Indian Management Thoughts and Practices

Module 2: Learning Nature, Nature Synthesis, Work Motivation, Work Ethics, Productivity.
Concept Questions:
1. Indian Approach to Motivation: In Indian philosophy motivation is not something external. It is rather internal. Infact GITA is a story of motivation. Arjuna was motivated from the very beginning but he lost his motivation due to some obstacles, hurdles and confusion in his mind. All that was required was to remove these obstacles only. Thus removing obstacles during the performance of job is motivation in Indian philosophy. Every soul is divine, having immense potentialities. Management has to bring out that potential by removing obstacles and hurdles which restrict from performing. Such motivation involves the inner beauty and does not promote any greed in an individual to have more and more in return of his work- as work itself is viewed in a unique way in Indian philosophy. Work is here considered as an exercise of energy. A living being has no alternative but to be working- physically or mentally. A non working body is a dead body. A man has to work to realize that divinity is residing in him. Thus attitude towards work is quite different. An Indian does not work for a livelihood only, but he considers it as his duty( Sadhana), as Indian philosophy teaches that every work you perform can only be an offering to that divine soul in you. Lord Krishna motivated Arjuna successfully by this technique. In the beginning Arjuna said that “I will not fight” and at the end he said “ I will do, what you say”. Arjuna was not offered any position etc. for this but all the obstacles had been removed. He was motivated right from the beginning, he only required some of his doubts cleared. In fact the Gita shows the five clear stages of motivation. They are as follows: 1. Patient listening – when Lord Krishna did not interrupt Arjuna and listened patiently, where Arjuna puts his problems from 29 to 47 stanzas in the first chapter of Gita. 2. Putting stress on good points/ strength while removing Arjuna's doubts.

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3. Discussing on intellectual level- showing the essence of karma/ duty. 4. Showing the action plan to achieve the goal. 5. Discussing the consequences of proposed action plan. Thus Bhagwadgita teaches how to motivate the individual within. 2. Indian v/s Western Approach to Motivation: Thinkers of the Western world define motivation in different ways. Williams G Scot defines it as a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals. The basic objective of motivation is considered to influence the way in which the work is performed by the employee by changing the attitude towards work, by improving the quality of work, by directing his efforts to desired direction and by helping him in satisfying his desires. Maslow’s, Mc Clelland’s, F. W Taylor’s and all other western theories are of the opinion that man is a needy animal and he can be motivated by fat salaries, perks etc. Thus motivation for them is basically external and they use materialistic ways to motivate their employees. Whereas the Indian philosophy believes that motivation is internal. It considers men as children of immortal bliss and full of immense potentialities. Fat salaries, and perks can motivate people to some extent but ultimately they can be motivated only when they are recognized and given respect as human beings, and helped in developing and manifesting their inner divinity and potentialities. Therefore we can say that the western approach focuses more on materialistic and external benefits whereas the Indian philosophy considers motivation as an internal concept. Man, according to the Indian philosophy can be motivated more based on their ethical values, their beliefs, their emotions and belief in spirituality. 3. Integrity: Integrity is the Wholeness, goodness, courage, and self-discipline to live by your inner truth. Wholeness: Wholeness implies totality, soundness, perfection and completeness.

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Goodness: Goodness covers all essential values such a honesty morality kindness fairness charity truthfulness generosity etc. We need goodness in our thoughts speeches and actions. “Be good Do Good” leads to purification of thoughts, talks and actions associated with good thoughts. Courage: in the world of management courage points out acts of bravery. Courage is telling the truth even in the face of danger. You have the guts do something, which is risky. Self-discipline: Self-discipline and self-control indicate that the soul is the boss who takes control of the mind and directs the mind and senses to move on the journey to reach the goal to reach to the master. When the individual consciousness wakes up we have self-discipline and self-control to deal with life. The quality of life then is different. The quality of life will then give you greater harmony, happiness and moderation. We need discipline and courage to reach to our objectives in time. 4. Ethics : It is the study of morals, what is right or wrong, virtuous or vicious, and beneficial or harmful to us. They are the right and healthy values which you preserve in yourself. Ethics is “human moral conduct according to principles of what is good or right to do.” Some of the ethical values are fearlessness, empathy, modesty, humility, spirit of sacrifice for the sake of common good control on mind and restraint on senses and passions, cheerfulness and vigor. 5. Learning: Learning is a change of behaviour that takes place through practice or experience. It is relatively permanent. It is associated with accumulation of information, knowledge and its application regulating in wisdom. The outside temperature is 5oC – this is just a piece of information. But if one is knowledgeable enough, he would know that one should not go outside in this weather. But experience will also tell you that you can go outside provided you are aptly clothed with warm clothes or else you would die of cold. This is what learning is, it is associated with experience. A naughty child in spite of repeated warnings from his mother, touches the electric socket, gets the shock, feels the pain and in the process learns a lesson. Hence, learning is associated with

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stimulus – response mechanism and this brings out a change, a change attitude, behaviour, a transformation and this is what learning aims at. As per Indian ethos a man should learn from his past Karmas and hence must concentrate on his correct dharma. The Bhagvat Gita provides us of the virtue learning its importance. Thus learning is not confined to cognitive knowledge, but includes values and character as well. Learning is a permanent change of behaviour. 6. Types Of Learning: There are different modes and mechanism through which one can learn. But what one learns depend entirely on himself. Learning is the process of assimilation, but this process of selfassimilations restricted by ones self belief, feelings, knowledge etc, hence learning differs from person to person. Learning thus can be of different types depending on the person. Learning can either be Satwik, Lajsik, or Tamasik based on the sanskars of a person attained from previous birth, family, culture, experience and knowledge gained from this life etc. Hence learning can either be painful or pleasant depending on the level of motivation and sense of inquisitiveness. One can learn through various methods: Atma Manthan (introspection) i.e. learning from within. Manu Vrat (silence) where self purification starts. Dhyana which opens access to unlimited knowledge within. Ones own family, friends, personal experience can also be an important form of learning. 7.Importance Of Learning : Learning plays an important role as it helps to built up habit along with values to form a character. Learning helps oneself to know himself better, to understand himself, question his existence, understand the purpose of his life. Learning act as guidelines to behaviour, it helps in decision-making, as it reminds us of our past mistakes and failures. Learning also form a source of motivation for excellence in life and work. Learning relates to the experience a person gains throughout his life thus acting as directions of his karma showing the path of dharma. Thus it Learning Habit Character

helps to the attainment of the ultimate end called moksha. In our Indian tradition the real wealth is not money and estate but character and then health, this is what learning aims to achieve.

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8. Gurukul System Of Learning: The gurukul system is backed on the concept that the learning from the teacher is not limited to the classroom sessions, but is continuous from his behaviour throughout the day and night. The teacher is a role model. It is also expected that the student will think about what he is learning and debate the issue and that in the process, the teacher also may learn. Joint exploration is the process. The student is not expected to accept what the teacher conveys, but is expected to apply his mind and validate the lessons before accepting them. Gurukul system prepared the young ones in total personality Development at an ashram guided by Nature and Guru (rishi), where common codes are encouraged, equal and appropriate opportunities are given to all shishyas. Major human values including respect to elders are also emphasized. GURU : Takes one from darkness to light.

Descriptive Questions:
Q1: a) Comment on “Indian ethos and motivation”. The Oxford English Dictionary defines ethos as “the characteristic spirit and beliefs of community, people…..” Interest in Indian ethos arose due to the development of attitude towards work which emphasizes the individual gain at the cost of the organization or the organization’s gain at the cost of the society at large. This unethical attitude of individuals needs to be improved, because it is harmful to mankind. Thus, to work in an ethical way, an individual needs to be motivated from within. He should not work for his own interests and harm the society. This kind of motivation can be traced back to our ethos and our philosophy, which is further explained below: Motivation- as viewed in Vedanta philosophy: Thinkers of the Western world define motivation in different ways. Williams G Scot defines it as a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals.

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In Indian philosophy motivation is not something external. It is rather internal. Infact GITA is a story of motivation. Arjuna was motivated from the very beginning but he lost his motivation due to some obstacles, hurdles and confusion in his mind. All that was required was to remove these obstacles only. Thus removing obstacles during the performance of job is motivation in Indian philosophy. Every soul is divine, having immense potentialities. Management has to bring out that potential by removing obstacles and hurdles which restrict from performing. Such motivation involves the inner beauty and does not promote any greed in an individual to have more and more in return of his work- as work itself is viewed in a unique way in Indian philosophy. Lord Krishna motivated Arjuna successfully by this technique. In the beginning Arjuna said that “I will not fight” and at the end he said “ I will do, what you say”. Arjuna was not offered any position etc. for this but all the obstacles had been removed. He was motivated right from the beginning, he only required some of his doubts cleared. In fact the Gita shows the five clear stages of motivation. They are as follows: 1. Patient listening – when Lord Krishna did not interrupt Arjuna and listened patiently, where Arjuna puts his problems from 29 to 47 stanzas in the first chapter of Gita. 2. Putting stress on good points/ strength while removing Arjuna’s doubts. 3. Discussing on intellectual level- showing the essence of karma/ duty. 4. Showing the action plan to achieve the goal. 5. Discussing the consequences of proposed action plan. Thus Bhagwadgita teaches how to motivate the individual within. Concept of work in Vedanta: Work is here considered as an exercise of energy. A living being has no alternative but to be working- physically or mentally. A non working body is a dead body. A man has to work to realize that divinity residing in him. Thus attitude towards work is quite different. An Indian does not work for a livelihood only, but he considers it as his duty( Sadhana), as Indian philosophy teaches that every work you perform can only be an offering to that divine in you. Thus , the view of work in Vedanta is different.

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Indian ethos in management: Indian management is slowly emerging to promote equally excellence and spiritual enrichment both in individual and collective life. The salient ideas and thoughts of Indian ethos in management revealed by our scriptures are: 1. Atmano Moksharathan, Jagat hitaya cha All work is an opportunity for doing good to the world and thus gaining materially and spiritually in our lives. 2. Archyet Dana Manabhyam Worship people not only with material things but also by showing respect to their ever present divinity within 3. Atmana Vindyate Viryan Strength and inspiration for excelling in work comes from the divine, God within, through prayer, holy readings and unselfish work. 4. Yogah karmasu kaushalam. Samatvam yoga uchyate He who works with calm and even mind achieves the most. 5. Yahishi Bhavana yasya siddhi bhavati tadrishi As we think, so we succeed, so we become. Attention to means ensures the end. 6. Parasparam bhavayantah shreyah param bhavapsyathah By mutual co-operation, respect and fellow feeling all of us will enjoy the highest good both material and spiritual. 7. Tesham sukhm tesham shanty shaswati Infinite happiness and infinite peace comes to them, who see the Divine in all beings. 8. Paraspar Devo Bhav Regard the other person as a divine being. All of us have the same consciousness though our containers are different. Q1: b) Comment on the “Self management with an Indian insight” Any leader or manager should be able to manage his own self before managing people and other things. Self management is considered very important in Indian philosophy. What is self management is also discussed at different places in GITA, during the discourses between the Lord and Arjuna. The important lessons taught in GITA are as follows:

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Accepting the SELF and the outer world as it is:

A leader must be satisfied with his own self. If as a leader he is not satisfied with himself, then he will indulge in getting money, power, position, name and fame, to make him satisfied. Thus his life becomes full of stress and strain. Leaders with such disturbed mind can never be successful leaders. Leaders must understand that happiness or satisfaction that one tries to seek in different objects of the world is one’s own nature. It lies within oneself, and one can be happy only if the mind is happy. Similarly, a leader has to learn to accept the outer world also as it is. He should try to understand that by trying to change the outer world, he will not be happy or satisfied. Instead of this, he should try and change his approach of viewing the world. He should remember the two basic principles: a) God resides in everybody b) Every soul is divine. A leader’s duty is only to bring out that divinity by providing appropriate environment and leadership, by removing doubts, and confusions from the mind of people, and by removing hurdles in the way of performance. It is true that if situation can be changed, a leader must have the courage to change it. But if situations cannot be changed, he must have the courage to accept it. • Practicing KARMAYOGA in life: If one understands that one’s jurisdiction is only upto performance of action and result falls in the jurisdiction of laws of laws of nature or God , then one can perform action with full concentration of mind and intellect and can also accept the result- whatever it may be- with balanced mind. Such an individual will be the master of the situation and never a victim to it. • Maintaining equanimity of mind against the pair of opposites: A leader must learn an art of living a life successfully against the pair of opposites like pain and pleasure, gain and loss, conquest and defeat etc. Indian philosophy considers work as duty and every soul as divine. In fact work is the only means available to manifest one’s divinity for further growth. It is therefore said to offer action – manifesting divinity – to the God and accept the result which comes according to the laws of nature and hence directly from the Lord 8

Himself as His Prashad, with an equanimity of mind and a sense of gratitude to Him. Such an attitude will help managers in managing all kinds of situations effectively and successfully showing perfect maturity of mind and gaining people’s appreciation for his capability of tackling the situation with calmness. • Creating Appropriate Mental Attitude: A leader needs healthy attitude towards life which includes concern for people and service orientation. He is always required to be above average, a man, who has lifted himself from man hood to ‘God hood’. Thus, as a leader one has to keep away from three things. These three things are attachment (Raga), fear (Bhaya) and anger (Krodh). Generally attachment for desired objects creates the sense of fear for the possibility of not getting the desired objects or for the security of acquired objects. In this situation if anything comes between one’s desired objects, anger will be generated towards that thing. Anger creates delusion and intellect flamed with anger loses its discrimination capacity. Deleted intellect loses control over itself. Thus managing self is considered very important in Indian philosophy. Today’s dynamic environment poses various challenges to the managers and these can be handled better if one has a well managed self and mind , is not pre occupied with fears and doubts about results, is calm, matured and learns from every experience. • World vision or Macro vision: Generally, most of the people suffer from micro vision and self centered views in life and behave accordingly. Instead of this kind of behavior one needs to develop macro vision to manage today’s world and provide effective leadership. Such a macro vision is taught in Vedanta. It says that I am not a single solitary individual. I am a part of the whole universe. And the universe is nothing but the manifestation of the ISHWARA in different forms and figures. Just as the waves rise in the ocean, play in the ocean and disappear into the ocean, the whole universe arises in Him, exists in Him, and disappears in

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Him. As a wave is not different from other waves and ocean an individual is also not different from other individuals and the whole universe. As ,water is the essence of a wave and the ocean, ATMAN (divine spirit), is the essence of every individual and the whole universe or BRAHMANDA. Thus all of us are interrelated with one another and every one of us has a certain role to play, certain responsibilities to exercise according to our past deeds ( KARMAS). Every one of us has the same divine spirit that is ATMAN. This sense of oneness with others will create a service – oriented mind and develop a macro vision in us and this can bring wonderful results in our approach and behavior. Q.2: Answer not existing Q.3: “ Human and ethical values are the wealth of character.” Discuuss, in terms of the Indian perspective. Among all beings only the human beings is endowed with faculty of choice and free will. Only a human being can choose the end he wishes to pursue and the means to gain that end. Only for him does the question of values/ethics arise. Value indicates the regard for thing, situation or attitude, which for some reason is esteemed or priced by the value holder. Any value universal or situational is a value for me only when I see that is precious to me. I (the self) am the source of my values, I fail to follow the universal values only when I do not clearly see its value to me. I make expedient situational only when I think such choices will make me feel good. By values we mean the motive and/or the basis for choosing between alternative courses of action when a critical decision needs to be taken. High values lead to objective, fair, altruistic decisions and actions and ensure the welfare of all concerned. Low values do exactly the opposite. This can be extended to all facets of our life icluding business, personal and spritual. Values of a higher order in an individual resuly directly from the realization that ther is a higher dimension guiding and governing the entire human existence whose laws cosmic and karmic laws operate inexorably and decisively in etical and moral spheres.

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When we act driven by high values we are inface embodying desirable qualities of a good human being. Welfare of all will necessarily ensure our own. One test of whether our motive/basis for action is value based is not that if it is exposed to intelligent questioning by those affected we should be able to defend our action without any embarrassment.We should try to act with the sense of detachment fixing the mind with the supreme conciousness in order to achieve balance and hence success.This will also guard us against undesirable influences of others on us. Concepts which are basic in Indian tradition, are contained in the ancient texts like Vedas and Upanishads. They contain principles to guide one’s life, regardless of one’s religious persuasion. Collectively they may provide a philosophy or attitude to life and living. These principles are relevant to business because the processes of business management and the purposes of business are related to people. These principles are being presented below in brief: Concept of divinity: the most signifant fact is that these texts do not refer to any God but refer to certain divinity whish pervades all beings, human and animals including inanimate matter. Divinity is conceptualized as energy which may be in both dynamic or the static form. Energy is not visble but can be experienced. It is energy that moves or does. The energy is individual called(atman) is the same as the total energy called (brahma), in the same as energy in an electric bulb is the same as the energy in the generator. In this realization brahma is timeless and spaceless. It permeates the entire universe. Concept of man: Man is understood to be constituted of five different sheaths. The grossest of these is the physical body called “annamaya”, which is constituted of matter created by food. The second sheath covering the physical body is the “pranmaya” which is related to the breathing or vital energy. The third sheath is the “manomaya”, which roughly translates as the mind but infact has larger cannotations than mind in psychology. The fourth sheath is “vijnanamaya” or the intellect or he power of discrimination. The final sheath is the “anandmaya” or eternal bliss. Each sheath is subler than the earlier one and allows more freedom of movement through time and space. Every person is simultaneously operating at all these

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levels. Every person has the capability to move from the constraints of the physical sheath and live in eternal bliss. Thus these human and ethical values are the wealth of character in terms of Indian perspective. Q4: “ India is rated as one of the most corrupt nations in the world”. How would you apply Indian ethical practices to overcome this? India is perceived to be a very corrupt country. According to the Transparency International, India ranks 69 out of 90 in the Corruption Perception Index. There are two approaches to the whole issue of corruption. One approach which may be considered as pragmatic, realistic and worldly wise is to accept that corruption is as universal as human nature and it is only the degree of corruption that can perhaps be controlled. The other approach is that corruption can be controlled and countries, which were once notorious for corruption, have been able to bring in greater probity in public life. One can do business, build property , earn profit and even then it can be managed with due recognition to human values and ethical values and respecting all persons in the enterprise ands in the society as human beings. The Indian ethos of management contains principles to guide one’s life. These principle are described in the Upanishads and Geeta The following are certain principles as per Indian wisdom and insight: a. Concept of Divinity: These texts do not refer to any God, but to a certain divinity which pervades all beings. According to this concept all people are equal and divine to be dealt with equal respect. This attitude at work serves the interests of both the workers and customers. Discriminatory remuneration packages will be avoided , trust and support will improve, the sense of concern would make counseling and development more natural and managers will find it easy to take disciplinary actions as there would be no feeling of remorse if severe action becomes necessary Thus the work life will improve. b.Concept of Man: Man is constituted of various sheaths. The grossest of them is the physical body called “ annamaya” which constitutes of matter created by food. The second is sheath covering the physical body is the “pranamaya” which is related to the breathing. The third sheath is “ manomaya” which is the mind. The fourth sheath is the “vijnanamaya” – the power of

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discrimination. The final sheath is the “anandmaya” – eternal bliss. Every person has the capability to move from the constraints of the physical sheath and live in eternal bliss. c.Concept of Karma: According to this concept, the future of an individual depends upon what he does or does not do with his life. His actions (karma) and the consequences of his actions shape his future A major facet of karma is the work one does, and the attitude with which he goes about his duty. To work for selfish reasons, such as to be able to afford luxuries like convertible cars and swimming pools, is bad karma, especially when one craves these possessions to gain stature in society. Actions such as materialism restrain one from furthering his place in life and from attaining an honest satisfaction with his spiritual growth. One would ask whether on these premises it would be ethical to sell products like cigarettes. But providing the customer what he needs would not be unethical. Refusing to provide would be unethical. On this understanding this it may seem proper to manufacture cigarettes. Good karma and advances towards knowledge are achieved first through the freedom to make the personal decision to work for the sake of getting the job done in a selfless manner. Only once one handles duty in this fashion will he find himself in progression. d. Concept of Dharma: The most central and core concept of Hindu philosophy is known as Dharma. All the other principles and values flow from Dharma. The word Dharma is formed from the root dhar and literally means to hold, sustain and maintain a thing in its being. There is no accurate translation of the word into English but it can be termed as a right action, right conduct, virtue, moral law etc. Every form of life, every group of people has its Dharma, which is the law of its being. Dharma is the duty or path of righteousness. Dharma comprises of Satya (truth) , Yagna ( dedication) and Tapas (sublimation). The basis of Dharma is Truth Dharma or virtue is conformity with the truth of things; adharma or vice is opposition to it. In the Indian concepts there is no injunction against making profits. Kama and Artha are considered to be valid human pursuits. But Lobha( greed) and Moha(delusion) being excessive are deemed bad. Thus making profits would seem to be permissible while profiteering would not be.

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e. Concept of Yoga: The meaning of the word is essentially union and implies integration of all aspects of our being: body, mind and psyche. Its practice originated in the East (India) and there are various forms suited to the different natures of practitioners. Three paths have been delineated to achieve this purpose : Bhakti Yoga - The way of Devotion, Karma Yoga-action , clarity of thinking and Jnana Yoga – knowledge . Once these are realized employees contribution to corporate objectives can be achieved. To the customer, substandard products wont be sold, warranties would be respected, there will be no over pricing , misrepresentations or compromises with safety or environmental protection will be avoided. f. Concept of Attachment: Attachment to all material objects is the cause of all painful experiences. There is no need to renounce the world and retire to the jungles. Detachment is possible even while living in this world. One can look after the family with all love and care they need, because it’s one’s duty to do so. Attachment requires detachment form the sense of “mine”. In truth, nothing is “mine”. Possessions including relations and friends are transient in nature. They do not last. Neither should one be ecstatic at having it , nor be horrified at losing it. It is only when one is very proud about his possessions that he gets depressed at losing them. Non – attachment is the simplest technique to maintain equanimity. If one were to do things without attachment there is no consequence on the doer. But if one were to sell drugs with a view that the addicts so formed would continue to add to profits this is an action with attachment. The universality of man implied in the concept of Dharma , Karma and divinity help to reconcile the apparent divergence and to focus on social responsibility. That would be ethical , even if costly. Q.5:How can organizational productivity be increased with value driven Indian management? Ethical and moral values and moral character alone can accelerate the unfolding of person’s divinity. Effectiveness in performance of managers and workers is a function of values and skills together. A good manager has strength in both values and skills. We have management by consciousness. The purity of mind and heart guides the reasoning and intellect in all managerial

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functions particularly in human resource management. The following are the ways in which organizational productivity be increased with value driven Indian management: • Inculcation of values by the top management: Every effort must be made by the top management in the organization to inculcate values. Values related to the internal domain of the business. i.e. interactions with the employees, customer, suppliers, creditors, public etc. • In the corporate mission or creed values, vision, goals and objectives cherished by the organization should be described: Values should be the integral part of the organization. Value orientation through such things must e a programme-based activity with constant follow up and motivation through management and support. • Members of the organization should be continuously exposed to spiritualism: Members of the management team and the union leader of workers must be regular exposed to spiritualism. The organization should inculcate the spirit of giving rather than taking in the work life. The individuals are encouraged to subdued their ego, overcome to some extent selfishness, anger, jealousy, greediness, and such other undivine elements. • Employees must strive internal development: The employees must strive for internal development rather than only specialize in skill and proficiency. They should sharpen their mind and intellect. Pure heart and mind would influence and sustain enduring values as a basis for improved effectiveness in the organization. • Emphasis on integrated personality development: There must be emphasis on integrated personality development in which enduring values enjoy the right place along the requisite skills. To bring about a radical change in thought, speech, action and behaviour of oneself needs discipline, sustained conscious and well directed effort of sadhana. • • Theories of self-man agent and self-evolution should be practiced The right to action but not to fruits of action must be stressed:

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Then only our high consciousness would shine reflecting ethical and human values. Value driven management combined with requisite skills improves the quality of work life and enhances the reputation of the company. When management and staff translate value orientation into their everyday life’s, they would be better leaders and team members. They would also receive voluntary co-operation form heir peers and juniors in the hierarchy. Values are the best means in routine life for purification of our mind and heart. Management by consciousness demands presence of values in our character and personality. Model and worldly behavior go together for human values because human values cannot be disassociated from ethics and morality. Q.6: Distinguish the traditional Indian nature of learning with modern methods of learning. Learning is a chance of behaviour that takes place through practice or experience. It is relatively permanent. Learning is associated with stimulus-response-change- process. Maturation is the process of development and growth. Learning can be selective. We also learn by association, assimilation, exploration, and selection of correct responses. We build up certain habits. Habits along with values build up character. Learning can be pleasant or painful depending on the inquisitiveness and motivation and desire to learn. Learning is associated with accumulation of information, knowledge and its application resulting in wisdom. Oriental Indian inputs: • • • Sanskar from previous birth provide major input towards learning tendencies, direction of learning etc. Mother father siblings provide the major foundations where learning takes place spontaneously and effortlessly. Family business/trade/occupation have the capability of injecting the young men directly to the family business.

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Joint family system provides security, support and flexibility including wisdom bank in the process of learning gurukul systems prepared he young men’s in total personality development at an Ashram guided by nature and Guru (Rishi)

• • •

Major human values including respect to elders were emphasized. Atma Manthan is a great of learning from within. Dhyan meditation opens up access a unlimited knowledge within.

Q.7 :How can “Selfless Work” increase the productivity of organisations? Selfless service to others is the yoga of moral endeavor. It brings about union of human being with divine. Work is done as worship to the divine in human beings who is also all pervading in the universe. Selfless service is a life of intense activity and serenity without selfish impulses. Why selfless service? 1. For one’s own salvation and personal growth. 2. For the good of the world. The joy of action is the inner joy of selfless service which helps him to rise above the little individual self by serving and respecting the divine in all beings, seeing his own self in all living souls. The inner joy and the deeper sense of fulfillment, according to Indian ethos is the highest bliss and the goal of life as well as the motivating force. Gita evolves the moral and ethical theory of human conduct and expounds the art of living the doctrine of duty with discipline and devotion without attachment to work and agency (egoistic pride) and/or its results (fruits of work). One should do duty without ego and without any calculations of gain or loss. To work only we have the right but no rights to the fruits of the work. Let not the fruits of action motivate one. Let not the fruits divert one’s concentration on work. One should pour heart and soul in the performance of assigned duty. Similarly, one should not attach himself to inaction also. One have no control over future so one should not waste the precious present in useless dreams of future hopes and fears of present actions. One should do his best and actively live every moment of the present with the firm belief that future shall take care of itself. One should concentrate his attention on his present job. 17

Selfless work (karma yoga) is a golden means. It preserves the spirit of renunciation without abandoning activity. Gita emphases that swadharma should be carried on for the general welfare of society and as a worship of divine. This call to work in the true yajna spirit is an exhortation to support and actively co-operate in the divine’s evolutionary design and to live with the mother earth, safeguarding her grand ecological balance. Q.9: Explain the importance of learning in organisations. Organizational learning is an exciting, new approach to organization development. To learn in an organizational context is to gain knowledge and skills accompanied by a desirable change in behavior. Learning is indispensable to survival and growth. Organizational learning is even more indispensable in societies undergoing profound changes, in domains of activity in which technological changes or competitive pressures are mounting, and in domains that are getting more and more complicated due to increasing legal, political, or social constraints. Organizational learning has immense importance in third world societies. The third world organizations-- especially the strategic ones have to learn much in order to operate effectively. The more learning oriented they are despite the ingrained conservatism of the societies in which they function, the faster they would learn to be effective, and the faster too, would be the socioeconomic development of their societies development. Management styles that spur organizational learning may, therefore be especially valuable and those that impede organizational learning should be avoided. Learning is important not only for organisations but for each and every individual. Learning comes from experience, practice. It is relatively permanent. The more the organisation learns, the more it flourishes and grows. Learning hence is given a lot of importance by organisations today. There are various sources through which an organisation can learn. They are as follows: Self Analysis ( Introspection) Its People ( Employees, Managers) From other organisations Past Failures

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Past successes Observation of business environment Learning is also important due to the following reasons: to fight competition, to grow, to improve efficiency, to manage people effectively, to gain leadership, to provide better services to customers, to take better decisions and to increase profits. Today competition has become a buzzword. If one needs to survive one needs to be better than the other in terms of price, quality, delivery etc. Hence an organisation needs to learn from other organisation who is better than it so as to provide better service to customers. Innovation today occupies a central position, one who innovates comes out with a novel product, captures the market. But to innovate one needs to know what are the customer needs and it is possible only if organisations learn from the customers through their various associations with the customer. Thus learning from the customer forms the crux of innovation and organizational success. An organization’s product is like a stimulus to the customer which definitely bring out some response and this is what needs to be monitored and learned from. Learning should also take place from the employees as they are associated with organisation for more than a number of years. The organisation is like a peer to them, they know its processes and hence through their experience are able to tell whether the processes can be improved or they need modification or changes etc. Learning from other organisations i.e. benchmarking has been a constant source of learning. It give a chance to develop and grow. Basically a self introspection takes place. Past failures and successes, as they guide behaviour tells us what to do and what not which forms an important source of learning; thus saving the valuable resources of an organisation from being wasted. Q.10: Explain the different types of learning that can be practiced in organisation. Introduction: Same as concept (6)

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There are many different models of learning. One model commonly employed in schools and colleges is of absorbing the information dished out by instructors and books. A radically different model, widely used in apprenticeship situations, is one of learning from experience without much formal training and education. A third model is one of action learning-learning from feedback on one’s proactive, entrepreneurial actions. There are also dialectical models of learning exemplified by the common debate, in which a thesis is countered by an antithesis and eventually some form of synthesis generally emerges. Freudians have developed cleansing models of learning-in which resistance to acceptance of reality, rooted in repressed childhood traumas. Sociologists have pointed to the power of situational demands and the roles one has to play in learning or moulding of behavior. Organizational psychologists have emphasized the importance of experiencing, observation, reflection, conceptualization, and active experimentation in learning. They also emphasized making contact with whatever one is opposed to; giving voice to the under-represented, dominated, or denied; responding constructively to the unpleasant rather than suppressing or denying it. These alternative but often complementary ways of learning offer a rich pool of ideas for viewing organizational learning and for developing practical ways of enhancing it in organizations. Besides textbook learning and apprenticeship, there are rich, relatively under tapped options in organizational learning through debates, contradictions, rewards and punishment, catharsis, role changes, exposure, reflection, experimentation, voicing the unvoiced, brainstorming etc Q.11:What are the different mechanisms of learning? The different mechanisms of learning are: Learning mechanisms to aid Innovation and Experimentation 1. Use of innovative experts for briefing staff 2. Attending external training programs and conferences by staff. 3. Sharing of learning with other organizations. 4. Encouragement of staff to experiment. 5. Rewards for innovation. 6. Periodic staff meetings to share results of experiments. 7. 8. Periodic staff meetings to share ongoing experiments. Staff seminars on new developments.

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Learning mechanisms to Aid Implementation of Initiatives: 1. Task forces for implementing new projects. 2. Preparation of contingency implementation plans. 3. Task forces to review practices and suggest innovations. 4. Incorporation of strengths of old practices in new practices. 5. Maintenance of records of organizational successes and failures 6. Top level reviews of innovations and changes. 7. Use of skilled staff for implementing changes. Learning Mechanisms to Stabilize Innovations and Initiatives. 1. Task forces to evaluate innovations empirically. 2. Periodic staff meetings to review organizational successes and failures. 3. Task forces based evaluations of implemented innovations. 4. Task forces for institutionalizing changes and innovations. 5. Widespread sharing of implementation experience. 6. Identification of actions needed to stabilize innovations/projects 7. Modification of plans based on implementation experience. 8. Conceiving alternate ways of implementing changes. Q.12: Compare and contrast the American and Japanese style of motivation. Actually speaking, there doesn’t seem to be much difference in the American and Japanese styles of motivation. The difference in only in the way it is presented. Values in Japan: (A) 1) National Service through Industry 2) Fairness 3) Harmony and co-operation 4) Struggle for betterment 5) Courtesy and humility 6) Adjustment and assimilation 7) Gratitude

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Values in America: (B) 1) A belief in the best 2) A belief in the importance of the details of execution 3) A belief in the importance of people as individuals 4) A belief in superior quality and service 5) A belief that most members of the organization must be innovators 6) A belief in the importance of informality to enhance communication 7) Explicit belief in and recognition of the importance of economic growth and profits No picture of contrast, as revealed above in the 2 lists of 7 values each, could have been more vivid. B-7 and A-1, B-1 and A-4, B-3 and A-3, -5, -7 look quite similar. The only difference is in the language. Now, considering the management styles and their impact on work attitudes; Management/ Employment practice Impact on work attitudes (Positive or Negative) Japan 1) Long term employment and age/ Seniority grading 2) Cohesive work groups 2) Dense supervision; close supervisor-subordinate contact 4) Tall hierarchies 5) Formal centralization of decision making 6) Quality circle participation Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Positive Negative Positive Positive Positive Positive America Positive

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7) Welfare services 8) Unions

Positive Negative

Positive Negative

REFERENCES
1. Management Styles – Pradeep Khandwala 2. Managing Ethics – Balchandran 3. Management and Ethics – Omnibus – S.K. Chakraborthy 4. Indian Ethos in Management – P.K.Ghosh 5. Management Value-oriented Holistic Approach – S.A. Sherlekar 6. Vedanta and Management – Nalini Dave

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