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Vinay Pandit

April 2002 1] Explain the meaning of degeneracy and infeasibility in a linear programming problem? Infeasibility-It is a special case in linear programming. It is a case where there is no solution which satisfies all the constraints. This may occur if the problem is not correctly formulated. Graphically infeasibility is a case where there is no region which satisfies all constraints simultaneously. Degeneracy-It occurs when one or more of the basis variables assume a zero value. In conditions of degeneracy the solution would contain a smaller number of none zero variables than the number of constraints i.e. if there are 3 constraints the number of non zero variables in the solution is less than 3. 2] Explain shadow prices in linear programming problem? Shadow prices indicate the worth of the resources. The prices of the resources are imputed from the profit obtained from utilizing their services, and are not derived from the original cost of the resources. The shadow prices are also called marginal value products or marginal profitability of the resources. The concept of dual and shadow prices help us in determining the upper and lower bounds for changes in requirement vectors and coefficient in the objective function. Such that the feasibility of the LPP is not disturbed. 3] How do you solve an unbalanced transportation problem of maximization type? Consider first the case where total supply exceeds total demand. In such a case the excess supply is assumed to go to inventory and costs nothing for shipping. This type of problem is balanced by creating a fictitious destination. A column of slack variables is added to the

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**Prof. Vinay Pandit
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transportation tableau which represents a dummy destination with a requirement equal to the amount of excess supply and the transportation cost equal to zero. This problem can now be solved using the usual transportation methods. When aggregate demand exceeds aggregate supply in transportation problem a dummy row is added and each cell of this row has a zero transportation cost per unit. Once the problem is balanced it can be solved by the normal method. 4] Explain the multiple optimal solutions in an assignment problem. If there are multiple zeros in different rows and columns the assignment made can be at the discretion at of the person making assignments. This result in more than one optimal assignment, as there is more than required number of independent zeros after each assignment is made. The presence of multiple optimal solutions gives the management choice to determine the assignment. One can than select a combination of jobs and machines / persons which suits his requirements. 5] What is dummy activity? Explain its use in network analysis? It is an activity, which is used to establish a precedence relationship in a network. It does not require any time. But it helps in establishing proper logical relationship in the network, which otherwise, cannot be properly represented. The need to introduce dummy activity arises when two chains of activities have a common event but the activities themselves are party or completely independent. These activities are shown by broken lines in a network.

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**Prof. Vinay Pandit
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April 2003 1) Basic Variables in Simplex method of a Linear Programming Problem A Linear programming problem involving more than 2 variables is solved using Simplex method. Basic Variables in simplex method are those variables with non-zero positive values and they make up the basic solution For a set of m simultaneous equations in n unknowns (n> m). a solution obtained by setting (n - m) of the variables equal to zero and solving the remaining m equations in m unknowns is called a basic solution. Zero variables (n - m) are called non-basic variables and remaining m are called basic variables and constitute a basic solution. 2) Prohibited Transportation Problem Prohibited routes in transportation problems are routes from a particular supplier to a particular customer prohibited by the management for certain reasons may or may not be known to the person doing actual allocation of inventory. This prohibition is irrespective of actual known cost of transportation when such a condition is imposed, the person responsible for allocation of inventory treats the cost of the prohibited routes as maximum or very high cost denoted by M. there onwards a selected method solves the problem. 3) Forward and Backward pass in PERT/CPM In a network of PERTH/CPM, when early start times are identified for every activity and written, we start from the origin follow the arrows of the activities and move towards the destination. This movement form the start to end is a forward pass. While writing the late finish times, beginning is from the end event moving towards start event following the opposite to the direction of arrows of the activities. This movement is called backward pass.

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Prof. Vinay Pandit

4) Three time estimates in PERT and their relationship with expected time an its variance in the project (a) The optimistic time estimate: this is the estimate of the shortest possible time in which an activity can be completed on the ideal conditions. For this estimate, no provision for delays of setbacks are made. We shall denote this estimate by to. (b) The pessimistic time estimate: this is the maximum possible time equity to accomplish the job. If everything went long and normal situations prevailed, this would be the time estimate. It is denoted by tp. (c) The most likely time estimate: this is the time which lies between the optimistic and pessimistic time estimates. It assumes that things go in a normal way with few setbacks. It is represented by tm. Expected time: = (optimistic time + 4 X Most Likely Time + Pessimistic Time)/6 Variance = Standard deviation square= (Pessimistic -Time optimistic time)/6

5) Restricted Assignment problem, which is an unbalanced problem. A restricted assignment problem is an assignment problem where one or more matches are restricted by the management. Then that particular assignment is prohibited. Additionally is the number of rows and columns are not equal in that problem, it is said to be unbalanced. Cost of the restricted assignment i same equal to maximum or M, assignment matrix accordingly modified. Unbalanced is removed by the introduction of dummy.

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**Prof. Vinay Pandit
**

April 2004 1. Write the major differences between simple and duel Simplex method of solving L.P.P. SIMPLE Maximization type of problem The constraints used is less than or equal sign The variables is (x) DUEL SIMPLE Minimization type of problem The constraints used is greater than or equal to sign The variables is (y)

2. Looping in Transportation problem. Loop is the track along which allocated inventory is to be moved for improving a transportation solution. It starts from a cell where opportunity cost is highest, and moves along any vertical or horizontal direction to reach an allocated cell. At an allocated cell it turns by 90 degree in any direction looking for next cell. Finally the loop reaches the starting point. 3. Uses of slack, Surplus and Artificial variables in solving the Linear Programming Problem. Slack Variable A Variable used to convert a less than or equal to constraint into equality constraint. It is added to the left hand side of the constraint.

Surplus Variable

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**Prof. Vinay Pandit
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A Variable used to convert a greater than or equal to constraint into equality constraint. It is subtracted from the left hand side of the constraint. Artificial Variable It is a variable added to grater than or equal to type constraint. This is in addition to surplus Variables used. 4. Difference between assignments Problem & Transportation Problem. Assignment Problem To Assign a job to a worker (one Job – one Worker) It is balanced when No of row = No. of columns m=n Hungarian method No. of lines drawn = No. of column/rows Eg. n = 4 = Order of Matrix Transportation Problem To Obtain the minimum cost It is balanced when Capacity = Demand ai = bj VAM method followed by MODI Method Rim Condition should be satisfied Eg. No of allocation = m+n-1

5. Dangling event and Dummy activity in Network Diagram. A disconnect activity before the completion of all activities is a dangling activity. The head event of that activity is dangling event. A fictitious activity introduced for logical construction of network is a dummy. Dummy activity does not consume any resource.

April 2005 1. Distinguish between Degeneracy and cycling in LPP

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**Prof. Vinay Pandit
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Ans. Degeneracy: Degeneracy occurs when one or more of the basic variables assume zero value. In conditions of degeneracy, the solution would contain a smaller number of non- zero variables than the number of constraints i.e. if there are 3 constraints the number of non-zero variables in the solution is less than 3. Cycling: when an algorithm pivots in a degenerate row, the objective function value in the next table does not change ie. There is a problem of cycling- the system moves along the same route and the cycle would be repeated for ever. 2. Explain unbalanced transportation problem. Ans. Balanced transportation problem is required to have equal demand and supply i.e. the number of columns and the number of rows should be equal to the number of columns. This is unlikely as most of the real world problems are of the unbalance type i.e. supply and demand are not equal. There two possibilities are: (1) aggregate demand exceeds aggregate supply or (2) aggregate supply exceeds aggregate demand. Such problems are called unbalanced transportation type problems. It is necessary to balance these problems to solve them. 3. Distinguish between free float and independent float. Ans. Free float: Free float is a part of the total float on an activity can be used without affecting the total float of the other activities then the part of the total float is called the free float. It is calculated as ES time for the succeeding activity minus EF time of the activity under consideration. Independent Float: Independent Float is that time of an activity which can be used without effecting either the head or tail event. It is the access of minimum time available for an activity. Independent float is calculated as Independent float = ES for the succeeding activity – LF for the preceding activity – duration of the present activity

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