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Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Annotated Bibliography and Literature Review: Flipped Classrooms

Alexis Mauricio #92717974

ETEC 532 Section 66B

University of British Columbia

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Annotated Bibliography Electronic education: Flipping the classroom. (2011, September 17). The Economist. Retrieved from: http://www.economist.com/node/21529062 A common misconception about Khan Academy is that its utilization makes live teachers less relevant. This article attempts to clear this up by highlighting the role of the teacher and focusing on how flipping the classroom can improve the quality of teaching. The author states how teaching becomes more tailored to meet individual student needs through the assessment tool on Khan Academy. I strongly agree with the authors point about how students effectively learn new concepts through repetition co-occurring with social interactions. Other free online learning/lecture sites such as iTunesU and TED used in flipped learning are mentioned. The author also addresses the major criticisms of flipped learning and the Khan Academy. Overall, this article offers a balanced viewpoint on this instructional model.

Fulton, K. (2012). The flipped classroom: Transforming education at Byron High School. Transforming Education Through Technology. Retrieved from: http://thejournal.com/articles/2012/04/11/the-flipped-classroom.aspx Tucker, B. (2012). The flipped classroom: Online instruction at home frees class time for learning. Education Next, 12(1). Retrieved from: http://educationnext.org/the-flippedclassroom/ These two articles feature flipped classrooms in U.S. high schools. Fulton (2012) looks at Byron High School in Minnesota, where math teachers built an online curriculum using original

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

videos uploaded onto a YouTube channel for students to access. This high school follows a blended learning model, where Moodle is used as an online learning management system to store course content. To apply and demonstrate their knowledge in class, students engaged in authentic learning activities, an important aspect of constructivism. Tucker (2012) interviews Jonathan Bergmann, one of the pioneers of the flipped teaching model, and he states that this model of teaching has given him more time to work individually with students, especially those who struggle with understanding concepts. I agree with Tuckers viewpoint in the potential danger of flipped learning being reduced to the latest teaching fad, considering the history of attraction to new instructional approaches in education that are eventually left behind. Although both articles are concise, well-written, and accessible to individuals who are not familiar with current trends in education, the authors primarily focus on the benefits of this teaching model in specific contexts. More substantiated empirical data needs to be obtained so that the successes and downfalls of flipped classrooms can be scrutinized.

Lage, M.J., Platt, G.J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31, 30-43. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1183338 This study looks at inverting the classroom in a first year university microeconomics course. Lage et al (2000) argue that this model of instruction can engage a wider spectrum of learning styles. It was found that a majority of students and faculty had positive perceptions of the course when using the inverted model; students were motivated, and the faculty were

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

stimulated to teach in this type of environment. Furthermore, the authors emphasize how the inverted classroom explicitly incorporates group work and collaboration in hands-on activities and experiments, which are important elements of constructivist learning. The authors also mention that this model of instruction allowed for more faculty-student interaction, where the instructor facilitates students through activities so students can take ownership and have confidence in their learning. This article gives preliminary evidence in support of inverted classrooms; however, more critical research needs to be completed across other areas such as the arts and humanities to verify its effectiveness.

Osguthrope, R.T., & Graham, C.R. (2003). Blended learning environments: Definitions and directions. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4(3), 227-233. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4099acf9-57b7-41c0-bf7865666f597532%40sessionmgr10&vid=2&hid=10 This peer-reviewed article explains that the aim of blended learning is to strike a harmonious balance between online access to content and face-to-face human interaction. A flipped classroom is one example of a blended learning environment, as blended learning is part of the theoretical framework of flipped learning and teaching. The authors contrast excellent and poor examples of different types of blended learning environments. Furthermore, certain goals of blended learning environments were outlined. These include improving student learning, increasing access to information, promoting social interaction, encouraging student ownership and responsibility for learning, and allowing ease of revision of content for teachers. Overall, this article was effective in providing a concise and clear explanation of this instructional model.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Thompson, C. (2011). How Khan Academy is changing the rules of education. Wired. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/07/ff_khan/ This article explores flipped learning in elementary schools in the U.S. where Khan Academy is used as an online tool for learning math concepts. An introduction to flipped classrooms is provided, and readers gain a satisfactory understanding of this model. Students and teachers who have experienced success with the program and Salman Khan, founder of Khan Academy, were profiled. Thompson (2011) claims that current assessment methods without the use of Khan Academy left teachers flying blind and day to day, ...its hard to know what a student is and isnt learning...; I strongly disagree with this, as I use a wide range of formative and assessment tools to inform me of students progress on a regular basis. The article, however, does attempt to address some limitations of Khan Academy, and how it has not been able to adequately cover areas such as writing and history, which has implications in a humanities classroom. Overall, a more in-depth approach needs to be taken in addressing the issues surrounding flipped classrooms.

Wyatt, E.D. (2010). Middle school students in virtual learning environments. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database: Social Sciences. (818344440).

Wyatt (2010) conducted a qualitative and ethnographic study which investigated middle school students information seeking behaviour in a blended learning environment. While completing a collaborative research project, students gathered the required content online by watching videos and reading articles, while making note of their findings using a wiki. In class,

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

they worked closely with their peers and teachers in making meaning out of the content. This study clearly demonstrates that a blended learning environment can be effective in meeting most learning needs in a middle school setting. The results of the research are intended to help educators create even more supportive learning environments within this context.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature Review: Flipped classrooms

Introduction

As educational online video sites such as Khan Academy continue to increase in popularity, more teachers are adopting the flipped classroom into their pedagogy. I will explore the tenets of flipped teaching and learning, as well as the benefits and concerns that arise from implementing this model. The articles are analyzed, critiqued, and followed by a synthesis of the common themes.

Selection of Articles

There is limited peer-reviewed research on this topic; therefore, this review has been widened to include an article and a doctoral dissertation on blended learning (Osguthrope & Graham, 2003; Wyatt, 2010), which is part of the theoretical framework of flipped teaching and learning. Lage et als (2000) qualitative study on inverted classrooms is situated in a context similar to flipped learning. This review is also comprised of online periodicals (Fulton, 2012; Tucker, 2012; The Economist, 2011; Thompson, 2011) which feature classrooms that have applied this model.

Analysis and Critique

The core idea behind flipped teaching and learning is to have students access instruction outside of class by using web-enabled technologies such as videos and interactive lessons. This allows them more time in class to participate in hands-on activities, work through problems, and

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

engage in collaborative learning. Educators can work individually with students in this setting, as less time is spent on lecturing (Tucker, 2012).

A flipped classroom is an example of a blended learning environment, which combines the strengths of online and face-to-face learning (Osguthrope & Graham, 2003). Blended learning environments improve learning by having students engage in rich dialogue, master the content through increased accessibility, and promote quality social interactions. Osguthrope & Graham (2003) also emphasize that blended learning increases learner self-directedness. In a qualitative and ethnographic study, Wyatt (2010) explored 38 eighth grade students research methods in a blended learning environment. Her research showed that online learning was useful for students because of its portability, access to resources, and organization. Students preferred to ask for clarification and communicate about the content face to face with their peers and teachers.

Although these two articles effectively explain blended learning and its benefits, it does not address the obstacles. For example, technical expertise needs to be available to help teachers set up online content. In Wyatts (2010) study, participants were from a high performing suburban school in an affluent community; however, no information about the sample selection process is provided. Given the small and specified sample, these results cannot be generalized to the rest of the population. With blended learning and flipped classrooms being dependent on technology, it may widen the achievement gap and leave low-income students behind, as they may lack regular access to technology.

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Lage et al (2000) conducted a qualitative study on inverting (flipping) the classroom in a first year microeconomics course at Miami University. The authors purported that this instructional model accommodates a wider range of learning styles. Most students comments were favourable towards this teaching model, and many expressed their ability to apply the material on a deeper level through group discussions and activities. Students were more comfortable asking questions in-class due to the increased one-on-one interaction with the instructor.

Fulton (2012) profiled a flipped high school mathematics classroom at Byron High School in the midwestern U.S., where educators used YouTube and Moodle to upload their own videos to build an online curriculum. This model allowed teachers more flexibility as well as powerful insights into student progress. Fulton (2012) also noted that math mastery increased approximately 50% from 2006 to 2011 while implementing this model.

Tucker (2012) mentions similar benefits of flipped classrooms and emphasizes the importance of effectively integrating classroom activities and instructional videos to optimize learning. He also acknowledges the instructional challenge of crafting videos that adhere to the nuances of teaching and represent underlying conceptual ideas. Considering educations history with new teaching methods that are eventually abandoned, the author proposes that flipped learning could be in danger of merely becoming the latest instructional trend.

The three articles described above only feature flipped classrooms in high to middle income settings. Miami Universitys student body is upper-middle class (Lage et al, 2000), and Fulton (2012) mentions that almost all of the students at Byron High School had high speed

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internet access at home. Therefore, the assumption is that this instructional model caters to students from affluent backgrounds who have easy access to technology. Furthermore, Lage et al (2000) do not reveal the sample size, and they do not provide any specific information about the sample selection process in their study. Thus, we are left to question if there were limitations or biases in the sample, thereby affecting the validity of the results.

Thompson (2011) investigated flipped learning in U.S. elementary schools where Khan Academy is used for learning math concepts, and he reveals some of its criticisms. Some educators claim that Khan Academy and flipped classrooms simply promote high tech versions of repetitive lecturing and drilling. Khan refutes this, by stating that the use of online video tutorials actually allows for more hands-on and collaborative learning activities in class. Others question if this model will work to meet the learning needs of all students, especially if they already struggle with basic mathematical concepts. Another limitation of Khan Academy is noted, as it has not effectively covered areas beyond math and science. The Economist (2011) addresses similar arguments, along with Khan Academys gamification, or emphasis on the extrinsic rewards of learning. The author suggests that students may deliberately repeat lower-level exercises to win awards on the site, rather than applying concepts. This article, however, emphasizes how flipped learning has made the teachers role more relevant in the classroom in guiding students understanding.

Both articles are informative and take a more critical approach in looking at the issues; however, all of the information provided was anecdotal, and the reported statistics were vague. Thompson (2011) stated that 3 percent of students were classified as average or lower in end-of-

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year tests; the meaning of average or lower was not clarified. I also disagree with Thompsons statement about teachers not being well-informed of their students progress without the use of Khan Academys online assessment tool. From my own experience, I know many teachers who utilize a wide range of formative and summative assessment practices. An online assessment tool such as Khan Academy should serve as only part of a teachers assessment package. Moreover, the authors did not specifically profile any students who struggled with math and worked through the flipped classroom model. I question how this instructional model will impact students who are not high academic achievers.

Synthesis One overarching theme is that the flipped classroom enables learning to occur in a constructivist setting, where learning is student-centred, and a student constructs his or her own meaning out of the content. Lage et al (2000) emphasize how the inverted (flipped) classroom incorporates group work and collaboration in hands-on activities and experiments; this relates to constructivism as through these authentic learning experiences, students will ...yield deeper levels of knowledge creation... (Palloff, 2001, p.3). In a constructivist learning environment, learner autonomy and initiative are crucial elements (Young, 2008). In a flipped classroom, students take ownership of their learning by organizing their time to watch videos or read content before class, ensuring that they understand the material, and asking clarifying questions (Fulton, 2012). Learner autonomy is further demonstrated in this model as students freely move at their own pace (Thompson, 2011); students can spend more time working on a specific concept, or move on once they have mastered it. The literature also emphasizes another facet of constructivism: that the teacher is a facilitator of student learning. Teachers have more flexibility

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and do not feel the pressure to cover content, as it has already been created online. They can spend more individual time with students as they work through activities, especially students who struggle (Tucker, 2012) and help to guide students in discussions and collaborative group work.

Most of the literature reviewed (Osguthrope & Graham, 2003; Wyatt, 2010; Tucker, 2012; Fulton, 2012; The Economist, 2011) is situated in middle to high income school communities, where technology is accessible. Since flipped classrooms depend on the use of technology, how will students who are on the other side of the digital divide be able to engage in this type of learning? Palloff (2001, p.17) raises this concern regarding virtual high schools, as ...more efforts need to be made to provide computer equipment to the poorer school districts in order for students to have equal access...

Conclusion All of the articles explored aspects of flipped or blended learning environments. Many benefits were identified, along with some potential barriers to implementing this model. Since there is a lack of empirical data available to date, experimental research must be completed in this area across varying subjects, as well as age, academic, and income levels in order to fully determine the effectiveness of this instructional model.

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REFERENCES

Electronic education: Flipping the classroom. (2011, September 17). The Economist. Retrieved from: http://www.economist.com/node/21529062 Fulton, K. (2012). The flipped classroom: Transforming education at Byron High School. Transforming Education Through Technology. Retrieved from: http://thejournal.com/articles/2012/04/11/the-flipped-classroom.aspx Lage, M.J., Platt, G.J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education, 31, 30-43. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1183338 Osguthrope, R.T., & Graham, C.R. (2003). Blended learning environments: Definitions and directions. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4(3), 227-233. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4099acf9-57b7-41c0-bf7865666f597532%40sessionmgr10&vid=2&hid=10

Palloff, R.M., & Pratt, K. (2001) Online Learning in the New Millennium. Lessons from the Cyberspace Classroom: The Realities of Online Teaching. (Chapter 1). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Retrieved from: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ubc/docDetail.action?docID=10001711&p00=lessons%20cybers pace%20classroom%3A%20realities%20online%20teaching.%20(chapter%201)

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Tucker, B. (2012). The flipped classroom: Online instruction at home frees class time for learning. Education Next, 12(1). Retrieved from: http://educationnext.org/the-flippedclassroom/ Young, M. (2008). From constructivism to realism in the sociology of the curriculum. Review of Research in Education, 32, 1-28. doi: 10.3102/0091732X07308969