[2010] 
By :
Buay D. Nhial ,UB#3597-5043
Mandeep Singh,UB#3721-2672
Supriya Singh,UB# 3767-0768 
Instructor: Dr.Gary Dargush
University at Buffalo ,
Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering 
[2010] 
vibiation of a Ciiculai Nembiane
Contents
1. Introduction ‐ Circular Membrane ................................................................. 3
2. Problem definition / Problem statement and solution ............................................. 3
3. Orthogonality Check ............................................................................ 9
4. Convergence ................................................................................. 10
5. Discussion ...................................................................................... 12
6. References/Bibliography: ....................................................................... 13
 


1. Introduction ­ Circular Membrane 
 
Vibrating membranes are quite popular applications in the field of partial
differential equations. The vibrating membranes find there area in music and
sound industry like Drums (timpani), microphones, telephones etc.
The equation governing these systems is a part of the partial differential
equations. And the fundamental frequency of a circular membrane has some
similarity to the stretched where it depends on tension and density.

2. Problem definition / Problem statement and solution 
 
The goal of this project is to analyze a partial differential equation (PDE)
problem and evaluate the necessary conditions provided.
Here we’re going to look at a circular membrane under vibration. So,
given that the vibration of a circular disk is governed by the wave equation
with speed c. If for a circular disk r>a, it is best to use the polar coordinates
r and Θ, rather than the Cartesian coordinates x,y.

The partial differential equation for the following circular membrane of
radius a governed by the wave equation is given as:

c
2
v
2
u = u
tt
on u(r, 0, t) which th beco s; en me
o
2
u
ot
2
= c
2
|
o
2
u
ox
2
+
o
2
u
oy
2
]
o
2
u
ox
2
+
o
2
u
oy
2
= k , x = rcos0, y = cos0, r = ¸x
2
+y
2
, 0 = tan
-1
(
x
y
)
Using these values given we h k om ; t e bec es
c
2
_
o
2
u
or
2

+
1
r
ou
or
+
1
r
2
o
2
u
o0
2
_ =
o
2
u
ot
2


If we consider axisymmetric mo io , or
ð
2
u
t n w
00
ð0
2
= u
c
2
_
o
2
u
or
2
. Thus given us;

+
1
r
ou
or
_ =
o
2
u
ot
2


Now we look at some of the initial and boundary conditions given in the
problem :

i. Given radius of the circular membrane equal to a [r = o] we apply or
initi ion (B r, t). al boundary condit C) u(
ii. For r = o - u(o, t) = u for all t ¸ u


iii. u(r, u) = u
o
(1 -
¡
u
) It appears from this condition that the membrane is
f r the center , when r = a we get the maximum lift u
o
li ted f om

iv. u
t
(r, u) = u

With initial velocity equal to zero everywhere the membrane can be
lifted for r = u from any point u(o, o) = u
o
= constont within r < o, that
means











Circular membrane lifted not from center Circular membrane lifted from center


u(r, t) = R(r)I(t)


o
2
u
ot
2
=
oR
r
R(r)I
ii
(t)

o
= R
i
I(t)

o
2
R
or
2
= R(r)I
ii
(t)



R
o
2
I
t
2
o
= c
2
_
o
2
R
or
2
I +
1
r
oR
or
I_

o
2
I
ot
2
c
2
I
=
1
R
_
o
2
R
or
2
+
1
r
oR
or
_ = -k
2


From the following equatio two equation: n above we obtain these
o
2
I
ot
2
+p
2
I = u wbcrc p = ck

o
2
R
or
2
+
1
r
oR
or
+k
2
R = u

Now we plug s = rk


We then make the substitution to the above equation, we get:



Which i




Where

order z


is the Bes
and
ero.
Figur
sel equati
repre
re 1( Plot of Bess
ion, and it
esent the
sel function of t
ts general
Bessel’s f
the first kind, Jα

solution

function of
α(x), for integer o
is given b
f the first
orders α=0,1,2.)
y:
and secon
 

nd
Since t
there fo


So, on
which i

Thus th

In whic



Figure 2
he deflect
or leaving
the bound
s satisfied
he solution
ch the corr
2(Plot of Bessel 
tion of the
us with f
dary of the
d for:
n to equat
respondin
function of the 
e membra
irst term o
e circular
f
tion 2 is:
g solution
second kind, Yα


ne is alwa
of the Bes
membran
for

for
n to equat

α(x), for integer 
ays finite,
ssel functi

ne, we mu


ion 1 mus


orders α = 0, 1,
we must
on.
ust have
st be calcu
 
 2)
have

ulated.

From this we shall have to soluti f and p
2
> u we have : on, or p = u
( I t) = At +B
I(t) = A
m
cosp
m
t +B
m
sin p
m
t
And

Where p
m
= ck
m
= co
m



Hence the general s t s y u y o itions for we get : olu ion of atisf ing the bo ndar c nd
u(r, t) = (A
m
cosp
m
t +B
m
sinp
m
t) - [
0
(o
m
r)

These are the Eigen functions of the problem and the corresponding Eigen
values are p
m
. Our solution then becomes;

u(r, t) = (A
m
cosp
m
t +B
m
sinp
m
t)
«
m=1
- [
0
(o
m
r)

Then setting t = u and using (iii) we get;

u(r, o) = u
0
(1 -
r
o
)


u(r, u) = (A
m
)
«
m=1
[
0
(o
m
r) = f(i) = u(r, o) = u
0
(1 -
r
o
)

We then solve the above equation in terms of A
m
:

A
m
= (
2
[
1
2
(o
m
)
) _r ×
1
0
u
0
(1 -
r
o
) × [
0
(o
m
r)Jr


From u
t
(r, u) = u we get;

u
t
= (-A
m
sinp
m
t +B
m
cosp
m
t ) -
«
m=1
[
0
(o
m
r) = u
= (u +B
m
) -
«
m=1
[
0
(o
m
r)

He e we
B
m
= u.
r get set [
0
(o
m
r) = u which would give no solution, so we get



Hence our solution becomes;

u(r, t) = A
m
«
m=1
cos(p
m
t) - [
0
(o
m
r)




wheie A
m
= _
2
[
1
2
(o
m
)
__r
0
F(r)
F(r) = u
0
(1 -
r
o
u
- [
0
(o
m
r)Jr
)

3. Orthogonality Check
 
Then set of function [
n
(zr) in ( where in z = k gives us, u ¸ r ¸ o)
z = u |rR
i
] + (
2
r
2
)R

+k R = ere k = r
2
R
ii
+rR
i 2
r
2
u wh z
rR
i
+z
2
r
2
R = u for R( ) (o) = u r
2
R
ii
+ u finite, R
With solution R = [
0
(zr) ( = u we have two equations; with z and z
ì
where [
0
zio)
| ( ] + ( ir
0
r[
0
zir)
i i
z
2
)[ (zir) = u (1)
r[
0
(zir)
i
]
i
+ (
2
zir) = u (2) | z r)[
0
(
Multiplying (1) by [
0
(zr) and (2) by [
0
(zio) then subtracting and integrating

the two equation we get;

_ [
0
(zr)
u
0
|r[
0
(zir)
i
]
i
-[
0
(zio)|r[
0
(zir)
i
]
i
Jr

+(z
ì
2
- z
2
) ] r
u
0
[
0
(zio)[
0
(zr)Jr = u

Using integration by pa t e t r s on the first integral w ge :
- [
i
0
u
|[
0
(zr)|r[
0
(zir)
i
] [
0
(zio)|r
0
(zr) ]

- ] ([
0
(zr)
u
0
|r[
0
(zir)
i
]
i
-[
0
(zio)|r[
0
(zir)
i
]
i
)Jr + |(z
ì
2
- z
2
) ] r
u
0
[
0
(zio)[
0
(zr)]Jr = u




Now [
0
(zr)
i
= z['
0
(zr), so using the fact that [
0
(zio) = u we get the result

below;

_ r
u
0
[
0
(z
I
r)[
0
(zr) = oz
I
z[
i
0
(zr) _
[
0
(zo)
z
2
-z
ì
2
_

Therefore, if z = z
ì
and [
0
(zo) = u, i.e z is another distinct, eigenvalue, then;

_ r
u
0
[
0
(zir)[
0
(zr)Jr = u

This then goes to proving that orthogonality is satisfied where [
0
(z
I
r) and
[
0
(zr) are the Eigen functions.


4. Convergence

u(i, t) = ((A
m
«
m=1
cos(p
m
t) +B
m
sin(p
m
t)[
o

m
r)
Putting t = 0 & using f(r) = u(r,0) = uo(1-r/a) (initial de ection) fl
u(i, u) = ((A
m
«
=1
[
o

m
r) = f(i) = u
o
(1 -
i
a
m
)
A
m
=
2
×
m
[
1
2
( )
_ r¡(r)
u
[
o

m
r)Jr (o)
0
Using initial velocity [
ðu
ðt
¸
t=0
= u , we get B
m
= 0 ;
u(i, t) = ((
«
m=1
2
[
1
2

m
)
_ r¡(r)
u
0
[
o

m
r)Jr × cos(p
m
t) [
o

m
r)) (b)

Let
¡
u
= p , hence Jr = o Jp ,
Also when r = 0 , ρ = 0 , When r = a , ρ = 1
Hence our equation (a) becomes
A
m
=
2
[
2

1 m
)
_ po u
0
(1 -
r
o
)
1
0
[
o

m
p
o
¸ oJp
A
m
=
2o
2
[
1
2

m
)
_ p u
0
(1 - p)
1
0
[
o

m
p
o
¸ Jp

Let a = unit radius = 1
A
m
=
2
[
1
2

m
)
_ pu
0
(1 - p)
1
0
[
o

m
p)Jp
Also since uo = finite co tant ns
A
m
=
2u
0
[
1
2

m
)
_ p(1 - p)
1
0
[
o

m
p)Jp
Now using Mathematica and solving the equation we get the results in terms
of Generalized Hypergeometric function

A
m
=
2u
0
[
1
2

m
)
|
p
2
F
0 1
(2 -
1
4
o
m
2
p
2
)
2
-
1
S
p
3
F
1 2
(_
S
2
1,
S
2
-
1
4
o
m
2
p
2
]

These functions have convergence properties that can be found from looking
at the result of pFq where the properties are as follows:
a. If p=q+1 then the ratio of the coefficients approaches 1. This
implies that the radius of convergence is 1.

b. If p≤q then the ratio of the coefficients approaches 0. This implies
that the radius of convergence is infinity.

c. If p>q+1 then the ratio of the coefficients approaches infinity. This
implies that the radius of convergence is 0 and the series does not
define an analytic function.
 
We look at the hypergeometric function:
And after noticing in our equation where we have p=0 and 1 and q=1 and 2.
From these we can say that the function converges to zero over the entire
domain.
5. Discussion 
 
Case of Non-Axisymmetric initial displacement of the given vibration
problem:
The term
ð
2
u
ð0
2
cannot be ignored. For this we need to plug changed and
arbitrary boundary conditions to solve u(r, 0, t) and the solution will be given
by
u(r, 0, t) = X(i)Y(θ)T(t)

The boundary conditions can range from R1 to R2 or any such arbitrary
range of radii.
A conclusion can be predicted by looking at the vibrational modes of the
non-axisymmetric case. So, if the circular membrane is impulsed at the
center, even if the initial velocity and displacement are nonaxisymmetric,
none of the vibrational modes for n>=1(n is an integer for separation
constant) can be excited.
 

6. References/Bibliography: 
 
1. Higher Engineering Mathematics by B S Grewal
2. Advance Engineering Mathematics - M.D Greenberg (1998)
3. Notes by Dr. Gary Dargush
4. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BesselFunctionoftheFirstKind.html
5. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucahhwi/MATH7402/handout9.pdf
6. http://math.arizona.edu/~goriely/M322/M322-gui-cm.html
7. http://personal.rhul.ac.uk/UHAP/027/PH2130/PH2130_files/orthofu2.pdf
8. Cover page
image : http://www.flickr.com/photos/37849124@N02/3609903585/

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