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Chapter 10

Mechanical Springs
Machine Design II
Prepared by
Adeel Nizami
Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering
The University of Lahore
Flexibility
Flexibility is sometimes needed and is oftenprovided by
metal bodies with cleverly controlled geometry
These bodies can exhibit flexibility to the degree the
designer seeks
These devices allow controlled application of force or
torque; the storing and release of energy can be
another purpose
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Shocks and vibrations
Cam followers
Brakes (friction)
Governors
Measuring devices
Toys and watches (storing energy)
Springs
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A spring is basically defined as an elastic
body whose function is to distort when
loaded and to recover its original shape
when the load is removed.
Mechanical springs are used to
exert force,
provide flexibility
store or absorbenergy
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Types of Springs
Springs may be classified as wire springs, flat springs, or
special shaped springs and there are variations within
these divisions
Wire springs include helical springs of round or square
wire, made to resist and deflect under tensile,
compressive, and torsional loads
Flat springs include cantilever or elliptical types, wound
motor- or clock-type power springs and flat spring
washers usually called Belleville springs
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Examples of different types of springs
Wire Springs
Flat Springs
Cantilever/ Elliptical
(leaf)/Belleville
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Torsional Spring
Helical springs used to appl y torque or store
rotational energy are commonl y referred to as
torsion or double torsion
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Manufacturing of Springs.
A diagram depicting spring coiling done by a CNC machine.
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Helical Compression Spring
c
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A
a
c
Stresses in Helical Springs
F
F
F
T=FD/2
F
Stresses in Helical Springs
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Design Parameters
Free Length (L
o
) - The
length of the unloaded
spring.
Wire Diameter (d) - The
diameter of the wire that
is wound into a helix.
Coil Diameter (D) - The
mean diameter of the
helix, i.e., (D
outer
+
D
inner
)/2.
Total Coils (N
t
)- The
number of coils or turns
in the spring.
F
F
T=FD/2
The Torsion in the Spring
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Free Length (L
o
)
The length of the unloaded spring
Wire Diameter (d)
The diameter of the wire that is
wound into a helix
Coil Diameter (D)
The mean diameter of the helix, i.e.,
(D
outer
+D
inner
)/2
Total Coils (N
t
)
The number of coils or turns in the
spring
Stresses in Helical Springs
a) Direct shear due to force F
(F/A)
b) Shear stress duetoTorqueT
which is produced due to
force F i.e. spring wire is
subjected to the twisting
moment due to compressive
forceF (Tr/J )
shear
Stresses in Helical Springs
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The Curvature Effect
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Deflection of Helical Springs
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2
10-4 Compression Springs
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Formulas for compression spring dimensions
where N
a
is the number of active coils
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Set Removal or Presetting
A process usedinthemanufactureof compressionspring to induce
useful residual stresses
It is done by making the spring longer than needed and then
compressingit toitssolidheight
Springs to be preset should be designed so that 10 to 30% of the
initial freelengthisremovedduringtheoperation
If thestressat thesolidheight isgreater than1.3times thetorsional
yieldstrength, distortionmayoccur
Set removal increases thestrength of thespring and so is specially
useful whenthespringisusedfor energy-storagepurposes
However, set removal shouldnot beusedwhenspringsaresubjected
tofatigue
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Stability of the spring (Buckling)
Compressioncoil springs will bucklewhenthefreelength of thespringis
larger andtheendconditionsarenot proper toevenlydistributetheloadall
alongthecircumferenceof thecoil. Thecoil compressionspringswill have
atendency tobucklewhenthedeflection(for agivenfreelength) becomes
toolarge.
Buckling can be prevented by limiting the deflection of the spring or the
freelengthof thespring.
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Critical deflection can be defined as the ratio of
deflection(y) tothefreelength(Lf) of thespring.
Critical length is theratio of freelength(Lf) to mean
coil diameter (D)
The condition for absolute stability can be given
Steels
Spring materials
Springs are manufactured either by hot- or cold-working processes,
dependinguponthesizeof thematerial, thespringindex, andtheproperties
desired
Ingeneral, pre-hardenedwireshouldnot beusedif D/d<4or if d>1/4in
Windingof thespringsinducesresidual stressesthroughbending
Quitefrequently inspringmanufacture, they arerelievedafter winding, by
amildthermal treatment
Graph b/w tensile strength and wire diameter is a straight line for some
material. Then
mandA areslopeandintercept of line. Usetable10-4tofindmandA.
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S
ut
= A/d
m
Selection of Spring Material..
The torsional yield strength can be obtained by assuming that the tensile
yieldstrengthisbetween60% and90% of thetensilestrength.
According to the distortion-energy theory (S
sy
,=0.577 S
y
) the torsional
yieldstrengthfor steelsis
0.35S
ut
S
sy
0.52S
ut
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Example 10.1
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Solution
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Helical Spring Design for Static Service
The preferred range of spring index is 4 C 12, with the lower index
being more difficult to form(because of the danger of surface cracking)
and springs with higher indexes tending to tangleoften enough to require
individual packing
Therecommendedrangeof activeturnsis
3 Na 15
To maintain linearity when a spring is about to close, it is necessary to
avoidthegradual touchingof coils(duetononperfect pitch)
A helical coil spring force-deflection characteristic is ideally linear,
practically, it isnearlyso, but not at eachendof theforce-deflectioncurve
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Helical Spring Design for Static Service
Themaximumoperatingforceshouldbelimitedto
F
max
7/8F
s
whereF
s
isforceat springcloser
Definingthefractional overruntoclosureas, where
F
s
=(1+)F
max
It followsthat
F
s
=(1+)F
max
=(1+)(7/8)F
s
Fromtheouter equality =1/7=0.143=0.15
It isrecommendedthat 0.15
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Helical Spring Design for Static Service
In addition to the relationships and material properties for
springs, there are some recommended design conditions to
follow, namely
4 C 12
3 Na 15
0.15
n
s
1.2
When considering designing a spring for high volume
production, the Figure of Merit (fom) can be the cost of the
wirefromwhichthespringiswound
The fomwould be proportional to the relative material cost,
weight density, andvolume
4
) cos _ _ (
2 2
D N d
t material relative fom
t

=
For comparison between
steels, the specific weight
canbeomitted
Design flow
chart for static
loading
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Choose spring design with
highest f.o.m
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Critical Frequency of Helical Springs
If awaveiscreatedbyadisturbanceat oneendof aswimmingpool, this
wavewill travel downthelengthof thepool, bereflectedback at thefar
end, and continuous in this back and forth motion until it is finally
dampedout
Thesameeffect occursinhelical springs, andiscalledspringsurge
Of oneendof acompressionspringis heldagainst aflat surfaceandthe
other end is disturbed, a compression wave is created that travels back
andforthfromoneendtotheother exactlyliketheswimmingpool wave
When helical springs are used in applications requiring a rapid
reciprocating motion, the designer must be certain that the physical
dimensions of thespringarenot such as to createa natural vibratory
frequency close to the frequency of the applied force; otherwise,
resonancemay occur, resultingindamagingstresses, sincetheinternal
dampingof springmaterial isquitelow
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The governing equation for the translational vibration of a spring is
thewaveequation
where k=springrate
g=accelerationduetogravity
l =lengthof spring
W=weight of spring
x=coordinatealonglengthof spring
u=motionof anyparticleat distancex
The solution to this equation is harmonic and depends on the given
propertiesaswell astheendconditionsof thespring
Theharmonic, natural, frequencies for aspringplacedbetweentwo
flat andparallel plates, inradiansper second, are
2
2
2 2
2
t
u
kgl
W
x
u

,..... 3 , 2 , 1 = = m
W
kg
m
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For spring ends always
in contact with plates
m = 1 is used for considering fundamental critical frequency
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spring has one end against a
flat plate and the other end
free.
Spring weight can be estimated from following equation
Fatigue Loading of Helical Compression Springs
Springs arealmost always subject to fatigueloading e.g. Valvespring
of an automotive engine must sustain millions of cycles of operation
without failure; soit must bedesignedfor infinitelife
Shot peening is used to improve the fatigue strength of dynamically
loadedsprings. Increasesthetorsional fatiguestrengthby20%or more
Best data on the torsional endurance limits of spring steels are those
reported by Zimmerli
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Sines failure criterion in torsional fatigue
S
sm
= 0 S
se
= S
sa
Torsional modulus of rupture or ultimate shearing strength S
su
whereF
a
& F
m
arealternatingandmidrangeloadcomponents
For pre loaded springs, F
min
=pre load and F
min
=0 for springs without pre
loading
Gerber failure criteria in terms of torsional strength
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Shear stress amplitude
Midrange shear stress
Fatigue factor of safety n
f
It is defined as the ration of alternating shear strength Ssa to alternating
shear stress or amplitude shear stress
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Extension Springs
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Extension springs differ fromcompression springs in
that they carry tensile loading, they require some
means of transferring the load fromthe support to the
body of thespring, and thespringbody is wound with
aninitial tension
Theload transfer can bedonewith aswivel hook; but
thisaddstothecost of thefinishedproduct
Stressesinthebodyof theextensionspringarehandled
thesameascompressionsprings
In designing a spring with a hook end, bending and
torsioninthehook must beincludedintheanalysis
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Extension Springs
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Extension Springs
The maximum tensile stress at A, due to bending and axial
loading, is given by
Where (K)
A
is a bending stress correction factor for curvature,
given by
The maximum torsional stress at point B is given by
Where the stress correction factor for curvature, (K)
B
is
(

+ =
2 3
4 16
) (
d d
D
K F
A A

d
r
C
C C
C C
K
A
1
1
1 1
1
2
1
2

) 1 ( 4
1 4
) ( =


=
3
8
) (
d
FD
K
B B

=
d
r
C
C
C
K
B
2
2
2
2
2

4 4
1 4
) ( =

=
Bending Stress
correction factor at
pointA
Torsion Stress correction
factor at point B
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Extension springs
When extension springs aremadewith their coils in contact with oneanother, they
aresaidtobeclose-wound
Somemanufacturers prefer someinitial tension in close-woundsprings inorder to
holdthefreelengthmoreaccurately
Thecorrespondingload-deflectioncurveis shown, whereyis theextensionbeyond
thefreelength L
o
and F
i
is theinitial tension in thespring that must beexceeded
beforethespringdeflects
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Extension Springs
Theload-deflectionrelationisthen
F =Fi +ky
Where k is the spring rate. The free length L
o
of a spring measured
insidetheendloopsor hookcanbeexpressedas
L
o
=2(D d)+(N
b
+1)d =(2C 1+N
b
)d
where D is the mean coil diameter, N
b
is the number of body coils,
andC isthespringindex
With ordinary twisted end loops, to account for the deflection of the
loops indeterminingthespringratek, theequivalent number of active
helical turnsN
a
is
where G and E are the shear and tensile moduli of elasticity,
respectively
E
G
N N
b a
+ =
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Extension Springs
The initial tension in an extension spring is created in the winding
processbytwistingthewireasit iswoundontothemandrel
Whenthespringiscompletedandremovedfromthemandrel, theinitial
tensionislockedinbecausethespringcannot get anyshorted
Thepreferredrangecanbeexpressedinterms of uncorrectedtorsional
stress
i
as
psi
C
C
i
|
.
|

\
|

=
5 . 6
3
4 1000
) 105 . 0 exp(
33500

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Extension Springs
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http://www.hexagon.de/fed_e.htm
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http://www.hexagon.de/fed_e.htm
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Helical Coil Torsion Springs
When a helical coil spring is subjected to end torsion,
it is called a torsion spring
It is usually close-wound, as is a helical coil extension
spring, but with negligible initial tension
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A few Applications of torsional springs
Clothespins, window Shades and Animal Traps, gun triggers
In Guns
trigger
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Belleville Spring
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Belleville springs can tolerate
very heavy loads and are often
found in industrial equipment.
The leaf springs in a car are also a
form of Belleville spring.
10-13 Belleville Spring
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Leaf spring
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Leaf Spring
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Assignment
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Shigleys Mechanical Engineering Design, 8
th
Edition (SI)
Problem # 10.2 , 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.22, 10.23, 10.29
Notes :
1. Solutions in SI units will be accepted only except if question is given in MKS in
above mentioned book
2. Deadline is one day before mid term exam of Machine Design 2
Examples included in Course
10.1 , 10.2, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7