EXAM SEAT NO:___________

“Education through self – help is our Motto” –


Mahatma Phule Mahavidyalya, Pimpri, Waghere, Pune -17.

Department of Physics

This is to certify that Mr.Narendra.Ramesh.Jadhav has satisfactorily carried out the Project named “ SOLAR DRYER ” according to syllabus of PUNE UNIVERSITY prescribed for the T.Y.B.Sc. Course in the year 2009-2010.


Teacher In Charge

(Department of physics)



M. R.Y.Dasia (kaka) for their kind support & co-operation during course of my project.Sc (PHYSICS) 3 . of Physics) for encouraging me and providing well guidance and supervision during the entire period of my project work.Patil & Miss Ashwini Narkhede for their co-operation and excellent guidance during the entire period of my project.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With the deep sense of regard and being thankful for.Nimbalkar. I take this opportunity of expressing my gratitude and sincere thanks Dr. (NARENDRA.S.S.A. Most respectively I am thankful to respected professor’s staff Prof.R.O.Nirmala Pawar and our college lab assistance of physics department Mr.B.JADHAV) T. Prof. Nimbalkar (H. I am special thankful to them as they have given their valuable time for my project. Dr.D.R. My special thanks to Miss.


power plants operate on organic trash and sewage plants produce methane gas. permanent type of solar energy sources. the fossil fuel receives their solar energy and posses the energy in greatly concentrated form. coal and wood. The two most significant such sources are nuclear and solar energy. Therefore. to see by. the mankind must turn its attention to longer term. as this nonrenewable sources are consumed. In 1876. however. There are four primary sources of energy-petroleum. to dry cloths. Modern scientific research in the utilization of solar energy commenced in 1885 when C. Solar energy is used to heat & cool the building. 5 . The life time is estimated to range from 15 years for natural gas to nearly 300 years for coal. These highly concentrated solar energy sources are being used as such at a rapidly rate they will be depleted in not too distant future. an American inventor.Gunter. Stoves and cars run on solar made methane gas. all this common sources have finite supplies. an Austrian invented a solar boiler using mirrors. the more conventional forms of energy. to heat water and swimming pools. The waning solar energy research was received in 1940 when God fray Cabot left a large sum of money for research project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Wind is used to generate electrically and mechanical power and solar converted electricity is used both on earth and in space.INTRODUCTION TO SOLAR ENERGY All forms of energy on the earth are derived from sun. Out of these two energies. In addition to the thousand of ways in which both nature and man through out the time to grow food. to power refrigeration. John Ericsoon who invented several types of hot air engines. have used the sun energy. The near feature will certainly show some major break through in solar energy technology. natural gas. Excepting wood. pumps and sewage treatment plants. and to operate engines. solar energy is good option because solar energy is depended energy source without any requirement. no polluting effect from its use and easily available with free cost.

NEED OF SOLAR ENERGY Need of these uses however. can be comprehended without a knowledge of the basic principle of solar energy. conducts it to surrounding material or Reradiated is large wave radiation. Most of the energy we receive from sun comes in the form of light. it is observed and transformed into heat energy . it would not be wrong to say that sun was supplying all the energy needs of man either directly or indirectly and that man was using only renewable sources of energy. Man has needed and used energy at an increasing rate since he came on the earth a few million years ago. not all of which is visible to human eye. 6 . Then he discovered fire and energy needs increased the energy needs for cooking as well as for keeping himself warm. With the passage of time. Till this time. He derived this by plants or animal which he hunted. Man started to cultivate land for agriculture. a short wave radiation. At the beginning man required energy preliminary in the food. When this radiation strikes a solid or liquid. With the further demand for energy man being to use the wind for sailing shills and for driving wind mills and the force of falling water to turn water wheels. the material becomes warm and store heat .

Conventional sources of energy :- ( 1 ) CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY :Conventional sources are those which we have may using since past. The waves are not constant 7 . Out of these three solar energy would be the best alternative because – 1. But due to use of this sources lot of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases are evolved which is major cause of air pollution. The production of oil have appeared to have touched maximum around 1980 and is now slowly declining on the other hand the production of natural gas is increasing present indication that most of the reserves will fall on coal it is likely that production of coal will touch a maximum between the year 2030 and 2060 eventually entire storage of coal will be completely exhausted. Wind does not flow continuously 2. ( 2 ) NON CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY : This type of energy sources are very important in today’s life due to the above reason they generally include solar energy . petrol and gas. The conventional sources generally include wood . wind and tidal energy the above sources of energy of some of the internal sources of energy and are called non-conventional sources of energy.TYPES OF SOLAR ENERGY The energy sources can be divide into two types :( 1 ) Conventional sources of energy :( 2 ) Non. coal .

8 . the sun sustain an angle of 32° on earth. solids . 1. The apparent path of the sun from the earth is known as the elliptic. the mean earth sun distance. visible and infrared spectral region. with the later at one of the foci of the ellipse.36×10 9 m SUN-EARTH RELATIONSHIP The earth is shaped as a spheroid. on a surface of unit area kept perpendicular to the radiation in space. is that from the sun. The earth and solar constant SUN EARTH D= 1. The distance between the sun and the earth varies by 1. The earth revolves an elliptical orbit round the sun. The earth takes rotation about its axis every 24 hours and completes a revolution about the sun in a period of approximately 365. emit energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The radiation which are important to us.7% d= 1. just outside the earth’s atmospheric when the earth is at its mean distance from the sun. this energy is called “ Radiation ”.495 × 107 ± 1.25 days. the earth and the atmosphere lying within the ultraviolet . The solar constant ( Isc ) is defined as the total energy received from the sun per unit time.7% at a distance of one astronomical unit.SOLAR RADIATION All substances .495 × 1011 m .36 × 109m 32° Solar constant Isc = 1367 w/m2 Distance = 1. liquids and gases at temperature above absolute zero.

the mean distance between the two is 1.36 ×109 while that of the earth is 1. The brightness of the sun varies from its center to its edge. the beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is almost parallel. The sun is large sphere of very hot gases . The measurements indicate that the energy flux received from the sun outside the earth’s atmosphere is essentially constant. SOLAR RADIATION AT EARTH’S SURFACE Solar radiation scattered radiation Absorption Scattering Earth atmosphere Earth surface upper limit of atmosphere Diffused radiation ( scattered radiation reaching earth surface ) BEAM AND DIFFUSE SOLAR RADIATION 9 .SOLAR RADIATION OUTSIDE THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE The characteristic of the sun’s energy available outside the earth’s atmosphere are first consideration. Although the sun is large . Thus .4496 × 1011 mm . the heat being generated by various kinds of fusion reactions.27 × 107 m. Its diameter is subtends an angle of the 32° at a very large distance.

in the line with the sun is called beam or direction radiation. ( 3 ) It is useless in rainy season. time of the day.e. SO2. some going back into space and some reaching the earth’s surface. The scattered radiation is redistributed in all directions. ( 4 ) Solar energy is easily available and almost in all parts of the world. clean and unpolluted source of energy. ( 2 ) By solar energy consuming environment can be protected by avoiding fossil fuel burning like CO2. APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR ENERGY The application of solar energy most success today are : - 10 .Solar radiation receives at the earth’s surface without change of direction i. atmosphere contents and other factor. DISADVANTAGES: ( 1 ) Solar energy is very dilute source of energy.time of the year. Absorption occurs primarily because of presence of ozone and water vapour in the atmosphere and particular matter. Solar radiation received at earth’s surface which depends on absorption and scattering as it passes through the earth’s atmosphere. On the other hand scattering occur due to all gaseous molecules and as well as particulate matter in the atmosphere. Solar radiation has been changed by reflection and scattering by the atmosphere is called as diffuse radiation. ( 2 ) Solar energy is not available during night time. ( 5 ) Solar energy is available throughout the year. CO. The intensity of the diffused radiation seen by an observer on a clear day is not isotropic but varies as function of latitude . ( 3 ) Solar energy is absolutely free of coast. ADVANTAGES AND DIS-ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR ENERGY ADVANTAGES: ( 1 ) Solar energy is hygienic .

For sunless or cloudy days an auxiliary system as a back-up is always required. have been developed. Solar air-conditioning can be utilized for space-cooling. 3. A traditional and wide-special use of solar energy is for drying the agricultural products. These are special interest in the case of soft fruits . Large drying system like grain. In India. In direction source of solar energy conversion i.1. Fruit dryer in which fruit is placed . 4. Cooling of building. development of large size wind mills for generating electricity. A great deal of current research is being devoted to developing system requiring lower operating temperatures. Therefore. It is also estimated that about 600 to 900 millions people do not have enough food 11 . paddy. in carefully designed rack to provide control exposure to solar radiation often improves product quality and saves considerable time. Solar refrigeration is intended for food preservation and deserves top priority in our country. Food refrigeration . maize like ginner. such as for water pumping. 2. Solar refrigeration with an absorption system is a better way to direct utilization of energy. In these areas. Wind energy which is an indirect source of energy conversion can be utilize to run windmills. in the form of wind energy. When the building needs heat. on the development of low cost speed mills for providing water in rural areas. using the absorption cooling principle. cash rapper etc. Solar drying of agriculture product. The heat from solar energy can be used to cool buildings . 5. which in turn drives a generator power . these are attacked by insects as the sugar concentration increases during drying.e. generally wind speeds obtainable are in the lower range. In India high wind speed are obtainable in coastal areas Saurashtra. Solar refrigeration provides an effective solution in sub-tropical areas of our country. Rajasthan and some parts of central India. Heating of building. BASIC THEORY OF SOLAR DRYER It has been estimated that the world’s population will become 7 billion by the year 2000. the air or water from its heating system passes through the storage is warm and is then fed through the conventional heater to another space. The heat from solar energy can be used for heating buildings.

barley etc. Reduce the food demand by reducing the population eat now and this number is likely to increase with the increase in population. contamination. contribute about 40% of the world’s harvest about 36% of the vegetables and 50% of the food of the world are produced in developing countries. India etc. (1) (2) Increase food production by bringing mare area under cultivation. Fish is another food product whose estimate is not available but it is produced in large quantities in developing countries even if the 50 % of the post harvest food losses are reduced then many developing countries will be selfsufficient in food. tobacco. rodents and insects and during storage is difficult to know due to technical and practical reason but it is so enormous that most conservative estimates were enough in 1975 to result in a resolution by the seventh special session of United Nation’s General Assembly to seek 50% reduction in post harvest food losses within a decade. A very conservative estimate showed that a minimum of 17 million tones of food were lost in 1976 out of 750 million tones produced including durable and perishable. MANUFACTURING OF SOLAR DRYER In manufacturing there are many countries like Australia. China. coca. post harvest losses between 30-50 % in perishable are reported. are grown only in developing countries. nuts etc. The actual estimate of food loss during post harvest period. paddy. climate. The developing countries produce about 15% of the world crop. marketing and the social and cultural setting. Germany. due to spillage. processing. USA. potatoes. This food loss can be reducing in developing countries if in rural areas and efficient policy and administrative infrastructure. Many commercial crop like tea. are some countries where we find solar dryer. coffee. storage. There are obviously two direct ways of solving the problem. attack by birds. The post harvest losses very considerable and depend on crop variety. the system of harvesting. In developing countries where cold storage facilities are not adequately available. In these Australia is now 12 . The third alternative which is equally important but not given adequate attention is reducing the loss of food during and after harvest. Crops like Wheat. better irrigation and by using newer and mechanized methods of agricultures practices.

1. of the dried material M1. MOISTURE CONTENTS AND MEASUREMENTS The moisture contents of a substance is expressed in percentage by weight on the wet basis. Solar dryer are used in different product drying purpose. of the evaporated moisture W2 = final wt. Wm = weight of moisture. dry basis. Solar dryer called “Hohenheimer tunnel dryer” developed by German company. dry basis percent is . timbers at their east. But the moisture content on dry basis is more simple to use in calculation as the quantity of moisture present at any time is directly proportional to the moisture contents m .independent company. W1 = initial wt. Wd = weight of dry material. but still conducts all its research and manufacture in conjunction with Rose. gum. ( a ) Direct method :( b ) Indirect method :The direct method include the air-oven drying method. China dryer – Chinese professional manufacturers of dryer. 3. M= It can also be seen that. Wm W1 Wm W2 Where. In India mostly found in Bangalore. of the dry material = ( Wm + Wd ) kg Wm = wt. M= Where. The moisture measurement can be done by . percent wet basis is as follows. 2. The indirect method in which the electrical resistance of a measured amount of grain sample at a given = m1 – m2 100 – m2 m1 – m2 100 – m1 = M1 – M2 100 + M1 M1 – M2 100 + M2 Wm Wd × 100 = m 100 – m × 100 Wm × 100 Wm+ Wd = = 13 .m2 = initial and final moisture components. The moisture constant M.

Thus humidity is directly related to drying and storage different material have different equilibrium moisture contents. temperature and degree of compaction by properly calibrating the instrument. The universal moisture contents of the grain directly. The EMC is useful to determine whether the product will gain or lose moisture under a given set of temperature and relative humidity condition.compaction and temperature is measured. the solid and the gas are then in equilibrium with the surrounding condition is known as equilibrium moisture content EMC. TYPES OF THE MOISTURE Bound moisture : This refers to the moisture contained by a substance which exerts equilibrium vapour present equal to that of the pure liquid at the same temperature. In static method. temperature and degree of compaction and temperature is measured. having a fixed partial pressure of the vapour. The electrical resistance varies with moisture contents. Free moisture : Free moisture is the moisture contained by a substance in excess of equilibrium moisture M-M0 only moisture can be evaporated. When a solid is exposed to a continuous supply of air at constant temperature and humidity. the grain is allowed to come to equilibrium with the surrounding still air without any agitation whereas in dynamic method the air is generally forced. The EMC is dependant upon the temperature and the relative humidity of the environment and on the variety & maturity of the grain. the solid will either lose moisture by evaporation or grain moisture from the air until the vapour pressure of the moisture of the solid equal P. 14 . The EMC is to be determined under constant relative humidity and temperature condition of air. the moisture contents can be measured. The EMC is determine by two method (1) The static method and (2) The dynamic method. The electrical resistance varies with moisture contents.

namely the constant rate period and the falling rate period.0 Relative Humidity of air RH Unbound moisture Bound moisture Free moisture equm moisture m0 m MOISTURE IN THE DRYING MATERIAL The above relations are shown in fig.Equilibrium moisture level 1. 15 . A typical drying curve is shown in fig.( 1 ) for solid of the moisture content M exposed to air of relative humidity RH.( 3 ) clearly shows that there are two major periods of drying.

Moisture Content M equm moisture level 0 time t RATE OF MOISTURE LOSS Constant rate drying phase First falling rate Drying rate dM/dt equm moisture level second falling rate 0 time t The plots of the moisture contents versus drying time or drying rate versus drying time or drying rate versus moisture contents are known as drying curves. Fig. Fig.(2).(3) 16 .

the periods of falling rate is similar unit the unbound moisture is completely removed. The constant drying rate is referred as adiabatic drying since the total heat content of the air remains constant and depends on external factor such as air flow rate. Under dynamic equilibrium conditions. As seen from this figure for both hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic material.Constant rate Falling rate Drying rate dM/dt Critical point Non hygroscopic material hygroscopic material Ms Moisture contents A cure is plotted between drying rate dM / dt versus moisture content M as shown in the fig. In the hygroscopic materials. then it further decreases and some bound moisture is removed. thermodynamic state and transport properties of the air. The constant drying rate for both non-hygroscopic and hygroscopic material is the same while the period of falling rate is little different. this is continuous till the vapour pressure of material becomes equal to the vapour pressure of the drying air. For non-hygroscopic material in the period of falling rate. When this equilibrium reaches in the drying rate becomes zero. there is a constant drying rate terminating at the critical moisture contents followed by falling drying rate. the drying rate goes on the decreasing till the moisture contents becomes zero. 17 . and the state of aggregation of material. rate of the water evaporated is equal to the rate of heat transfer to the surface.(4).

until at the end of this period the surface is dried. The falling rate period of drying often can be divided into two stages. Falling rate periods follows subsequently. The falling rate period is characterized by increasing temperature both at the surface and within the solid. (b) Surfaces forces. When its moisture contents exceeds 72 % . (f) Differences in the total pressure. The cause of falling off in the rate of drying is due to the inability of the moisture to be conveyed from the center of the body to the surface at the rate comparable with the moisture evaporation from its surface to the surrounding. When is dried under constant rate period. The liquid movement may be due to. In the constant rate period the rate of evaporation under any given set of air conditions is independent of the solid and is essentially same as the rate of evaporation from a free liquid surface under the same condition. changes in air velocity have a much smaller effect than during the constant rate period. Furthermore. Falling rate period : Cereal grains are usually dried entirely under falling rate period. (e) Differences in the temperature. ( 1 ) Unsaturated surface drying. (c) Moisture diffusion in pores. 18 . The falling rate period enters after the constant drying rate period and corresponds to the drying cycle where all surface is no longer wetted and the wetted surface continuingly decreases. (d) Differences in the vapour pressure. Practically all central grains are dried under falling rate period if the moisture content is not very high. The falling rate period of drying is controlled largely by the product and is dependent on the movement of the moisture within the material from the center to the surface by liquid diffusion and the removable of the moisture from the surface of the product. (a) Moisture concentration difference.Constant rate period : Some crops including cereal grains at high moisture constant are dried under a constant rate period at the initial period of drying. ( 2 ) Drying where the rate of the water diffusion within the product is show and is the controlling factor.

in its simplest form. Several dryers are fabricated. But practicability of dryers. tested and analyzed in many countries. initial moisture content of the material. The natural drying does not involve money except some labour. Chimney type dryer. The drying rate will dependant on the depth of the bed. but result in poor quality of products due to no control over drying rate. ( 1 ) Natural convention solar dryer : These dryers appears to be more attractive for use in developing countries since these do not use fan or blower to be operated by electrical energy. 19 . (1) (2) (3) Direct type or natural convention type dryer. solar insulation.TYPES OF THE SOLAR DRYER The traditional way of the drying agricultural products in developing countries is to spread the material in the thin layer on a platform in open sun. Forced circulation type dryer. ambient temperature and the design of the dryer. ( 2 ) Mixed mode solar dryer : In this the solar air heater without any fan along with the drying bin is used. this can be classified basically into three types. Moreover. they consist of some kind of enclosure and a transparent cover. drying rate. moisture contents and air flow rate. However the problems with these dryers are slowly drying. This dryer named as “ rice dryer ” was developed by exell in Bangkok. Since there are many option in the design of the solar dryer. The flow of air is generally by the natural circulation. Therefore a solar dryer is to be designed carefully keeping all the above drying parameters in mind and the appropriateness of the dryer. small quantity can be dried and some products change colour and flavour due to direct exposure to sun. unhygienic condition and spoilage. Solar energy can be effectively employed for controlled drying resulting in good quality products. not much control on temperature and humidity. hence there are large variety of solar dryers. It is experienced that if the material in the dryer remained un-touch then the material in the lower layers gets overheated and over-dried while at the top remained under-dried. There are several design of direct type dryers and these are developed keeping in mind either the available of local material required for its fabrication or for drying a particular products. The food product gets heated evaporate and goes out by the natural circulation of the air. Actually controlled drying means controlling the drying parameters like air temperature humidity. A simple cabinet dryer is discussed here. This dryer is designed to dry rice only but other food products or grain which requires slow and low temperature drying may also be dried. Therefore stirring of material and drying in thin layer is recommended. drying chamber and a tall chimney used to increase the convention effect. Thailand and consist of a simple air heater. e. they are low in cost and easy to operate. These solar dryers has been classified in many ways. Mixed mode type dryer.g.

belt type. in these dryer some kind of blower is used for the circulation of air which is either operated electrically or mechanically.( 3 ) Forced circulation type dryer : As the name implies. faster and can be used for drying large quantities of agricultural products. The direct mode forced circulation dryer are similar to the indirect type natural circulation dryer except that here circulation of air is made by forced circulation and therefore are not very efficient and not preferred. column type or rotary type. circulation type solar dryer. The storage is charged when the solar radiation is at the peak or when the drying is not required. While incident type or forced circulation dryer are very efficient can be used at low as well as high temperature and for drying large quantities of agricultural products. Storage unit is put in series with the solar collector. Such dryer are more efficient. 20 . A forced circulation dryer which uses some kind of thermal storage unit. forced mode. tunnel type. These forced circulation type dryer are also categorized as direct mode. heat recovery wheel and auxiliary heating arrangement is described here. This dryer are of bin type.

e. The drying of grain in the deep bed can be taken as the sum of the several thin layers. (1) Deep bed drying (2) Thin layer drying ( 1 ) Deep bed drying : In this all the grains in the dryer are not fully exposed in the same condition of drying air.CABINET SOLAR DRYER Cabinet solar dryer are of two types. moisture removed from dry layer until the equilibrium moisture content is reached. 21 . Over and above the rate of the air flow per unit mass of the grain is small compared to the thin layered drying of the grain. Drying will be used as soon as the product comes in equilibrium with the air. Generally upto the 20 cm thickness of grain bed is taken as thin bed. at constant air temp and humidity. The humidity and temperature of air entering and leaving each layer vary with time depending upon the stage of drying. The condition of drying air at any point in the grain mass changes with the time and with the depth of the grain bed. the moisture content of green and velocity of air movement. ( 2 ) Thin layer drying : Thin layer dryer refers to the grain drying process in which all the grains are fully exposed to the drying air under constant drying condition i. Little moisture is removed rather a small amount may be added to the wet zone varies with the temperature and humidity of entering air.

DIAGRAMS OF THE CABINET SOLAR DREYER Trays AS BACK VIEW Insulation holes AS TOP VIEW Glass cover Ventilation holes Trays insulation pipes for bottom ventilation holes 22 .

When the food product is placed in the trays and exposed to solar radiation. Recently its performance has been compared with other dryer by Sharma etal. From bottom place plywood at a same distance which is used for insulation purpose. we require plywood. The inside surface of the box are coated with the black point and the product to be dried is kept in the trays made of wires mesh bottom these made loaded trays are kept through on open able door provided on the rear side of the drier ventilation holes are made in the bottom through which fresh air is sucked automatically. Solar cabinet dryer working : The dryer which has attracted the attention of many scientist is the cabinet solar dryer which is also natural convection type.6 foot and breadth 1 foot while width 1 foot. Observation made on this dryer in many countries is quite encouraging and concluded that it can reduce the drying time from one half to one third compared to open sun drying. 23 . place wooden dust in it. The diameter of hole must be 1 inch. For insulating. WORKING PRINCIPLE : The working principle of these models mainly depend on method of solar energy collection and its conservation to useful thermal energy. The length is generally kept as 3 times of its width. And found that for drying small products cabinet dryer is better than other dryers. The cabinet and tray with black cabinet. It is 3-D diagrammatic model which contains length of 2. Make door on one side of cabinet solar dryer at last point. Holes are also provided on the upper side of the dryer through which moist warm air escapes. CONSTRUCTION : For construction of cabinet solar dryer. Make holes on upper side of cabinet solar dryer and again on downward direction for ventilation purpose. The detail of the cabinet dryer is given in the figure. Insert rubber pin in the bottom hole for ventilation. creating a partial vacuum and drawing fresh air up through the holes provides in the base of the dryers. the temperature of the product rises resulting in evaporation of moisture this warm moist air passes through upper ventilation holes by natural convection.PRINCIPLE AND CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR DRYER PRINCIPLE : Mostly cabinet solar dryer has main principle of controlled drying the food by using solar energy. The solar cabinet of a wooden or of any material box certain width and length is generally kept three times its width insulation at its base and also preferable at the side and covered with the transparent roof. transparent glass cover etc. Temperature high as 90° C has been recorded in this type dryer when it is empty.

Helps to better return. Helps in humbling transport of crops. Helps in long beam storage. It can not be used in winter season. DISADVANTAGES : (a) (b) (c) (d) It requires more space.ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CABINET SOLAR DRYER ADVANTAGES : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Facilities early harvest. During night time it cannot be used. Permits maintaining viability of seeds. Permits planning the harvest season. Helps to better quality product. It is more expensive to plot in areas. 24 . Reduce the requirement of storage.

25 . Sometime insufficient rise in cop temperature affecting moisture removable. Moisture condensations inside glass cover reducing its transitivity. Discolourization of crops due to direct exposure to solar radiation.A CABINET DRYER HAS THE FOLLOWING LIMITATIONS (A) (B) (C) (D) Due to its small capacity its use is limited to small scale application.

the following additional assumptions have been made. drying chamber wall air has been neglected. There is no conduction of water vapour in drying chamber. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) The heat capacity of glass.THERMAL ANALYSIS OF CABINET DRYER In solar to write the energy balance for different components of cabinet dryer. crop. There is no satisfaction along the depth of the crop due to small depth of crop. The heat flow is negligible. 26 . trays. Volume shrinkage is negligible during the drying process. Particle to particle conduction is negligible.


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