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CH6341 BAAR, LINDERSTRASSE 6, SWITZERLAND
Summary: 1. Abstract - Introduction. 2. Fibrous materials and textile fibres. 3. To day. - The most common man made fibres. 4. Man made fibres production technology. 5. Recent and new fibres. 6. Final applications. 7. Short and medium/long terms forecast. - Conclusions.
This paper will explain the main difference between the different families of new fibres introduced in the market in the past few years and their main textile application. but others.1. weaving and finishing. Most of the new fibres introduced in the market in the past decade are an evolution and a modification of existent polymers and fibres. ABSTRACT . 2 . both in fibre manufacturing and in the whole textile process. New products are constantly searches. and new generation fibres are a class of products of remarkable importance in the development of innovative textile product. high added value. are completely new. Mainly: Chemical and physical intrinsical characteristics of the new fibres. Developing and manufacturing these kinds of products. Requirements of the final applications: examples in basic products for standard textile products and industrial end uses. Innovation is to day the main commitment for the future of the textile industry.INTRODUCTION. Basics concepts how these products have to be processed in spinning. as for instance PLA fibre and PTT fibre in the family of synthetic fibres and soy fibre and bamboo fibre in the family of artificial fibres. is surely more complex and expensive than processing conventional fibres. but they gives at the final application.
Hilaire de Chardoney – lost – too expensive and dangerous. Rayon acetate (cellulose diacetate e triacetate) : 1921. Artificial fibers. Celanese develops the industrial process and starts the sales of filament yarns. Fibrous materials.The invention of man made fibers. U. starts the sales of the first viscose staple fiber: ”Fibro”. 1925. The fibers made by the man. Rayon: (100% regenerate cellulose) 1892.K. cuprammonium and acetate. Fibre: A fine thread or thread-like cell of a natural or artificial substance. FIBROUS MATERIALS AND TEXTILE FIBRES. 2. Continuous filament. Bemberg improves the industrial process and starts the sales of filament yarns. > short fibre that having textile product have to be: spun and twist in a yarn. • 2.2. Textile fibre: Any fibrous material which can be used to manufacture textile products.2.1.1. Rayon cuprammonium (100% regenerate cellulose) 1892. . Fibers from natural polymers. 2. 2.2. Cellulose fibres.1. > long filaments that are already a textile product.P. Nitrocellulose process. Rayon.2. 1920/1930. • Staple fibre. are still produced with advanced and environment friendly production process. viscose. Viscose process – Courthaulds. They have small but important niches of market 3 . bond in a non woven textile. J. First industrial developments in Germany – poor commercial results.1.
2.2. departing from a chlorinated polymer. made few years later. Protein fibres. realized in Germany the first synthetic fiber. and to have produced “a handful of fiber. Protein fibres. W. Vicara from zeine (corn). introduced on the market in 1934. Others protein fibre developed from 1935 to 1945: U. from soy. China. Reppe. Hupert. Fibers from polymers.2. prevented him to develop it in industrial way 1931. realized PeCe. it is the nylon. Ardil from adreine.. to be considered “the first true synthetic fiber” Polyamide. really disappear from the market in ’60 decade with the introduction in the market of more performance synthetic fibres'.H. not present in nature . starts the sales of Lanital. Recent developments: Few years ago was introduced in the market a new protein fibre. Courthaulds starts the sales of a fibre similar to Lanital. Polyvinylchloride. mainly acrylic fibres. chlorinated fiber. The elastic qualities of these fibers are very superior to any artificial note silk. PeCe was the first synthetic fiber industrially made. Casein fibre (milk protein). Snia Viscosa. Ltd.. 1931. later improved and brand Merinova. Schoenburg and W. particularly the recovery of the solvent of spinning. Carothers. SPB.” The first one “nylon” begins to be produced industrially in 1937 and it appears on the market in 1939. Xinhui Yuexin Chemical Fibre Co. Japan. (cicloesanol).K. researcher of the Du Pont de Nemours announces to American Chemical Society to have realized. The productive difficulties. brand Fibrolane. 1938. it is known how nylon 66. (soy).1. Since it is gotten departing from an acid and from an ammine. as wool and cachemir imitation. ???? No brand (soy). departing from adipic acid and esamitilendiammine. USA. on the base of the studies and the experiences of other two German researchers C. Farbenindustrie. 1913. G. having both 6 atoms of carbon. created to imitate wool. (peanut). of the I. which. Klatte.2. a new polymer denominated “nylon”. 1935. R. 2.Synthetic fibers.2. F. of the Griesheim-Elektro. are showing a resiliency similar to the wool. but for the superior technological characteristic. 4 .
3.” Perlon has been produced industrially since 1943.1 . years. 1941 Developed in U. 3. Polyacrylic. was able to polymer caprolactam. 1948 Du Pont USA patents the fiber “Orlon” and in 1950 begins the marketing of it.LOI 19/21 > modacrylic fr MAC .K. by J. Visil ®) From synthetic modified polymers > polyester PET – PES .LOI 38/46 (Rhovil ®) • 5 .LOI 20 > viscose fr CV . Securelle ®) > acrylic PAN . for America. 3. They were acquired by Du Pont. clorofibre CLF . Rhein and in USA. Latham and R. Natta will win two years later. Polypropylene. The first experimental productions in Germany. by G.LOI 28/30 (Trevira cs ®.4. G.Flame retardant fibres. 1954 Prof.1937. Farbenindustrie. the Meraklon.2.THE MOST COMMON MAN MADE FIBRES. 3. Polyester. Houtz. Natta in the laboratories Montecatini. Dickson departing from studies of Carothers. 3. fiber “Dacron” and from ICI for the rest of the world fiber “Terylene”. Other man made fibre for especial end uses. From that invention derived before the plastic material Moplen followed by the first PP fiber. 3. Protex®) From intrinsically flame retardant polymers. T.LOI 26/28 (Lenzing FR ®). For this invention prof. H.Schlack. and is known as Nylon 6.3. of the I. creating a fiber called “Perlon. P. (6 atoms of carbon). Whinfield and J.4. C.G. TO DAY . expired at the beginnings of ‘70.1. The patents. R. develops the isotactic polypropylene. They are mainly produced by three families of basic polymers: • • From natural modified polymers > cellulose – viscose CV . the Nobel prize for the chemistry. 1940 The date is not sure because of the war in progress. by of H. 1948 Start of the experimental production on plant pilot.LOI 19/21 > polyester fr PET – PES .LOI 28/34 (Kanekaron ®.
(LOI 29/32) (Nomex®. 6 .4. Para-aramid (polyparaphenylene terephtalamide) PPTA . They are only produced by engineered synthetic polymers. (melamine formaldehyde resin) MF (LOI 32) (Basofil®) Phenolic. B .Bioactive (antibacterial) fibres. polyparaphenylene/3.Amicor Plus ®) 3.2 .4.6benzobisoxazole PBO (LOI 68) (Zylon®) Phenilene Sulphide. GF .4’-oxidiphenylene PPTAC.. MTF • Glass. (Celanese PBI®) PBO fiber. .4.3. (LOI 32) (Kermel®.Boron. (LOI 36) (P. 100% stainless steel. on the market point of view are: Aramid. 100% copper. Twaron®. SiC – Silica Sil. The most important. 100% silver. (LOI 25) (Technora®. Poly-phenylene-2.Silicium carbide. (polybenzimidazole) PBI (LOI 41). (Kevlar®.) Meta-armid (copolyimide) PIC.High tech or/and high performance fibres.84) Fluorpolymer.) Para-aramid ( copolymer.3.) Meta-aramid (polymetaphenylene isophtalamide) PMIA. terephtalamide) Inorganic origin . > 99. They are mainly produced by two families of basic polymers: • • From natural modified polymers > cellulose – modal > bioactive modal (Modal Fresh ®) From synthetic modified polymers > polyester PET – > bioactive polyester (Trevira bioactive ®) > acrylic PAN > bioactive acrylic (Amicor . 3. Poly-phenylene sulphide PPS (LOI 34) (Procon®) (Torcon®.3.9% carbon CF • Metallic fibre. (polytetrafluoroethilene) PTFE (LOI >90) (Teflon®. Profilen®. (LOI 27/29). • Carbon fibre.) Meta-armid (polyamide imide) PAI. (phenol-aldehide resin) PHE (LOI 30/34) (Kynol®) Polybenzimidazole.1 Organic origin.) Melamine. TeijinConex®.
are produced. both artificial and synthetic. and sequential solidification of the spun filaments. The chemical fibers. Wet spinning. This technology is used for acetate. extruded and the filaments are coagulated in watery environment. and the aramid fibers. The polymer is dissolved in proper solvent. at a temperature such to allow the solvent evaporation and the contemporary consolidation of the filaments. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY. and extruded through a spinneret with more holes. through solution or fusion. departing from a polymer turned into a semi melt mass (DOPE). the most part of the acrylic fibers. some acrylic and polyvinylchloride 7 . -MAN MADE FIBRES.4.2. Dry spinning with solvents. excepted particular exceptions. The technologies used in “primary spinning” are essentially three: 4.1. This technology was the first to be developed and it is today still used for producing the rayons both continuous filaments and staple fibers. with drawing process and fix. Filaments are than oriented at molecular level. the modacrylic fibers. The polymer is dissolved in a proper solvent and extruded in warm air. 4.
polypropylene. polyester.3. Dry spinning by fusion. It is proper only with polymers that with reach the temperatures of fusion without decomposing themselves and that have. in fusion and extrusion low variations of viscosity. It is the most economic and productive technology. The polymer is fused.4. phenol/polyphenylensulphide > PPS. extruded. and filaments are solidified for cooling with forced air in a chimney called “quench”. 8 . It is used for polyamides. It allows high speeds of extrusion and it doesn't need any washing of the filaments after solidification.
Cellulose Viscose SYNTHETIC FIBRES. DRY FUSION TECHNOLOGY. DRY SOLVENT TECHNOLOGY.WET SPUN FIBRES. Polypropylene. 9 . Acrylic SYNTHETIC FIBRES. Polyamides Polyester. ARTIFICIAL FIBRES. Acrylic Aramide SYNTHETIC FIBRES.
denotes a one billionth part (10-9m) that is. The prefix" nano". When used to spin fibres this way. the hemispherical surface of the fluid at the tip of the capillary tube elongates to form a conical shape known as the Taylor cone.4. This is a summary of the Formhals experiments description: "In the electrospinning process a high voltage is used to create an electrically charged jet of polymer solution or melt. The discharged polymer solution jet undergoes a whipping process wherein the solvent evaporates. In 1934. Apparatus: An example of one experimental set up used for electrospinning is shown in Fig. and oriented at molecular level using "Electro spinning". Electric field is subjected to the end of a capillary tube that contains the polymer fluid held by its surface tension. 1 10 . the process is termed as electrospinning. a Greek word meaning "dwarf". which lays itself randomly on a grounded collecting metal screen. but electrospinning is surely the only one to day available. a process was patented by Formhals. Mutual charge repulsion causes a force directly opposite to the surface tension. As the intensity of the electric field is increased.4. a critical value is attained when the repulsive electrostatic force overcomes the surface tension and a charged jet of fluid is ejected from the tip of the Taylor cone. In the case of the melt the discharged jet solidifies when it travels in the air and is collected on the grounded metal screen. leaving behind a charged polymer fibre. In the last years different techniques have been tried to produce single nanofibre and continuous filament. An experimental setup was outlined for the production of polymer filaments using electrostatic force. With increasing field. which dries or solidifies to leave a polymer fibre . Fibers are extruded using a traditional technology. One electrode is placed into the spinning solution/melt and the other attached to a collector. This induces a charge on the surface of the liquid. Electro spinning can be considered a "retrofit and upgrade" of the three traditional technologies seen at the previous chapter.000 of the diameter of a human hair.To day we have a quite new spinning technology: "Electro spinning". about 1/80. .
A."The polymer solution or melt is contained in a glass tube." Abstact from: Formhals. 100% cellulose fibre solvent spun. Doshi. . Developing time: long. 306 (1940). for 6 months to 1 years Example: Special cross section fibres. 5. for 1 to 5 years Investments: medium/high. J & Reneker. 1. Adjusting the flow of the fluid and the magnitude of the electric field controls the spinning rate. We can have a new fibre from: 5. 5.Formhals.4. D. A.2. Modacrylic fr.187. Commercial brand name: Lenzing > Tencel 11 . Developing time: short/medium. for 1 to 5 years Example: Low melting core fibres.160.. 2.975. Anti-static fibres (some). 2. Bioactive fibres: Polyester bioactive...962 (1939).504 (1934) .3. A metering pump attached to the plunger of the syringe generates a constant pressure and flow of the fluid through the pipette. 5. usually a pipette that is connected to a syringe like apparatus.New fibre by change of physical-mechanics characteristics of an existing fibre. A.RECENT AND NEW FIBRES. A modification of existing polymer: Developing time: medium. Formhals. multilobal fibres Low or high modulus fibres. Developing time: medium.New fibre from different existing polymers conjugated. for 3 to 8 years Investments: very high.. Engineering Fiber System.. hollow fibres. 151 (1995). 35. Cationic dyeable fibres. US Patent. US Patent.. The high voltage source can generate up to 30 kV. The driving force is provided by a high voltage source through a wire immersed in the solution. J.H. and the setup can be run on either positive or negative polarity. Example: Flame retardant fibres: Polyester fr. . 5. A new process for existing polymer/molecule. Acrylic bioactive. US Patent. 1995. of Electrostat. ..1 . Example: Lyocell fibres.
12 . PLA is made by a ring-opening polymerisation of “lactide”. “lactide”. . second.5. Commercial brand name: Cargill Dow > Ingeo 5. converts dextrose into lactic acid. Cargill Dow manufacturing process.5. with the brand name NatureWorks®. as corn.New fiber from a new molecule. Developing time: long.new molecule. by condensation. for 5 to 10 years Investments: very high.1. first. using a fermentation technology. developed by Cargill Dow .5. got out by agricultural primary products. transform the lactic acid in the basic monomer. The row material for PLA is dextrose. Polylactide. A new polymer . PLA is a new polymer. Polythreemethilenterefphtalate Commercial brand names: Shell Chemical > Corterra Du Pont > Sorona PLA. Examples: PTT.
Physical and mechanics characteristics comparison. versus PlA fibre dtex 1.PES fibre dtex 1.5.5. 13 .
FINAL APPLICATIONS. 14 .6.
Nanofibres have to today three big problems to reach a short terms industrialization: 1. but not Sorona. SHORT AND MEDIUM/LONG TERMS FORECAT . 15 . Are used only for very expensive and real niche products. to the realization of the first industrial plant for the production of the polymer about 200 Mils. but actually the more used is corn. Dow Cargil. but its diffusion is very limited.CONCLUSIONS. We have to take note that Du Pont sold all the fibres business. are very limited. The few long time term projects . as Alcantara and similar products.7 . 2. is still at level of laboratory apparatus. of US $. Perhaps some sector of niche as the micro-filtration for the sanitary and medical sector would be able to begin a semi industrial experimentation today. also but also Sorona is a synthetic fibre. very long time and huge investments to reach the phase of industrial production. All the short time and low investment projects are therefore addressed to further changes and upgrading of the existing fibres. also the most advanced. have a limited market. The polymers till to day experimented. already in progress. There is not a market ready to receive this new typology of products. The technology today used. are mainly aimed to develop new polymers and new fibres departing from renewable raw materials of vegetable origin. Surely not the traditional textile sector. The development of a completely new fibre requires. 3. mainly polyester. has spent from the phase of study. in which also the simple "super-microfibre" type island on the see. as seen in precedence. and it needs high investment in research and engineering to project and realise an industrial plant. to develop PLA Ingeo. Not only Ingeo. electrostatic spinning. A Chinese producer has been introduced on the market about two years ago a fibre drawn by the seed of soy. that are on the market from at least 15 years. The vegetable raw materials usable can be diversify a lot. only at laboratory level. that is still Du Pont. for its high availability to world level. but from vegetable origin.
H. 1995. France: Kermel® High-Tech thermostable and non-flammable fibre. Zahlen Handelsnamen.G. Centro Tessile Cotoniero ed Abbigliamento.187. The International Bureau for the Standardisation of Man-Made Fibres: Terminology of man-made fibres. 35. & Reneker. for Universal Protective Clothing. USA. Formhals. Italy: Fibre High Tech e Flame Retardant.M. Lenzing Fibres. Prof. Brenner.504 (1934). St. 1997”. X. Dr. P. C. Contact: Antonio Piccolini ROVETEX AG. A. US Patent. J. LTD. Osaka. 2003. 1. Nikolai N. Formhals.160. 169 (1997). Deustcher Fachverlang 1997. Man Made Fibres based. Comparison and modification possibilities for different applications. Osaka Japan: PPS Fiber Procon Technical Information.. Machalaba. A. heat & flame resistant fibre. Pio Bertoli: Manuale delle fibre tessili. Osaka Japan: Zylon Technical Information. Dornbirn. Zylon Department. Colmar.. 151 (1995). Japan. Cargill Dow . Institut Textile de France: Characteristics Man Made Fibres for technical end uses. LTD. Hans J. J. Y. Piccolini. Industrial Materials Dept. 41st Man Made Fibre Congress. 9955 (2001) Teijin Twaron BV. Chemie Faser Lexicon: Begriffe. Russia: Para-aramide “World-family”. D.. Kaneka Corporation. 2.. US Patent. Safety & Comfort. Osaka. 2005. 2001. Marketing Industrial Fibres. & Rutledge. 2000 Edition. Holland: Twaron news. Fang.962 (1939). A. B36(2). Perepelkin. Toyobo Co. 2002. CH 6341 BAAR LINDENSTRASSE 6 POSTFACH 162 .. Hohman. Busto A. Doshi. 1998. M. H.. Russia. BASF Aktiengesellschft. Engineering Fiber System. Austria 2002: Textile products. G. D. Piccolini. Vittori. US Patent. A.. TUT. 1999.:PLA lactide polymer NatureWorks®. Austria: Flame Retardant Viscose FR by Lenzing. Japan: Kanecaron. Toray Industries Inc... Macromol. 2004. 2. Etas/Kompass. Zylon Department. Kermel Rhodia. Germany: Basofil. M. A. Ludwigshafen. Arnhem.. Shin. 2000. Formhals. Osaka Japan: PPS Fiber Torcon1.BIBLIOGRAHY . M. info@teema. 42. of Electrostat. BISFA. M. Polymer. Petersburg State University of Technology. Toyobo Co..com. 306 (1940). Kirikk E. Koslowky.975..REFERENCES. 1997. SWIITZERLAND E-mail: rovetex@datatx. Sci-Phys. Lenzing. J & Reneker. J-S Co “Tverchimvolokno” Twer.info 16 .
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