NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS

Statistical Analysis Report August 1999

An Institutional Perspective on Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

Laurie Lewis Elizabeth Farris Westat

Bernie Greene Project Officer National Center for Education Statistics U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement

NCES 1999-046

U.S. Department of Education Richard W. Riley Secretary Office of Educational Research and Improvement C. Kent McGuire Assistant Secretary National Center for Education Statistics Gary W. Phillips Acting Commissioner

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting, analyzing, and reporting data related to education in the United States and other nations. It fulfills a congressional mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report full and complete statistics on the condition of education in the United States; conduct and publish reports and specialized analyses of the meaning and significance of such statistics; assist state and local education agencies in improving their statistical systems; and review and report on education activities in foreign countries. NCES activities are designed to address high priority education data needs; provide consistent, reliable, complete, and accurate indicators of education status and trends; and report timely, useful, and high quality data to the U.S. Department of Education, the Congress, the states, other education policymakers, practitioners, data users, and the general public. We strive to make our products available in a variety of formats and in language that is appropriate to a variety of audiences. You, as our customer, are the best judge of our success in communicating information effectively. If you have any comments or suggestions about this or any other NCES product or report, we would like to hear from you. Please direct your comments to: National Center for Education Statistics Office of Educational Research and Improvement U.S. Department of Education 555 New Jersey Avenue NW Washington, DC 20208-5574 August 1999 The NCES World Wide Web Home Page is: http://nces.ed.gov

Suggested Citation U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. An Institutional Perspective on Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education, NCES 1999-046, by Laurie Lewis and Elizabeth Farris. Bernie Greene, project officer. Washington, DC: 1999.

For ordering information on this report, write U.S. Department of Education ED Pubs P.O. Box 1398 Jessup, MD 20794-1398 or by calling toll free 1-877-4ED-Pubs. Content Contact: Bernie Greene (202) 219-1366

Executive Summary
Key legislation such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has prompted numerous questions regarding access, support, and accommodations for students with disabilities in postsecondary education institutions. These institutions are required by law to provide reasonable accommodations to students with disabilities to ensure equal access to educational opportunities for these students. However, there have been no nationally representative data available from postsecondary institutions about the enrollment of students with disabilities and the support services and accommodations these institutions provide to students with disabilities. Moreover, since no information has been available about the recordkeeping and reporting capabilities of postsecondary institutions regarding students with disabilities, it has been difficult to assess the extent to which postsecondary institutions can provide information about these students. In response, this study, requested by the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), U.S. Department of Education (ED), provides nationally representative data from 2year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions about students with disabilities. Specifically, the survey, undertaken by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) using the Postsecondary Education Quick Information System (PEQIS), includes information about (1) enrollments of postsecondary students with disabilities, (2) institutions enrolling students with disabilities, (3) support services and accommodations designed for students with disabilities, (4) education materials and activities designed to assist faculty and staff in working with students with disabilities, and (5) institutional records and reporting about students with disabilities. Information contained in this report is restricted to those students who had identified themselves in some way to the institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. Note that students who identify themselves to the institution as having a disability are a subset of all students with disabilities, since some students with disabilities may choose not to identify themselves to their institutions.

Key Findings
Number of Postsecondary Students with Disabilities An estimated 428,280 students with disabilities were enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Most of the students were enrolled at public 2year and public 4-year institutions, and at medium and large institutions. Learning disabilities was the most frequent disability, with almost half of the students with disabilities (195,870 out of 428,280 students) in this category. Institutions reported 59,650 students with mobility or orthopedic impairments, 49,570 students with health impairments or problems, and 33,260 students with mental illness or emotional disturbance. Institutions also reported 23,860 students with a hearing impairment, 18,650 students that were blind or visually impaired, and 4,020 students that had a speech or language impairment. The remaining 38,410 students were reported by the institutions in the “other, specify” category.

Institutions Enrolling Students with Disabilities About three-quarters (72 percent) of the nation’s 5,040 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Almost all (98 percent) public 2-year and public 4-year institutions enrolled students with disabilities, compared with 63 percent of private 4-year and 47 percent of

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private 2-year institutions. Virtually all medium and large institutions (99 and 100 percent, respectively) enrolled students with disabilities, compared with 63 percent of small institutions.

Support Services and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities Almost all (98 percent) of the institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 had provided at least one support service or accommodation to a student with disabilities. Most institutions (88 percent) had provided alternative exam formats or additional time, and 77 percent provided tutors to assist with ongoing coursework. Readers, classroom notetakers, or scribes were provided by 69 percent of the institutions, and registration assistance or priority class registration were provided by 62 percent. Institutions also frequently provided adaptive equipment or technology, such as assistive listening devices or talking computers (58 percent), and textbooks on tape (55 percent). Sign language interpreters/transliterators were provided by 45 percent of the institutions, and course substitutions or waivers by 42 percent. Various other support services were provided by one-third or fewer of the institutions. In general, public 2-year and 4-year institutions were more likely than private 2-year and 4-year institutions to have provided a service or accommodation, and medium and large institutions were more likely than small institutions to have provided a service or accommodation. Large institutions were also more likely than medium institutions to have provided many of the services.

faculty and staff who request information and assistance, 63 percent provided workshops and presentations to faculty groups, 62 percent had information resources available for faculty and staff use, 41 percent had a faculty/staff handbook, and 32 percent did annual mailings to faculty and staff.

Records About Students with Disabilities Twenty-eight percent of the institutions indicated that their counts of students with disabilities included only those students to whom services or accommodations were provided; 38 percent reported that their counts were based on students who provided verification of their disabilities, regardless of whether services or accommodations were provided; 22 percent included students who identified themselves to the disability support services office or coordinator, regardless of verification or provision of services; and 12 percent said that their counts were based on all students that had been reported to the disability support services office or coordinator, regardless of whether that office had any contact with them. About three-quarters of the institutions indicated that their records currently contained information about level (undergraduate/graduate), and about two-thirds indicated that the records contained information about sex, age or date of birth, and major field of study/program. Attendance status (full or part time) was included by 59 percent of the institutions, race/ethnicity by 49 percent, and certificates or degrees awarded by 45 percent of the institutions. About a third of the institutions included information about whether a student receives financial aid. Information not currently contained in the records about students with disabilities could be added or merged to the records by almost all the institutions without the information on their records. Half of the institutions reported that their records about students with disabilities are maintained only in paper files by the office or person responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities, and 20 percent indicated that the records are maintained in a separate computerized database by the disability

Materials and Activities Designed for Working with Students with Disabilities Almost all (95 percent) of the institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 provided at least one kind of educational material or activity for faculty and staff designed to assist them in working with students with disabilities. Most of these institutions (92 percent) provided one-on-one discussions with

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support services office or coordinator. Records are maintained in a computerized database as part of the general student record system and are accessible to various institutional offices at 13 percent of the institutions. They are part of the general student record system but accessible only to the disability support services office or coordinator at 8 percent of the institutions. Nine percent of the institutions reported that they maintained no formal records about students with disabilities.

Related Report This PEQIS study complements another NCES report, Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education: A Profile of Preparation, Participation, and Outcomes. The report, released in June and also requested by OSERS, profiles students with disabilities, while this PEQIS report profiles postsecondary institutions. That is, the report released in June is based on student self-reports, while the PEQIS study is based on institutional reports. The report that profiles students with disabilities is based on an analysis of four different surveys conducted by NCES, which were used to address the following four issues: (1) enrollment in postsecondary education, (2) access to postsecondary education, (3) persistence to degree attainment, and (4) early labor market outcomes and graduate school enrollment rates of college graduates with disabilities.1

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Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education: A Profile of Preparation, Participation, and Outcomes can be accessed through the NCES web site (http://nces.ed.gov) or by calling 1-877-4ED-Pubs.

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Table of Contents Section Executive Summary .................................................................................................. 1 2 Background............................................................................................................... Enrollment of Students with Disabilities.................................................................... Institutions Enrolling Students with Disabilities......................................................... Number of Postsecondary Students with Disabilities.................................................. Type of Counts Reported about Students with Disabilities ......................................... Basis for the Counts of Students with Disabilities ...................................................... Verification of Student Disabilities............................................................................ 3 Support Services or Accommodations Designed for Students with Disabilities .......... Provision of Support Services or Accommodations.................................................... Working with the State Vocational Rehabilitation Agency......................................... Planning Process for New Technologies .................................................................... 4 Materials and Activities Designed for Working with Students with Disabilities ......... Education Materials and Activities for Faculty and Staff ........................................... Outreach or Recruitment Materials or Activities Designed to Recruit Students with Disabilities ..................................................................................... 5 Records about Students with Disabilities ................................................................... How Records about Students with Disabilities Are Maintained.................................. Variables Contained on the Records about Students with Disabilities......................... 6 7 Summary................................................................................................................... Survey Methodology and Data Reliability ................................................................. Postsecondary Education Quick Information System ................................................. Sample and Response Rates ...................................................................................... Sampling and Nonsampling Errors ............................................................................ Variances .................................................................................................................. Definitions of Analysis Variables .............................................................................. Background Information............................................................................................ References ................................................................................................................ List of Appendixes A: B: Tables of Standard Errors ............................................................................................ Survey Questionnaire .................................................................................................. A-1 B-1 Page iii 1 3 3 5 8 9 11 13 13 15 16 19 19 20 23 23 25 27 31 31 32 32 33 34 35 35

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Table of Contents (continued) List of Text Tables Text Table 1 Number of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions, and number and percent that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics...................................................................................... Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions that enrolled any students in each disability category in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics ........ Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions that indicated that they enrolled students with specific other disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98......... Number of students in each disability category and total with any disability enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics ....................................................................... Number of students with specific other disabilities enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics.............................................................................................................. Percentage distributions of all students enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions, and of students who identified themselves to the institution as having a disability in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics ................ Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 according to the type of count of the number of students by specific disability categories and the total number of students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics .............................................. Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating the basis for their counts of students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics.......................................... Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that require verification of student disabilities, and what those institutions accept as verification, by institutional characteristics.............................................................................................................. Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities that provided various services or accommodations to students with disabilities during 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics.... Page

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Table of Contents (continued) List of Text Tables (continued) Text Table 11 Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 where the person or office responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities works, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency regarding students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics .............................. Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 with an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies, and whether the planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities, or requests input from the disability support services office or coordinator, by institutional characteristics .................................................................. Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions with various kinds of education materials or activities designed to assist faculty and staff in working with students with disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98........................................................................ Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that have various kinds of education materials or activities designed to assist faculty and staff in working with students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics ...................................... Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities, and the audiences for those materials and activities, by institutional characteristics...................................................................................... Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating how they maintain their records about students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics ........................ Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating that their records about students with disabilities currently contain selected variables, and if not, how easily the variables can be added or merged to the records, by institutional characteristics ..... Number and percentage distribution of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in the study, and the estimated number and percentage distribution in the nation, for the total sample and for institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics: 1998 ..................... Page

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Table of Contents (continued) List of Figures Figure 1 Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions that require verification of student disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 ............................................................................... Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions where the person or office responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities works, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency regarding students with disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98........................................................................ Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions with an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies, and whether the planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities, or requests input from the disability support services office or coordinator, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 199697 or 1997-98.............................................................................................................. Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions that have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 .......................................................... Page

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1. BACKGROUND
The increased enrollment of persons with disabilities in postsecondary education, along with key legislation such as Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), have prompted numerous questions regarding access, support, and accommodations in postsecondary education institutions. However, while there have been a few self-report studies of various groups of postsecondary students with disabilities,2 there have been no nationally representative data available from postsecondary institutions about the enrollment of students with disabilities or the support services and accommodations they provide to these students. Moreover, since no information has been available about the recordkeeping and reporting capabilities of postsecondary institutions regarding students with disabilities, it has been difficult to assess the extent to which postsecondary institutions can provide information about these students and the feasibility of regularly collecting information about students with disabilities from the institutions. The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), U.S. Department of Education (ED), requested this study on students with disabilities at postsecondary education institutions. It was designed to provide nationally representative data from postsecondary education institutions about enrollments of students with disabilities, by specific disability category and the total with any disability. These are the first nationally representative data collected from institutions about these students. The study also obtained information regarding institutional records and reporting about students with disabilities, including the duplicated or unduplicated nature of the specific and total counts, which students are represented in the counts, how records about students with disabilities are maintained by the institution, and what variables are contained on the records. OSERS will use this information to assess the feasibility of collecting information from institutions about students with disabilities as part of existing ED data collections, such as the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). Additional questions asked about whether the institution provided special support services or accommodations designed for students with disabilities, institutional verification of disabilities, work with the state vocational rehabilitation agency, educational materials or activities designed to assist faculty and staff in working with students with disabilities, special outreach or recruitment materials designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities, and institutional planning for the purchase and implementation of new technologies. Information contained in this report is restricted to those students who had identified themselves in some way to the institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. Note that students who identify themselves to the institution as having a disability are a subset of all students with disabilities, since some students with disabilities may choose not to identify themselves to their institutions. The following institutional characteristics were used as variables for analyzing the survey data: • • •
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Type of institution: public 2-year, private 2year, public 4-year, private 4-year. Region: Northeast, Southeast, Central, and West. Size of institution: less than 3,000 students (small), 3,000 to 9,999 students (medium), and 10,000 or more students (large).

See the NCES report Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education: A Profile of Preparation, Participation, and Outcomes (NCES 1999-187) for a discussion of some of these studies.

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The analysis variables, particularly institutional type and size, are related to each other. For example, virtually all (99.9 percent) private 2year and 89 percent of private 4-year institutions are small, compared with 57 percent of public 2year and 25 percent of public 4-year institutions. Among large institutions, 56 percent are public 4year and 34 percent are public 2-year institutions, compared with 11 percent private 4-year institutions and no private 2-year institutions (as estimated by this sample). Because of these relationships, differences on survey items tend to covary by these analysis variables. This report focuses on presenting the findings by institutional type and size, but the findings by region are presented in the tables for those interested in this variable. The survey was conducted in spring of 1998 by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) using the Postsecondary Education Quick Information System (PEQIS). PEQIS is designed to collect limited amounts of policyrelevant information on a quick turn-around basis from a previously recruited, nationally representative sample of postsecondary institutions. PEQIS surveys are limited to three pages of questions with a response burden of about 30 minutes per respondent.3 The survey was mailed

to the PEQIS survey coordinators at 1,084 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions. Coordinators were told that the survey was designed to be completed by the person or office most knowledgeable about students with disabilities and the services provided to them by the institution. Institutions were asked to report for the 1996-97 12-month academic year if possible, but they could provide information for the current school year (1997-98) if information for 1996-97 was not available. The unweighted survey response rate was 91 percent; the weighted survey response rate was also 91 percent. Data were adjusted for questionnaire nonresponse and weighted to provide national estimates. Section 7 of this report provides a more detailed discussion of the sample and survey methodology. The survey questionnaire is reproduced in appendix B. All specific statements of comparisons made in this report have been tested for statistical significance through chi-square tests and t-tests adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni adjustment and are significant at the 95 percent confidence level or better. However, not all statistically different comparisons have been presented, since some were judged to be not of substantive importance.

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Additional information about PEQIS is presented in the methodology section of this report.

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2. ENROLLMENT OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
This section provides information about the enrollment of students with disabilities at postsecondary education institutions. Information contained in this report is restricted to those students who had identified themselves in some way to the institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. Institutions were also asked to indicate whether their counts of students with disabilities were unduplicated (i.e., counted only once, regardless of the number of disabilities) or duplicated and to indicate which students were represented in the counts. Information about verification of student disabilities was also obtained. Table 1.—Number of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions, and number and percent that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic All institutions ..... Institutional type Public 2-year........ Private 2-year ...... Public 4-year........ Private 4-year ...... Geographic region 1,240 1,140 610 2,060 1,220 530 590 1,290 98 47 98 63 Total number of institutions 5,040 Institutions enrolling students with disabilities Number 3,630 Percent 72

Institutions Enrolling Students with Disabilities
About three-quarters (72 percent) of the nation’s 5,040 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 (table 1). This represents 3,630 institutions. Almost all (98 percent) public 2-year and public 4-year institutions enrolled students with disabilities, compared with 63 percent of private 4-year and 47 percent of private 2-year institutions. Virtually all medium and large institutions (99 and 100 percent, respectively) enrolled students with disabilities, compared with 63 percent of small institutions.

Northeast.............. Southeast.............. Central.................. West ..................... Size of institution Less than 3,000.... 3,000 to 9,999...... 10,000 or more ....

1,210 1,230 1,290 1,310

790 1,030 860 960

66 83 67 73

3,830 810 400

2,430 800 400

63 99 100

NOTE: Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. The numbers of institutions have been rounded to the nearest 10. Numbers may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

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Sixty percent of institutions enrolled students with specific learning disabilities, and 56 percent enrolled students with mobility or orthopedic impairments (table 2). Many institutions also enrolled students with hearing impairments (48 percent),4 who were blind or visually impaired (46 percent), who had health impairments or problems (45 percent), or who reported a mental illness or emotional disturbance (39 percent). About a fifth of the institutions enrolled students with speech or language impairments (18 percent), or who specified some

other disability (21 percent). For each of the disability categories, public 2-year and public 4year institutions were much more likely than private 2-year and private 4-year institutions to enroll students with the disability; for most of the disability categories, private 4-year institutions were more likely than private 2-year institutions to enroll students with the disability. Medium and large institutions were much more likely to enroll students in each of the disability categories than were small institutions.

Table 2.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions that enrolled any students in each disability category in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic Hearing impairment Blind or visual impairment Speech or language impairment Mobility/ orthopedic impairment Specific learning disabilities Health impairment/ problem Mental illness/ emotional disturbance 39 21 Other

All institutions...... Institutional type Public 2-year ........ Private 2-year ....... Public 4-year ........ Private 4-year ....... Geographic region Northeast .............. Southeast .............. Central .................. West ...................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 .... 3,000 to 9,999 ...... 10,000 or more .....

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46

18

56

60

45

83 16 91 33

79 13 85 34

39 3 37 8

86 27 94 43

90 22 96 54

77 19 86 27

72 11 74 25

48 4 42 9

49 52 45 47

44 53 43 44

15 17 20 21

55 61 47 60

56 69 61 55

43 50 40 45

35 46 35 40

22 21 16 24

33 93 100

32 90 *100

9 46 54

43 94 99

48 98 *100

31 86 93

25 82 91

11 44 68

*Rounds to 100 percent for presentation in the table. NOTE: Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

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The percent of institutions that reported enrolling students with hearing impairments in this survey for 1996-97 or 1997-98 (48 percent) is approximately the same as the percent of institutions that reported in a previous PEQIS survey that they enrolled deaf or hard of hearing students in any (one or more) of the years 1989-90 through 1992-93 (47 percent). See Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Postsecondary Education, 1994 (NCES 94-394) for the results of the PEQIS survey on deaf and hard of hearing students.

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The other disability categories shown in table 3 were created from the responses that institutions provided in the “other, specify” category on the questionnaire (used by 21 percent of institutions). Thus, the percentage of institutions actually enrolling students with these other disabilities may be higher than shown in table 3, since some institutions may have included students with these disabilities in the other categories listed on the questionnaire. Disabilities frequently mentioned by institutions for which categories were created include brain injury (traumatic or acquired brain injury, head injury), developmental disability (e.g., mental retardation, autism), neurological impairment (e.g., seizures, epilepsy, Tourette’s Syndrome, cerebral palsy), and substance abuse. Some institutions counted students with multiple disabilities in the “other, specify” category, and a few institutions counted students with temporary disabilities here, particularly if those disabilities required support services or accommodations. In addition, some institutions did not know the specific disabilities of all or some of the students that they included in their counts of students with disabilities. Table 3.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions that indicated that they enrolled students with specific other disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98
Disability Brain injury.................................................... Developmental disability .............................. Neurological impairment .............................. Substance abuse............................................. Multiple disabilities....................................... Temporary disabilities................................... Specific disability unknown ......................... Other............................................................... Percent 9 4 2 2 3 1 5 3

Number of Postsecondary Students with Disabilities
An estimated 428,280 students with disabilities were enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98 (table 4).5 Consistent with the distributions of the percentage of institutions that enrolled students with disabilities, most of the students with disabilities were enrolled at public 2-year and public 4-year institutions, and at medium and large institutions.6 Specific learning disabilities was the most frequent disability, with almost half of the students with disabilities (195,870 out of 428,280 students) in this category (table 4).7 Institutions reported 59,650 students with mobility or

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The number of students with disabilities represents only those students who had identified themselves in some way to the institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. To put this number into context, the National Center for Education Statistics estimates that there were 14.6 million students enrolled in 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in fall 1996 (U.S. Department of Education, 1999, Table 170). This means that about 3 percent of the students enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions identified themselves to their institution as having a disability. Estimates produced from student self-reports are somewhat different. NCES estimates that 5 percent of undergraduate students and 3 percent of graduate and firstprofessional students enrolled in postsecondary institutions had self-reported disabilities in 1995-96 (U.S. Department of Education, 1999, Table 211). In addition, more students with disabilities were enrolled in institutions located in the West than in the other regions. Students with disabilities enrolled at institutions in the West represent 39 percent of the total number of students with any disability (165,340 out of 428,280). However, institutions in the West also enrolled a high proportion of all students in postsecondary education (32 percent; see table 6). It is interesting to note that the number of students with specific learning disabilities represents different percentages of the total number of students with disabilities reported by the various types of institutions. Thus, while students with specific learning disabilities represent 46 percent of the total number of students with any disability reported by all institutions (195,870 out of 428,280), the percentage with specific learning disabilities is 38 percent of the total at public 2-year institutions (86,750 out of 230,170), 44 percent at private 2-year institutions (2,380 out of 5,440), 51 percent at public 4-year institutions (71,160 out of 138,860), and 66 percent at private 4-year institutions (35,580 out of 53,810).

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NOTE: The disability categories were created from the “other, specify” item contained in the disability question (question 2). Thus, the percentage of institutions enrolling students with these other disabilities may be higher than shown, since some institutions may have included students with these disabilities in the other categories listed on the questionnaire. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

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Table 4.—Number of students in each disability category and total with any disability enrolled at 2year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic Total with any disability Hearing impairment Blind or visual Speech or language Mobility/ orthopedic Specific learning Health impairment/ problem Mental illness/ emotional disturbance 33,260 38,410 Other

impairment impairment impairment disabilities

All institutions........ 428,280 Institutional type Public 2-year .......... 230,170 Private 2-year......... 5,440 Public 4-year .......... 138,860 Private 4-year......... 53,810 Geographic region Northeast ................ 86,940 Southeast ................ 84,220 Central .................... 91,770 West........................ 165,340 Size of institution Less than 3,000 ...... 75,930 3,000 to 9,999 ........ 149,130 10,000 or more....... 203,210

23,860

18,650

4,020

59,650

195,870

49,570

12,680 320 6,440 4,430

9,480 200 7,060 1,910

2,730 50 920 320

35,650 750 20,280 2,970

86,750 2,380 71,160 35,580

29,090 1,000 15,450 4,030

20,430 400 9,680 2,750

28,680 330 7,930 1,470

5,650 5,380 4,720 8,120

2,940 4,270 4,180 7,260

680 670 760 1,910

7,580 11,680 10,910 29,470

48,490 40,920 40,610 65,850

12,080 9,990 10,250 17,250

5,530 5,980 7,680 14,070

3,960 5,250 9,220 19,980

5,840 6,460 11,560

3,540 5,410 9,700

840 1,320 1,860

10,050 18,320 31,280

36,500 68,970 90,390

8,780 18,370 22,420

5,090 11,570 16,590

3,960 13,890 20,560

NOTE: Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. The numbers of students have been rounded to the nearest 10. Numbers may not sum to totals because of rounding. In addition, the specific disabilities do not sum to the total with any disabilities because of missing data and duplicated counts by specific disabilities. Weighted item nonresponse rates for the specific disabilities ranged from 1.9 to 3.0 percent, and for the total with any disability was 0.2 percent. About 3 percent of institutions kept duplicated counts of students by specific disabilities (i.e., each student with a disability was counted by each disability he or she had or each disability for which services were provided), but kept an unduplicated count of the total number of students with disabilities (i.e., each student with any disability was counted in the total only once, regardless of the number of disabilities he or she had). SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

orthopedic impairments, 49,570 students with health impairments or problems, and 33,260 students with mental illness or emotional disturbance. Institutions also reported 23,860 students with a hearing impairment,8 18,650 students who were blind or visually impaired, and 4,020 students who had a speech or language impairment. The remaining 38,410 students were

reported by the institutions in the “other, specify” category.9

9

8

The previous PEQIS survey on deaf and hard of hearing students found an estimated 20,040 students who identified themselves to the institution as deaf or hard of hearing enrolled in 2-year and 4year postsecondary education institutions in 1992-93.

The number of students in the specific disabilities categories do not sum to the total number of students with any disability because of missing data and duplicated counts by specific disabilities. Weighted item nonresponse rates for the specific disabilities ranged from 1.9 to 3.0 percent, and for the total with any disability was 0.2 percent. About 3 percent of institutions kept duplicated counts of students by specific disabilities (i.e., each student with a disability was counted by each disability he or she had or each disability for which services were provided), but kept an unduplicated count of the total number of students with disabilities (i.e., each student with any disability was counted in the total only once, regardless of the number of disabilities he or she had).

6

Table 5.—Number of students with specific other disabilities enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic DevelopBrain injury mental disability 6,190 6,020 Neurological impairment 740 Substance abuse Multiple disabilities Temporary disabilities Specific disability unknown 13,030 6,720 Other

All institutions...... Institutional type Public 2-year ........ Private 2-year....... Public 4-year ........ Private 4-year....... Geographic region Northeast .............. Southeast .............. Central .................. West...................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 .... 3,000 to 9,999 ...... 10,000 or more.....

990

3,820

900

4,730 10 1,250 200

5,960 0 50 10

350 0 320 70

740 10 240 10

3,000 0 800 20

50 0 760 100

10,930 310 1,180 610

2,930 0 3,330 450

630 460 620 4,490

50 150 520 5,300

80 220 100 340

390 170 100 340

1,410 700 1,430 540

100 230 210 370

910 2,000 5,440 4,690

670 1,320 800 3,920

610 1,840 3,740

500 2,230 3,290

50 300 390

40 430 530

440 1,850 1,540

0 160 750

1,920 5,780 5,340

410 1,320 4,990

NOTE: The disability categories were created from the “other, specify” item contained in the disability question (question 2). ). Thus, the number of students with these other disabilities may be higher than shown, since some institutions may have included students with these disabilities in the other categories listed on the questionnaire. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. The numbers of students have been rounded to the nearest 10. Numbers may not sum to totals because of rounding. Zeros indicate that no institution in the sample gave the indicated response. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

Table 5 shows the number of students reported by institutions in the disability categories created from the “other, specify” category on the questionnaire. Of the 38,410 students reported in the “other, specify” category, institutions indicated that the specific disability was unknown for 13,030 students; most of these students (10,930 out of 13,030) were enrolled at public 2year institutions. Institutions also reported sizable numbers of students with developmental disabilities (6,020) and brain injury (6,190). Most of these students, particularly those with developmental disabilities, were reported by public 2-year institutions. Table 6 shows the percentage distributions of all students enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions and of students at these institutions who identified themselves to the

institution as having a disability, presented by institutional characteristics. The distributions by institutional type are quite different, particularly for public 2-year institutions. While 37 percent of all students enrolled at these postsecondary institutions were enrolled at public 2-year institutions, 54 percent of students who identified themselves to the institution as having a disability attended a public 2-year institution. Thus, a much higher proportion of students with disabilities than of all students attended public 2-year institutions.10

10

The NCES report Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education: A Profile of Preparation, Participation, and Outcomes (NCES 1999-187) also reports that half of postsecondary students who self-reported having a disability in 1995-96 were enrolled at public 2-year institutions.

7

Table 6.—Percentage distributions of all students enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions, and of students who identified themselves to the institution as having a disability in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Students who Institutional characteristic identified All students themselves to the institution as having a disability All institutions...... Institutional type Public 2-year ........ Private 2-year....... Public 4-year ........ Private 4-year....... Geographic region Northeast .............. Southeast .............. Central .................. West...................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 .... 3,000 to 9,999 ...... 10,000 or more..... 20 32 49 18 35 47 21 23 24 32 20 20 21 39 37 2 41 20 54 1 32 13 100 100

with a disability is counted by each disability he or she has or each disability for which services are provided; that is, students with multiple disabilities are counted multiple times. For example, if a student is both deaf and has diabetes, an institution reporting unduplicated counts would report this student in only one category; that is, the student would be counted as either hearing impaired or having a health impairment/problem.11 An institution reporting duplicated counts would report this student in both categories. Most institutions (88 percent) reported unduplicated counts of students by specific disabilities, 10 percent reported duplicated counts, and 2 percent of the institutions could not report any information about the specific disabilities of their students (table 7). There was little variation by institutional type and size in the type of counts provided for specific disability categories. The only statistically significant difference was between public and private 2-year institutions, with private 2-year institutions more often providing unduplicated counts than public 2-year institutions. Institutions were also asked to indicate whether the count of the total number of students with disabilities that they provided was unduplicated or duplicated. With an unduplicated total, each student with any disability is counted in the total only once, regardless of the number of disabilities he or she has. A duplicated total is the duplicated sum of the number of disabilities; that is, students with more than one disability are counted for each disability they have or each disability for which services are provided. Thus, an unduplicated total represents the number of students with disabilities, while a duplicated total represents the number of disabilities. An institution could keep duplicated counts by specific disability, yet keep an unduplicated count of the total number of students with any disability; a few institutions (about 3 percent) did keep their counts in this way (not shown in tables). Most institutions

NOTE: Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. Percents are calculated within each classification variable, but may not sum to 100 because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

Type of Counts Reported about Students with Disabilities
Institutions were asked to indicate whether the counts of students they provided by specific disabilities were unduplicated or duplicated. With unduplicated counts, each student with a disability is counted only once; that is, students are counted by their only or their primary disability. With duplicated counts, each student

11

Some institutions that reported unduplicated counts of students also reported an additional category of “multiple disabilities” and reported students with more than one disability in this category rather than by their primary disability.

8

Table 7.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 according to the type of count of the number of students by specific disability categories and the total number of students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics
Type of count of the number of students Institutional characteristic by specific disability category Unduplicated All institutions....................................................... Institutional type Public 2-year ......................................................... Private 2-year........................................................ Public 4-year ......................................................... Private 4-year........................................................ Geographic region Northeast ............................................................... Southeast ............................................................... Central ................................................................... West....................................................................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 ..................................................... 3,000 to 9,999 ....................................................... 10,000 or more...................................................... *Counts by specific disability categories are unknown. (+) Less than 0.5 percent. NOTE: Percents are based on institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. Percents may not sum to 100 because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998. 90 84 84 8 14 14 2 2 2 94 89 90 6 11 10 90 89 88 87 10 10 10 10 (+) 1 2 4 93 92 91 93 7 8 9 7 85 96 86 89 12 4 14 9 3 (+) 1 2 90 96 91 94 10 4 9 6 88 Duplicated 10 Other* 2 Type of count of the total number of students with disabilities Unduplicated 92 Duplicated 8

(92 percent) reported an unduplicated count of the total number of students with disabilities (table 7). There was no statistically significant variation by institutional type or size in the type of counts provided for the total number of students with disabilities.

Basis for the Counts of Students with Disabilities
Institutions were asked to indicate which students with disabilities were represented in the counts they provided. Discussions with institutions during the survey development process indicated that institutions begin to include students with disabilities in their counts at different stages in

the identification/verification/service process. Some institutions only count students to whom they provide services or accommodations, while some count all students that provide verification of their disabilities, regardless of whether services or accommodations are actually provided. Other institutions begin to include students in their counts as soon as students identify themselves to the disability support services office or coordinator, regardless of whether disabilities are verified or services or accommodations are provided. Some institutions include any students in their counts that have been reported to the disability support services office or coordinator as having identified themselves as having a disability, regardless of whether the disability

9

Table 8.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating the basis for their counts of students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics
Students that identified Students that provided Only students to whom Institutional characteristic services/ accommodations were provided verification of their disabilities, regardless of whether services/ accommodations were provided themselves to your office as having a disability, regardless of whether disabilities were verified or services/ accommodations were provided All institutions ................................ Institutional type Public 2-year................................... Private 2-year.................................. Public 4-year................................... Private 4-year.................................. Geographic region Northeast......................................... Southeast......................................... Central............................................. West................................................. Size of institution Less than 3,000............................... 3,000 to 9,999................................. 10,000 or more................................ 27 28 34 33 46 51 25 19 9 15 7 6 25 26 27 34 40 39 43 31 21 24 21 21 14 11 9 15 31 26 26 28 32 23 59 40 24 30 11 21 13 21 5 11 28 38 22 Students that have been reported to your office as having identified themselves as having a disability, regardless of whether your office had any contact with them

12

NOTE: Percents are based on institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. Percents may not sum to 100 because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

support services office or coordinator has any contact with them. This includes information provided to the disability support services office or coordinator by other offices at the institution, such as the registrar’s office, even if the disability support services office or coordinator has no contact with them. This may occur after a student has been admitted and checks a box on a registration form indicating that he or she has a disability, but then does not seek any information, services, or accommodations from the institution. Twenty-eight percent of the institutions indicated that their counts of students with disabilities included only those students to whom services or

accommodations were provided; 38 percent reported that their counts were based on students who provided verification of their disabilities, regardless of whether services or accommodations were provided; 22 percent included students who identified themselves to the disability support services office or coordinator, regardless of verification or provision of services; and 12 percent said that their counts were based on all students that had been reported to the disability support services office or coordinator, regardless of whether that office had any contact with them (table 8). The basis for the counts showed some variation by institutional type and size. For example, public 4-year institutions were more

10

likely than the other types of institutions, and private 4-year institutions were more likely than private 2-year institutions, to indicate that their counts were based on students who provided verification; medium and large institutions were more likely than small institutions to indicate that this was the basis for their counts.

(72 percent) of all institutions required verification of student disabilities (figure 1). However, verification was required more frequently by institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 than by institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities during that time: 84 percent compared with 40 percent. Among the institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98, there was some variation by institutional type and size in whether verification of student disabilities was required (table 9). Almost all public 4-year and medium and large institutions that enrolled students with disabilities required verification of disabilities. Public 2-year and private 4-year institutions were also quite likely to require verification.

Verification of Student Disabilities
All institutions, including those that did not enroll any students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 199798, were asked about the requirement for verification of student disabilities, and what was accepted as verification. Under Section 504 and the ADA, postsecondary institutions may require adequate documentation of a disability and the need for accommodations, and once obtained, must accommodate the individual to the extent required by the law. About three-quarters

Figure 1.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions that require verification of student disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98

All institutions

72%

Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98

84%

Institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98

40%

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent of institutions
NOTE: Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

11

Table 9.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that require verification of student disabilities, and what those institutions accept as verification, by institutional characteristics
Accepted as verification1 Testing or formal evaluation by Vocational your rehabilitation institution's agency disability evaluation support services office or coordinator 77 22 Informal evaluation or determination by your institution's disability support services office or coordinator 23

Institutional characteristic

Require verification

Medical evaluation/ statement

Psychological evaluation/ statement

Other

All institutions ......... Institutional type Public 2-year............ Private 2-year........... Public 4-year............ Private 4-year........... Geographic region Northeast.................. Southeast.................. Central...................... West.......................... Size of institution Less than 3,000........ 3,000 to 9,999.......... 10,000 or more ........
1 2

84

94

92

14

89 59 99 84

93 78 99 98

93 64 100 96

87 76 83 64

29 13 26 16

30 21 19 17

18 11 11 13

88 85 86 80

95 93 93 96

95 92 91 91

70 77 80 79

16 18 27 30

22 23 18 28

18 9 14 17

78 98 98

91 98 100
2

88 99 100

73 84 78

18 29 32

23 23 22

15 14 14

Based on those institutions that require verification of student disabilities. Rounds to 100 percent for presentation in the table.

NOTE: Percents are based on institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

Most institutions that enrolled students with disabilities and required verification accepted a medical evaluation/statement or a psychological evaluation/statement as verification; about threequarters accepted a vocational rehabilitation agency evaluation (table 9). About a quarter of the institutions indicated that testing or formal evaluation by the institution’s disability support services office or coordinator was accepted, and about a quarter indicated that they accepted an informal evaluation or determination by the institution’s disability support services office or

coordinator as verification. There was some variation by institutional type and size in what was accepted as verification of student disabilities. For example, private 4-year institutions were less likely than public 2-year and 4-year institutions to accept a vocational rehabilitation agency evaluation, and public 2year and 4-year institutions, and medium and large institutions, were more likely than private 4year and small institutions to accept testing or formal evaluation by the institution’s disability support services office or coordinator.

12

3. SUPPORT SERVICES OR ACCOMMODATIONS DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
This section provides information about the provision of special support services or accommodations designed for students with disabilities. Postsecondary institutions subject to Section 504 and the ADA are prohibited from discriminating on the basis of disability and must provide program modifications and auxiliary aids to students with disabilities to the extent required by law. Institutions that enrolled any students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 were asked whether the institution had provided various support services or accommodations to a student with disabilities during that time. Information was obtained only about whether a service or accommodation was provided, and not about whether it was requested, since institutions keep records about service delivery but not about service requests. Thus, an institution may not have provided a service because either no student requested it or there was inadequate documentation to support it, rather than because the institution was unable or unwilling to provide the service.12 Information was also obtained about whether the institution worked, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency, and whether the formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities.

Provision of Support Services or Accommodations
Almost all (98 percent) of the institutions that enrolled students with disabilities had provided at least one support service or accommodation to a student with disabilities (not shown in tables). Most institutions (88 percent) had provided alternative exam formats or additional time, and 77 percent provided tutors to assist with ongoing coursework (table 10). Readers, classroom notetakers, or scribes were provided by 69 percent of the institutions, and registration assistance or priority class registration were provided by 62 percent. Institutions also frequently provided adaptive equipment or technology, such as assistive listening devices or talking computers (58 percent), and textbooks on tape (55 percent). Sign language interpreters/ transliterators were provided by 45 percent of the institutions, and course substitutions or waivers by 42 percent. One-third or fewer of the institutions provided the remaining support services or accommodations. Whether various support services or accommodations were provided varied substantially by institutional type and size (table 10). The general pattern was that public 2-year and 4-year institutions were more likely than private 2-year and 4-year institutions to have provided a service or accommodation, and medium and large institutions were more likely than small institutions to have provided a service or accommodation. Large institutions were also more likely than medium institutions to have provided many of the services. This pattern of service provision is consistent with the distributions of enrollments of students with disabilities.

12

It also is not possible from these data to ascertain the quality of the support services that were provided. For example, it would be useful to know if the sign language interpreters were certified and the adaptive equipment and technology was up-to-date and in good working order. However, the constraints of a brief PEQIS survey did not allow this kind of detailed information to be collected.

13

Table 10.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities that provided various services or accommodations to students with disabilities during 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic Sign Oral Adaptive language interpreters/ equipment interpreters/ transand transliterators technology literators 45 66 10 68 29 40 39 49 51 28 71 96 22 33 (+) 39 14 17 21 21 29 12 37 56 58 81 30 80 39 59 56 57 61 43 86 97 Readers, classroom notetakers, or scribes 69 82 18 93 66 78 60 76 64 55 93 *100 Paratransit for oncampus mobility 13 12 3 31 11 13 12 11 17 6 22 41 Personal attendants Independent Textbooks living skills on tape training 5 10 (+) 6 1 2 6 4 7 4 6 10 55 66 11 85 49 59 46 62 55 40 82 93 Tutors to assist with ongoing coursework 77 87 51 82 75 84 72 83 70 71 90 84

All institutions................ Institutional type Public 2-year .................. Private 2-year ................. Public 4-year .................. Private 4-year ................. Geographic region Northeast......................... Southeast......................... Central............................. West ................................ Size of institution Less than 3,000 .............. 3,000 to 9,999................. 10,000 or more ...............

10 11 9 9 9 7 9 14 8 11 7 8

Table 10.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities that provided various services or accommodations to students with disabilities during 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics—continued
Institutional characteristic Alternative Course exam formats or substitution additional or waiver time Adaptive Registration physical assistance Special education or priority orientation courses or class sports registration Disability resource handbook Special career or Disability placement services benefits targeted for counseling disabled students 22 32 10 34 10 21 24 20 20 13 32 51 33 51 19 43 16 30 42 28 29 26 45 49

Other

All institutions................ Institutional type Public 2-year .................. Private 2-year ................. Public 4-year .................. Private 4-year ................. Geographic region Northeast......................... Southeast......................... Central............................. West ................................ Size of institution Less than 3,000 .............. 3,000 to 9,999................. 10,000 or more ............... (+) Less than 0.5 percent.

88 94 55 100 90 93 87 91 82 82 99 100

42 48 15 69 35 50 46 37 36 29 61 81

21 26 4 42 14 18 22 17 27 13 30 56

62 77 26 83 53 64 64 58 61 48 88 95

32 46 16 46 19 37 29 31 32 21 48 66

24 35 5 47 10 23 22 24 26 11 39 68

19 17 11 26 20 25 14 19 18 16 21 30

*Rounds to 100 percent for presentation in the table. NOTE: Percents are based on institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. The accommodations listed in the table are not the only accommodations a student may need. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

14

Working with the State Vocational Rehabilitation Agency
All institutions, including those that did not enroll any students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 199798, were asked whether the person or office responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities worked, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency regarding students with disabilities. Sixty percent of all institutions indicated that they worked with the state vocational rehabilitation agency (figure 2). How-

ever, institutions that enrolled students with disabilities were much more likely to work with the state vocational rehabilitation agency than were institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities. Among the institutions that enrolled students with disabilities, public 2-year and 4year institutions were much more likely than private 2-year and 4-year institutions, and large institutions were more likely than medium institutions, which were more likely than small institutions, to work with the state vocational rehabilitation agency (table 11).

Figure 2.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions where the person or office responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities works, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency regarding students with disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98

All institutions

60%

Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98

73%

Institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98

27%

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent of institutions
NOTE: . Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

15

Table 11.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 where the person or office responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities works, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency regarding students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic All institutions................................................................................. Institutional type Public 2-year ................................................................................... Private 2-year.................................................................................. Public 4-year ................................................................................... Private 4-year.................................................................................. Geographic region Northeast ......................................................................................... Southeast ......................................................................................... Central ............................................................................................. West................................................................................................. Size of institution Less than 3,000 ............................................................................... 3,000 to 9,999 ................................................................................. 10,000 or more................................................................................ Works with state vocational rehabilitation agency 73 95 48 92 55 71 75 76 71 64 88 96

NOTE: Percents are based on institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

Planning Process for New Technologies
The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services is interested in knowing to what extent the needs of students with disabilities are considered by institutions in the planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies, such as the upgrading or replacement of computers and telephones. All institutions, including those that did not enroll students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98, were asked whether the institution has an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies, and if so, whether the formal technology planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities, and whether input is requested from the disability support services office or coordinator to assist in the formal technology planning process.

About half (54 percent) of all institutions indicated that they have an institution-wide formal planning process (figure 3). Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities were more likely than institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities to have an institution-wide formal planning process: 63 percent compared with 31 percent. Among those institutions with an institution-wide formal planning process, about half of all institutions explicitly considered the needs of students with disabilities, and about half requested input from the disability support services office or coordinator. Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities were more likely to consider the needs of students with disabilities and seek input than were institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities (figure 3). Among institutions that enrolled students with disabilities and that have a formal planning process, public 2-year and 4-year

16

Figure 3.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions with an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies, and whether the planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities, or requests input from the disability support services office or coordinator, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98

Have an institutionwide formal planning process 31%

54% 63%

All institutions

Formal planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities* Formal planning process requests input from the disability support services office or coordinator* 0 20

52% 55% 36%

Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 Institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98

54% 59% 32%

40

60

80

100

Percent of institutions
*Based on those institutions that have an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies. NOTE: Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

17

Table 12.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 with an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies, and whether the planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities, or requests input from the disability support services office or coordinator, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic Have an institution-wide formal planning process 63 69 62 56 60 64 67 65 56 62 64 68 The formal planning process:* Requests input from the Explicitly considers the needs of disability support services students with disabilities office or coordinator 55 69 39 62 43 56 53 53 58 50 61 71 59 71 43 66 49 67 66 50 50 51 69 79

All institutions............................ Institutional type Public 2-year .............................. Private 2-year............................. Public 4-year .............................. Private 4-year............................. Geographic region Northeast .................................... Southeast .................................... Central ........................................ West............................................ Size of institution Less than 3,000 .......................... 3,000 to 9,999 ............................ 10,000 or more...........................

*Based on those institutions that have an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies. NOTE: Percents are based on institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

institutions were more likely than private 2-year and 4-year institutions, and large institutions were more likely than medium and small institutions, to explicitly consider the needs of students with disabilities (table 12). Similarly, public 2-year institutions were more likely than private 2-year and 4-year institutions, and public 4-year

institutions were more likely than private 4-year institutions, to seek input from the disability support services office or coordinator (table 12). In addition, large institutions were more likely than medium institutions, which were more likely than small institutions, to seek such input.

18

4. MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES DESIGNED FOR WORKING WITH STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
This section provides information about education materials or activities that institutions provide for faculty and staff designed to assist them in working with students with disabilities. Faculty and staff need information about the rights of students with disabilities to receive services or accommodations, what kinds of services or accommodations are considered reasonable or appropriate, who at the institution can provide information and assistance, and how they can best assist students with disabilities with whom they work. This information may be provided to faculty and staff in numerous ways, such as mailings, presentations, or discussions. Institutions may also develop special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities. These outreach or recruitment materials may be provided to, or activities conducted with, various groups that may refer students for enrollment in the institution.

Education Materials and Activities for Faculty and Staff
All institutions, including those that did not enroll any students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 199798, were asked about the education materials or activities that they provide for faculty and staff designed to assist them in working with students with disabilities. Eighty-four percent of all institutions provided at least one kind of education material or activity for faculty and staff (not shown in tables). The provision of various materials and activities ranged from 25 percent of all institutions providing annual mailings to faculty and staff to 79 percent providing one-onone discussions with faculty and staff who request information and assistance (table 13). Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities were more likely to provide each of the listed materials and activities than were institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities.

Table 13.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions with various kinds of education materials or activities designed to assist faculty and staff in working with students with disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98
Faculty/ staff handbook Annual mailings to faculty/staff Workshops and presentations to faculty groups 51 One-on-one discussions with faculty/ staff who request information or assistance 79 Information resources (e.g., books, videotapes) available for faculty/staff use 50

Enrollment of students with disabilities

Other

All institutions ........................... Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98..................................... Institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98..................

35

25

9

41

32

63

92

62

11

19

6

19

47

22

3

NOTE: Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

19

Table 14.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that have various kinds of education materials or activities designed to assist faculty and staff in working with students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics
Faculty/ staff handbook Annual mailings to faculty/staff Workshops and presentations to faculty groups 63 74 32 82 56 One-on-one discussions with faculty/staff who request information or assistance 92 97 74 98 92 Information resources (e.g., books, videotapes) available for faculty/staff use 62 75 33 77 53

Institutional characteristic

Other

All institutions.................................. Institutional type Public 2-year .................................... Private 2-year................................... Public 4-year .................................... Private 4-year................................... Geographic region Northeast .......................................... Southeast .......................................... Central .............................................. West.................................................. Size of institution Less than 3,000 ................................ 3,000 to 9,999 .................................. 10,000 or more.................................

41 56 25 49 29

32 38 9 48 30

11 12 2 17 11

44 45 28 45 33 54 63

39 30 31 30 23 47 59

76 63 58 57 53 78 94

94 93 94 87 89 97 99

71 62 62 53 53 77 83

15 7 9 13 9 14 19

NOTE: Percents are based on institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

Almost all (95 percent) of the institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 provided at least one kind of education material or activity for faculty and staff (not shown in tables). Among institutions that enrolled students with disabilities, most institutions (92 percent) provided one-on-one discussions with faculty and staff who request information or assistance (table 14). The provision of the other listed materials and activities ranged from 32 percent providing annual mailings to faculty and staff to 63 percent providing workshops and presentations to faculty groups. In general, public 2-year and 4-year institutions were more likely than private 2-year and 4-year institutions to provide the various kinds of education materials and activities. In addition, large institutions were more likely than medium institutions, which were more likely than

small institutions, to provide the education materials and activities.

Outreach or Recruitment Materials or Activities Designed to Recruit Students with Disabilities
All institutions, including those that did not enroll any students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 199798, were asked whether they had developed any special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities.13 A fifth of all institutions had developed such materials or activities (figure 4).
13

During recruitment efforts, postsecondary institutions are generally barred from making preadmission inquiries about whether an individual has a disability under the Section 504 regulations of the Department of Education.

20

Figure 4.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions that have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98

All institutions

20%

Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 Institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 0

27%

3%

20

40

60

80

100

Percent of institutions
NOTE: Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 were more likely to have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities than were institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities during that time. Among institutions that enrolled students with disabilities, public 2-year and 4year institutions were more likely than private 2year and 4-year institutions to have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities. In addition, large institutions were more likely than medium institutions, which were more likely than small institutions, to have developed such materials or activities (table 15). Institutions that had developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities were asked whether these materials had been provided to, or any of the activities conducted with, various

groups that may refer students for enrollment in the institution. Among institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98, most had provided materials to or conducted activities with high school counselors or transition coordinators, and about three-quarters had done so with state vocational rehabilitation agencies (table 15). About half of the institutions had provided materials to or conducted activities with other types of vocational rehabilitation agencies, community and civic organizations, and other postsecondary institutions, and about a quarter had done so with businesses or employers. Medium and large institutions were more likely than small institutions to have provided materials to or conducted activities with high school counselors or transition coordinators, other postsecondary institutions, and other types of vocational rehabilitation agencies.

21

Table 15.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities, and the audiences for those materials and activities, by institutional characteristics
Audiences for materials and activities* Institutional characteristic Developed materials or activities High school Other counselors postsecondary and/or transition institutions coordinators 91 50 Businesses/ employers State Other types of Community vocational vocational and civic rehabilitation rehabilitation organizations agencies agencies 49 76 50

Other

All institutions............ Institutional type Public 2-year .............. Private 2-year ............. Public 4-year .............. Private 4-year ............. Geographic region Northeast..................... Southeast..................... Central......................... West ............................ Size of institution Less than 3,000 .......... 3,000 to 9,999............. 10,000 or more ...........

27

26

12

47 6 39 10

96 (#) 87 (#)

47 (#) 66 (#)

33 (#) 22 (#)

55 (#) 47 (#)

85 (#) 70 (#)

57 (#) 50 (#)

13 (#) 16 (#)

23 27 21 34

93 90 87 92

65 50 49 44

16 35 28 23

35 62 49 45

73 78 81 72

52 56 53 40

11 13 14 11

16 42 58

83 96 97

34 61 64

22 29 28

42 52 57

68 81 81

37 61 56

8 14 17

*Based on those institutions that have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities. (#) Too few cases for a reliable estimate. NOTE: Percents are based on institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

22

5. RECORDS ABOUT STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
This section provides information about institutional recordkeeping concerning students with disabilities. OSERS will use this information to help them assess the feasibility of collecting information from institutions about students with disabilities as part of existing ED data collections. Institutions that enrolled any students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 were asked how the records about students with disabilities were maintained, what information was currently contained in the records, and the ease with which information not currently in the records could be added or merged to the records. While some institutions may have multiple recordkeeping systems about students with disabilities, such as paper files in the disability support services office and data elements about student disabilities on the general student record system, institutions were asked to respond about the record system that they used to prepare the counts of students with disabilities given in the questionnaire. having data elements on the file that refer to students with disabilities appear in a code that is not known by other offices at the institution, or by protecting access to the records on students with disabilities with a password. Records could also be maintained in a separate computerized database by the office or person responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities. Such databases might use commercially available software, such as AbleAid, or may be developed by the institution, and may or may not be able to be linked with other databases maintained by the institution, such as the general student record system. Records could also be maintained only in paper files by the office or person responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities. Some institutions, particularly if they have a very small number of students with disabilities, may maintain no formal records about students with disabilities. Half of the institutions reported that their records about students with disabilities are maintained only in paper files by the office or person responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities, and 20 percent indicated that the records are maintained in a separate computerized database by the disability support services office or coordinator (table 16). Thus, the majority of records about students with disabilities are maintained by the office or person responsible for providing support services to these students. Records are maintained in a computerized database as part of the general student record system and are accessible to various institutional offices at 13 percent of the institutions, and are part of the general student record system but accessible only to the disability support services office or coordinator at 8 percent of the institutions. Nine percent of the

How Records about Students with Disabilities Are Maintained
Discussions with institutions during survey development indicated that there were a number of different ways in which institutions might maintain their records about students with disabilities.14 Records could be maintained in a computerized database as part of the general student record system and be accessible to various institutional offices, such as the registrar or the Dean of Students. Records could also be part of the general student record system but only be accessible to the office or person responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities. This might be handled through
14

The way in which an institution maintains these records must be consistent with confidentiality requirements.

23

Table 16.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating how they maintain their records about students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics
Computerized Computerized Separate database as part of the database as part of the computerized general student record general student record database maintained Institutional characteristic system, accessible system, accessible to by the disability only to the disability various institutional support services support services offices office/coordinator office/coordinator All institutions ................. Institutional type Public 2-year.................... Private 2-year .................. Public 4-year.................... Private 4-year .................. Geographic region Northeast.......................... Southeast.......................... Central.............................. West ................................. Size of institution Less than 3,000................ 3,000 to 9,999.................. 10,000 or more ................ (+) Less than 0.5 percent. NOTE: Percents are based on institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. Percents may not sum to 100 because of rounding. Zeros appear in the table when no institution in the sample gave the indicated response. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998. 13 8 20 Only paper files maintained by the disability support services office/ coordinator No formal records are maintained about students with disabilities

50

9

20 15 5 8

15 1 10 2

23 5 40 14

38 48 42 66

3 31 2 10

9 12 9 19

9 10 3 8

21 16 23 21

53 51 55 43

8 10 9 10

13 11 14

5 13 15

13 26 48

55 50 22

14 (+) 0

institutions reported that they maintained no formal records about students with disabilities. Since only about a fifth of institutions maintain their records as part of the general student record system, it is unlikely that reporting about students with disabilities could be easily integrated into existing U.S. Department of Education data collections, such as the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, which rely on the general student record system for information. How records about students with disabilities are maintained varied by institutional type (table 16). For example, more public 4-year than other types of institutions indicated that records are maintained in a separate computerized database by the disability support services office or

coordinator, and more private 4-year than other types of institutions reported that records are maintained only in paper files. About a third of private 2-year institutions, compared with 10 percent or fewer of the other types of institutions, indicated that they maintained no formal records about students with disabilities. There was also some variation in recordkeeping by institutional size. For example, about half of small and medium institutions reported that records are maintained only in paper files, compared with 22 percent of large institutions. Large institutions were more likely than medium institutions, which were more likely than small institutions, to indicate that records are maintained in a separate computerized database by the disability support services office or coordinator.

24

Variables Contained on the Records about Students with Disabilities
Institutions were asked to indicate whether the records about students with disabilities that they used to provide the counts in the questionnaire currently contained certain variables. For any variable not currently on the records, institutions were asked to indicate whether the variable (1) could be obtained from intake questionnaires or other institutional records or databases and easily added/merged to the records for students with disabilities, (2) could be obtained and added/merged to the records, but it would be a difficult and/or time-consuming process, or (3) could not be added/merged to the records. It is important to keep in mind that the records being referred to by half of the institutions are paper

files maintained by the disability support services office or coordinator (see table 16). About three-quarters of the institutions that maintain formal records about students with disabilities indicated that their records currently contained information about level (undergraduate/ graduate), and about two-thirds indicated that the records contained information about sex, age or date of birth, and major field of study/program (table 17). Attendance status (full or part time) was included by 59 percent of the institutions, race/ethnicity by 49 percent, and certificates or degrees awarded by 45 percent of the institutions. About a third of the institutions included information about whether a student receives financial aid. There was some variation by institutional type in which variables were

Table 17.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating that their records about students with disabilities currently contain selected variables, and if not, how easily the variables can be added or merged to the records, by institutional characteristics
Sex Institutional characteristic On record Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 24 49 On record Race/ethnicity Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 28 66 On record Age or date of birth Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 26 59 On record Attendance status (full or part time) Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 25

All institutions.... Institutional type Public 2-year ...... Private 2-year ..... Public 4-year ...... Private 4-year ..... Geographic region Northeast............. Southeast............. Central................. West .................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 .. 3,000 to 9,999..... 10,000 or more ...

68

73

66

71

70

72 70 67 65

77 (#) 66 76

20 (#) 30 21

63 54 41 36

74 (#) 60 64

21 (#) 34 28

69 72 63 61

71 (#) 67 70

25 (#) 29 26

57 83 50 59

67 (#) 61 76

27 (#) 36 18

70 77 60 66

67 81 78 69

28 19 21 28

39 56 44 54

59 78 68 59

32 18 28 32

55 75 63 67

75 71 81 56

22 26 18 38

66 60 56 56

75 77 70 61

21 21 27 29

68 67 71

76 68 71

23 27 26

49 46 53

69 62 58

25 30 36

67 61 68

74 63 70

22 32 26

63 54 50

80 56 59

15 39 37

25

Table 17.—Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating that their records about students with disabilities currently contain selected variables, and if not, how easily the variables can be added or merged to the records, by institutional characteristics--continued
Level (undergraduate/ Institutional characteristic On record graduate)2 Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 25 34 On record Whether student receives financial aid Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 30 68 On record Major field of study/program Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 23 45 On record Certificates or degrees awarded by the institution Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 25

All institutions.... Institutional type Public 2-year ...... Private 2-year ..... Public 4-year ...... Private 4-year ..... Geographic region Northeast............. Southeast............. Central................. West .................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 .. 3,000 to 9,999..... 10,000 or more ...

74

70

60

72

68

--78 71

--66 72

--31 21

44 67 20 21

59 (#) 53 62

34 (#) 39 25

76 87 67 56

70 (#) 70 71

26 (#) 28 21

50 76 33 35

65 (#) 63 72

29 (#) 30 20

76 83 71 68

77 71 72 61

19 29 28 26

27 41 27 39

53 71 63 53

37 23 31 31

66 68 67 72

64 79 79 64

30 16 20 28

48 48 40 42

70 74 72 57

20 20 25 34

73 74 77

81 59 65

11 38 35

39 25 30

68 51 46

22 41 47

68 67 73

76 64 68

17 34 32

47 41 39

74 60 57

20 32 39

--Does not apply to 2-year institutions. (#) Too few cases for a reliable estimate.
1

Percents based on those institutions indicating that their records about students with disabilities do not currently contain that variable. Responses for “easily,” “with difficulty,” and “no” sum to 100 percent. Percents for “no” are not shown on the table.
2

Based only on those institutions that have both undergraduate and graduate level students.

NOTE: Percents are based on institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98, and that maintain formal records about students with disabilities. Nine percent of the institutions reported that they maintained no formal records about students with disabilities. Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

included on the records. For example, public 2year institutions were more likely than public or private 4-year institutions to include information about race/ethnicity, financial aid, and certificates or degrees awarded by the institution. This may be because public 2-year institutions were more likely than public or private 4-year institutions to maintain their records about students with disabilities as part of the general student record system (see table 16), and the general student record system often contains this type of information about students. Information not

currently contained in the records about students with disabilities could be added or merged to the records by almost all the institutions without the information on their records, and most indicated that the information could be added easily (table 17). Again, it is important to keep in mind that half the institutions maintain records only in paper files kept by the disability support services office or coordinator. Adding information to paper files is generally not a difficult task for institutions.

26

6. SUMMARY
The increased enrollment of persons with disabilities in postsecondary education, along with key legislation such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, has prompted numerous questions regarding access, support, and accommodations in postsecondary education institutions. The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, U.S. Department of Education, requested this study on students with disabilities at postsecondary education institutions. It was designed to provide nationally representative data from postsecondary education institutions about enrollments of students with disabilities and the support services and accommodations they provide to these students. These are the first nationally representative data collected from institutions about these students. The study also obtained information regarding institutional records and reporting about students with disabilities. OSERS will use this information to help them assess the feasibility of collecting information from institutions about students with disabilities as part of existing ED data collections, such as the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. About three-quarters (72 percent) of the nation’s 5,040 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Almost all (98 percent) public 2-year and public 4-year institutions enrolled students with disabilities, compared with 63 percent of private 4-year and 47 percent of private 2-year institutions. Virtually all medium and large institutions (99 and 100 percent, respectively) enrolled students with disabilities, compared with 63 percent of small institutions. Sixty percent of institutions enrolled students with specific learning disabilities, and 56 percent enrolled students with mobility or orthopedic impairments. Many institutions also enrolled students with hearing impairments (48 percent), who were blind or visually impaired (46 percent), had health impairments or problems (45 percent), or who reported a mental illness or emotional disturbance (39 percent). About a fifth of the institutions enrolled students with speech or language impairments (18 percent), or specified some other disability (21 percent). For each of the disability categories, public 2-year and public 4-year institutions were much more likely than private 2-year and private 4-year institutions, and medium and large institutions were much more likely than small institutions, to enroll students with that disability. An estimated 428,280 students with disabilities were enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98. The number of students with disabilities represents only those students who had identified themselves in some way to the institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. Consistent with the distributions of the percentage of institutions that enrolled students with disabilities, most of the students with disabilities were enrolled at public 2-year and public 4-year institutions and at medium and large institutions. Specific learning disabilities was the most frequent disability, with almost half of the students with disabilities (195,870 out of 428,280 students) in this category. Institutions reported 59,650 students with mobility or orthopedic impairments, 49,570 students with health impairments or problems, and 33,260 students with mental illness or emotional disturbance. Institutions also reported 23,860 students with a hearing impairment, 18,650 students that were blind or visually impaired, and 4,020 students that had a speech or language impairment. The remaining 38,410 students were reported by the institutions in the “other, specify” category. Most institutions (88 percent) reported unduplicated counts of students by specific disabilities (i.e., students were counted by their

27

only or their primary disability), 10 percent reported duplicated counts (i.e., students were counted for each disability they have or each disability for which services were provided), and 2 percent of the institutions could not report any information about the specific disabilities of their students. Most institutions (92 percent) also reported an unduplicated count of the total number of students with disabilities. There was little variation by institutional type and size in the type of counts reported. Twenty-eight percent of the institutions indicated that their counts of students with disabilities included only those students to whom services or accommodations were provided; 38 percent reported that their counts were based on students who provided verification of their disabilities, regardless of whether services or accommodations were provided; 22 percent included students who identified themselves to the disability support services office or coordinator, regardless of verification or provision of services; and 12 percent said that their counts were based on all students that had been reported to the disability support services office or coordinator, regardless of whether that office had any contact with them. Eighty-four percent of institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 required verification of student disabilities. Most institutions that enrolled students with disabilities and required verification accepted a medical evaluation/statement or a psychological evaluation/statement as verification; about threequarters accepted a vocational rehabilitation agency evaluation. About a quarter of the institutions indicated that testing or formal evaluation by the institution’s disability support services office or coordinator was accepted, and about a quarter indicated that they accepted an informal evaluation or determination by the institution’s disability support services office or coordinator as verification. Almost all (98 percent) of the institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 had provided at least one special support service or accommodation designed for disabled students to a student with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98. Most institutions (88 percent) had

provided alternative exam formats or additional time, and 77 percent provided tutors to assist with ongoing coursework. Readers, classroom notetakers, or scribes were provided by 69 percent of the institutions, and registration assistance or priority class registration were provided by 62 percent. Institutions also frequently provided adaptive equipment or technology, such as assistive listening devices or talking computers (58 percent), and textbooks on tape (55 percent). Sign language interpreters/ transliterators were provided by 45 percent of the institutions, and course substitutions or waivers by 42 percent. Various other support services were provided by one-third or fewer of the institutions. About three-quarters (73 percent) of the institutions that enrolled students with disabilities indicated that they worked, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency regarding students with disabilities. Sixty-three percent of institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicated that they have an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies, such as the upgrading or replacement of computers and telephones. Among those institutions that enrolled students with disabilities and that have an institution-wide formal planning process, 55 percent indicated that the planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities, and 59 percent indicated that the planning process requests input from the disability support services office or coordinator. Almost all (95 percent) of the institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 provided at least one kind of educational material or activity for faculty and staff designed to assist them in working with students with disabilities. Most of these institutions (92 percent) provided one-on-one discussions with faculty and staff who request information and assistance, 63 percent provided workshops and presentations to faculty groups, 62 percent had information resources available for faculty and staff use, 41 percent had a faculty/staff handbook, and 32 percent did annual mailings to faculty and staff.

28

About a quarter (27 percent) of institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 had developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities. Among the institutions that had developed such materials or activities, most (91 percent) had provided materials to or conducted activities with high school counselors or transition coordinators, and about three-quarters had done so with state vocational rehabilitation agencies. About half of the institutions had provided materials to or conducted activities with other types of vocational rehabilitation agencies, community and civic organizations, and other postsecondary institutions, and about a quarter had done so with businesses or employers. Half of the institutions reported that their records about students with disabilities are maintained only in paper files by the office or person responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities, and 20 percent indicated that the records are maintained in a separate computerized database by the disability support services office or coordinator. Thus, the majority of records about students with disabilities are maintained by the office or person responsible for providing support services to these students. Records are maintained in a computerized database as part of the general student record system and are accessible to various institutional offices at 13 percent of the

institutions, and are part of the general student record system but accessible only to the disability support services office or coordinator at 8 percent of the institutions. Nine percent of the institutions reported that they maintained no formal records about students with disabilities. Since only about a fifth of institutions maintain their records as part of the general student record system, it is unlikely that reporting about students with disabilities could be easily integrated into existing U.S. Department of Education data collections, such as IPEDS, which rely on the general student record system for information. About three-quarters of the institutions indicated that their records currently contained information about level (undergraduate/graduate), and about two-thirds indicated that the records contained information about sex, age or date of birth, and major field of study/program. Attendance status (full or part time) was included by 59 percent of the institutions, race/ethnicity by 49 percent, and certificates or degrees awarded by 45 percent of the institutions. About a third of the institutions included information about whether a student receives financial aid. Information not currently contained in the records about students with disabilities could be added or merged to the records by almost all the institutions without the information on their records, and most indicated that the information could be added easily.

29

30

7. SURVEY METHODOLOGY AND DATA RELIABILITY
Postsecondary Education Quick Information System
The Postsecondary Education Quick Information System (PEQIS) was established in 1991 by the National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. PEQIS is designed to conduct brief surveys of postsecondary institutions or state higher education agencies on postsecondary education topics of national importance. Surveys are generally limited to two or three pages of questions, with a response burden of about 30 minutes per respondent. Most PEQIS institutional surveys use a previously recruited, nationally representative panel of institutions. The PEQIS panel was originally selected and recruited in 1991-92. In 1996, the PEQIS panel was reselected to reflect changes in the postsecondary education universe that had occurred since the original panel was selected. A modified Keyfitz approach was used to maximize overlap between the 1996 panel and the 1991-92 panel. The sampling frame for the PEQIS panel recruited in 1996 was constructed from the 199596 IPEDS Institutional Characteristics file. Institutions eligible for the PEQIS frame for the panel recruited in 1996 included 2-year and 4year (including graduate-level) institutions (both institutions of higher education and other postsecondary institutions), and less-than-2-year institutions of higher education located in the 50 states and the District of Columbia: a total of 5,353 institutions. The PEQIS sampling frame for the panel recruited in 1996 was stratified by instructional level (4-year, 2-year, less-than-2-year), control (public, private nonprofit, private for-profit), highest level of offering (doctor's/first professional, master's, bachelor's, less than bachelor's), total enrollment, and status as either an institution of higher education or other postsecondary institution. Within each of the 31 strata, institutions were sorted by region (Northeast, Southeast, Central, West), whether the institution had a relatively high minority enrollment, and whether the institution had research expenditures exceeding $1 million. The sample of 1,669 institutions was allocated to the strata in proportion to the aggregate square root of total enrollment. Institutions within a stratum were sampled with equal probabilities of selection. The modified Keyfitz approach resulted in 80 percent of the institutions in the 1996 panel overlapping with the 1991-92 panel. Panel recruitment was conducted with the 338 institutions that were not part of the overlap sample. During panel recruitment, 20 institutions were found to be ineligible for PEQIS, primarily because they had closed or offered just correspondence courses. The final unweighted response rate at the end of PEQIS panel recruitment with the institutions that were not part of the overlap sample was 98 percent (312 of the 318 eligible institutions). The final participation rate across the 1,669 institutions that were selected for the 1996 panel was 1,628 participating institutions out of 1,634 eligible institutions. There were 1,634 eligible institutions because 15 institutions in the overlap sample were determined to be ineligible for various reasons. Each institution in the PEQIS panel was asked to identify a campus representative to serve as survey coordinator. The campus representative facilitates data collection by identifying the appropriate respondent for each survey and forwarding the questionnaire to that person.

Sample and Response Rates
The sample for this survey consisted of two-thirds of the institutions in the PEQIS panel,15 for a sample of 1,084 institutions. In January 1998, questionnaires (see appendix B) were mailed to the PEQIS coordinators at the institutions. Coordinators were told that the survey was designed to be completed by the person or office at the institution most knowledgeable about students with disabilities, and the services provided to these students by the institution. Fifteen institutions were found to be out of the scope of the survey because they were closed, leaving 1,069 eligible institutions. These 1,069 institutions represent the universe of approximately 5,040 2-year and 4-year (including graduate-level) postsecondary education institutions in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Telephone followup of nonrespondents was initiated in early February 1998; data collection and clarification was completed in early April 1998. For the eligible institutions that received surveys, an unweighted response rate of 91 percent (977 responding institutions divided by the 1,069 eligible institutions in the sample) was obtained. The weighted response rate for this survey was also 91 percent. The unweighted overall response rate was 91 percent (99.6 percent panel recruitment participation rate multiplied by the 91.4 percent survey response rate). The weighted overall response rate was also 91 percent (99.7 percent weighted panel recruitment participation rate multiplied by the 91.2 percent weighted survey response rate). Weighted item nonresponse rates ranged from 0 percent to 3 percent. Item nonresponse rates for most items were less than 1 percent. Because the item nonresponse rates were so low, imputation for item nonresponse was not implemented. Instead, item nonresponse for ratios was handled by dropping cases with missing values from both the numerator and denominator for the calculation of affected percents. For sums, item nonresponse

was handled by adding footnotes to the text and tables.

Sampling and Nonsampling Errors
The response data were weighted to produce national estimates (see table 18). The weights were designed to adjust for the variable probabilities of selection and differential nonresponse. The findings in this report are estimates based on the sample selected and, consequently, are subject to sampling variability. The survey estimates are also subject to nonsampling errors that can arise because of nonobservation (nonresponse or noncoverage) errors, errors of reporting, and errors made in data collection. These errors can sometimes bias the data. Nonsampling errors may include such problems as misrecording of responses; incorrect editing, coding, and data entry; differences related to the particular time the survey was conducted; or errors in data preparation. While general sampling theory can be used in part to determine how to estimate the sampling variability of a statistic, nonsampling errors are not easy to measure and, for measurement purposes, usually require that an experiment be conducted as part of the data collection procedures or that data external to the study be used. To minimize the potential for nonsampling errors, the questionnaire was pretested with respondents at institutions like those that completed the survey. During the design of the survey and the survey pretest, an effort was made to check for consistency of interpretation of questions and to eliminate ambiguous items. The questionnaire and instructions were extensively reviewed by the National Center for Education Statistics and the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, U.S. Department of Education. Manual and machine editing of the questionnaire responses were conducted to check the data for accuracy and consistency. Cases with missing or inconsistent items were recontacted by telephone. Data were keyed with 100 percent verification.

15

The PEQIS panel is divided into three subpanels. Surveys typically use two out of three of the subpanels on a rotating basis to reduce respondent burden.

32

Table 18.—Number and percentage distribution of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in the study, and the estimated number and percentage distribution in the nation, for the total sample and for institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics: 1998
Total sample Institutional characteristic Respondents Number All institutions.......................................... Institutional type Public 2-year ............................................ Private 2-year ........................................... Public 4-year ............................................ Private 4-year ........................................... Geographic region Northeast .................................................. Southeast .................................................. Central...................................................... West ......................................................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 ........................................ 3,000 to 9,999 .......................................... 10,000 or more ......................................... 977 Percent 100 National estimate* Number 5,040 Percent 100 Enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 Respondents Number 840 Percent 100 National estimate* Number 3,630 Percent 100

283 131 250 313

29 13 26 32

1,240 1,140 610 2,060

25 23 12 41

280 72 247 241

33 9 29 29

1,220 530 590 1,290

34 15 16 36

229 230 237 281

23 24 24 29

1,210 1,230 1,290 1,310

24 24 26 26

191 209 200 240

23 25 24 29

790 1,030 860 960

22 28 24 26

488 239 250

50 24 26

3,830 810 400

76 16 8

353 237 250

42 28 30

2,430 800 400

67 22 11

*Data presented in all tables are weighted to produce national estimates. The sample was selected with probabilities proportionate to the square root of total enrollment. Institutions with larger enrollments have higher probabilities of inclusion and lower weights. The weighted numbers of institutions have been rounded to the nearest 10. NOTE: Information about students with disabilities represents only those students who identified themselves to their institution as having a disability, since these are the only students about whom the institutions could report. Data are for postsecondary education institutions in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Percents may not sum to 100 and numbers may not sum to totals because of rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

Variances
The standard error is a measure of the variability of estimates due to sampling. It indicates the variability of a sample estimate that would be obtained from all possible samples of a given design and size. Standard errors are used as a measure of the precision expected from a particular sample. If all possible samples were surveyed under similar conditions, intervals of 1.96 standard errors below to 1.96 standard errors above a particular statistic would include the true population parameter being estimated in about 95 percent of the samples. This is a 95 percent confidence interval. For example, the estimated

percentage of institutions reporting that they enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 is 72.1 percent, and the estimated standard error is 1.3 percent. The 95 percent confidence interval for the statistic extends from [72.1 - (1.3 times 1.96)] to [72.1 + (1.3 times 1.96)], or from 69.6 to 74.6 percent. Tables of standard errors for each table and figure in the report are provided in appendix A. Estimates of standard errors were computed using a technique known as jackknife replication. As with any replication method, jackknife replication involves constructing a number of subsamples (replicates) from the full sample and computing

33

the statistic of interest for each replicate. The mean squared error of the replicate estimates around the full sample estimate provides an estimate of the variances of the statistics (Wolter, 1985). To construct the replications, 50 stratified subsamples of the full sample were created and then dropped one at a time to define 50 jackknife replicates (Wolter, 1985, p. 183). A computer program (WesVarPC), distributed free of charge by Westat through the Internet,16 was used to calculate the estimates of standard errors. WesVarPC is a stand-alone Windows application that computes sampling errors for a wide variety of statistics (totals, percents, ratios, log-odds ratios, general functions of estimates in tables, linear regression parameters, and logistic regression parameters). The test statistics used in the analysis were calculated using the jackknife variances and thus appropriately reflected the complex nature of the sample design. In particular, an adjusted chisquare test using Satterthwaite's approximation to the design effect was used in the analysis of the two-way tables.17 Finally, Bonferroni adjustments were made to control for multiple comparisons where appropriate. For example, for an “experiment-wise” comparison involving g pairwise comparisons, each difference was tested at the 0.05/g significance level to control for the fact that g differences were simultaneously tested. •

institutions are those at which the highest level of offering is 4 or more years (baccalaureate or higher degree).18 Private comprises private nonprofit and private for-profit institutions; these private institutions are reported together because there are too few private for-profit institutions in the sample for this survey to report them as a separate category. Postsecondary education institutions include both institutions of higher education (traditional colleges, universities, and professional schools such as law and medical schools) and other postsecondary institutions (e.g., allied health and vocational-technical schools). Less-than-2year institutions are not included in the PEQIS panel or in this survey. Region: Northeast, Southeast, Central, and West. The states in each region are as follows:

Northeast: Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Southeast: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Central: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

Definitions of Analysis Variables
The following institutional characteristics were used as variables for analyzing the survey data: • Type of institution: public 2-year, private 2year, public 4-year, private 4-year. Type was created from a combination of level (2-year, 4-year) and control (public, private). Two-year institutions are defined as institutions at which the highest level of offering is at least 2 but less than 4 years (below the baccalaureate degree); 4-year
WesVarPC version 2 is available through the Internet at http://www.westat.com/wesvar /. For example, see Rao and Scott, 1984.

16

18

17

Definitions for level are from the data file documentation for the IPEDS Institutional Characteristics file, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

34

Size of institution: less than 3,000 students (small); 3,000 to 9,999 students (medium); and 10,000 or more students (large).

Background Information
The survey was performed under contract with Westat, using the Postsecondary Education Quick Information System (PEQIS). This is the eighth PEQIS survey to be conducted. Westat's Project Director was Elizabeth Farris, and the Survey Manager was Laurie Lewis. Bernie Greene was the NCES Project Officer. The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, U.S. Department of Education requested the data. The following individuals reviewed this report:

For more information about the Postsecondary Education Quick Information System or the Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, contact Bernie Greene, Early Childhood, International, and Crosscutting Studies Division, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 555 New Jersey Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20208-5651, e-mail: Bernard_Greene@ed.gov, telephone (202) 219-1366.

References
Horn, L., and Berktold, J. (1999). Students with disabilities in postsecondary education: A profile of preparation, participation, and outcomes. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, Statistical Analysis Report No. 1999-187. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Lewis, L., and Farris, E. (1994). Deaf and hard of hearing students in postsecondary education. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, Statistical Analysis Report No. 94-394. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Rao, J.N.K., and Scott, A. (1984). On chi-square tests for multi-way contingency tables with cell proportions estimated from survey data. Annals of Statistics, 12, 46-60. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (1999). Digest of Education Statistics 1998 (NCES 1999-036). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Wolter, K. (1985). Introduction to variance estimation. Springer-Verlag.

Outside NCES • • • • Ellen Bradburn, Education Statistics Services Institute Cathy Henderson, Independent Consultant David Hurst, Education Statistics Services Institute Brenda Rawlings, Gallaudet University

Inside NCES • • • Larry Bobbitt, Postsecondary Studies Division Michael Cohen, Office of the Deputy Commissioner Edith McArthur, Early Childhood, International, and Crosscutting Studies Division Jeffrey Williams, Elementary/Secondary and Libraries Studies Division

35

36

Appendix A Tables of Standard Errors

A-1

A-2

Table of Contents Standard Error Tables for Text Tables and Figures Table 1a Standard errors of the number of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions, and the number and percent that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics ................................................... Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions that enrolled any students in each disability category in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics........................................................................................ Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions that indicated that they enrolled students with specific other disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98....................................................................................................... Standard errors of the number of students in each disability category and total with any disability enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics ....................................................... Standard errors of the number of students with specific other disabilities enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics........................................................................................ Standard errors of the percentage distributions of all students enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions, and of students who identified themselves to the institution as having a disability in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics........................................................................................ Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 according to the type of count of the number of students by specific disability categories and the total number of students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics ....................... Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating the basis for their counts of students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics ........... Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that require verification of student disabilities, and what those institutions accept as verification, by institutional characteristics........................................................................................ Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities that provided various services or accommodations to students with disabilities during 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics........................................................................................ Page

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7a

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Table of Contents (continued) Standard Error Tables for Text Tables and Figures (continued) Table 11a Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 where the person or office responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities works, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency regarding students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics................................................................................................................ Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 with an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies, and whether the planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities, or requests input from the disability support services office or coordinator, by institutional characteristics ................................................................ Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions with various kinds of education materials or activities designed to assist faculty and staff in working with students with disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98............................................... Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that have various kinds of education materials or activities designed to assist faculty and staff in working with students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics....................... Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities, and the audiences for those materials and activities, by institutional characteristics ........................................................................ Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating how they maintain their records about students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics................................................................................................................ Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating that their records about students with disabilities currently contain selected variables, and if not, how easily the variables can be added or merged to the records, by institutional characteristics................................................................................................................ Standard errors for the figures and for data not shown in tables: 1998 ........................... Page

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13a

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14a

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15a

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16a

A-21

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A-4

Table 1a.—Standard errors of the number of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions, and the number and percent that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic Total number of institutions 42.0 Institutions enrolling students with disabilities Number 70.6 Percent 1.3

All institutions....................................................................... Institutional type Public 2-year ......................................................................... Private 2-year........................................................................ Public 4-year ......................................................................... Private 4-year........................................................................ Geographic region Northeast ............................................................................... Southeast ............................................................................... Central ................................................................................... West....................................................................................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 ..................................................................... 3,000 to 9,999 ....................................................................... 10,000 or more...................................................................... NOTE: Standard errors are computed on unrounded numbers.

21.6 29.7 9.9 40.3

25.0 44.8 6.2 45.7

1.1 3.9 1.6 2.2

55.9 53.0 95.4 71.6

40.5 34.2 53.7 67.1

2.7 2.6 4.3 3.4

42.8 7.6 2.1

70.3 8.1 2.1

1.7 0.4 --

--Estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at 100 percent. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

A-5

Table 2a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions that enrolled any students in each disability category in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic Hearing impairment Blind or visual impairment Speech or language impairment Mobility/ orthopedic impairment Specific learning disabilities Health impairment/ problem Mental illness/ emotional disturbance 1.4 1.3 Other

All institutions...... Institutional type Public 2-year ........ Private 2-year....... Public 4-year ........ Private 4-year....... Geographic region Northeast .............. Southeast .............. Central .................. West...................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 .... 3,000 to 9,999 ...... 10,000 or more.....

1.2

1.8

1.0

1.9

1.6

1.6

2.8 3.5 2.0 2.1

3.4 2.7 3.5 2.5

3.1 1.4 3.3 1.3

3.3 4.3 1.9 3.2

2.3 4.3 3.0 1.7

2.9 3.3 4.1 2.4

2.9 2.1 4.2 2.2

3.8 2.1 3.5 1.5

3.2 3.8 4.3 3.0

3.7 4.3 4.4 3.8

2.1 2.5 2.5 2.5

3.6 3.2 5.3 3.8

3.0 3.7 5.4 3.1

3.6 3.8 3.3 4.1

3.3 3.4 3.6 3.2

2.4 3.1 3.2 2.7

1.4 1.2 --

2.3 2.3 0.4

1.1 3.1 3.3

2.5 1.3 0.6

2.1 0.9 0.4

2.1 2.8 1.6

1.7 2.6 1.6

1.5 3.1 4.0

--Estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at 100 percent. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

A-6

Table 3a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions that indicated that they enrolled students with specific other disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98
Disability Brain injury............................................................................................................................ Developmental disability ...................................................................................................... Neurological impairment ...................................................................................................... Substance abuse..................................................................................................................... Multiple disabilities............................................................................................................... Temporary disabilities........................................................................................................... Specific disability unknown ................................................................................................. Other....................................................................................................................................... Percent 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.8 0.4

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

A-7

Table 4a.—Standard errors of the number of students in each disability category and total with any disability enrolled at 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic Total with any disability Hearing impairment Blind or visual Speech or language Mobility/ orthopedic Specific learning Health impairment/ problem Mental illness/ emotional disturbance 1,959.3 4,864.4 Other

impairment impairment impairment disabilities

All institutions....... 11,069.3 Institutional type Public 2-year ......... 10,190.1 Private 2-year ........ Public 4-year ......... Private 4-year ........ Geographic region Northeast................ Southeast................ Central.................... 6,535.2 4,809.4 9,186.2 1,007.2 7,102.4 4,314.8

1,706.3

854.0

437.8

2,702.0

5,704.4

3,142.1

764.1 72.2 406.9 1,442.8

698.4 49.1 534.6 139.8

413.2 18.5 144.3 71.8

2,437.1 201.7 1,509.1 276.7

4,790.3 558.2 4,150.5 3,169.3

2,404.1 333.0 1,301.7 809.2

1,347.1 108.9 1,142.8 582.5

4,696.3 193.1 1,001.0 466.6

1,410.5 467.3 537.3 620.6

258.5 353.3 560.4 737.4

185.1 106.5 177.1 331.8

759.0 1,185.8 1,275.9 2,326.3

4,058.9 2,889.2 3,920.1 5,133.4

1,742.5 1,183.3 1,463.8 2,124.4

828.7 721.7 1,132.0 1,322.8

795.3 730.2 3,173.0 2,871.1

West ....................... 10,080.0 Size of institution Less than 3,000 ..... 3,000 to 9,999........ 10,000 or more ...... 5,125.0 7,467.6 6,460.2

460.1 382.2 1,616.3

475.7 363.8 599.4

218.0 196.5 326.5

1,806.6 1,119.7 1,717.0

2,704.5 3,078.3 4,110.9

1,343.7 1,987.4 1,778.6

851.9 1,051.9 1,379.0

707.9 3,853.8 2,879.2

NOTE: Standard errors are computed on unrounded numbers. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

A-8

Table 5a.—Standard errors of the number of students with specific other disabilities enrolled at 2year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic DevelopBrain injury mental disability 969.1 1,286.7 Neurological impairment 158.0 Substance abuse Multiple disabilities Temporary disabilities Specific disability unknown 4,245.7 1,204.2 Other

All institutions...... Institutional type Public 2-year ........ Private 2-year....... Public 4-year ........ Private 4-year....... Geographic region Northeast .............. Southeast .............. Central .................. West...................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 .... 3,000 to 9,999 ...... 10,000 or more.....

257.5

889.3

271.8

924.7 7.1 169.3 52.6

1285.4 -38.2 14.7

152.3 -89.3 24.2

240.7 11.5 95.6 6.7

885.9 -321.8 12.5

46.1 -253.6 46.7

4,261.8 191.6 443.6 337.0

679.1 -923.6 240.8

144.1 109.5 143.7 913.0

27.9 59.6 221.7 1,296.9

41.9 75.9 51.3 140.4

185.3 86.8 58.3 168.9

388.9 358.7 646.9 357.8

66.9 142.9 126.7 176.5

390.3 668.4 2,085.6 2,012.7

287.4 465.6 354.8 1,072.9

331.6 352.2 834.7

252.9 920.9 862.8

22.3 115.9 108.6

23.8 204.2 155.0

288.8 734.7 409.4

-75.1 261.2

594.8 3,677.6 2,128.2

251.3 414.9 1,102.0

--Estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at zero. NOTE: Standard errors are computed on unrounded numbers. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

A-9

Table 6a.—Standard errors of the percentage distributions of all students enrolled at 2-year and 4year postsecondary education institutions, and of students who identified themselves to the institution as having a disability in 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Students who identified Institutional characteristic All students themselves to the institution as having a disability All institutions................................................................................................................... Institutional type Public 2-year ..................................................................................................................... Private 2-year.................................................................................................................... Public 4-year ..................................................................................................................... Private 4-year.................................................................................................................... Geographic region Northeast ........................................................................................................................... Southeast ........................................................................................................................... Central ............................................................................................................................... West................................................................................................................................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 ................................................................................................................. 3,000 to 9,999 ................................................................................................................... 10,000 or more.................................................................................................................. --Estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at 100 percent. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998. 0.4 0.6 0.7 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.3 2.0 2.1 0.7 0.1 0.7 0.5 1.8 0.2 1.5 1.0 ---

A-10

Table 7a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 according to the type of count of the number of students by specific disability categories and the total number of students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics
Type of count of the number of students Institutional characteristic by specific disability category Unduplicated All institutions....................................................... Institutional type Public 2-year ......................................................... Private 2-year........................................................ Public 4-year ......................................................... Private 4-year........................................................ Geographic region Northeast ............................................................... Southeast ............................................................... Central ................................................................... West....................................................................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 ..................................................... 3,000 to 9,999 ....................................................... 10,000 or more...................................................... *Counts by specific disability categories are unknown. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998. 2.0 2.3 2.5 1.8 2.0 2.5 0.8 1.0 0.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.8 2.5 3.2 3.3 2.3 2.5 3.1 3.1 1.8 0.3 0.9 0.9 1.6 1.8 3.1 3.1 1.8 1.8 3.1 3.1 1.8 2.1 2.8 2.8 2.4 1.8 2.8 2.9 2.1 1.2 0.3 0.4 0.9 1.9 2.8 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.8 2.0 2.0 1.5 Duplicated 1.4 Other* 0.6 Type of count of the total number of students with disabilities Unduplicated 1.4 Duplicated 1.4

A-11

Table 8a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating the basis for their counts of students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics
Students that identified Students that provided Only students to whom Institutional characteristic services/ accommodations were provided verification of their disabilities, regardless of whether services/ accommodations were provided themselves to your office as having a disability, regardless of whether disabilities were verified or services/ accommodations were provided All institutions ................................ Institutional type Public 2-year................................... Private 2-year.................................. Public 4-year................................... Private 4-year.................................. Geographic region Northeast......................................... Southeast......................................... Central............................................. West................................................. Size of institution Less than 3,000............................... 3,000 to 9,999................................. 10,000 or more................................ 1.8 2.6 1.8 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.6 1.8 1.2 1.8 1.3 1.0 3.9 3.5 3.6 2.5 2.8 3.8 4.0 2.6 3.5 4.1 3.1 3.1 2.6 1.9 2.0 3.0 3.2 4.0 2.9 2.9 2.7 4.4 3.5 3.5 2.8 5.5 1.9 2.9 2.3 4.6 1.1 2.3 1.3 1.7 1.8 Students that have been reported to your office as having identified themselves as having a disability, regardless of whether your office had any contact with them

1.3

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

A-12

Table 9a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that require verification of student disabilities, and what those institutions accept as verification, by institutional characteristics
Accepted as verification* Testing or formal Institutional characteristic Require verification Medical evaluation/ statement Psychological evaluation/ statement Vocational rehabilitation agency evaluation evaluation by your institution's disability support services office or coordinator All institutions ......... Institutional type Public 2-year............ Private 2-year........... Public 4-year............ Private 4-year........... Geographic region Northeast.................. Southeast.................. Central...................... West.......................... Size of institution Less than 3,000........ 3,000 to 9,999.......... 10,000 or more ........ 2.2 0.9 0.7 1.2 0.6 -1.2 0.6 0.3 2.3 2.0 1.8 2.2 2.3 1.4 3.5 2.7 1.6 2.2 1.7 1.1 3.4 2.7 3.4 3.1 1.9 2.2 2.4 1.9 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.5 3.6 3.8 2.8 2.3 3.1 3.8 3.1 3.7 4.4 3.3 3.5 2.6 2.3 2.6 3.2 2.1 5.1 0.9 2.4 1.9 6.0 0.5 0.9 1.8 7.4 -1.6 2.2 6.0 2.6 3.6 2.8 4.6 2.2 2.5 3.8 6.5 1.9 2.5 2.3 5.0 1.9 2.9 1.4 0.8 0.7 1.6 1.5 Informal evaluation or determination by your institution's disability support services office or coordinator 2.2 1.4 Other

--Estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at 100 percent. *Estimates based on those institutions that require verification of student disabilities. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

A-13

Table 10a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities that provided various services or accommodations to students with disabilities during 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics
Sign Institutional characteristic language interpreters/ transliterators All institutions................ Institutional type Public 2-year .................. Private 2-year ................. Public 4-year .................. Private 4-year ................. Geographic region Northeast......................... Southeast......................... Central............................. West ................................ Size of institution Less than 3,000 .............. 3,000 to 9,999................. 10,000 or more ............... 2.5 2.1 0.8 1.7 2.3 2.0 2.5 1.9 0.6 1.9 1.3 0.2 0.9 2.2 1.8 1.5 1.4 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 2.1 1.7 0.7 1.8 1.7 1.0 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.2 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.9 4.2 4.1 3.9 4.5 2.9 3.1 3.4 4.3 1.9 1.7 1.8 2.1 2.0 1.6 2.7 2.3 0.6 1.7 1.4 1.4 4.0 4.4 4.2 4.2 2.9 2.6 3.4 4.4 3.9 3.3 2.5 2.4 2.9 0.2 2.7 1.4 2.7 5.7 2.4 2.9 2.4 4.7 1.8 2.7 1.4 2.1 2.0 1.6 2.2 3.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 0.2 1.2 0.6 2.6 3.1 1.8 2.7 2.2 5.5 2.3 2.9 1.7 Oral transliterators Adaptive and technology Readers, classroom notetakers, or scribes Paratransit for oncampus mobility Personal attendants interpreters/ equipment Independent living skills training Tutors to Textbooks on tape assist with ongoing coursework

1.4

1.8

1.4

0.9

1.0

0.7

1.7

1.3

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Table 10a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities that provided various services or accommodations to students with disabilities during 1996-97 or 1997-98, by institutional characteristics—continued
Special Alternative Institutional characteristic exam formats or additional time Course substitution or waiver Adaptive physical education courses or sports Registration assistance or priority class registration Special orientation Disability resource handbook career or placement services disabled students All institutions................ Institutional type Public 2-year .................. Private 2-year ................. Public 4-year .................. Private 4-year ................. Geographic region Northeast......................... Southeast......................... Central............................. West ................................ Size of institution Less than 3,000 .............. 3,000 to 9,999................. 10,000 or more ............... 1.5 0.8 -2.2 2.6 1.1 1.6 2.4 1.6 2.3 1.7 0.8 2.6 2.3 2.4 1.6 2.3 1.5 1.8 3.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 1.4 1.4 2.7 1.4 2.5 2.6 3.1 2.9 3.4 3.1 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 3.0 3.5 3.7 4.0 4.3 3.4 3.2 2.5 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.6 2.2 3.1 2.6 2.7 2.5 3.4 2.3 2.5 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.7 1.7 5.2 -2.1 3.6 4.3 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.7 2.3 2.8 5.3 1.3 2.7 3.3 3.4 2.5 2.7 2.1 2.2 2.0 1.7 2.7 4.3 2.7 1.8 3.4 5.1 2.3 2.1 2.2 3.2 2.1 2.8 1.0 1.8 1.2 1.7 1.9 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.1 Disability benefits Other

targeted for counseling

--Estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at 100 percent. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

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Table 11a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 where the person or office responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities works, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency regarding students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics
Institutional characteristic All institutions.......................................................................................... Institutional type Public 2-year ............................................................................................ Private 2-year........................................................................................... Public 4-year ............................................................................................ Private 4-year........................................................................................... Geographic region Northeast .................................................................................................. Southeast .................................................................................................. Central ...................................................................................................... West.......................................................................................................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 ........................................................................................ 3,000 to 9,999 .......................................................................................... 10,000 or more......................................................................................... 2.0 1.6 0.8 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.4 1.4 6.6 2.2 2.5 Work with state vocational rehabilitation agency 1.4

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

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Table 12a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 with an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies, and whether the planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities, or requests input from the disability support services office or coordinator, by institutional characteristics
The formal planning process:* Institutional characteristic Have an institution-wide formal planning process Explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities Requests input from the disability support services office or coordinator 2.8

All institutions............................ Institutional type Public 2-year .............................. Private 2-year............................. Public 4-year .............................. Private 4-year............................. Geographic region Northeast .................................... Southeast .................................... Central ........................................ West............................................ Size of institution Less than 3,000 .......................... 3,000 to 9,999 ............................ 10,000 or more...........................

1.6

2.9

3.3 5.5 2.4 3.6

3.7 7.3 3.6 4.3

4.0 8.5 3.6 4.6

3.7 3.2 3.6 3.2

5.3 4.2 3.9 5.8

4.9 4.6 4.4 4.8

2.2 2.8 1.9

4.3 3.2 1.9

4.1 3.4 2.0

*Estimates based on those institutions that have an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

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Table 13a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions with various kinds of education materials or activities designed to assist faculty and staff in working with students with disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98
One-on-one Workshops Enrollment of students with disabilities Faculty/ staff handbook Annual mailings to faculty/staff and presentations to faculty groups discussions with faculty/ staff who request information or assistance All institutions ........................... Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98..................................... Institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98.................. 3.3 2.2 4.0 4.0 4.1 1.3 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998. 1.8 1.8 2.2 1.2 1.8 1.1 1.7 1.4 2.3 1.3 Information resources (e.g., books, videotapes) available for faculty/staff use 1.8 0.9 Other

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Table 14a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that have various kinds of education materials or activities designed to assist faculty and staff in working with students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics
One-on-one Workshops Faculty/ Institutional characteristic staff handbook Annual mailings to faculty/staff and presentations to faculty groups discussions with faculty/ staff who request information or assistance All institutions.................................. Institutional type Public 2-year .................................... Private 2-year................................... Public 4-year .................................... Private 4-year................................... Geographic region Northeast .......................................... Southeast .......................................... Central .............................................. West.................................................. Size of institution Less than 3,000 ................................ 3,000 to 9,999 .................................. 10,000 or more................................. 2.7 2.8 1.5 2.4 3.4 1.7 3.2 1.5 0.9 1.7 1.1 0.3 2.6 1.8 1.7 1.4 2.3 2.3 4.1 4.5 2.7 3.2 3.6 3.3 3.4 3.2 3.7 4.1 4.5 4.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.9 4.4 3.2 3.3 3.3 2.5 2.6 1.8 2.0 3.7 5.5 2.4 3.5 2.8 3.5 3.9 3.1 2.6 6.1 2.5 4.3 1.0 5.7 0.9 1.9 2.9 7.0 2.6 3.0 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.5 1.8 1.8 2.2 1.2 Information resources (e.g., books, videotapes) available for faculty/staff use 1.8 1.1 Other

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

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Table 15a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 that have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities, and the audiences for those materials and activities, by institutional characteristics
Audiences for materials and activities* Institutional characteristic Developed materials or activities High school counselors and/or transition coordinators All institutions............ Institutional type Public 2-year .............. Private 2-year ............. Public 4-year .............. Private 4-year ............. Geographic region Northeast..................... Southeast..................... Central......................... West ............................ Size of institution Less than 3,000 .......... 3,000 to 9,999............. 10,000 or more ........... 2.2 2.5 1.8 4.0 1.3 0.7 8.5 3.4 2.1 6.1 4.8 2.3 7.0 4.0 2.5 6.1 2.6 1.8 7.6 4.6 2.0 3.3 3.5 1.6 2.5 2.8 3.3 2.5 2.6 4.0 5.9 3.3 6.9 6.0 5.2 5.4 4.3 7.5 6.8 3.1 6.3 6.9 6.0 5.6 5.7 5.6 6.2 5.8 7.1 8.3 5.0 5.6 3.1 3.4 4.3 3.3 3.3 2.6 2.8 2.0 1.9 (#) 3.3 (#) 4.9 (#) 3.7 (#) 4.6 (#) 4.0 (#) 5.2 (#) 4.1 (#) 3.6 (#) 4.4 (#) 5.0 (#) 3.3 (#) 3.0 (#) 2.8 (#) 1.6 1.8 3.8 2.8 3.2 Other postsecondary institutions Businesses/ employers Community and civic organizations State vocational rehabilitation agencies Other types of vocational rehabilitation agencies Other

2.6

3.7

2.0

*Estimates based on those institutions that have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities. (#) Too few cases for a reliable estimate. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

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Table 16a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating how they maintain their records about students with disabilities, by institutional characteristics
Computerized Computerized Separate database as part of the database as part of the computerized general student record general student record database maintained system, accessible Institutional characteristic system, accessible to by the disability only to the disability various institutional support services support services offices office/coordinator office/coordinator All institutions ................. Institutional type Public 2-year.................... Private 2-year .................. Public 4-year.................... Private 4-year .................. Geographic region Northeast.......................... Southeast.......................... Central.............................. West ................................. Size of institution Less than 3,000................ 3,000 to 9,999.................. 10,000 or more ................ 1.4 1.9 1.4 1.2 1.7 1.3 1.9 2.8 1.4 2.8 2.4 2.1 1.6 0.2 -2.2 2.3 1.9 2.5 1.9 1.8 0.8 1.5 2.7 2.4 2.6 2.5 3.0 3.2 4.2 4.0 3.6 2.4 2.9 2.1 2.4 3.7 1.4 2.2 2.5 0.9 1.5 0.7 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.1 3.3 4.9 3.1 2.8 1.3 5.6 1.6 1.9 1.1 0.9 1.5 Only paper files maintained by the disability support services office/ coordinator No formal records are maintained about students with disabilities

1.9

1.1

--Estimate of standard error is not derived because it is based on a statistic estimated at zero percent. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

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Table 17a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating that their records about students with disabilities currently contain selected variables, and if not, how easily the variables can be added or merged to the records, by institutional characteristics
Sex Institutional characteristic On record Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 3.5 1.9 On record Race/ethnicity Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 2.7 2.1 On record Age or date of birth Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 2.8 1.6 On record Attendance status (full or part time) Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 2.2

All institutions.... Institutional type Public 2-year ...... Private 2-year ..... Public 4-year ...... Private 4-year ..... Geographic region Northeast............. Southeast............. Central................. West .................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 .. 3,000 to 9,999..... 10,000 or more ...

1.8

3.5

2.6

2.7

2.4

3.0 6.7 2.6 3.4

4.5 (#) 5.3 5.9

4.2 (#) 5.3 6.0

2.9 7.8 2.9 3.1

4.1 (#) 4.3 3.1

3.7 (#) 3.7 3.6

3.2 6.8 2.2 3.9

4.4 (#) 4.5 5.6

4.3 (#) 4.6 5.7

1.8 5.0 2.4 3.2

4.6 (#) 3.6 5.4

4.2 (#) 3.8 4.1

3.4 3.2 4.0 3.9

6.4 5.4 6.3 7.3

6.2 5.4 6.2 7.3

4.0 4.2 4.6 4.0

5.4 4.6 6.7 4.7

5.6 4.1 6.4 4.0

4.5 3.6 3.5 3.6

5.3 7.4 4.6 6.9

4.9 7.0 4.6 7.0

3.7 3.4 3.6 3.9

5.2 3.7 5.7 4.8

5.0 3.2 5.5 4.8

2.6 2.8 1.9

4.9 4.8 2.4

5.0 4.2 2.4

2.9 2.5 1.5

3.7 3.9 2.7

3.9 3.7 2.4

3.0 2.7 1.9

3.9 3.7 2.3

4.2 3.3 2.6

2.4 2.2 1.5

3.7 4.2 2.7

2.9 4.2 2.7

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Table 17a.—Standard errors of the percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions enrolling students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 indicating that their records about students with disabilities currently contain selected variables, and if not, how easily the variables can be added or merged to the records, by institutional characteristics--continued
Level (undergraduate/ Institutional characteristic On record graduate)2 Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 3.9 1.9 On record Whether student receives financial aid Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 1.9 1.7 On record Major field of study/program Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 3.0 1.8 On record Certificates or degrees awarded by the institution Can be added:1 Easily With difficulty 2.4

All institutions.... Institutional type Public 2-year ...... Private 2-year ..... Public 4-year ...... Private 4-year ..... Geographic region Northeast............. Southeast............. Central................. West .................... Size of institution Less than 3,000 .. 3,000 to 9,999..... 10,000 or more ...

2.4

4.0

2.3

3.1

2.2

--2.4 3.9

--5.1 5.6

--5.3 5.2

2.4 6.3 2.4 3.2

3.8 (#) 2.4 4.0

3.8 (#) 3.0 2.5

2.4 4.5 3.0 3.5

6.4 (#) 4.3 5.0

6.0 (#) 4.3 3.8

2.8 5.6 3.1 2.9

4.8 (#) 2.8 3.7

4.5 (#) 2.7 3.3

4.7 3.3 5.9 7.4

9.8 12.3 8.7 10.5

9.4 12.3 8.7 6.8

2.7 3.9 4.5 5.1

3.9 3.5 4.3 4.3

4.1 2.7 4.3 3.3

3.5 3.4 3.4 3.9

6.7 5.0 4.5 5.9

6.5 4.2 4.4 6.5

3.8 3.5 4.7 3.7

4.8 4.0 4.9 3.8

4.7 3.4 4.8 4.2

5.1 2.8 1.6

7.0 6.8 4.9

6.2 7.5 4.9

2.9 2.0 1.8

3.7 2.4 2.5

2.9 2.6 2.5

2.4 2.1 2.0

4.2 4.9 2.9

3.8 4.6 2.9

2.5 2.9 1.8

3.0 4.1 2.1

3.5 3.6 2.2

--Does not apply to 2-year institutions. (#) Too few cases for a reliable estimate.
1 2

Estimates based on those institutions indicating that their records about students with disabilities do not currently contain that variable. Estimates based only on those institutions that have both undergraduate and graduate level students.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

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Table 19.—Standard errors for the figures and for data not shown in tables: 1998
Item Figure 1: Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions that require verification of student disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 All institutions............................................................................................................................................... Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities..................................................................................... Institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities............................................................................ Figure 2: Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions where the person or office responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities works, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency regarding students with disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 All institutions............................................................................................................................................... Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities..................................................................................... Institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities............................................................................ Figure 3: Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary institutions with an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies, and whether the planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities, or requests input from the disability support services office or coordinator, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97or 1997-98 Have planning process: all institutions........................................................................................................ Have planning process: enrolled disabled students .................................................................................... Have planning process: did not enroll disabled students ........................................................................... Process considers the needs of disabled students: all institutions ............................................................. Process considers the needs of disabled students: enrolled disabled students.......................................... Process considers the needs of disabled students: did not enroll disabled students ................................ Process requests input: all institutions......................................................................................................... Process requests input: enrolled disabled students ..................................................................................... Process requests input: did not enroll disabled students ............................................................................ Figure 4: Percent of 2-year and 4-year postsecondary education institutions that have developed special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit students with disabilities, by whether the institution enrolled students with disabilities in 1996-97 or 1997-98 All institutions............................................................................................................................................... Institutions that enrolled students with disabilities..................................................................................... Institutions that did not enroll students with disabilities............................................................................ Chapter 2, section on type of counts reported about students with disabilities Institution kept duplicated counts by specific disabilities and an unduplicated count of the total number of students with disabilities ............................................................................................................ Chapter 4, section on provision of support services or accommodations Institution provided at least one support service or accommodation ........................................................ Chapter 5, section on education materials and activities for faculty and staff Institution provided at least one kind of educational material or activity for faculty and staff: all institutions ........................................................................................................................................... Institution provided at least one kind of educational material or activity for faculty and staff: institutions that enrolled students with disabilities ................................................................................ 98 0.6 20 27 3 1.5 1.6 1.5 54 63 31 52 55 36 54 59 32 1.8 1.6 3.9 2.8 2.9 6.4 2.9 2.8 6.8 60 73 27 1.6 1.4 3.3 72 84 40 2.1 1.4 4.5 Estimate Standard error

3

0.4

84 95

1.5 1.0

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Postsecondary Education Quick Information System, Survey on Students with Disabilities at Postsecondary Education Institutions, 1998.

A-24

Appendix B Survey Questionnaire

B-1

B-2

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS WASHINGTON, D.C. 20208-5651 STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES AT POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

FORM APPROVED O.M.B. No.: 1850-0733 EXPIRATION DATE: 07/99

POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION QUICK INFORMATION SYSTEM This survey is authorized by law (P.L. 103-382). While participation in this survey is voluntary, your cooperation is critical to make the results of this survey comprehensive, accurate, and timely.

IF ABOVE INSTITUTION INFORMATION IS INCORRECT, PLEASE UPDATE DIRECTLY ON LABEL. Name of Person Completing This Form: _________________________________________________________________ Title/Position: ______________________________________________________________________________________ Telephone Number: _________________________________________________________________________________ THANK YOU. PLEASE KEEP A COPY OF THIS SURVEY FOR YOUR RECORDS. RETURN COMPLETED FORM TO: WESTAT, INC. 1650 Research Boulevard Rockville, Maryland 20850 ATTN: Lewis, 900432 IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, CALL: Laurie Lewis at Westat 800-937-8281, Ext. 8284 or 301-251-8284 Fax: 800-254-0984 E-mail: lewisl1@westat.com

According to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, no persons are required to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a valid OMB control number. The valid OMB control number for this information collection is 1850-0733. The time required to complete this information collection is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time to review instructions, search existing data resources, gather the data needed, and complete and review the information collection. If you have any comments concerning the accuracy of the time estimate or suggestions for improving this form, please write to: U.S. Department of Education, Washington, DC 20202-4651. If you have any comments or concerns regarding the status of your individual submission of this form, write directly to: National Center for Education Statistics, 555 New Jersey Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20208. PEQIS Form No.8, 01/98

In fo rm Do at no io tc om n C ple te op y
B-3

1.

During 1996-97 or the current school year, have there been any students enrolled at your institution who identified themselves to your institution as having a disability? Yes ................. 1 (Continue with question 2.) No................... 2 (Skip to question 9.)

2.

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

Hearing impairment (i.e., deaf or hard of hearing) ..................................................................... Blind or visual impairment that cannot be corrected by wearing glasses ..................................... Speech or language impairment ................................................................................................ Mobility/orthopedic impairment .................................................................................................. Specific learning disabilities, including attention deficit disorder.................................................. Health impairment/problem........................................................................................................ Mental illness/emotional disturbance.......................................................................................... Other (specify) ________________________________________________________________ TOTAL WITH ANY DISABILITY................................................................................................

In fo rm Do at no io tc om n C ple te op y
B-4

Please provide the number of students enrolled at your institution in 1996-97 (12-month academic year) who identified themselves to your institution as having a disability. Please report the number of students by specific disabilities, and then the total number with any disability. Please provide counts for 1996-97 if possible. If your and provide the current institution can only provide counts for the current academic period, please check here counts below. ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Questions 3 through 7 ask about the counts of students with disabilities you provided in question 2, and about your institutional records and reporting about students with disabilities. 3. Which one of the following best describes the counts of the number of students by specific disabilities that you provided in question 2? (Circle only one number.) These counts are unduplicated. Each student with a disability is counted only once (i.e., students are counted by their only or their primary disability) ............................................................................................... 1 These counts are duplicated. Each student with a disability is counted by each disability he or she has or each disability for which services are provided (i.e., students with multiple disabilities are counted multiple times).............................................................................................................................................................. 2 These counts are (please describe): __________________________________________________________ 3 4. Which one of the following best describes the total number of students with any disability that you provided in question 2? (Circle only one number.) This is an unduplicated total of the number of students with any disability. Each student with any disability is counted only once, regardless of the number of disabilities he or she has ...................................... 1 This is a duplicated sum of the number of disabilities. Students with more than one disability are counted for each disability he or she has or each disability for which services are provided........................................... 2 This total is (please describe): _______________________________________________________________ 3 5. Which one of the following best describes which students with disabilities are represented in the counts that you provided in question 2? (Circle the first option that applies.) Only students to whom services/accommodations were provided .................................................................... 1 Students that provided verification of their disabilities, regardless of whether services/ accommodations were provided ................................................................................................................................................. 2 Students that identified themselves to your office as having a disability, regardless of whether disabilities were verified or services/accommodations were provided................................................................................ 3 Students that have been reported to your office as having identified themselves as having a disability, regardless of whether your office had any contact with them. This includes information provided to your office about disabled students by other offices (e.g., the admissions or registrar’s office), even if your office had no contact with them ....................................................................................................................... 4 Other (please describe):____________________________________________________________________ 5

6.

Which one of the following best describes how the records about students with disabilities used to prepare the counts provided in question 2 are maintained by your institution? (Circle only one number.) Records are maintained in a computerized database as part of the general student record system, and are accessible to various institutional offices, such as the registrar or the Dean of Students............................. 1

Records are maintained in a separate computerized database by the office or person responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities..................................................................................... 3 Records are maintained only in paper files by the office or person responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities ................................................................................................................ 4 No formal records are maintained about students with disabilities.................................................................... 5 Other (please describe):____________________________________________________________________ 6 7. For each of the variables below, indicate in the first column whether the records about students with disabilities used for question 2 currently contain that variable. If the records do not currently contain that variable, indicate in the second column whether the variable: (1) can be obtained from intake questionnaires or other institutional records or databases and easily added/merged to the records for disabled students; (2) can be obtained and added/merged to the records, but it would be a difficult and/or time-consuming process; or (3) cannot be added/merged to the records. If your institution does not maintain formal records about students with disabilities and skip to question 8. (i.e., you circled option 5 in question 6), please check here Currently has? If no, can be added/merged? Yes, easily 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Yes, with difficulty 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

In fo rm Do at no io tc om n C ple te op y
Yes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 No 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Records are maintained in a computerized database as part of the general student record system, but are accessible only to the office or person responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities (e.g., access to the records on students with disabilities is protected by a password) ..................... 2

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 8.

Sex.............................................................................. Race/ethnicity.............................................................. Age or date of birth ...................................................... Attendance status (full- or part-time) ............................ Level (undergraduate/graduate)................................... Whether student receives financial aid......................... Major field of study/program......................................... Certificates or degrees awarded by the institution ........

No 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Listed below are special support services or accommodations designed for disabled students. Please indicate whether your institution has provided that service or accommodation to a student with disabilities during 1996-97 or the current school year. (Circle one number on each line.) Yes No a. Sign language interpreters/transliterators................................................................................... 1 2 b. Oral interpreters/transliterators................................................................................................... 1 2 c. Adaptive equipment and technology (e.g., assistive listening devices, talking computers) .......... 1 2 d. Readers, classroom notetakers, or scribes................................................................................. 1 2 e. Paratransit for on-campus mobility............................................................................................. 1 2 f. Personal attendants................................................................................................................... 1 2 g. Independent living skills training................................................................................................. 1 2 h. Textbooks on tape ..................................................................................................................... 1 2 i. Tutors to assist with ongoing coursework ................................................................................... 1 2 j. Alternative exam formats or additional time................................................................................ 1 2 k. Course substitution or waiver..................................................................................................... 1 2 l. Adaptive physical education courses or sports ........................................................................... 1 2 m. Registration assistance or priority class registration ................................................................... 1 2 n. Special orientation ..................................................................................................................... 1 2 o. Disability resource handbook ..................................................................................................... 1 2 p. Special career or placement services targeted for disabled students .......................................... 1 2 q. Disability benefits counseling (e.g., VR services, SSI, SSDI, Medicare, Medicaid)...................... 1 2 r. Other (specify) ________________________________________________________________ 1 2

B-5

9.

10.

Does the person or office responsible for providing support services to students with disabilities work, either formally or informally, with the state vocational rehabilitation agency regarding students with disabilities? Yes.......... 1 No.......... 2

11.

Which of the following kinds of education materials or activities, if any, does your institution provide for faculty and staff designed to assist them in working with students with disabilities? (Circle one number on each line.) Yes No a. Faculty/staff handbook............................................................................................................... 1 2 b. Annual mailings to faculty/staff................................................................................................... 1 2 c. Workshops and presentations to faculty groups ......................................................................... 1 2 d. One-on-one discussions with faculty/staff who request information or assistance ....................... 1 2 e. Information resources (e.g., books, videotapes) available for faculty/staff use ............................ 1 2 f. Other (specify) ________________________________________________________________ 1 2 Has your institution developed any special outreach or recruitment materials or activities designed specifically to recruit disabled students? Yes ................. 1 (Continue with question 13.) No................... 2 (Skip to question 14.)

12.

13.

Have these special outreach or recruitment materials been provided to, or have any of these activities been conducted with, any of the following? (Circle one number on each line.) Yes No a. High school counselors and/or transition coordinators................................................................ 1 2 b. Other postsecondary institutions ................................................................................................ 1 2 c. Businesses/employers............................................................................................................... 1 2 d. Community and civic organizations ............................................................................................ 1 2 e. State vocational rehabilitation agencies ..................................................................................... 1 2 f. Other types of vocational rehabilitation agencies........................................................................ 1 2 g. Other (specify) ________________________________________________________________ 1 2 To the best of your knowledge, how would you characterize the planning for the purchase and implementation of new technologies (e.g., computers, telephones) at your institution? a. There is an institution-wide formal planning process for the purchase and implementation of new technologies. Yes.......... 1 (Continue with question 14b.) No.......... 2 (The remaining items apply only to institutions with a formal planning process. Thank you.)

14.

b. The formal technology planning process explicitly considers the needs of students with disabilities. Yes.......... 1 No.......... 2 c. Input is requested from the disability support services office or coordinator to assist in the formal technology planning process. Yes.......... 1 No.......... 2

In fo rm Do at no io tc om n C ple te op y
B-6

Which of the following are accepted as verification of student disabilities? If your institution does not require verification of student disabilities, check here and skip to question 10. (Circle one number on each line.) Yes No a. Medical evaluation/statement..................................................................................................... 1 2 b. Psychological evaluation/statement ........................................................................................... 1 2 c. Vocational rehabilitation agency evaluation................................................................................ 1 2 d. Testing or formal evaluation by your institution’s disability support services office or coordinator 1 2 e. Informal evaluation or determination by your institution’s disability support services office or coordinator ............................................................................................................................ 1 2 f. Other (specify) ________________________________________________________________ 1 2

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