycle of inner and outer realities. comes communion with a larger reality. the promise of spaceflight holds more than the redemption of Mother Earth. merging the feminine mysteries of earth and soul with the masculine quest for heaven and spirit.parallel to the growth of individual egoconsciousness. seeking a paradoxic union of poles that is itself the Center. but man as an extension of Earth.

White had to be coaxed back to the capsule. that best captured the exhilaration." he said. nor Earthrise from the moon. floating over the milky blue vasmess of the Pacific with that flash of sunlight on his visor. devoted to family and country. was martyred with Gus Grissom and Roger Chafee when a fire gutted the Apollo 1 module during a re- . Of the four famous images to emerge from manned spaceflight. the solemn man with a huge smile and gentle. But this extraordinary athlete who had barely missed the Olympics. it was a photo- graph-that of the first American space walk some three months later--th caught the attention of the world. "It's the saddest moment of my life. it was neither the whole Earth. nor Aldrin poised on the lunar surface. clean-cut. "I don't want to come back. patient eyes.The Dream of Spaeefli@t Swan Song We are creatures of the image." Tall. White was the ail-American astronaut. lanky. but I'm coming. somersaulting. Drifting lazily on his back. the euphoric liberation of a species come of age. but Ed White. Though Leonov was the first to walk in space. perched on the gleaming titanium of Gemini's hull. pirouetting.

only "t be found mired in a web of melted debris. seemed as far from the romance of spaceflight as the austere military funeral-the flag-draped coffin. His monument is neither the headstone nor the lunar crater that bears his name but the swanlike figure in that famous photo. . we looked back on the water-blue EarZh with Ed White and knew that we too were swans. in the midst of monotonous routine. For three astronauts to die suddenly on solid earth at the very hub of NASA know-how. freeze frames in a forgotten issue of Life. afloat on the halo of the world. from that chill january day when Ed White was buried beneath a.Kepfer" Children hearsal on the launch pad. his space suit fused to the floor. White struggled for a sixteen-second eternity to open the hatch. Laden like ugly ducklings with centuries of self-doubt. the widow in dark glasses. Ilacework of bare trees on a West Point bill. the small boy in his best coat and cap.

the glory and the dream? .Whither i s fled the visionary gleam? Where i s it now.

are no longer living. And the last lonely youth to lie in a cricket-pulsing. planning voyages to the moon and planets that they never hoped to witness. the r e v e ~ e of redusive boys and the vision of a handful of men. honeysuckle night and gaze at a virgin moon is now in the laner half of his fife. looming beOON THERE WILL BE NO ONE . On the yellowed pages of boyhood books the silver ships still poise -nosed on the craggy wastes of other worl moonscapes bathed in the stark light of some monster planet whose ring-shadowed hemisphere fills the horizon.Chapter Two The Romance o r a Bygone Future who remembe~ when sgacefiight was still a dxanr. Most of those who met in ardent little groups in small cafks between the world wars.

the early novels of Heinlein. we may in fact be approaching a scientific watershed even more profound than that of Galileo and Newton. of fantastic alien surfaces. and the popular science of Ley and Clarke. as with all change. the paintings of Chesley Bonestell. there was something gained and something lost. cooled by coastal breezes from the Great Canal. looking over a far desert where mins stood half in.The Dream of Spaceflight hind space-suited specks who wander across the incandescent night. it radiated from the covers of Fantasy and Science Fiction. sand. it filled the monthly pages of Campbell's Astounding. It is not that the dream has disappeared. The dream had burned beneath the cold and solitary vigils of mountaintop astronomers like Percival Lowell. The fantasy had fueled the science fictian of Verne and Wlls. and in the visions of lone inventors like Robert Goddard. Perhaps the public apathy . awaiting for eons the beaching of man's boats. But with the coming of spaceflight. and the films of George Pal. It was a dream of visible planets impossibly distant. of Sewiss and Smith and their pulp successors. It was a vision of steaming Venusian jungles and fine soft days on the green hills of Mars.

I was seven when the first American V-2 racket roared off of White Sands Proving Ground in 1946. Into this midcentury moment stepped a few writers. and filmmakers who would epitomize the dream of other worlds. and nineteen when the first al-tificial satellite shocked the world. it exploded into mass culture in the late farties and early fiffies. For though more meaning may lie in one message from the Mars lander than in the most exalted fantasy. The romantic dream of space reached its apogee in those postwar years. I was ten when it boosted a small sounding rocket across the threshold of space. Giving final impetus to a science-fibion boom . Acquiring its familiar outlines in the pulp subculture of the twenties and thirties. The romance. had a reality of its own. when the fantasy of spaceflight and the promise of reality seemed almost in balance. artists. Perhaps I will be one of the last to have known this credulous dream in pre-Sputnik form.The Romance ~f Spaceflight: Nostalgia for a Bygone Future surrounding the space program has reflected in some measure the discrepancy between dream and reality. in short. the images of spaceflight that proliferated at midcentury arose from oceanic interiors more remote and mysterious than Mars itself.

Starfy Days On the Coast of Saturn Leafing through Life magazine in the last week of May 1944. awaiting the invasion of France. one found familiar wartime fare: ssldiers napping in foxholes amid the nxbble of Italy. Thus that May 29 issue of Life included not only ads out of Currier and Ives and a long piece on Oklahoma!'s lyricist. But the tide of the war had turned. they educated the person in the street to the possibility of spaceflight. bringing to mass consciousness the classic dream of the modern age. hope. torn between the security of home and the promise of the world. singular . a fresh breeze blew across Ame~ca. and in the time beweerr Hitler's retreat and the coming of the cold war. American boys with their English girls in London's Hyde Park. One sensed it in the record success of Oklahoma! with its aura of youth. and new beginnings.that had been trying to happen since the twenties. But like the paradox of adolescence. but a large. and in the spate of plays and novels set in the sunnier days of turn-of-the-century America. the new optimism often sought the simpler past within a wondrous hture.

leaping out in vivid color amid black and white pages. and beyond a lofty pinnacle. yet the sky is specked with stars. but on the eve of the invasion it was one man" vision of the future. the . later recalled by astronauts. the giant Saturn looms low in a dark blue sky like an alien ship. gleaming crescent bisected by the glowing edge of its rings. There is an eerie beauty in the incongruity of light. Since neither moon has an atmosphere. its largest moon. depicting Saturn as seen from the surface of Titan. The painting could pass for a photograph in the era of Viking and Voyager. rocket men. lies a distant patch of noonday plain.her moons Phoebe and X a petus. Since Titan is the only satellite in the solar system with an atmosphere. On the same page are two smaller views of Saturn as seen &om its Eart. out under the glow of the great crescent. afloat between jagged cliffs that jut from a frozen sea. the rocky cliffs and scarps rise sheer into the cobalt sky. One feels that a storm has passed on a late November afternoon. casting a dark shadow on the icy sea. Warmed by the distant sun. A hint of dawn lights the far horizon. and science-fiction fans as their Arst encounter with a dream about to take wing. a thin.The Romance of Spaceflight: Nostalgia far a Bygone Future painting.

Sheer cliffs and jagged mesas meander the red-brown desolation of Mimas. With its stark slash of ring shadow.The Dream of Spaceflight distant Saturn floats in a black sky on the phosphorous mist of the Milky Way. The scene has the feel of a great indoor arena. that rocky features remain sharp in the distance. stretching away to the hazeless horizon that slices across the monster Sabm. the yellow-banded Saturn balloons into the blackness. the light such purity. The paintings were intended to show the changing aspect of Saturn as seen by a traveler hopping toward it from moon to moon. The absence of haze and dust gives the landscapes such clarity. On the next page one finds a gargantuan segment of the planet as seen &om its near moon Mimas. strewn with rocks and ragged craters. The six paintings were the work of an architect who spent nearly three decades helping to design landmark buildings across the United States. The notion of rendering astronomically accurate views of Satum came not only from his architedural focus on re- . of a room so large that one cannot see where the dark ceiling begins. He went to Hollywood in 1938 at the age of fifty and became the highest paid specialeffects artist in the business.

which bought them immediately. most of his scenes. this would have been their view had they actually stood on the moons of Samrrz. to Life. unsolicited." his paintings seem to say. opening worlds within worlds.The Romance of Spaceflight: Nostalgia for a Bygone Future alistic detail but also from his skill in achieving the continuity required for matte paintings representing different camera angles on the same scene." Bonestell put tiny space-suited figures in. inviting adventure. the leap to a larger audience was almost completely the work of this one man. In 1944 he took the paintings. fresh from creation. there are few who would not cite the art of Chesley Bonestell as a significant personal influence. "This mysterious island. Though crude images of spaceflight had been the staple of pulp covers in the thirties. for which one could search . "You may roam about here. converting points of light into real places. Among those who grew up in the forties and fifties and later became prominent in space fact or fiction. Bonestell did far the heavens what the microscope did for our perception of life. His photographic realism gave the readers of Life a new perspective on the night sky. According to the best science of the time. is made a place by your mere presence.

perspective.^ It included the paintings from Life . his space illustrations appeared in SdenfilTc American.Pis.The Dream of Spaceflight like a signature. even Mars seemed so remote that whoever could touch it would surely reach the stars. a perspective reminiscent of the sublime landscapes of nineteenth-century romantics. that was primarily responsible for bringing Bonestell's planetary landscapes to a new generation of spaceflight enthusiast^. Life published twelve more paintings by Bonestell depicting a hypothetical flight to the moon. Cclmnef. for in the late forties. For the October 1947 issue of Astounding Science Fiction he did the first of his many covers in that genre. where the setting of a red giant might span the whole horizon with an ethereal arch of deep orange fire. In painting the planets of other suns. the reality of spaceflight seemed a foregone conclusion. and scale. and in the next two years. But it was The Conquest of Space. shadow. In March 1946. Bonestell expressed his faith that lightyears would not forever imprison us in the solar system. a book published in 1949 with text by German rocket expert Willy Ley. and Mehanix Iffutsfrated. For those who grew up with Bonestell's painstaking accuracy in light.

Together.The Romance of Spaceflight: Nosbtgia for a &gone Future and many more: fairy-tale landscapes laced with castlelike rocks carved by drifting dust. which went through four printings in the first three months. My discovery of that book on Christmas night of 1950 had an impact very similar. the scenes suggest a kind of cosmic shoreline. lava spilling over the icy cliffs of lapiter. a composite of stark and eerie beaches on the near edge of the stany deep. owed much to the archetypes of the seashore. the rocky green hills of Mars. in fact. and on the near moons of enormous planets. Like the dream of spaceflight itself. resembles a rocky coast in the frozen reaches of the far north. knife-edged peaks and needles of rock stabbing into a star-filled sky. It is not surprising that the most popular of Bonestell's paintings. to my earliest memory of the beach. rolling like the coast of Maine along the great canals. the view of Saturn from Titan. The Only Real Place I was four years old in 1942 when the army sent my father to Fort Ord on California's Monterey . For the image of the beach is not incidental. the appeal of The Conquest of Space.

As if to ritualize this rebirth.The Dream of Spaceflight Peninsula. white-sand beaches of Carmel. watching boat specks on the horizon. windswept limbs. Her death. my mother took me for a walk that wound through a dark grove of those great brooding cypress-leaning and reaching with their gnarled. feeling the cold foam on my feet. I built sand castles while my mother sat on the grassy bank with the salt-kelp breeze in her hair. like an astronaut's image of Earthrise from the shares of the moon. As vivid still as the smell of ice plant on the dunes. It was my first waking encounter with the Pacific Ocean. it is a moment burned into memory. seems to have merged my sense of the mother with that of the ocean-Grecnt Mother of . We went often. X ran barefoot over the hot sand. through the dark trees to the sunlit beach. growing ever more foreboding-until the path opened suddenly onto a long stretch of pure white sand and a vast expanse of silver-blue water that sparkled and shimmered to the edge of the world. We left a dreary flat in the gray mist of San Francisco for a sunny cottage near the cypress-lined. shortly after we left Camel the following year. stopping at a safe distance to gape at the bellowing breakers.

enfolding the familiar world like the preColumbian gods and monsters. Ocean. recalling Asimov's story about a planet with six suns. eyes within eyes. coming through a million lifetimes to meet mine-which glanced away. waiting. . only the silence of those trillion worlds. struck with what we all come to know: that each of the unfathomable immensities-Mother. The epilogue came a few years later at a summer camp in the high mountains. mystery of origins. Gazing out into the immense ocean of light I reexperienced my encounter with the Pacific. all ends. the Good Mother. no sound of breakers nor wind in the cypress. Death. milk of the world. nurturing a silent undersea fantasy of living things. where "Nightfall" occurs but once every 2. all meaning. digesting Atlantis and Lemuria.050 years and the sudden appearance of a soul-searing canopy of stars plunges civilization into chaos. bounding all beginnings. the black sea-boRam of death ibelf. swallower of worlds. ske Titanics. though there was no odor of ice plant on the breeze. I awoke one night in a sleeping bag under a wilderness of distant worlds.f i e Romance of Spaceffight: Nostalgia for a Bygone Future all. and Stars-share the barrier betwreen known and unknown. the Dark Mother.

civilization and . The interface of known and urzknown. The msh of the surf echoes the ancient Earth-the wind in the once great forests.The Dream 05 Spaceflight Perhaps it was gods and monsters. it remains a vast. fading off into forever. inscrutable presence. Though the sea no longer bounds the universe. the thunder of free-running he alone remains truly free. growing darker and deeper in the distance. the last untamed remnant of Earth's tempestuous youth. flashing like countless suns. the root metaphor is more precisely the shoreline itself. And out beyond the breakers abides the silent face of the Great Mother. the darkness of a world before man. Men once looked out over the melancholy wilderness of water as we now look to the stars. knowing it to veil some great mystery of unknown size and origin. Though the archetype of the ocean shapes the aura of Bonestell's paintings. an effervescence of light. gazing out on a sea that encircled the kn world like the night S fathomless enigma. relentlessly pounding the land. unchanged through eons of continental evolution. not gold and glory. that inspired young Cristoforo Columbo on the shores of his boyhood Genoa. yet ever restless. through all lifetimes.

descending into time as it licks the sands to the soft cries of gulls. to sit on a half-buried whiskey box. matter and spirit. The transformation is reciprocal. the eye of the storm. the beach is that narrow band of equilibrium where the city meets the sea. where our polarities are momentarily balanced. isolation and communion. perhaps the only real place. gray day and wander amid the wrack and debris of both worlds. . leaving the broad sand flats gleaming like glass. With each mortal breaker the eternal sea dies a momentary death. touched by the breath and pulse of the sea. It is where the temporal realm of the hot street-even the rundown hot-dog stand-is bathed in transcendent energy. is to enter sacred space. where each wave erases the tracks of life and time. conscious and unconscious. It is a holy place. The seashore is a sanctuary. to walk the razor's edge between time and eternity.The Romance af Spaceflight: Nostalgia fair a Bygone Future wilderness. To go down to the seascented shore on a cold. It is a place where false selves are shed and companions transcend their separateness. Yet the beach is a place of rebiflh. watching the birds dip and hunt with their small sad voices.

seemed the ultimate marriage of strange and familiar. Like the seashore. his alien landscapes domesticated the transcendent while elevating the mundane. familiarizing the mysterious and mystifying the familiar. For an eleven-year-old awakening to that larger reality. with its giant Saturn afloat in a blue sky over sunlit peaks. even when the hope of inhabitants is lost. enchanted moment when man. the barrier between kn and unknown f rst encountered on the coast of Carmel now became the pristine beaches of Bonestell's planets (it is fitting that Bonestell himself lived in Carmel). By 1950. His most popular painting. To feel the lure of the seashore is to know why the near planets still beckon. In the hidden hea& of science Action had aliways been the hope that the moon and planets promised a personal adventure akin to my encounter with the Pacific-a transitory. like Fitzgerald's Dutchmen. . humanity itself had become the city on the shore of the cosmic oeea growing cancer of disconnected egos living in the shadow of the bomb.The Dream of Spaceflight Islands at the Edge The same paradoxic polarities are at the core of Bonestell's appeal. the view from Titan.

The Roman% of Spaceflight: Nostalgia for a Qgsrtie Futufe would hold his breath before the fresh green breast of some radiant new world. At that moment. This was the promise of Bonestell's beaches---that those peaceful points of light in the night sky are places. that virgin rocks. To encounter the blue skies of Bonestell's Titan. A Bonestell moonscape is a sacred place at the edge of the known world-an altar set before the barrier. or to find that the reddish. or our own space-time continuum. as inaccessible to us as cosmology to an ant. as somehow harboring the answers to our "Why" questions. Colurnbus's ocean-sea. Whether it be Aristotle's geocentric spheres. asleep for a billion years. the outer rim of our reality. that there is a "transcendent mundaneness" abiding in parallel time and space. a piece of the mundane bathted in oceanic mystery. the cosmos would become a place. rock-s&ewn desert of Mars . one that somehow merges the cosmic and the personal. the meaning of all meaning. we conceive of this Larger Context as ultimately separate from and alien to our everyday experience simply because it is assumed to mask the unknowable. We think of the boundaries of the known. await my touch no less than the cup that sits here before me.

that one can retain an earthly reality yet stand an another ground under another sky has the transforming impact . just as the beach is perceived as the edge of an othewise boundless sea. are quite different. red is a designated wavelength of light. with a foot in each world. said Gene Cernan. abstract and direct. In one. 'Do you really know where you are in space and time and history?'" To believe. similar to that experienced by astronauts seeing Earth from the moon. The photographic realism of Bonestell's cosmic beaches brings the realms together at their point of tangency. in the other. the Earth rotates an its axis and revolves about the sun. In one. the sun rises and sets. "I had to stop and ask myself. Standing beneath the blue swirl of Earth.looks hauntingly like the American Southwest. giving the Larger Context a tactile immediacy. in the other. The paintings had a disorienting effect. allowing one to experience the heliocentric reality from a geocentric perspective. Bonestell brought the edge of infinity out of the abstract and into the realm of direct experience. suggests that the near edge of the Larger Context is a reality as familiar as our own backyard. The two realms. red is a color.

like the islands. But unlike the way of the mystic. a duplicate self. or universes with one's own nature and agend sence of personal limits. The image suggests a colossal stage set or a giant playroom. remain pieces of the real world. The lack of inhabitan& allows Bonestell3 barren astroscape to become an extension of oneself. For Bonestellsslandscapes. Such romantic flights from personal limits were more than the marks of innocent youth. invite one to become a world unto oneself. like the canoeist's island. It is the narcissistic fantasy of infusing whole societies. or an encounter with the doppelgtinger. the ego is not sacrificed. it is merely romanticized. not only makes the place one's own but beckons in the way that tiny islands lure the canoeist. one could . For as long as spaceflight was far from reality.The Romance of Spacefligfit: Nostalgia far a Bygone Future: of an out-of-body experience. filled with those craggy shadows. hidden caverns. A virgin purity. and pristine horizons that are natural to the romantic imagination. planets. There is a timeless stasis about these bright islands. offering safe passage through the void as one might ride a cozy car through the Tunnel of Horror. The scenes. a toy world of one's own. untouched by everyday life.

Yet one took the risks without leaving home. viewing the close. For space travel. was paradoxic. larger craters through Dad's b i n o c u l a r ~ o yet so impossibly remo rxe reached another world by the same means to which even the most heroic advenmrer was then bound. the messy arenas of peer conflict and opposite-sexed enigmas. containing at its core the very polarity peculiar to most adolescent males. One eluded the looming world of adult responsibilities. where one's omnipotence was safely assumed. Lying in the hammock and gazing at the moon. Such mundane pursuits seemed to merge with the ultimate quest and adventure on its realistic timeline.The Dream of Spaceflight immerse oneself in the subject with the intensity and resolve of real exploration--the exhilarating sense that one stood very near the leading edge simply by combing musty libraries or gluing balsa models in a cluttered garage. gained the world without losing the soul. The parental w o m b t h e inner solipsistic world of childhood-became the secret spaceship. withdrawing to a . pursuing the real adventure in a context as warm and secure as reading comics in bed while mother nursed the common cold. like all mythic visions. while the external world was removed to outer space.

a species cut off 1Fram its baditions. or by benevolent and omniscient Cosmic Parents. fans ta schizoid adolescence. His isolation is that of humanity itself. while riding the momentum of history like a runaway train. where the illusion of infinite leverage compensates for a state of abject dependence. . and one has an inchoate hypothesis with which to explain the rise of sdence fiction itself over the past century. however. wandering the beach between two worlds. Looking out over the ocean or gazing back on the home planet. even its home planet. its instincb. individual and colle~ve. they also intensify this sense of isolation. I should note not only that all neuroses merely exaggerate facets of normal behavior but also that the progressivelregressive polarity is common to all transiThe adolescent is tion. while Bonestell's island beaches are stepping stones to the discovery of higher life."Fe Romance of Spaceflight: Nostalgia for a Bygone Future larger realm that encircled those lesser things. in fact a microcosm of the modern condition. Befare I sentence all science-fiction. its animal forebears. one feels the solitude of humanity. There one finds Bonestell's planets inhabited by other childlike beings. Ironically. Substitute for the parental womb the technological society.

" the hemispheric tension which allows the stereoscopic. It is this reflexive tension that pervades the shoreline. differentiates us from other animals. This reflexive self-awareness. just as whole cultures reach a zenith of awareness and creativity when old and new are in polar tension. In one of Bonestell's paintings for ihe Conquest of Space. the ability to think about thinking. It is the fragile polar balance that defines the human condition. a sleek silver rocket towers on its gantry . so awareness itself may be the product of the "bicameral mind. all cruelty and all compassion.The Dream of SpaceflipS7t a species cast up from the ancestral seas and forests. faces flicker in the firelight--creatures marooned on the shores of evolution. It is the source of all good and all evil. On the beach. bringing both heightened awareness and the concomitant solitude of separation. gathered to mourn and to celebrate their foss of innocence. terrestrial or cosmic. like an old man who has lost all those from whom he issued. three-dimensional thinking that is consciousness. standing alone at the leading edge.

r"nationIMoon was the first science-fiction Aim worthy of the term since Things To Come (Britain. became the basis for visual effects in Destination Moon (1950). along with additional moonscapes. Light radiates from the hatchway as the crew explores the site. Destination Moon depicts a trip to the moon. sunlit mountains. directed by Iwing Pichel. and produced by George Pal. a rugged outpost on the frontier of evolution. The paintings. Men move about in light and shadow as though huddled around a great silver flame. Written by Robert Heinlein and Rip Van Ronkel. the same ship rests on its fins in a valley of the moon against black sky. Film historians traditionally note that Dest. life reaching out for some indiscernible secret. In the hearthlike glow of these scenes lies a communal longing. a signal fire warming the night at the edge of the cosmic ocean.The Romance of Spaceflight: Nostalgia for a Bygone Future against the stars. true in almost every detail to . the heartsong of creation. and the distant Earth. 1936) and that its success led to the boom that followed. In a second painting.the film often credited with launching the cinematic science-fiction boom of the fifiies. with panoramic matte paintings by Bonestell. some wormhole to the long forgotten Source.

dismissing the film as dated and dull. The one previous attempt at an accurate representation of space travel.The Bream 05 Spaceflight the scientific projections of the time. was far less compelling. The problem with this kind of film history. When the long silver ship set down on the surface of the moon and the crew descended in silence. of course. Woman in the Moon (Germany. Not only do many film critics seem bound to secular realism. Viewing the first realistic depiction of a visit to another world (also the first in color) had an effect similar to the televised landing of Apollo. women. the film has not worn well. 1929). it was as though irrelevancies dimmed and essentials came clear. is that it lacks historical perspective. or to the dazzling NASA footage projected onto the five-story Imax screen in Blue Planet (1990). but most of the writers are too young to have seen Destination Mori when it was released. Film historians lament the absence of plot. The result is a docudrama surprisingly close in particulars to the flight of Apollo 11 nearly two decades later. Although it was Eagle-Lion's top moneymaker for the year. not only because its moon se- . earning enthusiastic reviews and an Oscar for special effebs. and depth of character.

the notion of filming serious science fiction was in the air in the late forties. But was it responsible for Hollywood's spate of science-fiction films? In huth. The degree to which Destination Moon escaped hack concessions to Hollywood formulas is a credit to Heinleiut and Pichel.2 Most succeeding SF films fell into the Gothic mode. rereleased in 1952) and The Thing (1951). Wth the help of Bonestell and Pal they conceived a prophetic film. an aura of transcendence. Although the optimistic and visionary Destination Moon was virtually first in the cycle. embodying the mutated monster and evil alien themes of King Kong (1933. Epitomizing that bal- . Along with the surge of SF magazines. even in its pedestrian moments. In the end. the producers of almost all of the significant SF films released in its immediate wake had conceived their ideas and purchased their properties prior to the contracting of Destination Moon. Destination Moon was less a beginning than a culmination.The Romance of Spacefli@t: Nostalgia for ai Bygone Ftlture quences reverted to fantasy but also because it was silent at a time when most films had incorporated sound. its impact was confined to demonstrating that expensive SF could be profitable. an ode to the romance of spaceflight that retained.

In the public mind. in which the same sleek ship from Destination Moon became a plane- .The Dream of Spaceflight ance of fantasy and reality that charaderized the dream of spaceflight itself at that transitional moment. in fact. turning first to the destmction of the Earth. it was the confluence of three fiistodc careers: Bonestell. the first realistic space artist. the three men surfaced at a Gme when the developing facts of spaceflight had begun to reshape the nature of the dream. After Destination Moon. the fint science-fic2-iionfilmmaker to show concern for scientific credibility. whose gritty realism depicting life in space had made him the first science-fictionwriter to break into a mainstream magazine (with his Saturday Evening Post stories in 1947). Pioneers in fantasy and innovators in realism. which were not only the first socially minded cartoons but also first to use stop-motion photography of real figures in place of animation. Destination Moon perfectly bridged the romance of the dying pulps and the coming realities of Apollo. Heinlein. spaceflight on film suffered a fate similar to that of the real thing after Apollo. and Pal. Pal retreated to traditional science fiction. the deed had been done. Pal's bias toward realism had been evident in his Puppetoons.

Heinlein attempted another script (ProjectMoonbase. with results that forever soured Heirzlein on Hollywood. but its success fell short of Destination Moon to about the same degree that public interest in the space shuttle fell short of attention to the moon landing. on the other hand. 19531. 1955). time travel (Ihe Erne Itlacfiine.The Romance d Spaceflight: Nostalgia for a Bygone: hture tary Noah's Ark (When WorIds Collide. like Pal's films. then to alien invasion (War o f the M I ~ r l h 1 . the finest and final hour of a dream now faded and transformed. expanded from an unsold W pdilot and rewritten by the producer. and finally back to fantasy from whence he mme. moved toward the emerging realities with his illustrations for Wemher von Braun" famous ColIierh~cIes in the early fifties. with artwork by Bonestell). Thus the romantic vision receded with Desitinaf-ionMoon. His later books. where it abides like an old dagueneotype. 195 1. Perhaps the images of unencumbered human flight that preceded the realities of the airplane . Pal tded a second doeudmrna (The Gonquest of Space. 19601. g=). moved away from the pure extrapolative realism of earlier SE Bonesklf.

In our business. "happen to the incompetent. Should the left or the right hand pick up this piece of equipment on the moon? Should the knuckles point up or down? With simulations more novel and rigorous than the actual flights. that your planning has been precise and your expectations matched. "boring is good because it means that you haven't been surprised." said polar explorer Amundsen. Every move was part of an exhaustively detailed script. The astronomical interests of most rocket pioneers were . The depersonalized.The Dream of Spaceflight included winged torsos hovering high above trees and houses." What faded in the years following Sputnik was not the dream itself but its na&e forms. mechanical reality of astronautics was never a pad of the dream. soaring like eagles over hill and forest. During the first half of the twentieth century. the romantic vision of coming adventures in the solar system compared in spirit to just such reveries. said Apollo 11 astronaut Mike Collins. When we finally went to the moon it was not on a wing and a prayer but on a pyramid of mathematics and technological expertise. the moon's only surprise was that it held no surprises. "Adventures. swooping like hawks down rivers and valleys.

with Oberth's interests extending even to the occult. surrealistic surfaces on the outer giants. one would encounter myriad yellow brick roads to an infinity of Emerald Cities. romantic. Today the moon and planets are not only inhospitable but have undergone a certain de- . She was photographer. while few professional astronomers took spaceflight seriously. Robert Goddard's telemetry in Rbroswell consisted of a pair of binoculars. secretary. early spaceflight enthusiasts not only took seriously Percival Lowelf's insistence on Martian canals but envisioned a lush. It was an intensely personal quest. among other titles. an old alarm clock to drive a recording drum. pulp fantasies seemed to confirm that if one could sornehw hurl oneself off the Earth. Even rocket research had once been romantic.The Romance d Spacdlight: Nostalgia for ir Bygone Future superficial. and Fsther Goddard's movie camera. and unscientific. Goddard and fellow rocket pioneers Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Hermann Oberth all devoured the science Eidism of Vemne and Wells. and parachute seamstress. Drawing on the primitive state of astronomy. Like the masses who panicked during Orson Wellesk 11938 ""MTar of the Worlds" "broadcast. tropical Venus and solid.

the literal focus of ultimate answers to all our "Why" questions. culture has viewed the outermost zone as the realm of transcendence. mysterious. this zone has expanded at least . Beyond these five natural zones are two conceptual constructs: (6) the surface or biosphere of the Earth and (7) the universe as far out as one can conceive. hostile desert. The romantic. It has been suggested that there are seven zones of human experience: (1) the area of sensation immediately touching the skin. reaching out a few hundred feet. inaccessible moon that made the water silver. the swollen tangerine Allegheny moon. NewZonian.sacralization. (3) the maximum area of social interaction. and (5) an irregular and varying area made up of all the zone-four areas that a person experiences during a lifetime. the "ghostly galleon tossed upon cloudy seas. In the course of one lifetime.4 Our extravefied. (2) the area within tvvo or three meters in which most social interaction takes place." the moon that only cows in nursery rhymes could jump over-that moon is gone. (4) the area that extends as far as one can see or othewise gather information from any one location. The once holy ground of myth and magic is now a barren.

given the disorienting impact of electronic media. It was not until we viewed the Earth from space. associated less with the Land of Oz than with Steinbeck's flat-country truck stops--those dilapidated diners with a gas pump in front. . Bonestellfsplanets could still symbolize that unfathomable immensity. Redrock Corners. they become Grayrock lunction." of zones four and five. the solar system moved from zone seven to zone six.The Romance of Spaeefiight: Nostalgia for a Bygone Future three-hundred-thousandfoldd. Now a part of "where we are. the planets seem to lie less on the near edge of infinity than on the far edge of the Earth. and the rocky red desert of Mars is more like a spherical New Mexico than the home of Wells's doomsday machines. and Gasball City. The rolling gray lunar hills have belied the jagged. where flies strike the screen door with little bumps and drone away. left our spoor on the moon and M m . craggy wonderland of Destination Moon. Yet just as the beach is bathed in the aura of the sea. and intruded on the timeless solitude of the outer planets that we began to experience what we had known. With the discovery in 1921 that our galaxy was not the sum total of existence. In the new cosmos.

discoveries at the leading edge of science desacralize the very things that compelled the quest in the first place. which has deferred its "Why" questions to the empirical edges of space and time. which led to the secular idea of material progress. a painting. which sp notion of salvation through success in this world. the statue reverts to its status as mere artifact. The sense of wonder surrounding those . Buddha. eclipsed by a host of this-worldly connections. a statue. which in turn began to desacralize Christian theology. One cannot worship "God" word. one needs an image: jesus. Thus every symbol contains the seeds of its awn desacrafization. and the larger.To conceive of the transcendent requires a symbol. Like the in~~truments of Christianity. faces a similar cycle. Finally demystified. a vague feeling. a bearded man in the sky. an intellectual abstraction. The Gaflesian-NeWanictn wOX"IdVjm. The millennial nature of Christian tkieology generated the idea of spiritual progress. elusive feeling that empowered the symbol fades. in which symbols have lost their numinosity and have degenerated to mere signs. Yet the natural tendency is for the image to literally become God. The last stage of this process is fundamentalist dogma.

"$ Like Bonestell's planets. We pine for the lost images demystified by modernity. the moon was once as remote as the stars. and the innocent dream of spaceflight joins the romance of the railroad in coffee-table nostalgia. "Even the traveler's mind. rocky desert. just to stand on it would un- .The Romance of Spaceffigt. thrilled by demons. In a field near the Houston Space Center. but now the core motive comes clear: cosmic communion. It was once enough merely to escape the Earth. the observer afters the obsenred.lt: Nostalgia for a Bygone Future objects suffers the fundamentalist fate: the mythic moon becomes a wilderness of cinders and ash. by impossible virtue and impossibly wise old men." wrote a post-Apollo poet. the rockets themselves no longer seize the imagination. and the red star of evening becomes a barren. The bright light of science dissolves the mysteries that animate its objects. "now shoots quicker than a gecko's tongue beyond the sun for the sweet stars. the last Apollo lies like a beached whale amid a trickle of visitors. and the aura of wonder recedes with the horizon. Now that we have touched a heavenly body.

rendering the whole cosmos as accessible as the worlds of science fidion. . science fiction no longer pretends to paint the near future. perhaps there are "wormholes" in space-time. perhaps we will receive some mind-altering message from superior beings. the first film of any consequence about spaceflight since Destination Moon. paranomcxl realities. Aflhur Clarke has noted that we tend to overesfimate what we can do in the near hture and grossly underestimate what can be done in the distant future. But the realities of reaching the moon drove science fiction h l n the "hard. while real events develop exponentially.. Such hopes were the subject of Clarke's 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey.rtination Moon to the "soff" phantasms of 2001. like compound interest. and mystical resurrections in space. Perhaps the new dream is less naive than the old. Cocoon. ET. Forced inward to the promise of Christlike aliens. This is because the imagination extrapolates in a straight line.The Dream of Spaceflight mask the riight sky. and Contact. and the only other such film scripted by a major science-firrtion writer. Perhaps communication is not limited by the speed of light. Starman. " mechanical extrapolations of De.

" symbolized by the inscrutable aliens who transform the astronaut into the mysterious starchild. capsulized the transition from the old dream to the new. a bland.The Romance o f Spacefli&t: Nostalgia for a ESygone Future 2001. in fact. is the lure of the near planets? Why dedicate a life to a landing on Mars? Like . of finding life. What. and supersophisticated computers--to the "why. space stations. The two halves of the film depict the shift from the old dream. to the new dream of discovering some clue to our meaning and destiny. drifiing toward Earth to be born. terminating in the simple act of escaping the planet. a Howard johnsonfs in the sky where means remain ends in themselves. In the first half of the film space is presented as essentially more of the same. the message is that the colonization of space will be no more than an extension of man's tool-making nature. synthetic foods. and of launching the long joumey in which man may evolve into a new galactic species. The second half of the film moves from the "how" of spaceflight---the rockets. When the ape-man spins his bone tool into the air. anonymous world set to the "Blue Danube" waltz. then. where it dissolves to a wheeling space station complete with pay phones and a Howard johnson's restaurant.

it remains what Hannah Arendt called an "Archimedean point" (it was Archimedes who said that with a long enough lever and the moon as a fulcrum he could move the Earth). living in bands of extended families. Yet the red sands of Mars. c a v i n g what little they possess. still lure us to the shore of the cosmic ocean. one that must always require a still further point. who forever move about the desert. Applying the term to the tendency of modem science to substitute its heuristic constructs for direct experience. she saw the leap into space as a flight from the human condition. Mars was once the mystery of the cosmos incarnate. now part of our reality. Now it is only the near edge of the night sky. But as the vision animating all forms of exploration and discovery.The Dnam of Spaceflight the spice islands envisioned across Colurnbus's ocean-sea. each staying within . the Archimedean point is the human condition. Africa's last society of hunter-gatherers. Viewing spaceflight as an attempt to reach a literal Archimedean point. Arendt suggested that man increasingly encounters only himself. Although Mars is no longer shrouded in mystery. Physicist Philip Morrison tells a story about the Bushmen of the Kalahari.

as they wander through the cool mornings. They csnjedure. "stopping now here. to try the h i t of this tree. is to know exadcly where they are. and art are all symbolic expressions of a "grand internal model" that every human makes. They ask how it has changed. 'u'ou see they have built an intensefy detailed. to scratch up that waterhole. the cool evenings. brilliant. They dismss it always." or to meet for a ""lritualencounter with their wandering friends. myth. They recognize evev feature of the ground. their speech elaborafes exactly where they are. and as they rest in the heat of t-he day. they descfibe rrvexy rock. What story do you h o w about this placd They recall what grandfather once said about it. ritual. to sleep in a kind of nest." Their wants are so well controlled and their skills so well developed that they need not work any harder.The Romance of Spaeefli@t: Nostalgia f o a ~ Bygone FNvre a region about the size of Los Angeles County. their minds are filled. They note every tree. now there. . tools. or how h r it has been constant. They meander through life. and that is always in need of completion. Their one need. and they elaborate. science. Monison suggests that our language. forever reinvigorated internal model of the shifting natural world in which they find their being.

The Dream of Spaceflight The essence of human exploration is the attempt to fill in the margins of that model so that it will not "fade off into the nothing or the nowhere. space writer Frank White's ""overnew eEeCt" the reflexive thinking that is the hallmark of our species. If the essence of exploration is to touch the boundary-the beach. f i e Star mrower That it is humanity's fate to live alone at the leading edge was a point often made by evolutionary biologist Loren Eiseley. "as though the night sky had showered down. "where the waiting gulls cut him to pieces. "sea wrack wrenched from the far-out kelp forests. littered with the debris of lifeupended timbers."6 All such terms-Arendt's Archimedean point. the mountaintop. or the moon-the core of the human condition is the attempt to see the self in context. Morrison's grand internal model." and long-limbed starfish strewn everywhere." A hermit crab is tossed naked ashore. In "The Star Thrower" he describes a wave-beaten coast." . To stand on the moons of Sahm and see the Earth in perspedive is to act out the unique identity of our species.

The seabeach and i b endless war are soundless.They cannot fight their way home through the surf which casts them repeatedly back upon the shore. The star thrower. "whose eyes seemed to take on the far depths of the sea. chasing his refledion down an infinite regress. . Shipwrecked on the shores of evolution." represented for Eiseley the furthermost reach of humanity. protecting the innocent from the abyss. he is unique in his compassion. He is the catcher in the rye. are s-tuffed with sand. Nothing screams but the Among the competing collectors. was a human figure framed beneath a distant rainbow. Even the torn fragments of green sponge yield bits of scrambling life striving to return to the great mother that has nourished and protected them. The rising sun shrivels the mucilaginous bodies of the unprotected. " In the end the sea wjeas its offspring. clutching their bags of beautiful voiceless creatures. The tiny breathing pores af st-arfish. spinning starfish far out over the surf.The Romance of' Spacef\i@t: Nostalgia for a &ygone Future Along the strip of wet sand "death walks hugely and in many forms. doomed eternally to explore the margins.

The imperative to see the self from afar. of twilight talk in a turn-of-the-century town. as Nevvtonians assume. finally aware that he lives in the stars. as Arendt suggests. who was condemned to roll the rock up the hill only to have it roll down and eternally begin again. to see the present from some external point in the fut-ure. Though we return always to the same point. as in science and exploration-spirals through history. alone on the howling Kansas prairie with her Sears catalog and her secret dreams. as in art. as roseph Campbell has said. But pioneers on the plains of Mars will no longer debate whether that pale blue point is the center or the edge. or the dark wet soil of the sunflower forest from whence we emerged like life from the sea. Gazing back on the soft blue dot in the Martian sky. those who seEle the red sands of Mars will h o w that some of their roob must die on that banen shore. but closer to the task of Sisyphus. or literal. is neither Promethean. and we seem to .Like the immigrant wife. will be man himself. there is a new perspective with each cycle. perhaps they will dream of dance music dlifting over a moonlit lake. for the center. nor Narcissistic. For the succession of Archimedean points---whether metaphoric.

The Romance of Spaceflight: Nostalgia for a Bygone Future know the place for the first time. For latter-day Argonauts to return with the poster of the whole universe would in fact be a form of idolatry. wind-torn plains. Were we to awaken from the dream of space-time we might long for some eternal star thrower to return us from the center to the edge. but we are process. . windswept plain of ice. down the gorges four miles deep. This was the promise of Bonestell's vision. to those worlds within worlds where the star-children wait. out over desolate. that people from Earth would one day flow into the ancient river valleys of Mars. and Apollo 8. on a bleak. spying a hint of white sand cliff in the moonlight. the yellow skies of Titan. and the Great WalI of Miranda. For it is not the treasure but the voyage itself that is the central project of our species. Amundsen. out to the ice seas of Europa. in the hush of Christmas Eve. reaching the pole with his few suwiving dogs. The process is unending. out into the ocean of light. and our soaring aspirations are finally cathedrals of the mind. floating over the mountains of the moon. Again and again we come through the dark trees to the Pacific: the lookout on Pinta.

Eliot. -T. "'Linle Gidding3' .W shall not cease from explom"cion And the end of all our exploring Will be to a ~ v where e we started And know the place for the first time. S.

which crawled out of the sea those eons ago. onlookm stood in the soft whine of the night wind. Life.Chapter Three Seeking the Center at the Edge o~s~ ON o THE LAUNCH PAD and towering thirty-six stories against the stars. and trailers. A half-million pilgrims had made their way to the mosquitoed marshlands of Florida's Menitt Island. tents. the ApolloSaturn rocket seemed unearthly in the wash of floodlight. the children of four hundred million years of land creatures on this planet. like the moon above it. Along the grassy dunes and desolate moors. spending the night on the beach in cars. glowing icy silver-white. would now climb out of the white-capped ocean . awaiting the early-morning launch that would put man on the moon.

older even than the pyramids. Adriff like an ill-fated liner with her lights ablaze in the North Atlantic night. The call of the cosmic ocean haunts the high mountains and remote seashores. listening in the night to the pulse of creation. .of air. cling to a barren rock. the lilt of her music faint on the icy wind. in the whorls and eddies of a great galactic reef. we are the ballroom innocents of Spaceship Earth-frail seed of life itself. lying ever behind the painted face of day. For one bdef moment. "Some part of our being."' Like those pilglims camped along the beach. older than Greek tales of winged flights to the moon. We long to return. we live on the shore of the cosmic ocean. where the misty river of the Milky Way arcs across a fathomless dome of sand-grain stars--the vacant stare of creation. afloat for an instant on the surface of forever." said Car1 Sagan. "knows this is from where we came. which were aligned with the pole star so that Pharaoh might reach it in his sky-traveling boat. The lure of the night sky is older than the voyages of Jules Veme. and fall back to earth. we would be creatures of the cosmic ocean. riding our wisp of blue and white like mites on a floating leaf.

stark lunar surfaces-metaphors for the homelessness of modern man. vapors stream furiously off the side of the ship. It is the hotrod of an adolescent species bent on tearing itself from Mother Earth. the last great phallic act of Faustian culmre. the gray impermanence of brooding seacoasts.Seeking the Center at the Edge A Wondrously Beautiful Thing Apollo-Saturn is silhouetted on the horizon against a dawn sky. visible across dreary flatlands that stretch easmard to deserted launchpads along the sea. with its fifieen million individual parts. built to seed the cosmos. an aircraft carrier set on end. On Pad 39A. . is more finely tooled than an exquisite watch. On its altar of steel and concrete. loaded with enough fuel to fill ninety-six railroad tank cars. Apollo 11 seems in fact the consummation of modem history-the ultimate hubris. bolting the Garden without God's consent. the three-thousand-eight-hundred-ton ApolloSaturn. The landscape recalls settings from old science-fiction films-the lonely stretch of desert road under a bleak sky. man's collective erection. Sixty feet taller than the Statue of Liberty. the Saturn V rocket is the icon of infinite force and mastery.

Guidance is internal. exploding away with a rain of ice that has formed on the liquid fuel sebions. Liftoff! We have a liftoff. thirty-two minutes past the hour. six. the astronauts lie patiently through the countdown. five"-the voice of public affairs officer lack King comes through the loudspeakers at the Cape and half a billion television set one.The Dream af Spaceflight Perched high atop this cylindric skyscraper. feet. Four twenty-ton restraining arms release room-size grips. the ball of flame would consume two-thirds of a mile. A. zero. the eighthundred-foot tail of flame whipping white-hot as the sun. lifting six and a half million pounds. all engines running. passing rapidly now. Twelve. ignition sequence starts. engulfing the base of the ship. Consuming as much oxygen at the moment of liftoff as a half billion people taking a . then S. The automatic camera on the gantry tower records a great white wall beginning to rise-inches. with a rain of debris eight miles wide. Were the bomb beneath them to explode. gulping fifteen tons of fuel a second. two vertical black stripes forming a U." Orange and white billows of flame gush out hundreds of feet over the ground. ten. eleven. nine. "Tminus fifteen seconds. followed by a wall of fire.

One holds one's eyes and ears. it is the sound of the biggest engine there ever was. the million spectators who watch the titanic ship rise. a cataclysmic roar so intense that some go numb for a moment--a relentless shock wave beating the face and chest. but it seems that even the skin can hear. The ship bores up through the blue sky like a comet and soon disappears. fearsome. cooled by water cascading at fiQ thousand gallons a minute. leaving only the laconic space talk on the loudspeakers to confirm the reality of a wondrously beautiful thing that has vanished. Crude.Seeking the Center at the Edge breath. wave upon wave of thunder louder and deeper than any thunder ever heard. getting a full five inches to the gallon. and a crackling vibration that pierces the body again and again. . rattling cars. the Saturn V rocket rises with the force of a hundred thousand locomotives. burning five million pounds of fuel in the first 150 seconds. a monstrous jackhammer that seems to shudder the entire planet. Six miles away. catastrophic. are suddenly hit by the sound leaping across the lagoons. shimmering in dreamlike silence. beyond the steamy banks of the Banana River.

beady-eyed man named Khmshchev and that the $24 billion car-rattling comet was but an alternate means to Russian humiliation. "now had something with which to speak to GodefF2 Searching the Media for Intelligent Life Critics complained that President Kennedy was less concerned with God than with a small. "were turning the tables on the heavens and riding that comet out of earth. In the stands awaiting the launch that night. in fact. only by the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 and the impad of the great Siberian comet in 1908." Humans.The Dream of Spacenight Three years later Apollo 17. historian William Thompson saw lighming flash in the distance "like the boasting threats of a small boy backing away from a fight. a false dawn visible for five hundred miles. seized upon only after Kennedy learned that American science would be unable to desalinate the sea. round." The shock waves from Apollo struck microbarographs at Columbia University with a force exceeded. he mused." wrote Norman Mailer. the last of the moon flights. "Man. Muckrak- . rode a pillar of fire that turned the night sky orange-pink.

In the end. and comminees of honest men. . Kennedy's politics explain only the timing. and the risk-free society eludes us only for lack of lowestcommon-denominator education. Yet the moon shot could not succeed as a tactical ploy if the feat itself were without inherent meaning. If we are denied a reasonable responsibility for our own entitlement. a paranoid envy of power that sees all history as a political circus. no one is faulted for his own fate. less from cynical realism than from an adolescent resentment of autholity. then a collective hypochondria begins to consume our larger visions. fiat money. Life degenerates to an immediacy in which means become ends in themselves. not the larger motive for going to the moon. diminishing and trivializing all that it touches. It is a world without awe. Others complained that the money spent on Apollo should have gone to health and welfare. and if conflict and inequality are seen not as inevitable to the human condition but as symptoms submissive to legislation. and the crowning purpose is an animal sense of wellbeing.Seeking the Genter at the Edge ing journalists relish such revelations. a naivete often bound to a parental universe where evil is not inherent in human namre.

" wrote Thoreau in his journal. which ranged from prestige and power to Teflon pans. or. where .The Bream of Spaceflight The postured carping of the critics persisted even though the annual cost of Apollo was only 10 percent of that spent on health and welfare. One puzzles over the disparity between the wonder of the feat and the meanness of the public perception. perchance." Yet the complaints about man on the moon were often no less inane than the apologetics. But the distortion is no surprise in a custodial society where the mythic is so mired in cynical pragmatism that 15 percent of those polled believed the moon shots were faked. 4 percent of the military outlay. and. a palace or temple on the earth. "The youth. at length. the middle-aged man concludes to build a woodshed with them. A partial answer is that much of the public is ill-represented by the media. We bet more in a single year on horse races than on the entire Apollo project. and one-third of what Americans spent on alcohol or cosmetics. and powdered orange juice. Perhaps the disenchantment is that of a nation entering middle age. pocket calculators. In dank bars and around depament-store TVs. "gets together his materials to build a bridge to the moon.

When later moan shots were allowed to intempt football coverage the networks were deluged with angly phone calls. a Super y was the same Super Bowl of technology. was to view the landing as another televised spectacular.By Apollo 16 the story had deteriorated to the Washington Post epitaph: Two KLUTZESON THE MOON. I t was as though the first moon landing were another of those fads cataloged by Women's Wear Daily ("IN: N e h m jackets. The result. Yet the mood was sbo~-lived. Bowl being played over and over again? The New York Times reported Apollo 11 with the largest headline ever: MENLAND ON THE MOON. as Apollo 11 astronaut Michaef GoElins obsewed. the deep sense of wonder was grist too fine for the mills of slicks and Sunday supplements.^ The Sacred Grove The one image from the moonflights to survive public apathy was perhaps the one ieast antici- . The loss of interest was encouraged by promoting the moon landing not as a historic beginning but as a political termination. moonwalks"). carved javanese monkeys.Seeking the Center at the Edge crowds fell silent to see a fellow man touch the moon.

Then up from the lower left corner.s Able to cover with a thumb the site of all human history. bombed-out surface of the moon ("magnificent desolation!" said Aldrin) they found that the only meaningful object was that wisp of color afloat in the black sky. without apparent purpose yet holding all human meaning. drifts the bright Earth. Rolling through the cosmic night like a child's ball. it is "an extraordinary kind of sacred grove. astronauts felt both solitary detachment and profound communion. containing all that we know and are ("0." said joseph Campbell. only . marbled milky white on sapphire seas with patches of sunbaked brown. "set apart for the rituals of life. for they saw no national borders. four times larger and eight times brighter than the moon from Earth. like a lost balloon.The Dream of Spaceflight pated."4 When the astronauts stepped onto the barren." wrote Archibald MacLeish). There is a moment in the documentary For All Mankind (1989) when the familiar footage of astronauts clowning aboard the moon-bound spacecraft ceases and the giant theater screen goes black. fragile as a Christmas ornament. a meaning! over us on these silent beaches. vivid on the black velvet of space. floating.

floating like a space flower above the horizon of the dead moon." continues to transform our self-image in ways yet unknown. while the living Earth became the "round object" of depth . the astronauts had put a mirror in the hand of humanity. swathed in luminous clouds. and littered with NASA's debris. Luna.Seeking the Center at the Edge the ancient seas and continental rafis. seemed to reflect the desolation of the modem ego. The mythic moon--Diana. The sight of "that tiny raft in the enormous empty night. The living Earth. dissected in laboratories. "that bright loveliness in the etemal cold. Like the simple but wondrous gifts brought to primitives by European explorers. an ironic result of the attempt to escape her. became a symbol not only for the unity of all life but for the reenchantment of the world. The pitted surface of the moon. was brought down to earth while the Earth was placed in the heavens and given the name Gaia. for new mythologies merging science and mysticism in a yearning for planetary consciousness.6 The spread of the ecology movement in the early seven~es reflected a new solici. glinting gunmetal gray in the sun. Melusine-now branded with bootprints." as MacLeish described it.trude toward the planet.

The Dream of' Spaceftight

psychology, the archetype of the larger Self--inner and outer, head and heart, unfragmented by abstrad society. The moon seemed a fitting destination for Newonian man, sealed with his own. waste in the urban capsules that had been his triumph, as distanced from the primal sources of meaning as the moonwalkers were Ei-om Earl;h. But like the city, the lunar landscape, as Neil Armstrong noted, has a "stark beauty all its own," a changeless wilderness where rolling, sunny slopes gleam like virgin snow and thousand-foot gorges border majestic, three-mile-high mountains-lifeless, windless, looming still and serene, only the harsh shadows moving with the sun. Yet the beauty of this permanence is that of the cemetery. Such well-named sites as the Sea of Tranquility and the Sea of Serenity reflect the sublimity of death itself. The photograph of Earthrise encouraged the shift in focus from outer to inner space. It was an example of cultural eversion, in which a process taken to its extreme becomes its opposite. If the moon landing was the culmination of a halfmillennium drive to gain dominion over nature, then the sight of our fragile, lonely world seemed pivotal in turning the quest inward-not just to

Seeking the Center at the Edge

psychology, mythology, and metaphysics, but to the new self-awareness that comes when one realizes that the parent is mortal. The photograph enabled some to see Earth as an organism capable of death, ""As with a childhaod home," said astronaut jack Schmitt, "we see the Earth clearly only as we prepare to leave it."7 If the medieval view of an anthropocentric universe resembled the narcissistic perspective of childhood, then the Copernican image of a world adrift in an indifferent cosmos was in the spirit of adolescent alienation (and inflation, for accepting our diminishment made us greater than the gods). The harbinger of our maturity, then, may be the image of the whole Earth. For while it brought the first direct experience of the Copernican reality, it also suggested the emptiness of twentieth-century posturing about humanity's tragic absurdity and despair-an attitude rooted in the Calvinist contempt for man and its compensatory injunction to perform glorious works. For some, the logical end of that four-century imperative was the faceless astronaut, Addfi at the end af his umbilicaf, or alone on the lunar waste, he seemed a symbol of the modern paradox: isolation and impotence

The Dream of Spaceflight:

within a womb 01 wondrous works, But he also heralds a coming of age through the perfection of those works. Seeing our own essence in the floating Earth, we are finally more sacred than our works. "No longer that preposterous figure at the center, no longer that degraded and degrading victim off at the margins of reality," wrote MacLeish, "man may at last become himself." "We shall not cease from exploration," wrote T. S. Eliot, "And the end of all our exploring /' Will be to anive where we started I And know the place for the first time."8

Old Devil Moon
If putting the Earth into the heavens had universal appeal, putting the moon underfoot did not.

The realities of spaceflight were in many ways disappointing to the very group who should have felt most E u X A X f e d : the science-ficlt-ion fans. The treatment of intelplanetary flight in this genre, which has always drawn a disproportionate number of fans in their teens and early twenties, reflected the power/innocence ambivalence so common to adolescence, with regressive fantasies of maternal utopias on one hand and visions of

Seeking the Center at the Edge

omnipotence on the other ("Ord sat in his swivel chair and surveyed the solar system"). If one escaped the castrating bonds of Mother Earth in great phallic rockets heroically bound for an unknown future, the ships were also fragile vessels, warm and womblike in the awful void, reaching for some eternal home. The appeal of interplanetary fiction had rested on the adolescent fantasy of transcending the parental world while remaining safely within it, on a romantic longing for the inaccessibre, on dreams of heroic adventure, and on the hope that sentient being some great secret--lay in the sunlit meadows of remote worlds. Most compelling was Mars, with its polar caps, apparent seasons, and penciled canals, a world abiding like the Sphinx in the desert of space, awaiting new life. Generations of boys had gazed at that peaceful point of light low in the evening sky, yearning to run barefoot on her soft red sands, to wonder up a ridge and discover her dusky moons, rising on a rose-red city half as old as ame. How sobering, then, to see the moon invaded, between commercials, by inscrutable supermen who seemed inseparable from their machines, insulated from danger and adventure alike, un-

riding a purple evening. croon. fishing line. "If only they had found footprints. it seemed. another asked. moon of lunacy and harvest lovers. the moon that rhymed with rune. and spoon. epic social feats embodying the worldview of a culture and the spirit of an age. "Dare we land upon a dream?"g While the desacralized moon reinforced for many the new etologic devotion to Earth. They had dropped. however." lamented one poet. the rockets point heavenward like Gothic spires. the trace of horses. On the launch pads. they valued the moon landing as a triumphant if somewhat pedestrian plateau in humanity's pyramid to the stars. the greencheese moon.The Dream 0 5 Spaceflight able to sift the silver dust in their fingers or feel the icy cold of another world. The Great Pyramid The space program stands with the cathedrals and pyramids as one of the great "central projects" of history. Searchlights intersect on . Unlike the Ea&hfirst faction. Qfd Devil Moon. it sent the science-fiction fans to Mars. Carolina Moon. onto a scarred wasteland of cinders and ash. woElen and orange. not :he silvery moon of song.

cathedrals. radiating light to the heavens. Writers often pay lip service to the official rationales--immortality for the Pharaoh. . and moon shots has tended to miss the significance not only of great height as the signal feature of central projects.Seeking the Center at the Edge a waiting ship to form a great candescent pyramid. now nothing will be restrained from them which they have imagined to do")." Literature on the pyramids." The archetype is in Genesis: "let us build us a dty and a tower. To reach for the heavens seems almost the signature of the central project. a shrine to the Holy Virgin.'' the cathedral the "gate of heaven. whose top may reach unto heaven. Though some have noted that the central project focuses the energies and educates the consciousness of a popula- . but also their function as means through which whole cultures have found symbolic expression. The pyramid was called the "staiway to heaven. . or the quest for the grail of lunar rocks-while stressing the negative function of these projects as a source of shallow political pride ("let us make us a name. ablaze on the black horizon like some d i m encounter." 'said the builders of Babel) or as a display of collective vitality ("And the Lord said .

power-oriented. reflecting the pedestrian. if not paranoid. some weighing up to seventy . the Great Pyramid at Giza is a dark silhouette on the dusty sky. the Great Pyramid was built around 2560 BC from Ws and a half million blocks of limestone. sentinels from a lost civilizaGon.lo most of the interpretation has been narrowly political. Thus the pyramids become a ploy for political control. Rising from a sunbaked plateau on the west bank of the Nile. Oldest of the Seven Wnders of the Ancient World. looming stark and lonely against the twilight. For fifty centuries the pyramids have stood silent. shimmering in the heat of the desert like ghost ships on the sea of time. the Gothic cathedral is rooted in royal squabbles. and the space program is but a product of WASP prejudice or cold war hypocrisy--themes that lack all perception of the projects as spiritual quests in the broadest and deepest sense.The Dream of Spacefli@t: tion during periods of cultural transition. jutting off the desolate land like some ixrscmtable monolith kom Mar tian lore. slant of contemporary social science. attracting the best and most adventurous minds of the age.

ieth the thickness of this page. or iron tools to complete the fourteen-acre. that they were launching pads for alien spaceships. But most prominent in the architecture is its embodiment of the Egyptian worldview--the sense that experience is ultimately to be understood subjebively. dialectic trinity. forty-story megalith. The construction gangs who built the pyramids were not made . harmony. and siting of the Great Pyramid suggest that the builden had not only an advanced astronomy but a precise knowledge of pi.t. Mth seams one-fif. or heuristically. once flawless and gleaming white. proportions.Seeking the Center at the Edge tons. or that they embody arcane knowledge from the lost civilization of Atlantis. A hundred thousand men toiled for twenty years without wheel. The dimensions. and such numerological archetypes as paradoxic polarity. symmetry. horse. and equilibrated quaternity. proportion. balance. of the circumference of the Earth. in terms of rhythm. The monumental scale and minute precision of this enduring enigma seems so incongruous with the technology of its time that it has given rise to at the pyramids are prodoccult hypothese ucts of divine intervention. and even of the flattening of the poles.

The Dream of Spaceflight up of slaves but of volunteers. was the Egyptian space program. It was the apotheosis of Egyptian science and culture. Looming on the edge of the Libyan desert. The Great Pyramid. was more than a colossal headstone for a superstitious and narcissistic king. as Lewis Mumford has observed. spawned the first social megamachine composed of specialized human parts. more even than a means for inaugurating the nation-state into history. almost half a mile square. They seem even to have developed a competitive team spirit. their will. People came from all over France to drag stones from the quarry and pass bricks . in short.000to 150. The building of the Great Pyramid. for the means did not exist to controt 50. and those who worked on the sacred projed were honored in their villages. Armies of masons and glassmakers labored for generations to create what is now the oldest sumivor af the Gothic space project. the cathedral at Chartres rose sheer and silver-gray out of a wheat-rich prairie southwest of Paris." Consecrated in 1260. this man-made mountain.

"lz The early Gothic cathedral seemed literally to reach for the heavens: "a mighty hymn in stone and glass . Inside. Space seemed to grow larger as one looked from the dim lower area up into the almost insubstantial region of the windows. clusters of frail columns soared upward and flared out into the cross-ribbed vault eleven stories above the floor. chanting hymns as they labored and singing the holy songs around the night fires. "Here is the court of God and the gate of Heaven. floating bursts of stained-glass color. A supemal violet light transformed the space. and nearly 4000 figures were set into 176 huge windows." intoned the bishop when the church was finally consecrated. The work was done in perfect discipline. the north tower rose to 375 feet. . Lords and ladies pulled carts with the rest and whole villages vacated to accommodate the laborers."13 The impression was intensified on the interior by strong vertical lines that made the . offen in profound silence. Flying buttresses multiplied in a dizzying play of arcs upon arcs. . flinging its passion against the sky.Seeking the Center at the Edg from hand to hand. as though one were inside an immense flower that had grown naturally from the earth. "This is a place of awe.

The ethereal impression is strengthened . with its thick columns. delicate. the structure seemed to be drawn skyward by some relentless countergravitational force that raised and stretched every protuberance like cat's fur under an amber rod. One suggests earthly power. "is the upward surge of the space rocket. Unlike the Romanesque. The pointed slits in the Romanesque wall are replaced by the great rose windows of the Gothic. said one architect. which allowed great spaces to be filled with stained glass and stone tracery. "'4 More important than the Gothic effort to soar into the heavens (the actual height was comparable to that of the Great Pyramid and the Apollo vehicle) was its attempt to capture a sense of celestial space on Earth. The pointed Gothic arch. the other spiritual transcendence.The Onam of Spaceflii@t building seem even higher than it was." "Hidden within its tensionstN adds Loren Eiseley. Outside. and dark. gloomy interior. The effect is that of a porous or transparent wall that light permeates and transfigures. the Gothic is airy. "is a bow always tending to expand. flooding the interior with light. and light. massive wall space. made possibie by the flying buttress. heavy arches.

With neither the empiricism nor the technology to explore the medieval belief that souls literally resided in the sky. The result of all these soaring lines. In the Gothic view the symbol itself was the reality. The whole structure. This attempt to escape from Earth was more than symbolic. a subjective product of man's limited perception. down to the twoton stones in the base of each pier. just as scientific paradigms model the modern universe.Seeking the Center at the Edge by the fact that the Light is subdued by the deep color of the windows. and astral light is an aura in which ma8er itself seems insubstantial and weightless. seems in a perpetual moment of liftoff. The cathedral was seen not as a metaphor but as a model of the cosmos. and the symbol was perceived not as illusion but as reveLct2-ion. Perhaps the similar endeavor of science fiction to bring outer space into the great dark movie palaces of the fifties foreshadowed the rebirth of this vertical outlook-the contemporary spiritual resurgence . airy spaces. was only a means to the transcendent-the visible reflected the invisible. This applied above all to sacred architecture. the physical world. simulation of the heavens on Earth became the goal of the Gothic space project.

much as an army of Brazilian ants will bridge a moat with their own corpses to descend on a plantation house. Though individuals may fail. . where the role of the asmnaut-the cell at the apex of the pyramid-is virtually to bend and pick up stones.The Bream of Spaceflight that has followed the five-century interregnum of horizontal empiricism. From the tip of that pyramid Armstrong took his "one small step" onto the surface of the moon. pyramid-building has in a sense never ceased. centuries in which consciousness grew not inward and upward but outward in geographic and philosophic breadth. the creature is unremitting.15 A Dream of the Child in Man In spite of the horizontal drive of modern Western culture. and cathedrals to the modern pyramid of science and technology-the rise. It is this creature who reaches the moon. persisting through ziggurats. Mankind takes its "giant leap" as a technological creature whose abstract shape is itself a contemporary pyramid of specialized expertise. brick by empirical brick. of Newtonian know-how over the last half-millennium. temples.

devouring the planet's resources.Seeking the Center at the Edg Loren Eiseley suggested that our species resembles a blight spreading on a fruit. drawn by the whiteness of the Milky Way into the starry deep. lashed to the object of our search with the lines of the chase. 600. our motive and object mad. the rupture of which may disseminate the living spores as far away proportionately as our journey to the moon.000 trillion miles across. driffing in the cos- . longing for immortality among the far worlds.thrusting up spore palaces like city skyscrapers. Yet Ahab may be but a pathology in the process of matter coming slowly to know itself through humanity. "that man's cities are only the ephemeral moment of his spawningthat he must descend upon the orchard of far worlds as a blight is lifted and driven. I t is conceivable. our progeny may gaze back on the radiant presence of the home galaxy. outward across the night. the nervous and reproductive system of Gaia. wrote Eiseley. our means sane.16 Or perhaps we steer spaceship Earth like Ahab on the Pequod." or die. Microscopic slime molds swarm into concentrated aggregation~. just as we have seen the Earth from space. a spore bearer.

" as Eiseley calls it. like a great glowing brain. Car1 Sagan is the lone voyager in the vaulted. On the other hand. is not outw r d but inward. the hubristic flaw lying in our very ability to conceive of transcendence. for the moon is little more than a lightsecond away in a universe at least 15 billion light-years across. singing her inscrutable song to the radio telescopes of a hundred billion sister creatures. "the diastole of some inconceivable being. floating from . Perhaps some four-dimensional child of the cosmos will ultimately look back on the universe itself-a hundred-billion-trillion-mile spongelike mesh made of fine strands of galactic light. In his series Cosmos. we discover.mic ocean like a great whale. cathedral-like interior of a ship that drifts majestically among stellar fires and mysterious worlds." our function and duration compare to that of a mayfly. home to the Earth where the ship began as a dandelion seed. Yet in that irony may lie our salvation. In this expanding and contracting "cosmic prison. there are those who hold that only the mind may roam at will among the stars. and our tragic destiny to that of the classical hero. His journey.

In his room he left a magnificently intricate model. The ship of the mind. built from scraps of cardboard trash. The great strength and beauty of the pyramids lay in the utter useiessness of the final product. One returns in the end to great heighta reaching for the heavens-as its essence. Each of the grand central projects has at its core a romantic idealism detached from all things practical and political. Not a view of the far future. it is the cathedral of the imagination. borne up out of Earth to become the bn'lliant burst of light-spines that is the ship's extemal shape. but a vision set from the beginning in the seed of evolution." A gentle soul retrieved from a freak show and imprisoned in a hospital where he was offen mistreated as an animal. The central project is the dream of . the cathedral visible from the window of his own cosmic prison.Seeking the anter at the Edge Sagan's fingers on the sea breeze. That it comes from the human core is underscored by the story of john Merrick. Victorian England's grotesquely deformed "elephant man. Memck died at twentyseven of a ruptured spinal cord due to the weight honifying head. Philip's. has been the heart of the central project. of the soaring spires of St. the cathedral of the imagination.

Unlike the modern mistaking of means for ends.The Bream of Spaceflight. Like all final concerns. to cavort: on the sands of another world. A1 Shepard teeing off on Fra Mauro. the rover poised for its next task amid footprints chiseled in the dust. but in the spirit of wonder that sets our species apart. just as the toys will remain where we left them. After all the apologetics. But our dream is finally of a living cosmos. it is a taproot into human meaning. we will walk on Mars. the pratfalls and belly flops. Duke and Young yahooing as they bounded over the undulating plain in their moon jeep like lunar Keystone Kops. it a ~ s e s not h m the ethic of work but from the spirit of play. Gene Cernan bursting into song as he bounced like a rabbit with his basket of rocks down the Valley of Taurus Littrow. to build a celestial palace above medieval huts. as fresh in a million years as if the driver had only stepped away for a cup of coffee. not from false pride or foolish praxis. The image of man on the moon that will endure is not the flag or the science but humans at play-the boyish exuberance. the child in man-to raise a mountain in the desert. These are the images that will last. teeming like the silent world beneath the sparkle .

Simultaneously alienated and inflated. with one another. encounter the footprint of a poor savage Friday or the soaring cathedral of some alien elephant man. Clinging to a false self. of touching the unknown depths of our larger selves. The astronaut. has become the symbol of postmodem man. one loses receptivity to the symbolic unconscious. depersonalized. the ego becomes obsessed with order and control. sealed safely in his portable environment but unable to touch the world on which he walks. on a dis- t m t island world.Seeking the Center at the Edge of the sea. we will discover an abandoned vehicle. with ourselves. basricading itself into a tiny clearing in the dark forest of the soul. It is the outward dream of the edge and the inward dream of the center. The h- . demythologized society spawns cancerlike individuals who lack a sense of anything larger than themselves and who thus destroy the social organism that sustains them. It is the hope that one day. and with it the ability to experience wonder. A fragmented. We yearn to reconned with nature. of going Home.

the fin- . The oceans and night sky are the modern preserves. the withered capacity for wonder that afflicts the modem mind. it is from that same womb that we may be born into the cosmos. In the last century we have had our own Copernican revolution. We have kn less than a lifetime that our galaxy is lost among a hundred billion other whorls of light. awe has been removed to the edge. And if we are all asQonauts afloat in the amniotic fluid of the abstract society. But as snowflakes melt on the welltraveled walk or the morning star is lost in the light of day. dreams dry up in a drone of listless talk on bad help and great linebackers. Drained from immediate experience. the national parks of wonder. Yet events in recent decades have begun to reawaken an avvareness of the uncanscious. of the something-larger-than-the-ego that is the basis for all wnder.The Dream of Spaceflight ture of spaceflight is threatened less by the cynical journalist or the philistine politician than by the atrophied imagination. echoing through empty fortresses. untouched by wonder. ocean and stars. Our sense of wonder may sunrive in fleeting visions of birth and death. though our frenzied cities extinguish even the stars. origin and destiny.

embedded in the "dark matter" that may compose 90 percent of the universe." prisoners of the concept of linear time. representing the outer unknown." wrote Eiseley. encounter the abyss that Colurnbus did not. Its sturdy ships of reason. the longing for the stars is the quest for the greater Self. which ere-ates the illusion of form and permanence. are perceived as an analogue to the unconscious.Seeking the Center at the Edge gerprints of creation.17 The analytical psychologist would explain that the heavens. And just as the early explorers sailed west in search of the East. for something fixed and eternal. we again see the night sky as analogue to the soul. "is a dream. the Newonfan science that rose in their wake now An& its own form of eversion. not reality. The dream of spaceflight is in the end a search for roots. . the old mysteries trickle back. We are process. "Our identity. On the macro. the equivalent of God. the inner unknown. merging inner and S.and microscopic frontiers. attempts to account for black holes or for particles that defy time and space begin to sound like the ancient mystics. having explored to the far edges of rational experience. As classic paradigms crumble. the old enchantments return to the w ~ r i d .

in fact. are of secondary significance. snorting flames as birds scatter in terror. cannot explain the fascination with space. As with all . must be conquered "because it is there" is deceptive. The urge to enter space is rooted less in power than in innocence. like Mallory's mountain. Visions of fire ships and phallic rockets. Even the Promethean conquest of nature itself. the Apollonian thrust of the last hal'millennium. of metal behemoths tearing man from Mother Earth. The spectacular launch of Apollo was as misleading. Seeking the Center at the Edge It would be wrong to see this quest for home as simply a longing for the lost mother. Though we may still seek to reenter Eden astfide the machine. for the moon is less a taunting adversary ("We've knocked the bastard oE" said Hillary atop Everest) than a piece of the infinite mystery passing nearby.Tnus the idea that the moon. less in agency than in communion. to reconnect with meaning. as its name. an eversion of emphasis in the latter half of this cenmry has made the machine incidental to the postmodern imperative: to recontact the Great Mother.

as Ioseph Campbell said. In the gleam in my wife's dark eye burns the Great Galaxy in Andromeda. Even if it is not in time or in space. it is that the nature of man and the cosmos are one. So we dream of sailing a cozy ketch out past a million suns. we enter space seeking the East in the West." cried Tennyson's Ulysses."m If there is a common thread through all world mythology and religion. the glint in the eye of God. while somewhere out on its myriad worlds recur the forgotten sound of my father's laugh and the scent of my mother's hair. it is true nevertheless. in search of the minor lake in the soft green meadow. "to sail . journeying. my friends. the secret center.Seeking the Center at the Edge things fundamental. that the joumey toward the horizon will bring it closer. the reality is a paradoxic tension. inner and outer are finally inseparable. Like Colurnbus. aclrass the dark sea of the soul. "Come. there is still a sense. "outward into oursefves. for us. light and dark. or subjectively true in that consciousness must constellate experience within its own limited spectrum. 'tis not too late to seek a newer world. It matters not whether this is literally true in some holographic sense. yin and yang. in the cathedral of the mind.

The Dream of Spaceflight

beyond the sunset, and the baths of all the westem stars!" From the dawn of recorded history, the wesward course of the sun has been "rat of rebirth and moral regeneration. "The ultimate effect of the discovery of the new world," wrote historian Charles fanford, was "to oubssliwk for the spiritual pilgrimage of Dante and Bunyan the 'way West' as the way of salvation."lg From john Winthrop's "City upon a Hill," the Puritan moral example to the old world, down to our own nostalgia for the purity of the frontier, the way into the wilderness has been the way home. As with evolution itself, the way backward is lost-to the primordial sea, to the personal world of the primitive, to rambling twilight talk on a small-town porch, to our own elusive youth. As the Western horizon recedes across oceans and continents and out into the cosmos, the quest goes forward and outward, seeking the center at the edge.

In the VIP stands for the night launch of Apollo 17 sat a 124-year-old ex-slave named Charlie Smith.20 just as the astronaut became a sensing element for all humanitj, tthis last survivor of the age of lackson had traveled through time to be the eyes for an entire population long decaying

Seeking the Center at the Edge

in the earth, for those who had cleared the wilderness that became Houston. Gazing across the dark lagoon with their last witness, those pioneers might have wondered less at the thunderous fire ship than at the eerie apathy of their progeny. Ironically, the view of the Earth from space confirmed for many the notion that we should tend our own garden, rescue our own house, and make our pilgrimage not to the stars but to the far shores of our own kindred saufs. Yet it is the unipolar mind of the Hebraic-Christian tradition that sees outer and inner space, like matter and spirit or pride and humility, as mutually exclusive. The reality is the paradoxic equilibrium of the two in tension. We are such polar tensions, like the note in a vibrato, or the rhythms and cycles that define all things. The whole person must have both the humility to nurture the Earth and the pride to go to Mars. Love and wonder, center and edge are finally the same, the solitary key to the prison of the self.

Where there is no ~ s i a n , the people perish.
-Proverbs 29:f 8

Chapter Four

Abandon in P

S

APOLLO 23

REACHED THE BLACKOUT PHASE

of reentry, flight director Gene Kranz was on his feet behind the row af cansoles in Mission Control, pacing and smoking as he always did at critical moments. Kranz was tall, lanky, and bigboned, counted among the rarefied circle of "steely-eyed missile men" for his ability to issue cool, clipped orders while juggling a hundred problems competing for his attention. Besieged by men demanding emergency priority, each for his own piece of the whole, Kranz would listen quietly, ask a question or two, say, "Gentlemen, I thank you for your input," and issue a six-word decision in his staccato style. With a face like a wedge cut into rough planes, and a blond buzz cut that was barely visible in bad light, the intense, hawk-eyed Kranz had the look of a leg-

Some guys died of heart attacks. but also for a massive flight plan. If the job of flight controller was intensely demanding. often with only seconds to make life-and-death decision under the gaze of the world. each focused on one small segment of the mission. and a barrage of input from many simultaneous sources. A couple of them committed saicide*"l In the windowless "trench" at Mission Control. Kranz called it the "finest job in the spaceflight business. . . He was responsible not only for encyclopedic knowledge of a machine with 15 million parts. a vast body of mission rules." Like a maestro. Orchestrating twenty minds. They hammered away at the weak links until they broke. the role of flight director was superhuman. Kranz was the real skipper of the spacecraft. and the internalized tension surfaced in nods.The Bream of Spaceflight endary drill sergeant. "It was like boot camp. he had not mastered every instrument . the worse they probably were. and technical acronyms. he either forgot about it or he cracked. crises were handled in cryptic murmurs. The more calm things appeared." he once said. If a guy had a drinking problem or a personal problem. glances. . "We took our best controllers and made them instructors.

" a fellow flight director once said. And his quick thinking had rescued the lunar module during Apollo 5. and the ballet of mankind on the s u ~ a c e of the moon. No flight-control team had ever been asked to . Thus the most dangerous part of the first moon landing.ts. the descent to the lunar surface. The Eye of the Tiger Apollo 13 was not the first crisis Kranz had met. faltering telemetry. "Gene was the guy you wanted on the headset when there was trouble. and only seconds of remaining fuel ("You'd better remind them there ain't no damn gas stations on the moon"). the adagio of distant Earth. and he knew how the whole must sound. He had seen the Mercury-Redstone launch its escape rocket while the silent booster threatened to explode. From that acronymic dissonance came the conceflo af haloed conenen. a field of boulders.Abandon in Place yet he caught every mistake. He was on duty when Neil Armstrong spun out of control during Gemini 8. was assigned to Kranz. But no crisis had matched that of Apollo 13. who had to make "go" or "no go" decisions in the face of onboard computer failures.

which seemed to draw heat from the body and dispel it to the stars. point by point. engines. Water condensed in pearl-sized drops on the metal bulkheads. as the crew scavenged and improvised. or sustain their newe for so long a time. and recovery. fuel. reentry. Fred Haise shivered violently for four hours until jim Lovell hugged his body to give warmth. The networks did not carry the crew's television broadcast. and the icy cold of the near-dead spacecraft kept sleep to less than three hours a day. The need to shout transmissions. conducted only minutes before the explosion. resorting finally to penciled math and seat-of-the-pantspiloting. guidance. Frogmen who opened the hatch on the tropical sea could still feel the chill of space. Fighting a kidney infection. improvise so many fixes. For four days following an oxygen tank explosion. snowballing crises threatened every aspect of survival-power. communications. water.The Dream of Spacefight make so many life-and-death decisions. oxygen. his feet were still frozen. Two days after lack Swigert spilled water on his shoes. for after the first lunar landing . Yet what would seem a hopeless predicament was overcome moment to moment. the hiss of equipment.

Apollo 13 came to symbolize both the nobility and fallibility of humanity-the heroic defiance that reaches out ts the stars and the tragic hubris that lures us to the flame. That Apollo 13 escaped Titanic's fate was due to the intense composure of both the crew and the team in Houston. only to plunge us into the abyss. But with the news that lives might be lost in space. that mythic memorial to Edwardian hubris. mysterious deep. was to preserve as many options as he could while closing down others. during which Kranz survived on catnaps. unearthly place. For Mranz and his band of controllers. Thus the gaping gash running half the length of the command module drew inevitable aHusions to the Tihnic. remaining at the complex around the clock. could he achieve lesser ones? "Eventually. If he couldn't achieve initial goals. to lie forever in some cold. that failed mission was ironically their finest hou r 141 hours. . after admonishing everyone to "keep cool" and not make things worse by guessing. His first job." he has said. But the real root of the association lay in the vision of being swallowed into a vast.Abandon in Place the naZrioni had lost interest in moon shots. there was a sudden worldwide resurgence of concern. dark.

(All the more prominent against his narrow black tie and . . wearing the one eccentricity he allowed himself: the symbolic white vest made anew for each flight by his wife.' you're not going to solve anything. but even then you don't let yourself doubt that you can accomplish them. He moved his White Team (the eight-hour shiffs had color names) to a windowtess chamber full of conference tables where they stayed for three days without leaving-looking. Kmnz pacing and smoking. Our job is to make things happen. the White Team was back at the helm for the cial reentry. Emerging successfully. 'Well. Marta. as he put it."z When it did come down to m r e survival.The Dream of Spaceftigt~t "those goals may come down to mere survival. the assignment of his renamed Tiger Team was to completely rewrite the reentry checklistnormally a three-month project-in three days. . "into the eye of the tiger. it was Kranz who made the critical decision to let the moon's gravity sling the spacecraff back toward Earth rather than risk the attempt to turn around and power home. if this thing happens or that thing happens. If everybody worries." In addition to surmounting what seemed an impossible shortage of power and consumable~. .

over. Houston. grinding out the cigarette he had lit four minutes ago. when friction temperatures create an ionization cloud around the ship that blocks all communication." roe Kerwin called. As the huge chutes appeared on the main viewing screen. As the four-minute mark passed without response from the crew. Then Swigert's voice came through the crackle. Capcom. Kernin closed his eyes and drew a long breath. The guests in the VIP gallery looked at one another. Houston standing by. Kerwin had ta shout aver the roar af cheers in the control room: "Odyssey. We show ." "Odyssey.) The four-minute blackout phase of reentry. was especially tense given the possibiliy that the explosion had damaged the heat shields. the only sounds in the room were those of the air conditioners and the hum of elemcal equipment." said Kranz. After two more attempts. Nothing but static came back from the spacecraft. Kranz pumped a fist in the air. "advise the crew we're standing by.Abandon in Place no-nonsense visage. "All right. the vests had become rallying banners for his White Team. The men at the consoles stared fixedly at their screens. over five minutes had passed with nothing but noise on the communications loop.

gazing from the canier as the surviving planes return. "Where do we get such men?" Born in the Ohio heartland at the height of the Great Depression. he added. babe!"3 One recalls the end of The Bridges at 'Ibko-Ri when the admiral. Earning a degree in aeronautical engineering from St. Kranz . asks with quiet wonder. he came of age in years of personal and national hardship. "Got you on television. but an opportunity for creativity. Eugene Francis Kranz grew up in an America whose watchwords were cooperation. From the world of Dunkirk and Iwo jima. Gene Kranz learned the value of wholehea~edcornmnal engagement.f i e Dream of Spaceflight you on the mains. Louis University in only three years. seeing in crises not an excuse for self-pity or wishful fantasy. discipline." Unable to hear the response. for expressing the human spirit. persistence. and endurance. Losing his father at the age of six on the eve of the war. where risk and sacrifice defeated one of the darkest demons in history and left America a CO~OSSUS astride the Earth. for pursuing the possible in the present.

and his band of brothers in Flight Operations. whose flat Midwestem voice had provided much of the technical commentary. then manages a near-whisper: ""Iwas neat. father of six. '' . country. A devout Catholic. Kranz. is shown in closeup as he remembers the jubilant mood in Mission Control-the cheering. that revealed a sentimentality deeper than his Sousa tapes. shaking his head. the lighting of cigars. Struggling mightily-militarily--to maintain his composure. family. made almost a quarter-century after the event.Abandon in Place flew F-86 fighters in Korea and was later a flighttest engineer. the waving of small American flags. Kranz wells up." and he played Sousa marches in his ofice to jump-start his day. But it was a documentary on Apollo 13. Kranz was a man who could get misty at the sound of "The Star-Spangled Banner. pausing in midsentence. He entered the space program at its inception in 1960 and became one of the first flight directors for the Gemini missions. his abiding attachments were to God. At the end of the two-hour program. as the main chutes deploy to soulful music. Then. unabashed patriot. he presses his lower lip hard against the upper. and fervent believer in the exploration of space.

he might as well have been Lindbergh remembering his Ryan monoplane. To most of that student audience. or Edison recounting the first "Hellohhh" shouted onto a wax cylinder."4 But why tell a story whose ending everyone knew? Those who went to the film with that question found that the story was less about spaceflight than about the human spirit. And Kranz. And for these children of the custodial saciety. there is a visceral need for heroes. What affected them most was Kranz's lapse. was invited on the lecture circuit. "If we've got a story that can make Gene Kranz cry. born a decade after Apollo.The Orean of Spaceflight The night the documentary aired. heavier for his years but having lost neither the crew cut nor his intense commitment. He came one evening to the old auditorium on the Stanford campus. it was seen in a hotel room in Los Angeles by the team that was planning the film ApoNo 13." one of them said. Like the computer. who emerged no less heroic than the astronauts. spaceflight has become commonplace. albeit endless circling in near-Earth orbit. "we've got a story. coming of age amid a failure of nerve. But in the postmodern void. the .

The challenges. a faint echo of a more heroic time. ." "toughness. Remnants of the great rockets now lie in the Smithsonian with the john Bull. perseverance. The Dream of Animal Comfaft It has been more than a quarter-century since the fast man left the moon. he said." Yet those young people of more timid t-imes. and self-discipline. who had come out in sheets of rain to hear the man &am the movie. It would have been easy to see a Boy Scout squareness about this military man. intense teamd transcendent purpose. rose to their feet-as though for a whole generationand applauded at inordinate length. often no older than the students in the audience. with dedication." "responsibility.Abandon in PIace film had stmck a chord. the Tin Lizzie. and the Spin't of St. people with a proud vision. a latent sense of human potential. The story Kranz told revealed a more vital time of common cause. had been met by young people. now as remote as the moan itself." "teamwork. passing out his "Mission Operations" sheet with its symbolic emblems and bold"confidence.

another Lindbergh commotion. and half the figure for detected welfare fraud.5 Had even this moderate commitment to space persisted. dry grass bends in the sea breeze. the last three were scrapped. Yet the $24 billion Apollo program cost each American only a dollar a month for nine years. 3 percent of the amount allotted to social programs. And there are now two generations who cannot remember when spaceflight was still a dream. The S38 billion spent on space between 1961 and 1972 was barely 1 percent of the national budget. who view Armstrong's leap as an archival event. In another quarter-century it is likely that all twelve who walked on the moon will have passed into history. saving seven-tenths of 1 percent of Apollo's total cost. we would have walked on Mars a decade ago. Even in the days of Apollo the public lost interest after the first lunar landing.The Dream of Spaceffight Louis. Rationales for the abrupt ending of Apollo suggested that the scientific potential did not . we went back to business and Monday Night Football. On the abandoned launch pad at the cape. and this ignores exponential returns to the economy. Having beaten the Russians in the Super Bowl of space. After six walks on the moon.

It is far more likely that President Nixon watched Apollo's TV ratings drop and decided that the risks-especially after the near disaster of Apollo 13-outweighed diminishing returns.Abandon in Place warrant the cost. became dispensable. while the image of Earth in the lunar sky was a blurred white fleck segmented by two or three picture lines. and that Apollo's dinosaur boosters were a dead end in the evolution of spaceflight.w This may well have been true. "the original model for civilian technocracy. The limited . which must now consolidate a stepping-stone presence in Earth orbit. but it does not seem to justify scrapping three paid-up moon shots. that the program stole technical talent from other fields. Historian Walter McDougall argues that the space effort was part of an ideological package that Americans purchased after Sputnik in the belief that the United States must adopt the technocratic model to get back on top. the space program. By the early seventies. with the relaxation of cold war tensions and the growing concern over domestic issues. A part of the problem was television itself. that it had little military value. Ghostly images of astronauts on the moon revealed little detail.

In a larger sense. restricting spaceflight coverage to hardware. moreover. though the event involved the crude forms and simple conhasts (a large. cost-benefit ratios. technical routine. or the lifestyles of the astronauts. How far away was the moon? The same distance as Vietnam--across the family room. isolated. Like the iconic cars that dominate our ads and movies. journalism in a pragmatic. means-become-ends culture is expected to get us somewhere. becomes the great leveler of experience. trivia that soon became boring. the shift from the world of print to the world of television--from the discourse of ideas to the surrealism of objects without context-has drastically shortened our attention span and corroded our ability to create images. Television. unidirectional object spewing fire) most suited to television. And beyond the technical limits of the media lay the confines of mass consciousness. The 6000 hours of television that the average American child has seen by the fifth year floods the young brain with images at the very time it would otherwise learn to generate them .The Dream of Spaceflight audiovisual spectrum of television could not communicate even the eaxthbound wonder felt by those present at the launch.

the fault lies in ourselves. a. Griffith Observatory received numerous calls asking whether the quake was responsible for the sky being "so weird. "amusing ourselves to death.Abandon in PIaee kam within. as Neil Postman notes. The alleged 15 percent who believed that the moon shot was an elaborate government hoax staged for television exemplified in the extreme the widespread want of the most elementary concepts necessary to grasp the event. many choose simply to ignore it. unconducive to the growth of imagination. with neither center nor edge. When the 1994 Los Angeles earthquake knocked out the power in the middle of the night. the means through which we watched the moon walks had itself reduced our ability to see their significance. violates the archetypes we call common sense. If we lack the imagination to infuse the event with wonder. We are." The citybound callers had never seen a star-filled sky. condition. Since the universe of modern science. But it is not the mass media that are finally to blame for public apathy toward manned spaceflight. A vast number of us are simply uncurious about anything we cannot perceive diredly (making Mars even less interesting than the moon). . Ironically.

In recent polls. fodder for technocracy.8 For the same reasons that polls name the president of the United States the greatest living American year after year. In forty national polls measuring public support for the space program between 1965 and 1994. calling it escapism. and only 22 percent express any real interest in it? The great majority of Americans have put space at or near the top of the list of proposed budgetary cuts.The Dream of Spaceflight. No less profane were the critics who bemoaned Apollo's lack of utility. polls have shown that interest in space rises proportionally with education and income. only 9 percent feel informed on the subject. the average citizen fears and reveres power above all else. military adventurism. perceiving the world as narrowly political and measuring most things by their instrumental utility. views often rooted in paranoid distrust of power and authority. favoring the reduction of programs perceived as having little effect on their daily lives. an average of only 18 percent of the respondents favored its expansion when given the choice of funding other programs. or a triumph of the WASPS. . only 8 percent would increase expenditures for space exploration. Without exception.

the whole politics of society is more profoundly changed by a new sense of human potential than by any amount of obses- . the National Review noted that "out of such stuff as sewage treatment plants are liberal dreams spun.Abandon in Place When columnist Drew Pearson complained. And the bold social conscience that once stood against the evils of industrialization became a pathological crusade to neutralize every conceivable stroke of ill-fortune. The Geography of the Soul In the long run. The belief in equal opportunity has become a protest against unequal results. What began as a reaaion against artificial pockets of wealth culminated in the denial that charader and intelligence need correlate with well-being."lQHaving risen with the urban-industrial middle class. liberalism has suffered kom its own success. Confusing reamres to be dodored people with livestoc and fed-the liberal agenda has degenerated to a quest for animal comfort. in the wake of Apollo. that Nixon had chosen to fund "the most unnecessary projed of the century" rather than to clean "240 million gallons of excrement" out of the Potomac.

This largest conceptual cosmos halts the infinite regression of "Why" questions. veiling some great mystery of indeterminate size and origin. Any living symbol of the boundary. until we reach what sociologist Peter Berger calls the "sacred canopy." just as mathematical order is preserved by capping the system with notions of zero and infinity. These ultimate construas need not belong to organized religions. Wonder. becomes an object of awe and wonder. The significance of anything derives from its larger context. "the people perish. one is left at the center of a universe devoid of transcendence. the aura of unfathomable majesty. utterly humbling and wholly Other. dosing the perceived order with such symbols as "God" or "Universe.The Dfearrt of"Spaceffight sive self-n~aintenance. whose ossified idolat~esare ofien inimical to larger meaning. in its larger sense. "Where there is no visiont'' says the proverb of Solomon. left inchoate and mysterious. denotes the mysterium tremendum. surrounding the sublime and terrifying unknowns that border our models of reality-the dark for- . one dependent in turn on still greater perspectives." Without a source of meaning larger than the ego or beyond mere survival." the boundary where known and unknown meet.

Abandon in Piam est. the ego perceives its own finitude. the boundless sea. one sees the multifaceted surface and oceanic depths of the larger Self. At the opposite extreme of self-transcendenceis n inflated ego that subsumes its social context much as a cancer cell proliferates to . the depth to which we experience the cosmos is proportional to our level of self-awareness. free of false self-images and able to see others as more than means to its own unexamined agenda. one reflects on reflebing. Like the astronaut looking back on an Earth without political boundaries. the empty desert. the sacred mountain. a boundless regress that probeds a deeper interiority onto the outer world. We sense the vastness and passion of creation and glimpse an equally vast interior-the "enormous geography of the soul. Thus. which becomes a more profound field of wonder." We are aware of the stars only because we have evolved a corresponding inner space. tkte black silence of cosmic inf nity. Thus we gaze into the night sky and feel not diminishment but dilation. And with a capacity for self-transcendence and connedion to larger contexts of meaning and identity." as journalist Edwin Dubb put it.

recognizing only those things that can be quickly labeled and filed away in some well-worn category. mistaking wealth and power for ends in themselves. where the elements are rearranged to effect suspense or surprise without deepening the experience. the unreflexive. measuring others by their usefulness. idolatries that avoid the larger questions. Thus. instilling a feeling of impo- .The Dream of Spaceflight no purpose and metastasizes. A false self projects its own system of categories and expectations onto the world. Psychologist Abraham Maslow argues that the excessively selfassertive are governed by such lower needs as security and acceptance. while everything seems familiar. as with spectator sports or TV fare. This condition can develop when an overanxious parent or repressive culture leads a child to distrust the world. Embedded in the protective cocoon of the culture much as the infant is unable to distinguish bemeen self and other. Spirituality is confined at best to conventional creeds. little is really seen or known. selfassertive person substitutes know-how for knowwhy. Extremes of boredom are avoided by a rapid succession of stock perceptions. finding security in the familiar to the point of feeling adriff without a fixed pattern or routine.

and a reductionist dismissal of anything unrelated to the practical. the self-transcendent personality is motivated by growth needs rather than deficiency needs. poetry. creativity. can bring a compulsion toward order and predictability. the consequent fear of the unknown. and the sense of wonder. of facing internal uncertainty or losing external control. while the want of self-reflection strangles imagination. In contrast.Abandon in Ptace tence and fear of novelty that curbs exploratory play. a child forced into independence too early may develop obsessions with power and mastery. seeing an experience as one would a sunset or a work al art. Maslow has argued that the "metaneeds" . At either extreme. inexhaustible Other. empirical world as irrelevant nonsense-symptoms that roughly describe the pathology of power-oriented politicians who obstruct the exploration of space. not as a means to unexamined ends but as an end in itself. They are directed not outward at what they lack but inward toward expressing what is intrinsic to the organism. such people break through the cultural cocoon to the ineffable. Fascinated by the frontiers of the familiar world. Conversely. Anxiety kills curiosity and the urge to explore.

and unity are biologically as basic as the lower needs but remain obscured and elusive for those whose growth was arrested at earlier levels. The explicit meaning that results from the irrtravefi's self-refleaion contrasts with the implicit. order. while the extravert is more stable and thus beEer armed for the arenas af wealth and power. and the "reflectivef' experience of the introvert. the extravert's self is simply equivalent to the path of his encounters as he moves through the world.. self-transcendence requires the reflexive capacity to see beyond the raw content of experience. In extreme form. psychologists loel Shapiro and Iwing Alexander distinguish between the "lived" experience of the extravert. . "felt-meanings" of the extreme extravert. which is direct and unmediated. goodness. whereas the introvert's self is an evolving inner construct in light of which raw experience is selectively interpreted and incorporated. which is more like a painting. beauty.The Bream of Spaeefli@t for truth. like a cropped photograph.12 In addition to the fulfillment of primary needs. In a phenomenological study of introversion. however. This incessant and intensive creation of meaning can leave the introvert hypersensitive and susceptible to overload.

A recent study of ninety-one prominent creative people found that their personalities contain a complex balance of polar extremes-cooperation and aggression. life. with the "creative." which imaginatively associates two previously unconnected matrices of thought. The juxtaposition of matrices disarms unreflective self-assertion (as absorption in the car chase is displaced to the theater when the film slips out of focus). Eiflhur Koestler contrasts the "routine. But to the degree that we lack self-awareness we cannot think metaphorically and are thus condemned to the literal. realism.Abandon in Place who is bored by any experience that must be reflectively transformed to gain significance. analogous to the dreamer's awareness of dreaming-what Blake called "double vision. of course." the ability to simultaneously perceive a thing in at least two ways. dislodging the subjective experience from its objective correlate and revealing the inner world as a separate reality.13 Most of us.14 It is the essence of the metaphoric imagination. rebellion and tradition. and idealism." which operates on a single linear plane. masculine and feminine stereoscopic depth that retains a childlike delight in the strange and . lie nearer the middle.

The Bream af Spaceflight

the unknown, a sense that anything mysterious, regardless of utility, is worthy of attention.15 Psychologist Heinz Kohut notes that such people seem to preserve the child's capacity to experience reality with less of the "buffering ego" that protects the average adult from traumatization, but also from creativity and discovery.16 The "buffer" seems to be rational consciousness itself, To the degree that we rely on deliberate conscious thinking-our analytic, reductionist, problem-solving mind-we lose access to the slower, less conscious ways of knowing that are the seedbeds of creativity. A simple example is the fact that we often recall a name only when we cease deliberately trying. Cognitive scientists now suspect that the function of rational consciousness is simply to invent plausible rationales for decisions already made at preconscious levels, its evolutionary role being to analyze and evaluate these inclinations in threatening situations.17 In modern competitive society, however, the threab are more often to status or self-esteem. Pressured by such uncertainties, and fearing that we will lose control or commit condemning errors, we revert to rigid, clear-cut,

Abandon in Pbee

and conventional thinking, adopting one shallow nostmm, one fashionable idea a&eranother. We find ourselves in this benumbed state when rational consciousness eclipses the larger unconscious self-that part of the mind, grounded in feeling, that gives meaning to experience. The linear, analytic mode also reduces the multivalent and paradoxic symbols of the deeper mind to mere conceptual signs ("Mother Nature," retaining the Latin root, becomes "matter"). Unlike the convergent thinking of focused consciousness, the undermind is divergent, intuitive, associational, leisurely, playful, and tolerant of ambiguity. In touch with this pre- or semiconscious realm, we are more selfaware, less threatened by the unfamiliar, and more willing to explore without knowing the object of our search. Psychologist Guy Claxton argues that chronic stress has caused modem culture to lose sight of this mode, to view it as a threat to reason and control, a "wild and unruly 'thing' that lives in the dangerous Freudian dungeon of the mind." The result is a withered capacity for creativity, curiosity, and wonder. The root condition is aft-en art. authorita~axl environment--overprotective parents who impose rigid

models of "right" thinking and feeling on children who comply for fear of abandonment, or traffic-cop teachers with inflexible rules and standardized routines, operating in a system geared to the lowest common denominator. Both produce either shallow rebels or cooperative conformists, neither of whom are capable of selftranscendence. 18 The idea that stress and the need for control blocks access to the creative undermind i s supported by the finding that children burdened with early responsibility tend to develop "thick boundaries" and lack imagination. One study speculates that the brain in such cases may achieve the permanent synaptic pathways of adulthood earlier, while the paths of the more creative, "thin-boundaried" people remain c h e formative state of childhood, less closer to " definite and specific, with more branching and ambiguity, like wandering back roads versus a n all-purpose freeway system. More obvious is the fact that exmssive demands, whether rooted in early responsibility or cultural brainwashing, require rigidity, reducing the time and motive for probing one's experience; and the less one ex-

plores, the less comfortable or compelling exploring becomes. A synthesis of these various perspectives may lie in recent insights into brain lateralization. It has become clear that the left side of the brain deciphers the text of experience while the right side provides the larger meaning or context. This qualifies in subtle ways the older distinction between temporal/linear/analy tic and spatial/analogic/ synthetic. The difference is more one of foreground versus background, deduction versus induction, or disconnected particulars versus a coherent, overall understanding of an event. People with right hemisphere damage seem to lack a larger sense of what is going on within the self and bemeen the self and the world. The literal nature of the left hemisphere cannot attribute two meanings to one thing; it does not experience Koestler's intersecting matrices. Unable to think metaphorically, such people are slow to grasp humor, sarcasm, or irony; and they lack the reflexivity necessary to a sense of wonder. No less vital than access to the right hemisphere is hemispheric differentiation itself. It seems likely that the lateralization of the two hemispheres (like two eyes or two ears) has a

21 The point of all these models is that they delineate a spectrum of self-awareness. a n equilibrium of the two minds. all these polarities. The wider the differentiation the greater the ability to hold a feeling or concept in one mind while looking it over with the prerequisite to creativity and a sense of wander.The Dream of Spaceflight stereoscopic effect. it is balance that is vital in. that creative people have high interhemispheric communication." the impetus for science and exploration would be spiritual in the deepest sense. One suspects that the transcendent perspective requires a balance of polarized hemispheres-ideally.20 In the end. is to avoid both rigid dogma and paralyzing indecision. Science would no longer languish in our schools and the will to explore would survive the Philistine pits of power. In a balanced society. in fact. To tread the thin line between rational consciousness and the creatiw undermind. between instrumental knowledge and multivalent meaning. merging the "two cultures. Studies have shown. a measure of .

existentially free individuals. a cultural transformation for which the quintessential symbol is the dream of spaceflight. as historian. For the balancing of self-assertion and self-transcendence defines the contemporary coming of age. of the community of being. Without this reflexive awareness the stars remain unremarkable. "of mystery . the night sky becomes peripheral. a schism that has involved an adolescent obsession with self-assertive power that is archetypally masculine.Abandon in Place wonder that divides the apostles from the opponents of space exploration. This evolution. consciousness. The development of the Western mind has had as its metclnarrative the collective emergence of conscious ego out of preconscious union with namre. a progressive denial. however. the Wes"tm canons have driven toward atomistic societies of autonomous.22 But the models find larger meaning in the fact that the psychic development of each individual reenacts the evolution of human. Richard TQxlnas notes. was founded on a repression of the feminine. From the patriarchal religions and rationalist philosophies of the Hebraic-Greek tradition to the objectivist science of the modern era. of the anirna mundi.

and ambiguity, of imagination, emotion, instinct, body, nature, woman." The point is less that Western history is a chronicle of chauvinist imperialism than that it has been a preordained stage of growth. The driving impulse of the West" masculine consciousness has been its ""dalectical quest not only to realize itself, to forge its own autonomy, but also, finally, to recover its connedion with the whole," to differentiate itself kom the feminine but then rediscover and reunite with it at a higher level of consciousness.z3 At the core of the current cultural transformstion--beyond regressions to primitive spiritual traditions-is a collective reunion with the larger Self at a higher turn of the spiral. The greater our reflexivity, the closer we come to this waking dialogue of conscious and unconscious. Coming of age, we cease our adolescent cycling between poles of the human condition-isolation and communion, power and innocence, masculine and feminine. We approach the point at which the increasingly isolated ego finally accepts its own finitude, aware that it is a small island on a great dark sea. Projected outward, it is what Jacob Needleman called a ''sense of the ''24 CQSmOS,

Abandon in Place

Explore or Expire

Are we the spores of spaceflower Earth, the metamorphosis of Gaia to Galaxia, or are we a planetary cancer, metastasizing to the biosphere and near planets? Any living system is but one level in a hierarchy that ascends through cell, organ, organism, family, community, society, species, and ecosystem (matter or spirit), the meaning and identity of each level lying with its function in the larger whole. Each intermediate structure displays a tension of self-assertion and integration, behaving as a self-contained whole in relation to subordinate levels and as a dependent part in relation to the larger reality. While selfassertion can become a metastasis, destroying the greater whole, the result of self-transcendence is evojuGon. Living systems reach out to their environment, merging with larger systems in the fight against entropy. We know from the new science of chaos and complexity that when an open system interacts witln the environment, it resists the slow accumulation of stresses until a breaking point is reached, just as water suddenly boils or an oppressed people revolt. While the energy of a

The Dream of Spaceflight

closed system is continually dissipated, moving it toward a maximum disorder of random particles, living systems maintain themselves by importing energy from the environment, processing it, and discarding waste. The evolutionary result is a self-organizing synthesis toward ever more complex structures whose goal is maximum order. As long as the fluctuations caused by the continuous flow of energy are minor, the system damps them. But if the fiuctuations reach a critical size, they "perturb" the system--the elements of the old pattern come into contad with one another in new ways. The parts reorganize into a new whole, and the system may escape into a higher order.25 It is at its frontiers that a species experiences the most perturbing stress. The urge to explore, the quest of the part for the whole, has been the primary force in evolution since the first water creatures began to reconnoiter the land. We humans see this impulse as the drive to self-transcendence, the unfolding of self-awareness. The need to see the larger reality-from the mountaintop, the moon, or the Archimedean points of science-is the basic imperative of conscious-

Abandon in Place

ness, the specialty of our species. If we insist that the human quest await the healing of every sore on the body politic, we condemn ourselves to s2agnation. Living systems cannot remain static; they evolve or decline. They explore or expire. The inner experience of this imperative is curiosity and awe. The sense of wonder--the need to find our place in the whole-is not only the genesis of personal growth but the very mechanism of evolution, driving us to become more than we are. Exploration, evolution, and self-transcendence are but different perspectives on the same process. Three billion years ago, as tidal rhythms exposed the creatures of the shallows to sun and air, it was the moon that summoned life from the sea. Now the moon calls again. Either we have a destiny that transcends the individual or we will uitimately succumb. And though the creative vision may elude the average person, "the highest of his duties," wrote the biologist J.B.S. Haldane, "is to assist those who are creating, and the worst of his sins is to hinder them."%The least among us, refleded Waiter Cronkite affer the moon landing, are improved by the feats of the best of us.

as the "last way to discover the metaphysical pits of that world of technique which choked the pores of modem consciousness-yes. "We had to explore into outer space. Space may save modernism from the black hole of solipsism. like the world of the child.The Dream of Spaceflight Fooling Us Out of Our Limits Those who compare the legacy of the Renaissance with the promise of space argue that the ingrown homogenization of Europe in the sixteenth century now applies to the whole planet. play is self-transcendence. For if literary golden ages coincide with peaks of frontier expansion." wrote Mailer. or Twain. behold it as savages who knew that if the universe was a lock. Shakespeare. is a place of wonder explored in the act of play. the closing begets Tennessee Williams and jack Kerouac. spawning a Homer. m . its key was metaphor rather than measure "27 The frontier. we might have to go out into space until the mystery of new discovery would force us to regard the world once again as poets. to which space offers not only rich new veins of empirical knowledge but a deprovincialization of the spirit. Conrad. Melville. Work is self-maintenance.

as ""visionsthat fool him out of his limits. but because it was fascinating. a towering. or the wheatlands of southern France. the Florida coast. And like the sacred spaces reserved for sport-cool green fields hidden in the bowels of Pittsburgh and Chicago--the frontier is seen as hallowed ground." Like the capture of fire. joseph Campbell has observed that in countless myths from all parts of the world the quest for fire occurred not because anyone knew what the practical uses of fire would be.Abandon in Place probing the larger context. or the Saturn 5 rocket. where the gray monotonies of mortal limits are forgotten and each moment is eternal. unearthly presence on the Libyan desert. the longing for spaceflight is rooted less in means than in meaning itself. Like cl11 final concerns. Those same myths credit the capture of fire with setting man apart from the beasts. said the poet Robinson jeffers. the Gothic cathedral. Beyond all the pragmatic apologetics. for it was the earliest sign of that willingness to pursue fascination at great risk that has been the signature of our species. seeking the higher order. there is a certain unlikelihood about the Egyptian pyramid. . Man requires these fascinations.

"28 . art became subjective. One result has been to obscure the boundary between art and knowledge. the pursuit of means as ends in themselves-equating wealth with happiness. to conceive of an imprudent project at the center of any life. knowledge itself becomes the work of art." says historian William Thompson. power with success. isolation with freedom. with the modern no-tion of objective science. Ironically. change with progress-spawned the technological pyramid that has freed the mass of humanity from mere utility. " X n a worid in which men wdte thousands of books and one million scientific papers a year.The Dream of Spaceflight these central projects arose not from the ethic of work but in the spirit of play. But in the postmodern era. Yet the Protestant ethic itself may be the greatest central project of all. their great strength and beauty lying in their utter impracticality. whose values and traditions are rooted so deeply in the work ethic. It is difficult enough for Americans. let alone at the core of an entire culture. In primitive times the two were identical. "the mythic bricoleur is the man who plays with all that information and hears a music inside the noise. figure and ground are reversed.

great continents in the cosmic sea. arrayed "in knots and streamers across billions of light-years. spirit finding its epiphany in matter. The galaxies. the dry-mouthed fears of the old explorers." may lie eternally beyond touch.Abandon in Place Perhaps. it is humans who must go into space. exploring our horizons as children probe the world in play* Lured by the hope that life is no less characteristic of the cosmic acean than of the terrestrial. says Daniel Boorstin. we stand alone on the leading edge of evolution. To believe less--or to believe . For even more revolutionary than the shift from a n Earthto a sun-centered cosmos is the modern universe. "where achievements are measured not in finality of answers. but in fertility of questionseWzg It is not that we go into space seeking a literal edge." Perhaps we have learned to luxuriate in the expanding universe of expanding mysteries.30 But the telos is the endless quest itself-matter expressing itself as spirit. like motes of dust dancing in window light. to wander far worlds and meet once more the dread unknowns. which lacks any center at all. Rather. we are no longer merely Homo sapiens but rather Homo ludens. "at play in the fields of the stars.

standing Sphinxlike against a gray blend of sea and sky. Pad 34 rests like an ancient ruin at the center of a great cirde. crumbling at the edges. alien explorers might one day discover on the Florida coast a great stone table. Stencifed with the words ABANDON IN PLACE. Were some catastrophe to destroy the human species. requiem not only for the three who died there in the fire. Risen and fallen on a crest of idealism for which "Camelot" was no misnomer. . They would be correct. Abandoned since the days of Apollo. but for the greatest project in human history. the giant flame deflectors gather rust. Lofty arches formed by the four legs of the great launch table frame another arch in the distance. something elegiac in the lonely arches.mare-is to live in the shallows of what it means to be human. it was intended to stand forever. abiding in silence but for the song of dry grass in the sea breeze. There is something eternal about the scene. and beyond that. the old roads radiating in all directions. lying in the scrubby weeds. Perhaps they would see it with other enigmatic monoliths-Stonehenge or the pyramids-as having some religious function.

His answer is his epitaph: "The will to do it. A young space enthusiast once asked von Braun what it takes to send a man to the moon. the man most responsible for Apollo's success." . with Gene Kranz and his Ssusa nthems for a Homeric age. As monument to Apollo. Pad 34 merits a better inscription. Perhaps the final word belongs to Wernher von Braun. he died of cancer at age 65. Ignored by NASA when he was no longer needed. With his boundless energy and infectious enthusiasm.Abandon in Place Apollo fades into the past with aging moonwalkers. the tall man with the broad chin and the boyish smile embodied not only the triumph of Apollo but its fate as well.

Along a parabola life like a rocket flies. hrabolic Baflad . now and then on a rainbow. Andrei Voznesensky. Mainly in darkness.

fearing he would not survive the war. As the weeks wore on. when it all surfaced in my mind. The irony is that while my father trudged through France. living in bug-ridden hotels. I have a searing memory of the night. had been following him from camp to camp through California and Texas.Chapter Five when my father was shipped overseas to take part in the allied invasion of France. it was my mother who died of lupus in the hallway of an overcrowded hospital in sunny Pasadena. It was like the dawning of consciousness itFIVE YEARS OLD wns . my grandmother took me back to San Francisco with the assurance that my mother would eventually join us. by a window in our small apartment. I was left to piece things together for myself. My mother and I. Afraid to tell me the truth. joined by his mother.

one in space. It was then that I began to notice the night sky. For both death and the stars are symbols of the barrier. one outer.The Dream of Spaceflight self. ane inner. no projection of final meaning onto symbols of immortality. each a sacred canopy. and the Apollo rockets. the other in time. The notion of my nonexistence is as alien to my daily reality as the thought of a hundred billion galaxies. but everything after that night lies in the larger world of adults. a series of scattered images. But the ground of both is the awareness of death. the cathedrals. My memory of everything before that moment floats in the haze of childhood. a coherent. . The two sides of wonder-the ecstasy of boundless possibility (mysterium)and the horror of absolute limitation (tremendum)-form the tension that spawns all art and science. and a true sense of either lasts but an instant. From the rehsal to accept its finality arose the pyramids. structured chronology that seems to have followed a sudden leap in self-awareness. Without the mystery of death we would be unmoved by the mystery of the universe. the finitude of self as unthinkable as cosmic infinity. Were there no threat of"nonexistence "fhere would be no sacred canopy.

education-that have traditionally provided the larger context for those symbols. to find a continuity with past and future that transcends time and mortality. viewed with the lurid fascination once resewed for sex. A sense of immortality may come through our children. government. Deep within the malignancy of modern individualism is a longing to restore some larger context. our contributions to posterity. some meaningful end for runaway means. the reality of death is repressed to the point of being the new pornography. But like my night by the window. The denial of death defaults to competitive obsessions with power or to conventional doctrines of immortality that only further eviscerate curiosity and wonder. The search for what psychologist Robert Lifton calls the "symbols of immortality" intensifies as accelerating change undermines all the institutions-family. church. the mass traumas of the last century seem to have encouraged a collective leap in reflexive awareness.Reflexions The awareness of death seems not only the price of consciousness but its measure as well. Thus it becomes ever more difficult to connect with something larger than the ego. In the cul-de-sac of postmodern culture. an im- .

however. my past universal. My strategy at such functions was usually to find a magazine in the lounge and await the redeeming ride home. creativity. In this instance. But the deeper the awareness of death the more profound the moments of ecstasy. or intense camaraderie.mersion in nature. for an expansion of one's life space.' The word ecstasy means "to stand outside of. a single seamless event in which old conflicts fade and larger meanings come clear. sex. I was at a debutante ball in a sprawling pavilion on the edge of a lake. the stars become personal. To gaze at the stellar ocean is to step outside of linear time. I was trapped at a table with other sixteen-year-oldsvying with one another over whose family had the worst help . while reducing death anxiety. merging the personal and transpersonal. dance. a literal step outside. remains as fresh in my mind as it was forty years ago. the frozen panorama of my past reaches back over time. One such experience. As the star-filled night stretches away into space. Such experiences fill the need for transcendence. or moments of ecstasy found in music. athletic effort. Enlarging me in space and time." to be outside of oneself.

nd perhaps. vaulting across an ocean of stars. And I knew that somewhere out on the faintest fleck. to gaze back across a billion years of space-time. at one Bmr?or anotrher. . the Milky Way rose out of the ancient trees. itself a galaxy of a hundred billion suns. It was a moment akin to my encounter with the Pacific or my night in the mountain camp. the tiny figures dancing in the distance seemed fleeting as mayflies. So when the dancing began I stepped outside into the night. burning a thousand lifetimes distant. had been the most drunk. but inner and outer were now in some way inseparable. and the music floating over the water. on some dark shore. where the open lake stretched away to a dark line of distant forest. the permanence of things remembered. lay a shimmering lake and the echo of music immersed in the momern. With the lights of the great white pavilion reflecting on the lake. The stillness of my past. one who had stopped to step outside. seemed somehow hidden in those countless specks. wandering along the shore among the dark trees to the opposite side of the small bay. Out beyond the bay.arzd who.

far beyond the cold war reflex. So are the fires of the night sky. then the flame of life. remembering. Like salmon. slowly. the eye of consciousness. but its prize was the capacity for love and wonder. our emergence into space rose inexorably from the taproot of evolution. we hurl ourselves against entropy. returning in fits and starts and occasional heroic leaps to our place of origin. as though the primal spirit had fallen into infinite multiformity and had somehow forgotten itself in the process. the heartsong of a cosmos that is finally the dance of spirit. is its resurrection. agonizingly. where our being was written long before planets were bom or oceans condensed or mortal cells emerged from primordial soup. And the world awoke.The Dream of Spaceflight Perhaps in some recess of the psyche the human organism knows that it is a fractal of the reflexive universe itself. The communion of cells formed a n eye. . We are that ineffable essence. The price of vision was mortality. And if the cosmos is spirit incarnate. We are fascinated by the roiling surf for the same reason we are transfixed by fire: we too are matter asserting itself as energy. repeated in microcosmic multiplicity like a holographic plate-worlds within worlds within worlds-and that.

North Korea seized the USS Pueblo. and old-maid aunt through a spacecraft window at the mountains and craters of the moon. and God bless all of you-all of you on the good Earth. . a phosphorescent world creeping across the screen. The war languished in Vietnam. ". Discontent was epidemic." . and the poignant closing of those first men to circle the moon: "Merry Christmas. Robert Kennedy was assassinated in Los Angeles. Yet my most indelible memory of that evening is the hush of kitchen clatter as our gathering was drawn to the W--children. the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia.A Ca~die in the Dark It had been a dark and bitter year. as American families sat down to dinner on Chrismas Eve. curving away to the black of space. a B-52 crashed carrying four hydrogen bombs." intoned a metallic voice across a quarter-million miles. cousins. 1968. students rioted around the globe. in-laws. grandmothers. "In the beginning. disillusion profound. "God created the heaven and the Earth . . and Martin Luther King was shot down in Memphis. Chicago police battered demonstrators at the Democratic convention.

Apollo 8 had risen over a world longing for epiphany.'. space was fated to be the final canvas for expressing in bold strokes . Under the Martian panorama. Like a latter-day star in the east. substituting the three astronauts. backpacks and business suits. thousands of people of every age and color cheered each new image. when Pathfinder put the first rover on Mars and the incoming pictures were relayed to a large screen in the Pasadena Convention Center. a profound sense of communion filled the huge room. archaic as Genesis yet campelling at the core." to borrow Auden's phrase. Time magazine scrapped plans to feature "the Dissenter" as Man of the Year. We were on Mars! "From the moment the first flint was fftlked.The Dream of Space-Ftighr And once again the Earth seemed good. In 1997. among strollers and wheelchairs. an ascension of humanity itself. the exploration of space will revitalize humanity just as Apollo 8 redeemed a dark year. Strangers conversed like old friends. In the iwenty-first century. It seemed proper that the event occur at Christmas--the last living myth in a disenchanted world. for beyond the politicians and engineers this was their triumph.

probing the cosmos like a "candle in. 1996. and the proud ship Voyager. We are alive at the dawn of a new Renaissance.the inexhaustible soul of humanity. with its pictures of man and . when most of the globe lay deep in mystery and tall masts pierced the skies of burgeoning ports. the boy standing with outstretched arms in an open field. luring those of imagination to seek their own destiny. to challenge the very foundations of man and nature. imploring the magic force that had carried Burroughs's hero to that blood-red beacon burning low in the night sky. More than anyone of his century. Wonder was the core motif in the complex fugue of Sagan's life: the six-year-old at the World Exposition. the spacecrafi is an emblem of the human spirit. the dark.'' The phrase belongs to a man who passed into history just before Christmas. or the great steam locomotives that embodied the building of America. Carl Sagan reignited the sense of wonder in a world increasingly content to simply exist. Like the sailing ships that incarnated the aura of the Renaissance. a moment much like the morning of the modern age. heaven and Earth. awestruck by the utopian sights.

The Dream of Spaceflight its heartfelt hellos from the people of Earth. hard logic. Who but Carl Sagan would cast humanity's bottle into the cosmic ocean? It was his rare gift to walk that razor's edge between romance and reality. is not endless circles in low orbit." The con- . but one to which we must make the pilgrimage. "Space exploration. the theorist and the aaivist. offering epiphanies in the form of aliens come to eviscerate cows and rape rural housewives. cornbining lofty speculations with cold. across a n infinite regression of Archimedean points." Sagan insisted. While the media cycles between pseudoscientific solipsism and existential despair. balancing soaring wonder with unrelenting skepticism. A common theme running through his many-faceted career was his confrontation with what he called our hilure of newe-the self-indulgence that has taken this nation from the world's largest producer and creditor to the world's largest consumer and debtor. the epiphany for Sagan lay not in a cosmos that comes across light-years to doodle in our wheat fields. He was the dreamer and the doer. it is "going to other worlds. tending weightless tomatoes. sailing outward into ourselves.

2 But Sagan's grand vision was of voyages on a stellar ocean teeming with life.tinued exploration of the solar system. greetings from Earth in fifty-nine languages. who is our only enduring connection between "in here" and "out there." our only real communion with something larger than the ego. is a challenge that can bind together nations. and ultimately end our confinement to one vulnerable world. at his behest. he argued. His last gift to us. something we normally find only in another human being--someone who rescues us from solitude. But the quest for intelligent life in the universe has never been less than a search for a reflection of the personal self. was criticized for depicting the first alien encounter in an overly sentimental manner. Car1 Sagan's memorial is that silent streak of light that arced out over the dark Atlantic one hot August night. the film Contact. bearing. music . inspire youth. advance science. Humanity's longing for a place in the heavens is that same need writ large.

" It seems appropriate that the last voice on the Voyager recording is that of Sagan's five-year-old son: "Hello from the children of planet Earth!" For we are a species still in childhood. returning breathtaking images of the outer planets before passing out of the solar system.000 years. the dreams of millennia. it will cross the line where the sun can no longer hold an object in orbit and will enter the open sea of interstellar space. and pictures of life on a blue planet. . Voyager will leave the Oort cloud. And if odds of entering another solar system are very small. "through the starry archipelagoes of the vast Milky Way Galaxy. Voyager reaches out to life in cr universe turbulent and mysterious beyond anything imagined by our forebears. Traveling a million miles a day. in 20. Voyager would explore what may be the homelands of our descendants. Launched in 1977. as Sagan said. Carrying the hopes of humanity.The Dream of Spaceflight from many cultures. perhaps eternity is time enough. only now becoming aware of the true immensity and complexity of the cosmos. the triHion or more comets that orbit the sun. After hundreds of centuries. the great dark between the stars-to sail forever.

and long affer Earth is vaporized by the sun and humanity is either extinct or evolved into other beings. the ring of every railroad spike. carrying the message through countless eons: that t b m was. the lonesome howl of every lumber-camp harmonica. our offering in the cosmic cathedral. it was latent in the stirmp and the longship. from the first fire. of love and wonder. of mathematics and music.Voyager was inevitable from the first gleam in the eye of the hunter-gatherer. . Voyager is the distillation of our essence. and furrow. civilizations will rise and fall. the voices of millennia echoed in the vault of night. Voyager will drift silently onward. an imperfect people of irrepressible spirit. an awareness that knew something of its world and something of itself. wheel. at our time and place in the cosmos. Generations will come and go. who dared to dream of reaching the stars. in the creak of every caravel.

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h. First liquid-fuel rocket launched by Robert Goddard. EZlars by Percival Lowell. G. The War of l-fieWorlcJs b y H. A Mel-l?odof Reaching Extreme Alt-r'tudesb y Rabert Gaddard. Somniurn seu Aslronomia Lunarr' b y Johanncjs Kepler. Ma&ian canafirepo&ed by Giovarrni Schiaparelti.r'onof M/orld Spaces by Reactive Vehicles by Konstaxll-in Tsiolkovsky. .Appendix Space Chrono Significant Firsts and Events Mentioned in Text Hamonice mundi by Johannes Kepler. "Under the Moans of Mars*'by Edgar Rice Bumaughs serialized in All-Story Magazine. D e Ia Terre h la Lune by Jules Verne. Die Rakek zu den Planetenraumen b y Hermanxst Oberl. Welts. Investjgat.

directed by Irving Pichel. John W Campbell becomes editor of Astounding Science Fiction. Army by Wernher von Braun. Tke Conquest. First successfzul A-4 rocket launched at Peenerniinde.S. with illustrations by Bonesteal.of Space by W i l y Ley. V-2 launched at White Sands fox U. . Chesley flonestell" paintings published in Life magazine. arson Welles" War of the Mrlds broadcast. Destination IMoQn.Space Chronotol~y Erau im Mand.film produced by George Pal. film produced and direcled by Frjitz Lang. Robert: Heinteirr" "The Green Hills of Ea&h" published in the Saturday Evening Post. F i s t spaceflight arlicle in Cclllierhseriesby Von Braun and others. WAC Corporal sounding rocket mounted on a V-2 reaches space.

S. First American. Mariner 4. First Amedcan in space: Alan Shepard. n/iercuy 3. NASA founded. Voslok 1. First U. Ed Whi"Ce. first S U C C ~ S S ~flyby U ~ of any pianet (Venm) * First woman in space. in orbit: fohn Gfenn. Launch of flrst Eadh probe to impact the Moon. Voskhcld 2. satellite launched. First probe to Mars launched. Soviet Sputnik I. . First craft to leave Ea&h% gravity. IClariner 2 launched. Soviet Luna I. Mercury 6. Explorer I. Fh-rst human spaceflight: Vuri Gargarin. Soviet Luna 2. First Arnelrican space walk.Space Chronology First adificial satellite. Valentina Tereskrkova in Vostok 6 . President Kennedy announces the goal of landing a man an the moon. Gemini 4. First space walk: Alexei Leonov.

First human arCiPa@to reach surface of another planet. and Roger Chaffee killed in fire on Pad 34. jirn Lovell. and Dave Anders orbit the moon. Gemini 8. Apollo 14. Soviet: Luna 10. Apollo 1. Apollo 13 t?. first soft landing on the Moon. S o ~ e Venera t 3 impacts Venus. Apollo 12.Launch of f owiet Luna 9. Soviet Venera 7. 2001: A Space Odyssey. Launch of first Moon orbiter. Rrst docking: NeiI Armstrong and David ScoE. Ed White. film produced and directed by Stclnley Kub~ck. Apollo 1 1.uplosion. . Gus Grissom. Venus. Second funar landing: Man Bean and Charles Conrod. First soft landing on. Third lunar landing: Alan Shepard and Edgar Mltchell. Apollo 8. Frank Borman. First lunar landing: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.

Mariner 9 orbit-s Mars. Apollo 16. flyby. Sixth lunar landing: Gene Cernaxl and HaMson Scfirnitt. First U. SQl'ab I First Jupiter flyby. Fifth lunar landing: lohn Young and Charles Duke. Mars. space station.S. CoEumbia. Voyager I launched. V o w e r 2 afives at Saturn. First Mercury. Wriner 10. Carl Sagan's thi&een-part series. Fou&h lunar landing: Bavid Scow and Tames Iwin. Viking 2 lands on. ApoHo 15. Voyager 2 launched. airs an PBS' Voyager I arrives at Saturn. First shun.]@ flight.First space station. Pioneer 10. Soviet Saljyul 1. . Cosmos. Viking I lan& on Mars. Apollo 17.

1989 8/25 1993 12/4 2996 42/20 Death of Carl Sagan. Bmce McCandtess. Challenger disaster. Space staaon Mir launched. Voyager 2 awves at Neptune. .1983 6/13 6/18 Pioneer 10 leaves the Solar System.yager2 arrives at Uranus. 1997" 714 Mars Pathfinder rover lands on Mars. Sally Ride. Mubble space tefescope repaired in orbit. First American woman in space. first uwrtetkered spacewalk. 1984 219 l986 1/24 31/28 2/20 Vi.

The Watershed: A Biography of johannes Kepler (Lanham. filled tvirh internal con&ad. 1971). 37. where it was 9eneraUy Weated as na less h e u ~ s than ~ c Rolorny" model.Capemicus's book. Md. p. 19931." notes his deflniave biographer. first of all. 195. "who k e d =&onomy &amthe bonds of Mstotelian physics" w a x Caspar. afiraaed interest only in academic circles. p. Kepler p e w York Dover bbfications. p. And "it was Kepier.: University Press of Ame~ca. . 136). 2. Chapter One 1.Notes Preface 1. Norman Mailer. Afihur Koestler. and thus neither simpler nor more acntrale than the Rolomaic system. Of a Fire an the Moon (New York: New American Librav.iaom and unsolved mystefies.196Q). not Galileo.

1683-1 630 (New York: Harper & RowI 1954). 1964). S. Koestler. but he was also the first to associate rockeb with spaceflight. 6.: tlniversiv of Illinois Press. n. a mathematical basis. on. Not only was Verne the first to place a trip to the moon..3.Cicero. See Charles L. Ma. f 49-240. On seventeenth-century England. 8. 251. Ophans of the S@ ( N mYork: Pubam.pp. It was expanded as Robes Heinlein. 66. Many modern concepts. Sanford. Foundation. W Tillyard.Medawar.. The EngEish People on the Eve of Colonizatbn. Wallace Not-eslein. equipping his afiilIery shell- . M.. 1960). Ibid. The Hope o f Progress (London: Methuen & Co. p.Robext Heinlein" story. and P. 4.). Xli. 1972). 1961). 36. 1941. On Kepler. p. The Poetic Slructure of the World: Copemticus and Repler (New York: Zone Book. aP course. were not so much discovered as rediscovered. "Universe. The EIizokthan World PicWre (New York: Vintage Books. and VVoIfgang Pauli. 1990). for exampie.d.. 1955). 7. "The Influence of Archetypal Ideas on the Scientific Theories of Kepler.t?. The Quest for Paradke: Europe and the American Moral lmagination (Urbaxra. Plutarch. ed. Voycrges to the (New York: MomilEan. see also Fernand Hallyn. 9." in Bof lingen.See Marjofie Mope Nicolson." was publbhed in Astounding Science Fiction.beings. 110. 8 . 224. the "music of the spheres" originated vJil. see E. The Inteprel-ation of hrature and the Psyche (Mew York: Pantheon Books. pp. contended that the moon tvas a small Ea&h inhabited by intelligent.

p. 226. K&eger. et al. 1976). 12. 137. Brian W. 14. H a v Warner.. 1976). ch. 16.: Robert: E. Cosmos (New k"ork: Random House. and Sam Moskowitz. With uncanny prescience. eds.. 18156). V 2 (London: Hunt Ijf Blacken. Ebid. 15.Goddard: Pioneer o f Space Research (New Vlork: Da Capo Press. p. 1980).the first spacecraf to resemble the modern image-Nth small rockets for steering. 13. 23.. Milton Lehman. Seekers of itornonow: Masters of Modern Science Fiction (Cleveland: World Publishing CO. see Robert H. A r k : Universiv of Arizona Press. 11. . Walter Dorrrberger. the first Bight to circle the moon.. 110. site for Apollo 8. 1877-1 920 (Mew York: Hill and k n g . 52. Lowell and Mars (Tucson. 15. 35. p. The Search for Qrder. 19541. 7. Mars and tihe Mind o f Man (Mew York: Hawer h Raw 19731. splashing Frenchman fired his ship konz the t down in the Pacific *thin three miles of the recovery. Ray Bradbury. 1967). The Spaceflight/Revolution: A Sodological" Study (Malabar. see William Sims Bainbridge. 1"23). H. 19881. Wi&e. All Qur Yesterdays: An Xnfomal Hjstory o f Science Fiction h n d m in the Forties (Chicago: Advent. Aldiss and H a v Wardson. Fla. the i p of Florida. Robert. p. HelfWartographers: Some Personal"Histories o f Science Fiction Writers (London: Future. Jr.. For insights into the psychology of science fiction and the nature of SF fandom. 1969). William Graves Hop. On the American search f'ar order. p. 10. Car1 Sagan. pp.

The resulting diagram resembles a small sak. N. The Conquest o f Space (Mew York Viking Press.: McF'arlland. Carrying the Fire: An Aslronaut"f~ourneys (New York: Bantam Books.C. 4. 19831. It. 1982).Lea J. Moser. his decision to proceed with it was neve&helessa direct result of DM's extensive prereiease publiciv. Keep Watching the SIiries American Science Fiction m v i s o f the FiRies. pp. 253. The dislixlction is James Hillman3 ((Revisionin9Psychology mew York:Harper & Row 19751). 13. where the ego awakens to the Self much as a beached fish might became aware of the ocean. See Bill W n e n . pp. Michael Coltins. 2. 1949). 19791. Although RabemZ Lippert had received story lines for Rocketship X-M prior to the contrcxctixrg of Destination Moon and managed to release the film a month ahead of DM. . Chapter Two 1. the larger Self.The merging of the tryo represexlb the Jungian goal of "indivliduation. p. Edward Edinger (Ego and kchelypcr: Individual-ion and the Relr'giotrs FuncpIon o f the Psyche [Baltimore: Penguin Books.zlliteorbiang its mother planet. Violume 1." or psychic wholenest in which ego-consciousnessbecomes aware of the total psyche. 3. 19731) chose Is represent the emergence of ego-consciausness as a small circle &Sing out of a larger one until its center lies entrirely outside. Interestingly.I 7. The TectznoIogy Trap: Survr'val in a Manh/iade Environmcmt (Chicago: Nelson-Hall. Willy Ley and Chesley BonesteLl. 1 95&1957 (JeEferson. 48-50.

3. pp. 7. 19831. 19761. Car1 Sagan.S. "Amour De Voyage. Columbia Broadcasting System. Chapter Three l.C. laseph Campbell. IO:S6:2Q PM EDT.--73. This is the o~ginaX. Earth: An EXpioration o f l"he New Planetary Culture (New ltork: Haver & Row. ""Voyageto the Moon. p. The microbaragraphs (reacting to Apollo 4) are noted by Richard Lewis in Appointment on the Moon (New York: Ballantine Books. The ""connet" was a huge meteorite. 6 . C a v i n g the Fire: An Aslronautuourney (New York: Bantam. Cosemment Pdnting ORce.: U. p. 1968). 1973). Loren Eiseley. MichaeE ColXlns. Norman Mailer*O f a Fire on lche Moon (New York: New American Library." Michigan Quar- terly Review 18 (Spring 1979): 266. 93. 245. Why Man Explofes (Washington. 18-20. 420. 5. WlEiam Iwin Thompsrzn. pp. pp. S. CBS News. Schvvafiz." read over CBS during the Apollo 11 coverage. Cosmos (New York: Random House. 19741. Naaonal Aemnautics and Space Adminiseation. S. p. p. 474. 1.S. 7/20/65. 2. The Unexpected hiverse (San Diego: Harvest Boobp 19691. Inc. G. 67. 3. p. D.":7-he ht'storic conquest o f the moon as reported to the American people by GBS News over the CEES Television NeWork (New York: CBS. p. 1970). version of MacLeishispoem. Myths to Live By (New York: Bantam. Passages About . 4. 19801. 165. 1971).

Harman and Rheingold. Higher Creativiw. The second phrase was taken kom Henry Adams. Willis Harman and Howard Rheingold. S . ""Amour De Voyage. 1985). Brace & World. 10. 174-1 75. quoted in fohn Noble Wiffol*cf. 5&60. 1971). Hadson SchmiM. "The New Ocean of Space. 1969). S. 1969). p. MacLeish quoted in Wilford. and john Antbony West. Eliot. 1W74). On the pyramids. p. p. "Linle Gidding. I l. 82.S. 7. 84." Micfrigan Quar- ter@Review 18 (Spring 197%: 266. 169. MacLeish's New York Ernes essay on Apollo 8. 1. pp. The Invisible Pyramid (New York: Charles Scdbner" Sons. Ku& Mendelssokrn. 12.~. 1987). 14. Loren Eiseley. see Lewis Mumford. 1970). 880. Higher Creativity: Liberating the Unconscious fir Breakthrough Insights (Los Angeles: jeremy P. chs. p. p. 9. $event in the S Q : The High Wi:sdam ofh-ancient Egypt (New York: Julian Press. g. pp. Kenneth Macleisln. 206.6. T." National Ge~grapfiic136 (December 1969: 866. Schwart. Tire Riddje o f the Qramids (London: Thames 8 Hudson. 206." in Four Quartets (New York Hrnrcourt Bmce Joveznavich. Civilisation:A Personal V i w (New York: Haver & Raw. G. Kenneth Clark. Tarcher. 1984). Seeing Earth: Literary Respnses to Space Expiiration (Athens. Ohio: Ohio Universiv Press. May Swenson quoted in Ronald Weber. 1967). The Myth o f t-he Machine: jrechnics and Human Development (New York: Harcoufl. . "Legacy from the Age of Faith: Chartres. 'We Read the Mmn (New York: Bantam. 9. 13. 59." Sky and Telescope 64 (October 1982): 3217. We Reach the Moon.

see Graver Ler/vis. Febmary 1.Campbetl. 22. 498. and 'The Talk of the Tom. hvltsible oramid. 199. 1994). p. 19941. 43W39. Sanford. 27. The Histoy of Manntsd Space Flight (New York: Crow. 3. p. 2&26. g.Notes 15. Charles L. t~ the Moon .f. The Gothic of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval ConCathedral: O~gins cept o f Order. N. 280. Myths to Live By. pp.: Pdnceton University Press.Davl'd Baker. Angle ofAttack: Harr.tionfs Oldest Citizen. ""An American Piigdm's Progress. 3rd ed. see Bao von Sirnson. espedalty the introdu@lionand part 1. 1982). Mike Gray. 19691. The Wpollo Adventul-e: irhe Making o f the Apollo Space Program and t-he hcPovfe Apoljo 13 (New York: Pocket Books. pp. Chapter Four 1. "fe account is taken from Jim Lovell and feffrey Kilttger. f 6. 1973.isonStorms and the Race (New York: Penguin." Aneitican Quarter@4 (Winter 1955): 302. pp. 1972. 19138). 246. 495. 76. On the cathedral. 18. p. 501." Rolling Stone. pp. On Charlie Smith. The Unexpcted Universe (San Diego: Hawest Book. Loren Eiseley.41. 2. p. noughtcan Mifflin. 19951." The NW Yorker. Andrew Chaiufkin. Lost Moon: fie P e ~ b u s Voyage ofApollo 13 (Boston. Eiseley. 19. pp. 2 4 3 . 53-54. [Elollingen Series XWIII] fPl"inceton.December 30. 189. ""A Conversat-ion tvlith the Na. A Man on the Moon: The Voyages of t-he ApoIl~htronauts (New York: ViMng Press. 33S333. Jeffirey Kluger.

: UniversiZy of Georgia Press. Final Frontier: The Rise and Fall o f the American R ~ k e t St-afe (London: Verso. Late for the S@: The Mentafi& of the Space Age (Carbortdafe. Dale C a ~ e r l'he .X: Doubleday. Ga. 1969.p. I I. 19?l). . 1994). Apollo Adventure. p. 1992). 29851. 2. Cmm. 8. August 4. and "Apollo's Moon Mission: Here Are the Results. eds. see.. The Moon-Doggle: Domestic and International Implications af the Space Race (Garden City. Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age o fShow Business (Harmondswo&h. 27. 19811. Calif. March 15. ed. for example.. David Lavery. Williarn D. 192-193. Larry Ceis and Fabace Florin. The desc~ption of the documentary is taken in part kom Kluger. Amill.p. 39841. 422. N.S. See 'Qvertoaked Space Program Benefxts.4. Neil Postman. 29801.X n addition to Naman Maifer's Of a Fire on the Moon (New York: New Amedcan Library. B. Walter McDougaXl. 1972. 1965). Lunar Lunaq and Other Cmment a ~ e (Philadelphia: s Do~ance & Co. 6." Aviation Week. Ill." U. Heavrzns and the Ea&h: A hlitical History of the Space Age mew York: Basic Books. Kluger. The Future of the Space ProgramILarge Caporations and Socr'ep: Discussions with 22 Scknce Fiction Writers (San Bernardfno. Moving into Space: The Myths and Realities o f Exfratemestrial Spce (New York: Haver & Row. Fire and hwer: The American S p m Program as hstmodem Narrative (Athens. and Arnitai Etzioni. Elliot. News and World Report. p..England: Penguin. 1964). Williarn L. 25.: Borgo Press.: Southern Illinois Universlp Press. pp. p. fe&ey M. 5. 1988).

overintellectualized percepaon of the world. "'Shdy Finds Space Suppoft Dwindling. 1995. but they were not asked to c=hoosebeween space and other programs (f-lumphrey Tayfor. 1652. ""Fat-Earth Liberals. all things are interconnecrted. for the same critics seem ignorant of the greater complexities of human nature-the abiliq to simultaneously experience the same realihy in many w a p ." S p a e N m s .In a poll taken just after the Pathfinderlanding on Max?. for all its intPicacies.. Mass. fails to plumb the depths of m e complexity. A poll commissioned by Rockwell Internaaonal in f 992 found that only 2 percent of the respondents thought they were exQemely familiar with space adviBes (Paul S. p. 13 percent felt the government was not spending enough on space. Eiardemn. but does that reduce the meaning ofthe Stahe of Libem to a lure for cheap fabor? It is ironic that the cdtics of spaceflight accuse its celebrants of ignodng the complexities of political and eesnomic reality.'"American Enterph. 89. The Case fm Space: Who Benefits from Explorations of l-he Last Frontier? [Skrrewsbur)t. The linear. 6. 1993 PJaGonal Opinion Research Center suwey dted in. . July 29.: ATL Press. f 51. fuly-August 1994. 29971. p. 1969. Vincent Kieman. "The Hams Poll on Space: Sbonger Public Suppofl but not for Spending More. 9. analflc. 738." Space Ernes 36 movember-December 19971.Notes From whence comes this need to X a y low all human Wumphs by linking them to the inevitable ills of socieq and cuXmre? Yes. p." National Review. "The Moon Landing Revisited. p. February 27-Mar& S. 10.

with an emerging sense of self-other separation. the autocentric faces the terriqing abyss of the unknown and unmanageable.y of Being. A similar poladty is suggested by Ernest C. howewr.C. The autocentric experience is one of socially shared autism. Perception. Vahes. Edwin Dubb. have developed the drive to explore. Shapiro and lming E. who react to any change with avoidance. 1970). substituting autscentriclaillocentric for. Schachtel in Mtamorpfrosis: On the Development of Afect. The Farther Reaches of Human Nature (New York: Viking Press. of course.Notes 11. The knee-jerk. The conventional view of the introvert as withdrawn is. N. a private world of the many in which one perceives only the expected conventional schemata. hifaslow. There Is No Heaven: The Cosmos Is Not a Phy. 19841. loss of such con&ol may engender conspiratorial theories. meansbecome-ends orientatian of such enbeddedness compares to the instinctive level of lower mammals. . and M m o y (New Vork: Da Capo Press. 12. Alexander. albeit one vulnerable to anest. far too simple. j. and Peak-Experiencef (New York: Viking Press. (New York: Van Nostrand. 1968). The Expe~ence of Int-roversl'on (Durham. Kenneth. Without the rigidly of such familiar labels and signposts. for associating paranoia with the exbaverl. Higher mammals. See Abraharn H. who needs to con&oE the path of expefience because it consliwtes identiq. 1971). "Without Earth. mere is some basis. Attentian. Towrd a Psycho1og. 1975). 13.'"arper"s89 (Febmasy 1995): 40.: Duke tmiversiq Press. and Religions. 2nd ed.sicisfts Equation. selfasseeivefself-transcendent.

The intersedon of the Wo planes may be a collision (which explodes the accumulated tension and produces laughter)." moving from one ex&eme to the other as the occasion requires. however. Afihur KoesZler. Ego and Archetype: Xndividuatr'on and the Religious Functr'an af the Psyche (Baltimor-e: Penguin Books. or a prolonged conkontation (the slow catharsis of aesthetic or tragic experience. I f the clash of matrices is limited to hurnor. robbed of its targetf is simply released in laughter. 1989 [1964]). Csikszentmihalyi found that such people experience both poles "urith equal intensity. Mihaly Csikszentmihaly. oRen gelding tea=). and without inner conflict. 35. 329.ty. He also noted that their stereoscopic perception was oaen rooted in a parallamc . three-dimensional consciousness. 19961. 5'7. 1. 156. the content of which always reflees some f o m of axrxieq. pp.it prolonged suspension of awareness beween the two planes of perception. The Act of Creation (Harmondswoxth. p. arises kom the intersection of two fields in the brain. or curious. like the depth of three-dimensional vision or stereophonic sound.'"ee EEdinger.Notes 14. F& and the Psychology of Qiscovey and Invmtion (NW York: HarperCollins. Creatkity.5. or hsion (intellectual synthesis. p. the simplest example being hemispheric specialization. Perhaps. or refiexivi. which comes from the juxtaposition of two eyes or ttvo ears. then the power-odented self-asserting impulse. England: Arkana. 19731. IS. 3346. generating selE&anscenbence. aesthetic. there is c.i. With the tragic. In fungian psychoi~gy~ the awareness of opposites is the "sppecific feature of conscfousness. creating curiosity).

and in such as that conducted by neurophysioiogist expe~ments Benjamin Libet in which subjects who were wired to electrodes and asked to flex a finger registered a f l u v of brain activity a fraction of a second before the conscious mind sent the "order" to flex. Every time the mind tries to focus on its contradictions. "'Ether it continues to da& from one thing to another. 1997). in the sincere but bogus explanations that split-brain paaents ggie b r their actions. ed. Hare Brain! Tortoise Mind: Why Intelligence Increases When You Think Less (Hopewell. or it reacts with violent excitement that firnits all ctaenli. 1978). Paul Ornstein. the lost vitality is sought in violence. 74-73).j. 17. 26. 2 vols. See Timothy Ferris. The Search for the Sele Selected Writings of Het'nz KoFtut. Lennon. and Social Factors (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Understanding Creativiw The Inferpilayo f Biological. 18.Notes childhood. or it becomes dead.on to some trivialiv. At the extreme. as when two parents have conflicting value systerns. dull. Psychologicalr.: Ecco Press. or anesthetized. . pp.ian childhood can lead to an avoidance of self-refleaion. Claxton suggests. (New York: international Universities Press. it jumps to something eke. N. See Guy Claxton. or drugs. 1950-1 978.. pornagmphy. Evidence for the illusion of conscious control is found in hpnotic expmrjiences. The Mind's S@: Human Inteilr'gsnce in a Cosmic Context (New York: Bantam Books. and John S. 1992. l: 27 2-274. 1998). An exponential effect would then seem inherent in the cosmopolitan namre of modern society. Dacey and Kathleen H. David Bohm adds that the inner conflicts rooted in an authoritax.

fn Hare Brain. Claxton expands on something very similar to Hamann's "swaptic . thick boundades. The reduction of symbols to signs is treated in depth in Jungian psychology. and heavily represented among artists. see also Silvano Arieti. and ambi~ous. Van Noslrand. Torl-oise Mind (pp. and therapists. but inflexible and lacking imaglination and intimacy. mere is no substilute for reading the original works. The ""tin-boundaded. They are typically young. and less stable. 21). The camelaaon of early responsibiliv. focused. The poles. 1976). teachers. politics. I regret that space allows only cmbe schematic summaries of these psychological models.inmitive. each sewing a n indispensable Eunction. I"31f)." on the other hand. Ernest H a ~ m a n n Boundaries . business. p. analflcal.Notes or it projects fantasies that cover up all the contradictions" (On Creativiq [New York: Routledge. sensitive. 1991)-The vpical "thick-bounda~ed" person tends to be conventional. Frequently older and male. 19981. in the Mind: A Mew Bychology ofkrsonafify (New York: Basic Books. lawf or engineering. and open. of course. a symbiosis Mthin the human csmmuniv. 19. disorganized. 151-153). and extraversion recalls David NcCXellandfs stucly of the achieving personaliv. tend to be unfacused. Creativiq: The Magic Synthesis (New Wrk: Basic Books. which linked "independence tmining" with high levels of financial success (The Achieving Saciety [Princeton: D. should not be seen as inferiorlsuperiar but rather as complementary. he is more likely to be found in. while c ~ a t i v e . more andmgpous.

iosity is related to this tmde-offi "Human exploratory inquisitive behaflor-restrricted in animals tcr a brief developmental phase-is extended to persist until the onset of seniliwpt (Studies in Animal and Human Behavior [London: Methuen. 19941. 239). parallels Elctrlmann" hypothesis that impermanent brain pathways may enhance creativily. wide open. which leads to a deliberate numbing of prtlbing capacities (The Sibling Society [Reading. 12). allowing continued expansion of the neacortex. Robe& Bly adds that electronic cul. Unlike that of the chimpanzee. It is one rnore explanation f"or contemporary apathy toward the exploration of space. In fact. the human is left to solve many ctf his environmental challenges with the nonspeciBc processes of conscious thought. ch. the human skull is born with the sutures still.hrre now hinders the normal development of this exploratory hrzction. responsible for the helplessness of the infant but also for extended postnatal development. 19711. resulting in a loss of conEdence and a feeling of insecuriv. . Thus. The idea is also reinforced by the suggestion that the supe~arity of the human mind to that of other pdmates may correlate with the fact that the appearance of the mature human bears a n astonishing resemblance to the eight-month ferns of a chimpanzee. three-quaflers af the skull groMh takes place afier biflh.Notes freeways'"Boundaries. while the chimp is born with a highly specific instinctual code that integrates him immediately into his forest environment. $9). Konrad Lorenz suggests that cur. The delay in human maturexlion. p. Mass.: AddisonWesley. p.

Brain Asymnzety (Cambridge. and Artn Moir and David Jessel. Bmin Sex. 1985). Bavidson and Kenrteth Hugdahl. 19135).onExpEomd (Englewood Cllgs. "I-ere are many passible explanacciorts. Mass.Sally P. Left Brain. On the conelation of interhemispktedc communication with creaavit-y. Snow%celebrated Rede Lecture deploring the separalion betGveen the literary and scientific culmres (published as f i e 7ivo Cultures and the ScientificRevolution [New b r k : Cambridge University Press. Brockelman's Cosmol~gyand Creation: . 4th ed. The Real Dificerence Bettveen M m and W m e n (New York: Dell.see Dacey and Lennon. Freeman.: Prentice-Hall.The later part of my discussion is of course specula~ve. eds. 1993). H. j . The theme of C. such as a n individual whose left dominance (characteristicof the average male) is countered by a thicker corpus collosurn (clnaractefistic of the average female). It is the balanced polan'zation that seems essential. F".20. Sid J. and Paul T. Wffson"s bestselling Consilknce: irhe Unity sf Knowledge (NW York: Vintage.This discussion is based largely on Robert Qmstein. Segalowitz. Onderstanding Creativiq. 19593) has found a resurgence in works like Edward 0. 1991).. Frank Benson and Eran ZaideE. p. The Right Mnd: n/laking Sense a F the Hemispheres (New York: Harcourt Brace. Right Brain. 1983). 21. The Dual Brain: Hemispheric Specialization in Humans (New Yo&: Guilford Press. N . 21 1. (New York: W. Richard J. B. 1997). 2999)' Ken Wilber's The Marriqe o f Sense and Soul: Integrating Science and Religi~n(New York: Random House. 1998). Two Sides o f the Brain: Brain Lateralizafio. eds..: MIT Press. Springer and Ceorg Deutscfrr.

23. however. ox preservationlrenewai. the averarching context of value. The depth of the symbol corresponds to the level of self-awareness. 25. The Pasion ofthe Western Mind: Uinderstanding the Ideas That Nave Shaped Qur World Mew mew York: h Hill. cult'ne and Femhinc The NatumI Flow of Oppsites in the Psyche (Boston: Shambala.The Spir. The sta2i~-feminine/dpamicmasculine polarity conesponb to the more badiaonal banscendent-matenrratIa~~ressive-hero concept of gender. 442444. X r h e Encounler of Modem Science and Ancient Tmth /Mew Yark: Arkana. The 'tVeb of life: A . Thus.ebd6y. senexlpuer. 24. An excellent spthesis of the n m disc~vefies in nanlinear systems dpamics is F~tjof Capra. 1999). be it the night sky or the aura of celi. Richard Tarnas. paficulariy music and film.itual Signilicance af Csnl-ensporaly C~smolog)l (New York: Oxford Univefsip Press. defaults to the markeplace. 1988). Jacob Needleman. A Sense of the Cosmos. the masmline and feminine each having a static and a dpamic pole. The desire in both cases is to connect in same way to what is sincerely perceived as the outemost sphere of meaning. in MQSBalEanBne Books. for others it is the "stan" in the media. the tension of Westem mlmre. 1991). In the postmodern void. co~esgondingto Apollonian/Dionysiam. 22. lies more on the staacmctsdineldpamic-feminine axis. suggests a quatemity in place of Tarnas" dualiv. pp. while the stars in balize the banscendent reality far some. 19921. purged of religious cansensus.G a ~ t S. have became the sacred canopy for many. The media.

p. The Soul of t-treNight: An Astronomical Pilgrimage (EngXewood Clif%.." welted in Aflhur C.. 1994. to Buzz Aldrin. 2. . 1996). fthaca. The LilFe of the Selfi Toward a Mew Psychofqy (New flork: Basic Books. 30.J. Passages About EaHh: An Exploration of t-he New hnetary Culture (New York: Barper 4 Row.Chet Raymo. Calif. March 1. Chapter Five 1. @d. See robe^ jay ti&on and Eric Olsan. From "The Last judgement. Clarke. 1985). and Robed JayLiean. 4125-413.New Scientific Understanding of living Systems (New York: Anchor Books. 1975). 301. pp. Wifliam f w n Thompson. Living and Dying (New Yark: Bantam.Y. 28. ix.:Prentice-Hall. 1995). The Coming of h e Space Age (New York: Meredith Press. 5.. N. N. 27. 26. Mailer. Laguna Beach. 2.p. ch*3. 17. p. 19&7). Ckopatra" Nose: Essays on the Unexpcted (New York: Vintage. O f a Fire on the Moon. Danief Bso~tin. 19831.ch. Paraphrasing a letter from Car1 Sagan. X974). p. 29.

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pp. n e Expefienm of Intiroversion.. Right Brain. Bavid R. Segalowitz. New York: W H. C. Deke! US. . InterpretaZ_ion. 1988. and Michaef Cassutt. G. (Balfingen Series XLVIIII). Kenneth f. Left Brah. Atlanta: Turner Publishing. Ronald K. Alexander. Freeman.]. 1994." h o k . 86. Slapon. Two Si& of the Brain: Brain Lateralimth Explored." Lik. and Ceorg Deutsch. Scoa. Springer. and Deke Slayton. "What Is It Like t-o VVaIk on the Moon?" "ational Geographic 144 (September 1973): 326-33 1. Shepard. Simson. Donald H. Moon Shot: The Inside Story oFAmerica"sace to the Moon.: Duke Universfty Press." Michigan Quaflerv Revim 18 (Spring 1979): 246. Sid f. S. Princeton: Knceton Universfty Press. "The Moon Landing. N. Starzfard.72. New York: Tom Doherty Associates. Man. 1975. August 26.. "78-80. Snow. 0aa von. Durham. Its Rings and Nine Moons. 1993. Sally. 1944. P. Shapiro. lManned Space: From Mercuy to the ShuEke. " Michigan Quarter& Review 18 (Spdng 1979: 220-229. N. 3rd ed. 83-84.Schwarlz. 196%pp.C. 1994. "Amour Oe Voyage. Englewood Cliffs. "'Solar System: It Is Modeled in Miniature by Salurn. : P~nace-HaEi. irhe Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architedure and the Medieval Concept of Order. and Iwng E. 68-70. 4th ed. May 29."The Moon Landing: A Psychoanal@caf. 1983.

Soviet 13Qckety: Past. "The Hamis Poll on Space: Stronger Public Suppcr&but not for Spending More. Vas Dfas. Mew ~ Abrams. mompson. Shhlinger.d. Selected M/orks. Cambridge: Cambridge Universiw Press.d. E. New York: Ballantine Books. ed.: Krieger. Tillyard. Mickraef. 1991. Malabar. eds. ed. 1970. and Future. Tarnas. Men ofSpace. . Carl SaganWniverse. Humphrey. n. Rixzeha~ & Winston. 8 vols. Wnzher van Braun: Cmsader fir Space. n o m a s . Moon: Mn's Great-est Adventure. FEa. 1972. n. Taylor. York: E . New York: Holt. 1997. "The Talk of the Town. New York: Anchor Books. Passages About Eafih: An Exploration a f the New Planetay Culture. and Elizabeth Bilson. July 26. Presenf. Philadelphia: Cfiiitan Book Co. 21-24. The Elizabethan World Piclure. Davis. Moscow: Mir Publishers.fttoiko.. Yewant. 1968." NW Yorker. pp. Richard. 1996. New b r k : Vintage Books. pp. New York: Harper 8 Row. December 30. Wilfiam Iwin." "ace Times 36 (November-December 1997): 15. and Frederick I. Shirley.f aN. W. T~iolkovsky~ K. Emst. Thornas." New Yorker. E. Terzian. 1974. 2969. l-he Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the ldew That Have ShapEscf Our World View. Robefi. Inside Outer Space. "me Talk of the Town. M. 25-30. 196148. Qrdway IltI. 1970.

Ordway. . VVakters. 112-131." The Vr'rginx'aQtrarferk Review 1 5 9 (Winter 14)%3) 3-23." journal o f Popular Cullrrre 9 (Summer 1975): 142-152.: MCFaritand." Hanerz.Vol. Wlter. Helen B. "Seeking the Center at the Edge: Perspect-ives of the Meaning of Man in Space. 19532. 1. Space Age. Visionary. Von Braun. Warner. 1985. "KeplerfsChildren.C. Nemann Oberth: Father of Space Travel. and Dave Dooling. Wachhorst. .s. . Peter: Doomsday Hm Been Cancelled. Keep Watching the Skies: American Science Rctim Films of the FE"@il. "The Dream af Spaceflight: Nostalgia for a Bygone Future. Chicago: Advent. " "e Massachusetts Rev& 36 (Spring P 9951. 14-19. and Buzz Aldrin. -------. All Our Yesterdays: An lnfomal Histoy of Science Fiction Fandorn in the Forlies. New York Random House. 3 95&1957. Wlliam J. 1. VVa~en. New York Harper 8 Row. 8111.Bibliography Vajk. N.: Peace Press. Cuiver Ci"ty. Wyn. Harry. New lilork: Macmillan.try R e p o ~ P7 (Mayljune 1997). JeEerson. 7-32. Space Tmvek A History. 15362." The Vale Review 84 (Apdi 19961. Jr. 1982. "Car1 Sagan.'Tk Explorervournal 76 (Sp~ng 19981. "Moon Talk. 1969. Wemher. Wachhorst. Fredefick I. Wyn. ""A Cosmic Voyage: "'Eke 'Dream of Spaceffight. Ronald. Weber. 1978. IXI. Calif. 22.

Prelude to the Space Age: The Rocket Societies: 1924-1 940. The Search for Order. Rmkets into Space. Ohio: Ohio Universjlly Press. Wiebe. john Noble. New York: The Free Press. Wilford. Mass. Cambridge.C.: Smithsonian fnstitutiorr Press.Tom. 24. The Rocketmakers. New York Hill 8 Wang. 1989. White. The Ovemiew EFect: Space ExpI~rationand Human Evolution. 1996. 1967." New York Times. New York: Four Wails Eight Windows. Wolf@. Frank. Wulfomt. New York: Bantarn. 1979. Frank H. New York: fufian Press. "Flight Chief in Houston: Eugene F. SQaus & Giroax. jahn Anthony. Cenesb: The Sfory o f Qallo 8: The First lManned Flight to Anather Wortd. Seeing Earn: Literary Responses So Space Exploration. Robert. 1969. Wshington. Zubrin. Robert H. 1998. Boston: Houghton Mifain. . New York: jeremy F". Wbster. Tarcher. Winter. Bayard. Serpent in the SQ: The High Wisdom o f Ancient Egypt. D. Kranz.Bibliography . 1983. . Haw. . We Reach the Moon. March 3 1. Athens. 1985. 1877-1 920. The Case far Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We klust. West. Entering Space: Creating a Spacef"arr"ngCivilization. 1990. Zfmmemain. 1990.: Harvard Universilcy Press. New York: Orion Books. 1987. The Right Stuff:New York: Famar. 1982. Robe&. 1987. p.

direa experience. 177 Apollo 26 flight. 176 Apollo 11 flight. 160 Apollo 15 Right. RaaId. 81 Andes. liftoff far. 81.Abstracl. Dave. 88. 116. 85-84 Pad 34. S& Adalescence. 156. vs. 92. 18. 130. 121 Apollo 8 flight. Buzz. 28. 156 . 121-126. 64. 127-128 A4 rockets. 85. 90-. 88.90. 85.92. 38. 134. 18. 91. 32 Ahab. 121. 119. 157 public's perception/reaction. 96. 147 Apollo 5 flight. 86-87 Apollo program. 177 Apollo 17 flight. 19 Axnundsen. 176 Alexander. 135 Apollo 1 module Are. Xming. 22 -erica. 133. 13%131 See also Apollo l t aight Mollo 13 (film). 128. 89. public attit-ude toward scrapping of fast three Righ"cs. 130. 19. 140 All-Story Magazine. 164-165. 83. 114. See afso Spaceflight. 68. 107 Alddn. 8% 95.97. 68. 16. 4G16041. 157. 177 Apollo-Saturn rocket. 4 M 1 . 129 cost of. 176 Apallo 13 Bight.

Peter. W. SO. 150. 48-51. 174 Campben. 141 67. 176 A&. 65. 179Cxzl) Auden. lateralizalion. M. 114-116. 44. jshn W. 153 Gartesian-NeWonian worldview. Arendt. 10. David. 1901n18) . 80 Aristode. Daniel. 53 Astounding Science Fiction. Frank. 174 As&onaut:as symbol. Vasca Nufiez de. 72 Cathedrals. 111. Hannah. 100. 5 Brain. 101. 4 Centerledge. 145-146. 160 Celestial mechanics. 155 Cerrran. 106. 94. 80. 117. 59. 121. 126 Bumaughs. 10h105. 57 Armstrong. 81. 133.12 Berger. 176 Boston Pmt. Robeg. 122. l931n20) Salboa. 9 Balance. Francis. Gene.Archimedean point. 19. Joseph. 66. Edgar Ree. Tycho. 115. Neil. Ray.50. 19. 188(n12) Bacon. l @ Asirnov. 64 Bly.56-57. 99. 23 Brahe.. 11 1 Aswonomy. 146. 76. 98. Wlliarn. 58. 15. 11. 24 Bradbury. 153-154.189(n14) Btl"dges at T~ko-Ri. 130. 95 Campbell. 61. Xsaac. 154. 44. 136 Black holes. 44. 6 2 4 3 . 155 Boman. 58.8L Boors~n. 110 Blue Planet. 166 Autocenmc experience. 113 Eflake. Chesley. 22-24 Calvinism. 36.The.. 76. 54. 92. l92(n 19) Bohm.168 Bonestell. 95-96. 69. 80.

8. See also Science fidon Cosmos series. 23.Chafee. 13. 107 Glarke. 160. 21. 161. Christopher. 189(n15). 6247. Waller. 18-19. 2. 2 79(n 1) Cosmic voyages. 192Cn19) ChristianiQy. 246. 188(n23). God Cfaes. 143. 141-142. 189(n14). 170 Complexity. l68 Destination Moon ($3Em). 72. 67 Conlacl (film). Rager. 143. Mihaly. 151. 149. 74 Claxton. Guy. 182(n2) Die Rakte zu den PXanetenraumen (Obeflh). Waiter. f 62 C)esca&es. 190(n18) Chimpanzees. 192(n19) Dark maEer. 162. 72 Despair. 67 Colfins. Arthur. 62. 142 Collier$. 30 Donati's cornet (2858). 154. 187(nS) Computers. Nicolaus. 38. 143. 68. 95. 17 7 Crealiviv. 32. 76. 44. 189(n15) CuI"Joslty. 57. 10&109. 91 Glurnbx'a shuttle Rights. 40-41 Change. 144. 19-20 Domberger. See also Cathedrals. 151 Csihzerxtmihalyi. 102-1 OS Childhood. 192(n19) Cronkte. 190(n27) Copernicus. 53. 150. 161. 33 . 170. 18. 177 Cofumbus. 121 Conquat of Space (Ley and Bonestell). 5&52. 269 ConEroX. Mike. 19. 115 Comets. 144. 31. 8. 188(n12) Chafires Calfie&al.Ren4. 62. 113 Death. 9. 142. 74. 151. 9. 161. 54. 35. 19Q(n 18) Cognitive sdence. 5. 143.

139. 152-153 Fuel. Yuri. 127. 72. 161 Eseley: Loren. 108. 175 Caicz. 153. 69 Gaddard. Charles. 164 Flight direcrtork role. 13 Gemini missians. T. 168 h n t q and Science @clion. 182(nl 7) Education. 145. 147. 120 For All Mankind (documentay). 104. 6. 73 Gagarin. 121 Fundamentalism. 34. 78-79. 3. 18. 170 Galilei. 155. 169 Failure of xzeme. &$her. X 36 Coddard. Galileo.17 Franaers. 9. 155. 107-108. 18 Escapism. the Moon mrne). 19. 1&8(rx12) Ex&atenesMal lift.. 103. 4. 96. 152 Evolution. 12. 134. 150. 16. 4. 143. 3. 107. Explarcnaon. 150. 151. 7. 152. 44 Fear.Index Bubb. 93. 33 Gfenn. 7. 19 Europe. 12 3. 106 Enlightenment era. 17. 151. 177 Ecolqy movement. 139. 18. 44. Edwfn. 96 Empi~cism. fohn.24-28. 107. 164 21 Expanding univer~. 30. P. 21. 137 Duke. 121. 1 10. 155. 146. S. RobeH. 69 Goddard Space Center. 72. 21. 16G169. 154 French Revalu~on. 149 Galaxies. 2f. 155 Ere. 162 Edhger. 31 . Edward. 71. 93 Ecstasy. 175 Geman Rocket Sociely. 113 Eliot. 128. 92 Freedom. 17 From the EaHh 2T. 28. 112. 78. 175 God.

160.h S. 1-8. 1W102. Robert. IS Hairt. Immanuel. fohannes. See also Pyramids Grissom. Edwin. 16. J.89. 105 Heirzlein. 76-77 Kant. 10. 67 Hill. 161. 188(n13) JeEers. 18. 59.Gathic calhedrals. 109. 177 Kalahari Bushmen. 12. lXlt(n19) Heaven. 179(n1) death. 21 Human condition. Jack. 9. 47 Idealism. 103. 13-16. 1 7. quest for.S. 32 Xltubble. 194(n23) Hillman. of. 147. 13.156 IdeaUzed past. 167 Immofialfry. 134 IndividuaEslindivid~aIbm~ 9. 107. 6 Great Comet of 1577. Gus. 4. 151 Harmony of the World (Kepler). 148 Human expenace. 2 Great Mother. 33 Kennedy. James.manrz. 14-1 5 . 52-53. 39. l 6 family of. 139. 189fn14) Xapetus. 78 Introversion/ex&aversi~n. f 22 Haldane. 35. GareZ.. 133. 3 Kasputin Yar. See also Cathedrals Gravity. Intelligent Iife. Robinson. 111. 46 lmagintalion. 99.B. 1151-162 Encorne. 246141. 37. 78. 66. 18. 88. 79. 102-1 05. 62. 132 Jupiter. 153 oumalism. Adolf. 182(n17) Hitler. 65. 241. 16. 40-41 Haise. 44. 168 Internal models. 63. 144. 89 Kepler. zones of. l14 Great mamid at Giza. 76. 70-71 Humor. 54. 77.. Er&. Ernest.

50 Liberalism. 80. 178 16. 97. fack. 114. ATthur. 20.?) LiMon. 37. 125 Khmshchev.ong#65 Knowledge. 153. 31 Kranz. 92. Heinz. 133 Love. 73..ziure. 45. n/lart. fim. 39 Ley. 2. 71. 145. 110. 57. 9. 161 Lindbergh. 130. 3 9 2 2 1. 69 canals OM. Sergei. 135 Libet. 117. 5-45 Kerwin. 194(n2. 146. 12. 88 King. Waiter. Gene. 133. 154. 3. 50 Lowefl. 182(n2) Larenz. 98. 143. 88. 86 King li. 138. 177. 136. 46-47. 49. 53. 10. 10 Meaning. 160. 96 Magellan. 25. S. 37. 10-1 1 Mailer. 149. 139-140 Materialism. 6. Miki"ta. Charles. Archibald. 35. 119-121. 44. 13. 69 Luna flights. Robert. 76. 123-129.ian Chmnicles (Bmdb~ry)~ 23 Masculinity. 147. 36. 25 Lippert. 39. 2 77 Mars. 143 Korolev. 148-141. 89. 92. Rabert. 122. 110. 166. Ferdinand. Alexei. 148. 192(n19) Los Angeles ea~hquake (1994). 157 Lecznov. 162. 175. Willy. 20-21.171 Lavell. 137. 190(n17) Life maga. 44. Norman. 194(n23) Maslow Abraham. Konrad. 75. 152 Mariner flights. 141 Kohut. SO. 93. 57. 154 Koestler. 176 . foe. 38. Percival. 94. 187(x18). 2%23. 175. 131 MacLeish. 3 4 . Benjamin. 51. 176 McDougall. 16. 33.laws of planetary motion.

25.69-70. 19 Mermq-Redstone launch. 36. 194(n22).6445. 65. 109 MeWa Island. 121 National Rwie. 188(xt12) Media. 152 Moon. 2'7. 53 Nixon. 6. 154. 135 Peenemande. 175. 39. 30. I-fermann. 2. 51 New Vi3rk Ernes. Chesley Pal.106. 7 Or"bi-ts. 132. 56. 19. 47 . 102 Music of the spheres. 133. 17. 63. 23. 168. 122. 29. 83 Mirnas. 180(n3) FainGngs. 35. See also Television Medieval period. 139. 44. 148 Newon. 157. 133 See also Apollo 1P Bight. 135 Oberth. 131. 89. 99. facob. 129. 15. 166. 147 Fearsan. S moon shorts as hoax. 50. 110. 57. George. 10. 161. 29.69 8orl[ cloud. 180(nn 3. Richard. 9) New World. 108. 73-74. 31-32 Phoebe. 6647 Pathfinder. 63. 110. 9. 96-98. 93-94. 130. Apollo program MaMfon. Lewis. See also BonestelX.~u. Philip. 114. 90. 124. 2. 91 "Nighgall" (Asirnov). Brew.Index Meanslends. 15. 251. 2&31. Isaac. 76 Mumford. 170 opacs. 72 Medck. fohn. 48 ModemiZy. 68. 73. 178 Patriarchy. 83. 135 Needleman. 4 7-5 1. 12. 4. 4.

149. 19. 154. 134. MeiE. 167-170. 253-154. 56. l l 4. 84: . 153-154 Sckmia. 85. 87. 61. 72. 152.178 Sanford. 21. 73. 23. 180fxx3) Plulo. 131. See also individual films Seashores. 116 Satellites. 84. 109. 14 Science fiction. 142. 59. 76. 108-109. 138. 69. 139. 74. 56. 68. 105. 4. 1 Postman. 139. 18f)(n14) Project klmnbase (AEm). 104 Ramantidsm. Charles. jack. 62. 97. 110. 54-55. 106. 65. SO. 27. Irving. 154. 160 Rational consciausxless. Garl. 52. 17. 16-1 7. 63. 5 P. 129. 361. 18. 21 87(n9) Palls. 133 Power issues. 133. 255 Plutarch. l82(n2) Romanesque cathedrals.HcheI. 56 Saturn rockets. 1l 6 Pyramids. 67 Protesmnt Ethic. 25. 4. S. 45-46. 152. 109 Sagan. 85. 167 Ride. 29. 28. 146. 178 Rockets. 1801n9). 93. 23. See also ixsdivr'duafrocket Vpes Rocketship X-M (film). 160. 26. 49. 2 34. 169 of Egyptians. 45 Sahrday Eveni~rgPose 66 Saturn. 254 Puritans. 98 SF Alms. 147 Renaissance. 18G102. 154.ilFicrevaluaon. 44. 73. 177. Sally. 7. 88. 98. 150. 78. 52. W . 182 scient. 84. 65 Pfay. 63. 143 Rationalism.97 fans ofp96. 47-48. 106. 95 Sdersce.

69. 136. 146. 160. 187(n8) chronology. 36. 80 Smith. pubiic's perceptionlreaeon spending for. 146 Spidt vs. 130. 189(n14) SefEawareness. 76. 31. 17 Shepard. The'" fbeley). 72. 75. 128 "Star Thrower. 123. Mary. 177. 60. 10. 96. 187fn9) Space race.175 Simulaaons. 106 See alscz Apollo program. 37. matter. 144. 193(n21) Solar system. 147. Rlcbard. 19 SF. joeb 140 Shelley. 17. Charfie.ihtality. Technology. 40. 141. 110. 149. 149. X55 Sputnik. 143. 192(n19). 105. 152 Somnkm (Kepler). 1l 6 Snow C. 95. 113. 50. 68. 187(n9). 131 Stanford Unl'vexsfty. 147. 31.. 10. P. 122. 1 94(n22) . 4445. 173-1 1 7 8 Tarnas. 68 Sispbus. 150 Suvigeflplack. Al. 39. 94. 149. public amtude toward. 167. 167. 15. 160. 66 Swess. 31 Spaceship Ea&h. 112. 62. 30. 194(n23) 134. 171. 8-9. 178 Space walks. SF Rlms Shapiro. 150. 137-1 38. 56. 164. 147-148. 71 Solipsism. 107 Space stations. 35. 161. 194fn22) Seventeenth centuv. 99. 75 Spaceflight. See Science Bction. 178 SpiA.Self-asserfion. 84. 147. 143. 78-79 Stop-morrian photography. 175. 137. 41. 141. 134. 13. '73. 39. 125 Symbols. 117. 7-43 Space colonizarrion. 130. f 38. 143. 176.

150. Alfred. VaXentina.G. 69 WeHs. 30. 44. 22 Van Ronkel. 7 Tejevisian. 25. 91 Welles. 18Q(n9) View of eaPEh. 29. 21-22. 97. 115-1 16 Under the M ~ o n s oFMars (flurroughs). 34 Thoreau. 69. 90 Erne Machine. 166 Titan. 56 iritanic. H. 162. 175 The Thing (film). 117. 17. 146. 72. 67. IQ. VViXliarn. 189(n14) Tsiolko~sky~ Konstantin. 19. 44. 151. 69. Rip. 17.Index Telenrzary. 169-171. 140. 194(n22) self-tmnscendence. 67 Washington Post. 65 Thirrgs TO Come (film). 115 Tereshkavcx. Qrson. 32-33. 69 . Wember. Henry David. 105. 30. 177 V-2 rockets. jutes. 53-34. 157 Voyager flights 167. 36. 67 Erne magazine. 19. 123 Tool-making. 138. Thompson. 121 Telescopes. 29. 276 Verne. 104. 154 Ulysses. 249. See also Media Tennyson. 32. 144. 131-133. 69 as film. 63 Thirty Years W ~ P14 . 75 Transcendence. 137.. The (film). The (Wells). $1. 47. 175. 92-93. 28. 35 casualties at Peenernande/Londorr. 20. X 7 2 von Braun. 139. 37. 27. 63 Venus. 69 2001: A Space Odyssex 74-75 U/ar o f the Worlds. 88. 24 as radio broadcast. 136. 22. 38. 152. 147.535. 137 Mking nights.

f ndex When Worlds Collide (film). 4041. New Mexico. 78 White Sands. 110. 110. John. 168. John. Frank. 136 Winthrap. 152. 57. 16-4. 116 Woman in the Moon (film). 29. 151. 126 Young. 161. 27. 175 White.6445 Wnder. 111-112. 146. 34. 67 White. 73. 75. 132. Ed. 136-137. 35 "Why" qqtlestions. 167. 147. 139. 171 VJizrld War 11. 145. 143. 177 . 117. 39. 70.

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