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Original Title: CE 632 Bearing Capacity Handout

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The load per unit area of the foundation at which shear failure in soil occurs is called the ultimate bearing capacity.

1

General Shear Failure:

Load / Area q qu

Sudden or catastrophic failure Well defined failure surface Bulging on the ground surface adjacent to foundation Common failure mode in dense sand

2

Local Shear Failure:

Load / Area q qu1 Set ttlement qu

Common in sand or clay with medium compaction Significant settlement upon loading Failure surface first develops right below the foundation and then slowly extends outwards with load increments Foundation movement shows sudden jerks first (at qu1) and then after a considerable amount of movement the slip surface may reach the ground. A small amount of bulging may occur next to the foundation.

3

Settlement

Punching Failure:

Load / Area q qu1 Set ttlement qu

Common in fairly loose sand or soft clay Failure surface does not extends beyond the zone right beneath the foundation Extensive settlement with a wedge shaped soil zone in elastic equilibrium beneath the foundation. Vertical shear occurs around the edges of foundation. After reaching failure load-settlement curve continues at some slope and mostly linearly.

4

Relative depth of fou undation, Df/B* 0 0 Relative density of sand, Dr 0.5

Local shear

Vesic (1973)

1.0

General shear

B* =

Circular Foundation

2 BL B+L

Punching shear

5

10

B Rough Foundation Surface j neglected Df a g Shear Planes 45/2 III II e d II b Strip Footing k

qu

Assumption L/B ratio is large plain strain problem Df B Shear resistance of soil for Df depth is neglected General shear failure Shear strength is governed by Mohr-Coulomb Criterion

B

qu

Ca B.tan d

Pp = Pp + Ppc + Ppq

Pp = due to only self weight of soil in shear zone Ppc = due to soil cohesion only (soil is weightless) Ppq = due to surcharge only

7

Pp

Pp

Weight term Cohesion term

B. ( 0.5 B.N )

Surcharge term

B.c.Nc

B.q.N q

Terzaghis bearing capacity equation

N = K 1 1 tan P 2 2 cos

Nq =

N c = ( N q 1) cot

Local Shear Failure:

Modify the strength parameters such as:

2 = c cm 3

= tan 1 tan m 3

qu = 1.3c.N c + q.N q + 0.4 B.N qu = 1.3c.N c + q.N q + 0.3 B.N

For square For circular

10

Effect of water table:

Case I: Dw Df Surcharge, q = .Dw + ( D f Dw ) Df B Surcharge, q = .DF In bearing capacity equation replace by Dw D f ( ) B Case III: Dw > (Df + B) Dw

=+

B Limit of influence

= ( 2H + dw )

dw 2 sat + 2 ( H d w ) H2 H

d w = Dw D f

11

~ For saturated cohesive soil, = 0 N q = 1, and N = 0 Df For strip footing: N c = 5 1 + 0.2 with limit of N c 7.5 B For square/circular g footing: For rectangular footing:

D N c = 6 1 + 0.2 f with limit of N c 9.0 B D B N c = 5 1 + 0.2 f 1 + 0.2 for D f 2.5 B L B N c = 7.5 1 + 0.2 for D f > 2.5 L

qu = c.N c + q

Net ultimate bearing capacity,

qnu = qu .D f

qu = c.N c

12

In case of Moment loading Df

ex = ey =

My FV Mx FV

B

B=B-2ey

AF=BL

L=L-2ey ex ey

In case of Horizontal Force at some height but the column is centered on the foundation

M y = FHx .d FH

M x = FHy .d FH

13

Shape factor Depth factor inclination factor Empirical correction factors

N q = tan 2 45 + .e .tan 2

N c = ( N q 1) cot

[By Hansen(1970): [By Vesic(1973):

N = ( N q 1) tan (1 1.4 4 )

N = 1.5 ( N q 1) tan ( ) N = 2 ( N q + 1) tan ( )

qu = c.N c .sc .dc .ic .gc .bc + q.N q .sq .d q .iq .g q .bq + 0.5 .B.N .s .d .i .g .b

Ground factor Base factor

14

15

Shape Factors

sc = 1 + 0.2

B tan 2 45 + L 2

for 10o

sq = s = 1 + 0.1

for lower value

B tan 2 45 + L 2

sq = s = 1

Depth Factors

d c = 1 + 0.2

Df

tan 45 + L 2

for 10o

d q = d = 1 + 0.1

for lower value

Df L

tan 45 + 2

d q = d = 1

Inclination Factors

o ic = iq = 1 90

i = 1

16

Inclination Factors

For = 0 Df for D f B d c = 0.4 B D f for D f > B d c = 0.4 tan 1 B

ic =

1/2

Depth Factors

For D f < B

2 Df d q = 1 + 2 tan . (1 sin ) B

B for > 0 L s = 1 0.4i . ( B L ) sc = 0.2 (1 2ic ) .

d = 1

Shape Factors

sc = 0.2ic .

B L

for = 0

sq = 1 + iq . ( B L ) sin

qu = c.Nc . (1 + sc + dc + ic ) + q

Notes:

1. Notice use of effective base dimensions B, L by Hansen but not by Vesic. 2. The values are consistent with a vertical load or a vertical load accompanied by a horizontal load HB. 3. With a vertical load and a load HL (and either HB=0 or HB>0) you may have to compute two sets of shape and depth factors si,B, si,L and di,B, di,L. For i,L subscripts use ratio L/B or D/L. 4. Compute qu independently by using (siB, diB) and (siL, diL) and use min value for design.

18

Notes:

1. Use Hi as either HB or HL, or both if HL>0. 2. Hansen (1970) did not give an ic for >0. The value given here is from Hansen (1961) and also used by Vesic. 3. Variable ca = base adhesion, , on the order of 0.6 to 1.0 x base cohesion. 4. Refer to sketch on next slide for identification of angles and , footing depth D, location of Hi (parallel and at top of base slab; usually also produces eccentricity). Especially notice V = force normal to base and is not the resultant R from combining V and Hi..

19

20

Note:

1. When =0 (and 0) use N = -2sin() in N term. 2. Compute m = mB when Hi = HB (H parallel to B) and m = mL when Hi = HL (H parallel to L). If you have both HB and HL use m = (mB2 + mL2)1/2. Note use of B and L, not B, L. 3. Hi term 1.0 for computing iq, i (always).

21

Suitability of Methods

22

IS:6403-1981 Recommendations

Net Ultimate Bearing capacity: For cohesive soils

qnu = c.Nc .sc .dc .ic + q. ( N q 1) .sq .dq .iq + 0.5 .B.N .s .d .i

where,

N c , N q , N

N c = 5.14

Shape Factors

For rectangle,

sc = 1 + 0.2

B L

sq = 1 + 0.2

B L

s = 1 0.4

B L

Depth Factors

d c = 1 + 0.2

Df L

The same as Meyerhof (1963)

for

10o

Inclination Factors

23

Peck, Hansen, and Thornburn (1974) & IS:6403-1981 Recommendation

24

Teng (1962):

For Strip Footing: For Square and Circular Footing:

qnu =

For Df > B, B take Df = B

Dw

D Rw = 0.5 1 + w Df Dw D f = 0.5 1 + Rw Df

[ Rw 1

1 [ Rw

Df B B Limit of influence

25

IS:6403-1981 Recommendation: Cohesionless Soil 0. 2500

qnu qc

B 1.5B to 2.0B qc value is taken as average for this zone

0.1675

0.1250

0

0.5

Df

0.0625

=1

Schmertmann (1975):

N N q

qc 0.8

in

kg cm 2

26

IS:6403-1981 Recommendation: Cohesive Soil

Soil Type Normally consolidated clays Over consolidated clays Point Resistance Values ( qc ) kgf/cm2 qc < 20 qc > 20 Range of Undrained Cohesion (kgf/cm2) qc/18 to qc/15 qc/26 to qc/22

27

Depth of rupture zone =

Case I: Layer-1 is weaker than Layer-2

Design using parameters of Layer -1

Distribute the stresses to Layer-2 by 2:1 method and check the bearing capacity at this level for limit state. Also check the bearing capacity for original foundation level using parameters of Layer-1 Choose minimum value for design

Find average c and and use them for ultimate bearing capacity calculation

B tan 45 + B 2 2

cav =

c1 H1 + c2 H 2 + c3 H 3 + .... H1 + H 2 + H 3 + ....

tan av =

28

IS:6403-1981 Recommendation:

29

Bearing Capacity of Footing on Layered Soil: Stronger Soil Underlying Weaker Soil

Depth H is relatively small Punching shear failure in top layer General shear failure in bottom layer

Depth H is relatively large Full failure surface develops in top layer itself

30

10

Bearing Capacity of Footing on Layered Soil: Stronger Soil Underlying Weaker Soil

31

Bearing Capacity of Footing on Layered Soil: Stronger Soil Underlying Weaker Soil

Bearing capacities of continuous footing of with B under vertical load on the surface of homogeneous thick bed of upper and lower soil

32

Bearing Capacity of Footing on Layered Soil: Stronger Soil Underlying Weaker Soil

For Strip Footing:

qu = qb +

H 2 D f K s tan 1 2ca + 1H 2 1 + 1 H qt B H B

Where, qt is the bearing capacity for foundation considering only the top layer to infinite depth

B 2c H qu = qb + 1 + a L B

Special Cases:

B 2 D f K s tan 1 2 1 H qt + 1 H 1 + L 1 + H B

1. Top layer is strong sand and bottom layer is saturated soft clay

= 0 2 = 0 c1

2. Top layer is strong sand and bottom layer is weaker sand

=0 c1

=0 c2

2. Top layer is strong saturated clay and bottom layer is weaker saturated clay

1 = 0

2 = 0

33

11

Q M

e=

qmax = Q 6M + BL B 2 L Q 6M BL B 2 L

M Q

qmax = qmin = Q 6e 1 + BL B Q 6e 1 BL B

B

qmin =

For

of foundation from the soil beneath and stresses will be redistributed. Use

B = B 2e for L = L

sc , sq , s , and B, L for d c , d q , d

to obtain qu

Qu = qu . A

The effective area method for two way eccentricity becomes a little more complex than what is suggested above. It is discussed in the subsequent slides

34

Determination of Effective Dimensions for Eccentrically Loaded foundations (Highter and Anders, 1985)

Case I:

eL 1 e 1 and B L 6 B 6

B1 eB

3 3e B1 = B B 2 B 3 3e L1 = L L 2 L A = 1 L1 B1 2

B =

eL

L1

L = max ( B1 , L1 )

A L

35

Determination of Effective Dimensions for Eccentrically Loaded foundations (Highter and Anders, 1985)

Case II:

eB eL L1

L2

L B

1 ( L1 + L2 ) B 2 L = max ( B1 , L1 )

A =

B =

A L

36

12

Determination of Effective Dimensions for Eccentrically Loaded foundations (Highter and Anders, 1985)

Case III: eL < 1 and 0 < eB < 0.5

B1

eB eL L B B2

1 A = L ( B1 + B2 ) A 2 B = L L = L

37

Determination of Effective Dimensions for Eccentrically Loaded foundations (Highter and Anders, 1985)

Case IV:

B1

eB eL L B B2

1 A = L2 B + ( B1 + B2 )( L + L2 ) 2 A L = L B = L

38

Determination of Effective Dimensions for Eccentrically Loaded foundations (Highter and Anders, 1985)

eR

L =

A B

39

13

Meyerhofs (1953) area correction based on empirical correlations: (American Petroleum Institute, 1987)

40

qu = cN cq + 0.5 BN q

Granular Soil

c = 0 qu = 0.5 BN q

41

Cohesive Soil

= 0

qu = cN cq

Ns =

H

c

42

14

Bearing Capacity of Footings on Slopes Graham et al. (1988), Based on method of characteristics

1000

For

Df

100

=0

10

10

20

30

40

43

Bearing Capacity of Footings on Slopes Graham et al. (1988), Based on method of characteristics

1000

For

Df

100

=0

10

10

20

30

40

44

Bearing Capacity of Footings on Slopes Graham et al. (1988), Based on method of characteristics

For

Df B

= 0.5

45

15

Bearing Capacity of Footings on Slopes Graham et al. (1988), Based on method of characteristics

For

Df B

= 1.0

46

B f Df e 45/2 g qu a

= 45+/2

ro b' b

c'

N c = N c .

b' c'

Labd e Labde

Aaef g Aaefg

47

45/2

d'

= Nq . Nq

Use of soil compressibility factors in general bearing capacity equation. These correction factors are function of the rigidity of soil

Ir =

Gs tan c + vo

B 3.30 0.45 L tan 45 2

B B/2

I rc = 0.5.e

For

I r I rc

cc = cq = c = 1

= .( D f + B / 2) vo

For

I r < I rc

cq = c = e

For > 0 cc = cq 1 cq

B + 0.60.log I r L

48

N q tan

16

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