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, or entertain the listeners." The art and science of public speaking, especially in a North American competitive environment, is also known as forensics. The word "forensic" is an adjective meaning "of public debate or argument." The word is derived from the Latin forensis, meaning "of the forum." The sense of the word "forensic" that means "pertaining to legal trials" dates from the 1600s (Oxford English Dictionary) and led to the use of the word "forensics" in reference to legal evidence. In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a discourse community. It contains elements of a discourse community that exist in many mediums and forms that serve different purposes for society and business among other areas of communication. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining.
HISTORY The first known work on the subject was written over 2500 years ago, and the principles elaborated within it were drawn from the practices and experience of orators in ancient Greece. These basic principles have undergone modification as societies, and cultures have changed, yet remained surprisingly uniform. The history of public speaking has existed for centuries since civilization has been constructed and has had a major impact on society. The technology and the methods of this form of communication have traditionally been through oratory structure and rely on a large or sometimes somewhat small audience. However, new advancements in technology have allowed for more sophisticated communication to occur for speakers and public orators. The technological and media sources that assist the public speaking atmosphere include both videoconferencing and telecommunications. Videoconferencing is among one of the more recent technologies that is in a way revolutionizing the way that public speakers communicate to the masses. David M. Fetterman of Stanford University printed in his 1997 article Videoconferencing over the Internet: "Videoconferencing technology allows geographically disparate parties to hear and see each other usually through satellite or telephone communication systems". This technology is helpful for large conference meetings and face to face communication context, and is becoming more widespread across the world. TRAINING Effective public speaking can be developed by joining a club such Rostrum, Toastmasters International, Association of Speakers Clubs (ASC) or International Training in Communication (ITC) in which members are assigned exercises to improve their speaking skills. Members learn by observation and practice, and hone their skills by listening to constructive suggestions followed by new public speaking exercises. These include:
• • • • • • •
Oratory The use of gestures Control of the voice (inflection) Vocabulary, register, word choice Speaking notes Using humor Developing a relationship with the audience
Professional trainers in public speaking (or presenting) are cautious about recommending these organizations as they are essentially amateurs commenting on amateurs. As such they can reinforce mediocrity or worse, carry on spreading incorrect or over-simplified ideas. Serious students of public speaking are advised to get professional training. Using a forum such as Toastmasters to practice public speaking skills after receiving professional training is a time-tested approach to developing one's ability to speak well. It is difficult to really receive any formal training but, can still be taught and practiced by those seeking to improve their public communication skills. The organization is among one of the largest nationally recognized that specializes in the improvement and networking of effective communication skills throughout the world. The new millennium has seen a notable increase in the number of training solutions offered in the form of video and on-line courses. Video can provide significant training potential by revealing to the student actual examples of behaviors to emulate in addition to verbal knowledge transfer. LEADERSHIP Effective leadership almost always requires the skill of good public speaking, and this can often make up for a lack of other skills. NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS The National Communication Association (NCA) exists to assist professional communicators - both marketplace and academic. There is an annual convention held with many presentations addressing the concerns central to effective public speaking.
"stage fright"). As Jerry Seinfeld observes. public speaking and leadership skills. and thinking. "The average person at a funeral would rather be in the casket than doing the eulogy. This skill can be used for almost anything. Public speaking and oration are sometimes considered some of the most importantly valued skills that an individual can possess." It is believed to be the single most common phobia — affecting as much as 75% of the population. listening. Toastmasters International helps men and women learn the arts of speaking. for example presenting information to clients or colleagues. informally.Toastmasters International is a nonprofit educational organization that operates clubs worldwide for the purpose of helping members improve their communication. Having knowledge and understanding of the use and purpose of communication can help to make a more effective speaker communicate their message in an effectual way. Most great speakers have a natural ability to display the skills and effectiveness that can help to engage and move an audience for whatever purpose. GLOSSOPHOBIA "The fear of public speaking is called glossophobia (or." Many careers require some ability in public speaking. Language and rhetoric use are among two of the most important aspects of public speaking and interpersonal communication. Through its member clubs. 10 KEY PRINCIPLES TO ALWAYS KEEP IN MIND #1---Speaking in Public is NOT Inherently Stressful #2---You Don't Have to be Brilliant or Perfect to Succeed #3---All You Need is Two or Three Main Points . Fear of oration is ranked even above that of death.
• Be careful not to include information your audience does not understand.#4---You also Need a Purpose That is Right for the Task #5---The Best Way to Succeed is NOT to Consider Yourself a Public Speaker! #6---Humility and Humor Can Go a Long Way #7---When You Speak in Public. the audience will walk away with some new knowledge. . • Choose a topic your audience will find interesting and relevant. the More You Prepare. If you do use unfamiliar terms. Keep it simple. • 2. Nothing "Bad" Can Ever Happen! #8---You Don't Have to Control the Behavior of Your Audience #9---In General. You're trying to teach your audience something. The purpose is a persuasive speech is to change people's minds or behavior about something. the Worse You Will Do #10--Your Audience Truly Wants You to Succeed TYPES OF PUBLIK SPEAKING 1. • Make sure your speech is not persuasive. not change their mind. Informative Speeches. Avoid using terms that all or some of the audience will not recognize. be sure to define them very clearly. Persuasive Speeches. Here are some tips to keep in mind for effective informative speaking: Don't cram too much information into your speech or you'll lose your audience. The purpose of an informative speech is to teach the audience a small but useful tidbit of information. This is a very difficult thing to do. If your speech is a success.
A ceremonial speech is one that is given to mark an important occasion in someone's life. you won't change anyone's mind about gun control. so replace generic adjectives with stories. it's not enough to simply present your arguments in an eloquent way. • Look for common ground with the people in your audience who disagree with you." If you're giving a wedding toast.For a persuasive speech to be truly effective. You need to actually get the audience to change their minds. or a eulogy at a funeral. For example." Be original. "She sends birthday and anniversary cards to everyone she knows. However. These speeches can be both emotionally moving and fun. • Avoid cliches." By doing so. • . if you're giving a speech on abortion. Ceremonial Speeches. • Ask your audience to take a specific action-. No one's going to be convinced unless it's clear that you really care. you might change their minds about a smaller part of this issue. such as whether a certain type of weapon should be legal." say. "today you marry your best friend. • 3. such as a graduation speech. If you're giving a graduation speech. For example. a wedding toast.and one that they might actually take. Here are some tips for how to deliver a persuasive speech: Deliver your speech with passion. In your short speech. don't say "spread your wings and fly. include a statement such as. "I know that all of us can agree that preventing unwanted pregnancies is important." • Tell stories about the people in the audience. Asking people to call their elected officials will not be effective. Here are some ceremonial speech tips: Tell lots of stories about whomever you're giving the speech about. you reach out to people on the other side and demonstrate that you're not the enemy-. don't say. For example. • Don't choose an impossible task. This will make them feel included and special. instead of saying.and then they'll be more likely to listen to you. "She's a very thoughtful person. talk about nice things the departed did with their loved ones. Stories are what make the person or people you talk about come alive for your audience in the speech. if you're giving a eulogy.
Use common sense.Be appropriate. Every public speaking topic falls into one of these five categories. Informational: These speeches follow the format of opening. Let's review the essentials of each one. Toasts are generally very short speeches. The other purpose. Toasts: Toasts are a specialty speech that has a general format. This is probably 90% of the speeches that most people are asked to do. • SOME OTHER TYPES OF PUBLIK SPEAKING There are essentially five types of public speaking: 1) Introductions 2) Toasts 3) Informational 4) Persuasive and 5) Demonstration. Don't talk about Aunt Bertha's shoplifting habit in her eulogy. They should be packed with facts and figures. is to persuade the audience that the speaker is qualified to speak. when before a group. supportive points and conclusion. and then the toast again. Don't make jokes about the groom's ex-wife in the weeding toast. 3. Introductions: The purpose of an introduction is to allow the audience to remember the person's name and enough background material to start up a conversation. 4. purpose. 1. 2. The toast. similar to introductions. some background material on the toast. Persuasive: .
A SHORT GUIDE TO EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SPEAKING Begin with something to get the attention of the audience.." You could begin with a current event: "You might have read in the paper this morning about the flood that. be energetic in delivery. Second. Show facial expression as you speak.. but move a step away to make a point. When you are encouraging your audience. Don't just stand behind the lectern. It is the least structured of the public speaking types. or your own story. as it is normally just a reinforcement of your informational or persuasive speech. Whatever technique you use. they are essentially how to speeches. "Two weeks ago as I was driving to work a car pulled out in front of me. Often. statistic. Demonstration speech visual aids are normally three dimensional. Pause occasionally for effect. Speak with variety in your voice. when you grab the attention of the audience you are on your way to a successful speech.. Demonstration: These speeches include visual aids." A question is another way to make people listen. 5. Slow down for a dramatic point and speed up to show excitement. "How many of you feel our society spends too much on medical care?" might be a way to begin a presentation about curbing costs. This might be a startling statement..These speeches are intended to persuade the audience. like a blackboard.. Demonstrate how something works or looks or moves as you tell about it. . Gesture to show how big or wide or tall or small an object is that you are describing. or active two dimensional. take a step toward them. Powerpoint is not a demonstrational speaking style. the most effective are in the form of stories where the moral is the persuasion.. Listeners pay close attention when a person begins with.
" would be an example. and the personal experience does that. With almost any topic you might choose. and preview in the beginning what those points will be." Use an internal summary by simply including the point you just made and telling what you plan to talk about next. you will have your speech organized in a way that the audience can follow you easily. These could be signposts such as "First. you have at least one "war story" to relate to the topic. include a visual aid. including answers to the "W" questions: "Who. such as examples. and the audience will connect with you. Bar graphs are best for comparisons and pie graphs are best for showing distribution of percentages. let's move on to the use of stories. When you tell the story. Tell your own story somewhere in the presentation Include a personal experience that connects to your speech content. definitions." To add interest and understanding to your speech." or "Finally." "Why. they should have purpose. Whatever your movements." and "Where. With each point. You want to help the audience link emotionally with what you are talking about. appropriate transitions. Visual aids are important when you want your audience to understand a process or concept or understand a financial goal." What. Line graphs are best for trends. or statistics. have two or three pieces of support. Structure your speech. Don't have more than two or three main points. . and a conclusion. Tie your points together with transitions. "Now that we have talked about structure. testimony. "When. two or three main points with support for each. When you have an introduction.Smile when talking about something pleasant and let your face show other emotions as you tell about an event or activity." "Second. simply start at the beginning and move chronologically through the narrative.
I might add that although we spend half of our communication time in listening. look at the audience. This will help you maintain good eye contact throughout your presentation as well as commanding immediate attention. make sure everyone can see it. You are still the main event and your visual is an aid. in addition to your own stories include testimony of experts whom the audience respects and whose views reinforce your points. For example. explain what the visual will do before you unveil it. By using stories. testimony. Go to the lectern and pause. Don't allow the visual to become a silent demonstration. and statistics in your persuasive talk. and then find the seat farthest from it and determine if you can read the visual from that seat. if I were discussing the need for improved listening to better serve your customers. When the visual is not in use. The word or phrase should trigger the thought in your mind and then you can speak it. hide it from the audience. overhead projector slides. our listening efficiency is only about 25%. and then speak. you can look at each person in a short period of time. a PowerPoint presentation. One way to insure good eye contact is to look at your audience before you start to speak. If it is a small audience. or a dry erase board. not your visual. Humans are a curious lot. Introduce the visual properly rather than simply throwing it at your audience. you add depth to your evidence. One of the ways to have consistently good eye contact is not to read your speech. look at the audience in small "clumps" and move from one clump to another. tending to keep looking at the object and losing track of the speaker-you! If you are delivering a persuasive speech. a flip chart. Look at the audience as you speak. Add a key statistic when possible to show the seriousness of what you are discussing. Look at your audience. smile. Keep talking as you show the visual. If it is a large audience. .A visual aid could be an object. The best way to insure this is to put the visual where you will be speaking. Use note cards that have key words on them. Whatever visual you are using.
you are not becoming a comedian but rather lightening up a serious speech so that people will be more accepting and interested in your ideas. reading from your note card actually lends credibility. Don't panic at this suggestion. "Wow!" It could be a story. "Humor is simply tragedy separated by time and space. You'll become a more enthusiastic speaker because the "wow" factor will get you as well as your audience pumped for the speech. Consider using a touch of humor in your speech. an unusual statistic. The . Avoid long stories or jokes. you should be the object of any shortcoming. showing that you can laugh at yourself. Yogi Berra said a lot of funny things." Don't poke fun at your audience. Until you have lots of experience.If you are including a quotation or complex statistics. you understand the old adage. Include a "wow" factor in your speech. keep your humor short. you then have something to look forward to in the speech that you know will have an impact on your audience. Humor will help you to be perceived as an amiable person. If you write out your speech you will tend to read it and lose eye contact with the audience. Perhaps inject a one-liner or a quotation. or an effective visual that helps the audience understand immediately. "You can observe a lot just by watching" for example. Tell a short embarrassing moment in your life that you might have thought not funny at the time. a dramatic point. With a "wow" factor. and it is hard for people to disagree or be bored if they are smiling at you. Probably the least risky use of humor is a cartoon. as well as not being as enthusiastic in delivery as when you speak from note cards. Something in your speech should make your audience think. Even seasoned speakers know that funny stories soon become unfunny if they go on too long. Now that you can laugh at the experience.
avoid the temptation to speak loudly. make your last words a thought to ponder. Instead use your natural speech patterns with their variations in pitch. The easiest way to put an audience to sleep is by speaking in the same tone of voice for a long period of time. But the points discussed here will get you started in becoming the speaker you want to be and the speaker your audience wants to hear. For example. 'The skill to do comes with the doing. Conversely. Nothing is worse than having to strain to hear a speaker present. • Don't shout into the microphone. you don't feel responsible. So. I might end a speech on becoming a better speaker with "As Cicero said centuries ago. You will notice that sometimes you speak quickly and while at other times you slow down. presentation or training session. have someone stand at the back of the room and tell you if you can be heard. have the sound technician adjust the amplifacation so that you can be heard clearly while using your normal voice.. if you are using sound amplification equipment.. • Slow down for important points. you can add energy and animation to your speech pattern. before you begin a presentation. (Be sure to secure permission to use it.) Finally. leave the audience with something to think about. • Change your delivery pace.'" A more modern guide to effective public speaking was penned by some unknown sage: "Know your stuff. Know whom you are stuffing.. QUICK TIPS FOR USING YOUR VOICE EFFECTIVELY Here are eight quick tips on using your voice effectively in a speech." One never becomes a "perfect" speaker. You might summarize your main points. Observe the way you speak during a normal conversation with a friend or colleague." But beyond that. Before you begin. • Avoid speaking in a monotone. Make sure you speak loud enough for the audience to hear you. developing public speaking skills is a life-long experience.cartoon is separate from you and if people don't laugh. By speaking at different speech rates for short periods. By slowing your speech rate while delievering your key points. or you might complete the statement. People remember best what you say last. Know when they are stuffed. you can convey emphasis and importance. "What I want you to do as a result of this presentation is. • .
Public speaking is about having an effect on your audience . Silence is an excellent exclamation point. This is where your focus and purpose should be. Here are ten common causes of public speaking anxiety and some tips for avoiding them. with practice speaking in public will become an invigorating and satisfying experience for you. • TEN CAUSES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING STRESS Public speaking is a common source of stress in the modern workplace. Thinking you need to be perfect in order to succeed. By slightly extending a pause. Keep a glass of water at the podium and take a sip of water as necessary during the presentation. Whether you work alone or with large numbers of people. .Use the pause. 2. News anchors provide some of the best examples of effective voice usage. not yourself. you can add emphasis to a key point in your presentation. Instead. Before your presentation. Public speaking need not be stressful at all. If your career goals include taking a leadership role in your organization. on your road to achieving them. be realistic with your speech objectives given the time you are alloted. People are diverse. Having the wrong objectives. 5. 3. if any. Your audience will not expect perfection and neither should you. drink a glass of water. Concentrate on what will benefit your audience. This can help prevent potential voice problems during your presentation. professional public speakers attain. 4. It is unrealistic to expect to please all of them and you should not try to. Perfection is a goal that few. The best presenters plan their pauses to achieve maximum impact! • Drink water. If you correctly understand the causes of public speaking stress and take care to address them. Don't try to accomplish too much in the time you are given. 1. Trying to cover too much material. Trying to please everyone. large and small. you will almost certainly need to speak regularly to groups. motivate or peruade them. It is likely that each individual member of will respond differently to your presentation. the chances are high that you will need to speak in public at some point no matter how much you might wish to avoid the experience. • Check out the national news.to educate. Believing that public speaking is inherently stressful.
7. be humble when speaking about yourself and your achievements and experiences. The adage that you can never be too prepared isn't always true. Do not torture your audience by putting a lengthy document in tiny print on an overhead and reading it out to them. Instead. Standing. simply be yourself. sound clips. occur and even if they do you can use them to your advantage. Body language It is important. Failing to be personally revealing and humble.Trying to emulate other speakers. Do not over-dazzle your audience with excessive use of animation. Mistakes and hitches which may appear glaring to you are likelyto pass unnoticed by the majority of your listeners. The negative outcomes you might imagine will rarely. Telling personal stories to illustrate your points can have a profound impact on your audience and their receptiveness to your message. Expecting the worst. You've likely attended more than a few events where you've listened to professional speakers or trainers give a presentation. if ever. Your audience will want you to succeed and will give you every opportunity to do so. walking or moving about with appropriate hand gesture or facial expression is preferred to sitting down or standing still with head down and reading from a prepared speech. However. Use audio-visual aids or props for enhancement if appropriate and necessary. This will allow you concentrate your full attention on your material and your audience. Take time to develop and foster confidence in your self and your ability to succeed. 9. Humor is a great tool for turning a minor disaster into a memorable teaching moment. Master the use of presentation software such as PowerPoint well before your presentation. Believe that you will succeed and you are already more than half way there. 6. Presentation Tips for Public Speaking 1. or gaudy colors which are inappropriate for your topic. . 10.Thinking your audience will be as critical of you and your performance as you are of yourself. Don't make the mistake of trying to copy their style. Being overprepared. few things will alienate an audience more quickly than arrogance. Instead. 8.
Use the 3-second method. 4. know what could be effectively added. Always be prepared for the unexpected.g. Do not mumble. If you have extra time. Do not read from notes Don't read from notes for any extended length of time although it is quite acceptable to glance at your notes infrequently. and logical conclusion). know what can be safely left out. 3. adjust and adapt. e. correct it. summary. accurate and up-to-date information) to CONCLUSION (re-state thesis. 5. Use your eye contact to make everyone in your audience feel involved. . The material you present orally should have the same ingredients as that which are required for a written research paper. and every now and then glance at the whole audience while speaking. Eye contact Maintain sincere eye contact with your audience. listen to their questions. Speaking to your audience Speak to your audience.e. Have direct eye contact with a number of people in the audience. and continue. If you are short of time. No need to make excuses or apologize profusely. Remember that communication is the key to a successful presentation. If you made an error. a logical progression from INTRODUCTION (Thesis statement) to BODY (strong supporting arguments. respond to their reactions. change your strategy mid-stream if you are well prepared to do so. Sound confident. If what you have prepared is obviously not getting across to your audience. i. Speak with conviction Persuade your audience effectively.2. look straight into the eyes of a person in the audience for 3 seconds at a time. Speak loudly and clearly.
Tell audience ahead of time that you will be giving out an outline of your presentation so that they will not waste time taking unnecessary notes during your presentation.6. 10. location of projection screen. lighting. have an emergency backup system readily available. as well as yourself. etc. whiteboard. Remember that an interesting speech makes time fly. Keep audience interested throughout your entire presentation. Pause. sound system. 8. feeling out of breath. Handouts Have handouts ready and give them out at the appropriate time. are suitable for your presentation. Check out the location ahead of time to ensure seating arrangements for audience. blackboard. but a boring speech is always too long to endure even if the presentation time is the same. Use a timer or the microwave oven clock to time your presentation when preparing it at home. Add humor Add humor whenever appropriate and possible. Allow yourself and your audience a little time to reflect and think. Audio-visual aids When using audio-visual aids to enhance your presentation. 9. . If possible. Don't race through your presentation and leave your audience. be sure all necessary equipment is set up and in good working order prior to the presentation. Know when to stop Know when to STOP talking. 7.
Basic communication skills are essential for continued success. as they tend to harm the harmonious process of message passing and receiving. From the sender's perspective one needs to have the following essential skills: 1. Leave your listeners with a positive impression and a sense of completion. Terminate your presentation with an interesting remark or an appropriate punch line. whether personal or professional. To end your presentation. Report submitting Have the written portion of your assignment or report ready for your instructor if required. In order to maintain healthy communication. messages or information from one person to another. Thank your audience and sit down. that there is a difference between spoken words appropriate for the ear and formally written words intended for reading. you don't bore your audience with repetitious or unnecessary words in your oral presentation.Just as you don't use unnecessary words in your written paper. without bringing in other elements of intellectual thoughts and judgments. Effective Communication Communication is essentially the transfer of ideas. Skills to compose the message . 11. summarize your main points in the same way as you normally do in the CONCLUSION of a written paper. however. Do not belabor your closing remarks. It is effective when it gets the desired action or response. the two must go through this process. At the very base one needs to understand the communication process. Remember.
one can attend English speaking classes. which nouns are covered by a particular verb or preposition. regional language and mother tongue. Actively listening THE ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION When one is required to communicate complicated ideas. Firstly. Often poor punctuation or poor sentence construction brings about ineffective . In fact. This is essential. One way of ensuring that one will not be misunderstood is to look into the use of ‘scope’. one needs to ensure that as when they communicate they should not be misunderstood. because most people find it difficult to convey their thoughts. in a sentence. to overcome the language barrier. essentially refers to the words that combine with each other in order to create a ‘sense unit’. But then thereafter one also needs to be aware of other nuances involved in improving communication skills. ‘Scope’. Skills to send the message From the receiver's perspective one needs to have the following essential skills: The skill of receiving a message 1. one needs to first and foremost work on improving their skills in communicating. For instance. Well.2. because of a strong influence of their national language. Placing biases aside 3. doing away with stumbling roadblocks. one needs to overcome all language related barriers by first seeking how to learn English speaking. Without assumptions 2. so as to ensure a free flow of thoughts and ideas.
• Responding to questions or statements with short or abrupt responses. head nods) and interspersing brief support statements (e. & Hughes. and • Using appropriate paralinguistic characteristics (e.g. inflection. 1999). and voice firmness). Agran. In fact.. making it a family activity. okay). • . Ineffective or problem conversation skills include: Failing to respond to a question or statement from a conversation partner. One can refer to the various English speaking books that will help them improve.. one should spend sometime. ever so often in practicing grammar exercises. rather than a boring homework lesson.g. • Helping a consumer improve their conversation skills should include a review of potential problems in conversations. • Showing interest in others conversations with appropriate body language (e. • Understanding how to take turns in a conversation. volume of speech intonation. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1.communications. • Interrupting another speaker frequently. no matter how eloquent a speaker or communicator one maybe. Communication skills include: Knowing when to respond to a statement or question with a relevant statement or answer. eye-contact. These devises can be perfected by constantly practicing grammar. • Knowing when to initiate a conversation. There are varied grammatical devices that help to indicate ‘scope’. • Responding to a question with a change in topic. right. In fact. parents can improve their own grammar skills by working on exercises with their children. Conversation skills Effective communication skills can be important components of effective selfadvocacy efforts (Wehmeyer.. yes.g.
Eye-contact that is: Frequent indicates approval or acceptance. A frown of disapproval or unhappiness. and A scowl of anger with clenched teeth and tightly closed teeth. gestures and body movements all influence communication. • • • . Agran. Eye-contact (Banbury & Hebert. squinting. and Avoided or when the person is staring off into space can indicate indifference. 2. 1999). & Hughes.Responding in a manner that makes fun of or belittles a conversation partner. folded arms. facial expressions. Averting. and • Mumbling or unintelligible responses. Consider body language Wehmeyer. Shaking the head from side-to-side. Body gestures or movements can be used to augment verbal communications. orientation towards a speaker that shows interest in a conversation. or glaring may mean disapproval. Gestures that are frequently seen and familiar include: Body A head nod that indicates approval. 1992) can reflect many things. Each will be summarized below. & Hughes (1999) provide a short summary of basic nonverbal communication skills. and physical distance all express disapproval or an unwillingness to consider alternatives. • Conversational skills can be learned using social skills training and role-play exercises (Wehmeyer. • • • Facial expressions communicate emotions and might include: • • • A smile of approval or happiness. Agran. Consider how eye-contact.
Weymeyer. acting out a potential solution. 3. and 4. noting the reactions to what was said or shown. and discussing the solution that was presented. • While there are many more subtle and not so subtle gestures and expressions. clinching a fist can indicate aggression. Consumers may need assistance in identifying auditory communication and then understanding the meaning. Agran. This consists of identifying a problem. • Observe a mentor communicating in a variety of situations and settings. these expressions are all familiar. Body language can also be used to emphasize verbal language. 2. • Video-tape an interaction and evaluate the interactions with a checklist or rating sheet. 3. Practice effective communication Since every situation is different and there are so many ways to communicate. Listening skills Listening skills are another important component of effective communication skills. Conflicts between words and body language could lead to confusion. Taking notes to remember what was said. • Share experiences in communication. thrusting out one’s chin. Look at whether body language and words are consistent in meaning. This includes: 1. it is important that people get the chance to practice effective communication skills. Consider evaluating the interaction with and • . Looking at the speaker so that the speaker knows you are interested and listening. 4. Some ways to practice are: Role-play the various ways of communicating. and • Tapping feet or fingers and leaning away from a speaker suggests indifference or boredom. Not Interrupting the speaker. Asking questions to clarify or confirm meaning.Pointing or shaking a finger at someone. and Hughes (1999) provide a strategy that can be employed to enhance listening skills.
g. advocating for a specific job during the interview process).g. requesting an increase in pay based upon a job well done). . • Examine body language in photographs and discuss what interpersonal and personal relationships are reflected. job maintenance (e. Effective communication will enhance every aspect of a consumer’s career development including job attainment (e.g.without an audio component and looking at the congruence between verbal language and body language... and job promotion (e.. demonstrating and stating relevant skills).
nevertheless people choose whether to use the media for good or evil ends. They include public officials and corporate executives. are made not only by those who receive communication. correspondents. these are not blind forces of nature beyond human control. Not only do they transmit and receive information and ideas through these instruments but often they experience living . the ethical question is particularly acute: Are the ?media being used for good or evil The impact of social communication can hardly be . readers.1 of the media of social communication. writers. For them. editors. and content. news directors. But especially by those who control the instruments of social communication and determine their structures.ETHICS IN COMMUNICATIONS INTRODUCTION Great good and great evil come from the use people make . and others. members of governing boards. Viewers. owners. Here people come into contact with other people and with events. central to the ethical question.evil way These choices. producers. in a good or . form their opinions and values. listeners. policies. publishers and station managers.2 exaggerated. For even though acts of communicating often do have unintended consequences. Although it is typically said? And we often shall say here? That "media" do this or that.
films and videos. Pontifical Council for (Social Communications Technological change rapidly is making the media of communication even more pervasive and powerful. the history of human communication can be seen as a long journey from . prayer to pornography.this new century will bring The range and diversity of media accessible to people in well-to-do countries already are astonishing: books and periodical. and the twentieth century's dazzling innovations may have been only a prologue to what . electronic communication transmitted over the airwaves.itself as an experience of media (cf. "The advent of the information society is a real cultural revolution" (Pontifical Council for Culture. Toward a Pastoral Approach To Culture.3 own for being interested in the means of social communication. over cable and satellite. self-referential world of stimuli with nearnarcotic effects. the Church has reasons of her . 9). audio recordings. via the Internet. Depending on how they use media. Not even those who shun the media can avoid contact with others who are deeply influenced by .them Along with these reasons. Viewed in the light of faith. contemplation to violence. television and radio. The contents of this vast outpouring range from hard news to pure entertainment. people can grow in sympathy and compassion or become isolated in a narcissistic.
Sent forth into the world to announce the good news (cf. Acts 2:511)?communication restored by the power of the Spirit sent by the Son. Communication in and by the . Communio et Progressio. "rooted in and mirroring the intimate communion of the Trinity" (Aetatis Novae. and Spirit. 45.Babel. a communion of persons and Eucharistic communities. 37. Pope Paul VI. Son. all human communication is grounded in the communication among Father. that requires using media (cf. Mt 28:19-20. Pope John Paul II. 11 The Church also knows herself to be a communio. and in and through Jesus Christ. . the Church has the mission of proclaiming the Gospel until the end of time. Trinitarian communion reaches out to humankind: The Son is the Word. But more than that. Some Aspects of the Church Understood as Communion). Pontifical Council for Social Communications. Mk 16:15). 10. eternally "spoken" by the Father. Son and Word made flesh. Evangelic Nuntiandi. she knows. Redemptoris Missio. Today. Inter Mirifica. cf. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. 3. Aetatis Novae. but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son" (Heb 1:1-2). Indeed. to Pentecost and the gift of tongues (cf. "In many and various ways God spoke of old to our fathers by the prophets. God communicates himself and his salvation to women and men. Vatican Council II. site and symbol of communication's collapse (cf.(126-134. Gun 11:4-8).
Redemptoris Missio. Inter Mirifica. Redemptor Hominis. She does not simply stand in judgment and condemn. and readier to give and to aid all" (Pope . 45. while fostering a dialogue in which all interested parties. rather. more responsible. 15 We take it for granted that the vast majority of people involved in social communication in any capacity are . Evangelii Nuntiandi. used as people choose to use them. In reflecting upon the means of social communication. more aware of the dignity of his humanity.today that means nearly everyone can participate. She desires to support those who are professionally involved in communication by setting out positive principles to assist them in their work. tools. they are instruments. we must face honestly the "most essential" question raised by technological progress: whether.Church finds it’s starting point in the communion of love .4 communication is fundamentally positive. that is to say more mature spiritually. 1. she considers these instruments to be not only products of human genius but also great gifts of God and true signs of the times (cf. especially the neediest and the weakest. 37).among the divine Persons and their communication with us The Church's approach to the means of social . the human person "is becoming truly better.underlie the present document We say again: The media do nothing by themselves. more open to others. These purposes .(John Paul II. as a result of it. encouraging.
(the moral order and apply them faithfully" (Inter Mirifica. and are troubled by the growing economic and ideological pressures to lower ethical standards present in many sectors . 4 .5 She brings a long tradition of moral wisdom. Fides et Ratio.of the media The contents of the countless choices made by all these people concerning the media are different from group to group and individual to individual. Readers and listeners and viewers want to use their time well for personal growth and development so that they can lead happier. namely the spiritual one. Parents are anxious that what enters their homes through media be in their children's interests. whose theological orientation is an important corrective to "the 'atheistic' solution. rooted in divine revelation and human reflection (cf.The Church brings several things to this conversation . Most professional communicators desire to use their talents to serve the human family. but the choices all have ethical weight and are subject to ethical evaluation. . this choosing need to "know the principles of . Pope John Paul II. which deprives man of one of his basic dimensions. more productive lives. 36-48). policy-makers. and to permissive and consumerist solutions. Public officials. and corporate executives desire to respect and promote the public interest as they understand it. To choose rightly. Part of this is a substantial and growing body of social teaching.conscientious individuals who want to do the right thing.
the Pastoral Instruction on Social Communications Communio et Progressio makes it clear that the media are called to serve human dignity by helping people live well and function as persons in community. For example. "the Church's culture of wisdom can save the media culture of information from becoming a meaningless accumulation of facts" (Pope John Paul II. 1999 The Church also brings something else to the conversation. Centesimus Annus. More than simply passing judgment. Her special contribution to human affairs. Gaudium et Spes (cf. 55). Message for the . Christ the new Adam. this tradition offers itself in service to the media. 22 SOCIAL COMMUNICATION THAT SERVES THE HUMAN PERSON Following the Council's Pastoral Constitution on the Church . 47) In the words of the Second Vatican Council. including the world of social communication. 30-31).which under various pretexts seek to convince man that he is free from every law and from God himself" (Pope John Paul II. nos. Media do this by encouraging men .(brings to light his most high calling" (Gaudium et Spes.(33rd World Communications Day. is "precisely her vision of the dignity of the person revealed in all its fullness in the mystery of the Incarnate Word" (Centesimus Annus. in the very revelation of the mystery of the Father and of his love.6 in the Modern World. "Christ the Lord. fully reveals man to himself and .
Ethics in Advertising. Without pretending to do more than give an overview. and crucial economic structures would . and prosperity. The market is not a norm of morality or a . and market economics can be abused. cultural. but the market can serve the person (cf. and in the capacity for dialogue Social communication has immense power to promote human happiness and fulfillment. Social communication supports business and commerce.and women to be conscious of their dignity. helps spur economic growth. and grow in personal freedom.educational.telling them about the availability and features of products In short. and enables people to make informed choices by . in respect for . some economic.others' freedom. and religious benefits Economic. and media play an indispensable role in a market economy. Centesimus Annus. enter into the thoughts and feelings of others. . 34). as we have done elsewhere (cf. Remove them. today's complex national and international economic systems could not function without the media. political. we note here. Pontifical Council for Social Communications. cultivate a sense of mutual responsibility. with great harm to countless people and to society . employment.collapse. encourages improvements in the quality of existing goods and services and the development of new ones. 4-8). fosters responsible competition that serves the public interest.7 source of moral value.
and so promote human development in respect to knowledge and wisdom and beauty. but also of wholesome popular entertainment and useful information that draw families together. and corruption. while also calling attention competence. and relieve the tedium of life Media also make it possible for ethnic groups to cherish and celebrate their cultural traditions. . to instances turning of incompetence. music. office holders and candidates for office.shut-ins.9 access to literature. In particular. We speak not only of presentations of classic works and the fruits of scholarship. They enable leaders to communicate quickly and directly with the public about urgent matters. and the elderly. drama. The means of social communication offer people .devotion to duty Cultural. Social communication benefits society by . public-spiritedness. . raise the spirits of the sick.authentic political communities Media are indispensable in today's democratic societies. The media draw people together for the pursuit of shared purposes and goals.8 facilitating informed citizen participation in the political process. They are the important spotlight on instruments of accountability. thus helping to form and sustain . and abuses of trust. they . They supply information about issues and events. share them with others. and art otherwise unavailable to them. help people solve everyday problems. and transmit them to new generations.Political.
11 enriched through the media. they serve as vehicles for evangelization and catechesis.bound. and personalities. serve the common good by preserving and enriching the cultural heritage of nations and peoples (cf. encouragement. young people seeking vocational training or degrees.introduce children and young people to their cultural heritage. like artists. elderly persons pursuing new learning in their latter years? These and many others have access via these means to rich and growing . The media are important tools of education . They carry news and information about religious events. including the Internet. Communicators.10 in many contexts. Pope John Paul II. conquer barriers of distance and isolation. bringing learning opportunities to villagers in remote areas. Many people's religious lives are greatly . and opportunities for worship to persons .(4 Educational. And beyond the classroom walls. Letter to Artists. Day in and day out. ideas.panoply of educational resources Media are standard instructional tools in many classrooms. and at many stages in life. prisoners. cloistered religious. and many others Religious. the home. Preschoolers being introduced to the rudiments of reading and mathematics. they provide inspiration.confined to their homes or to institutions . the instruments of communication. from school to workplace. .
over the years.pastoral visits to countless millions In all these settings: Economic. huge audiences around the world view and. Communication that serves genuine community is "more than the expression of ideas and the indication of emotion. Fraternal Life in Community. political. cultural. the media can be used to build and sustain human community. For example. And indeed all communication ought to be open to community among . But consultation and dialogue are needed to discern this common good. in a sense. . 29). religious. At its most profound level. as well as others.12 educational. media contribute to people's spiritual enrichment in extraordinary ways. it is necessary to " know one another. too. of it and is.important more Life to and communicate (Congregation extensively deeply" Institutes Consecrated Societies of Apostolic Life. And. it is the giving of self in love" .Sometimes..((Communio et Progressio. 11 Communication like this seeks the well being and fulfillment of community members in respect to the common good of all.. more for To do this. Therefore it is imperative for the parties to social communication to engage in such dialogue and submit .persons In order to become brothers and sisters. participate in important events in the life of the Church regularly telecast via satellite from Rome. media have brought the words and images of the Holy Father's .
This is how the media can meet their obligation to "witness to the truth about life. and concentrates on the .13 injure the integral good of persons: by alienating people or marginalizing and isolating them. The media sometimes are used to build and . including the good news of the Gospel. about the true meaning of our freedom and mutual interdependence" (Pope John Paul . 1999 SOCIAL COMMUNICATION THAT VIOLATES THE GOOD OF THE PERSON The media also can be used to block community and .fashionable or faddish . too. Stereotyping? Based on race and ethnicity. about human dignity. demonizing others and creating a mentality of "us" against "them". including religion? Is distressingly common in media. fostering hostility and conflict. sex and age and other factors.(II. spreading misinformation and disinformation. destructive values. fostering trivialization and banality. presenting what is base and degrading in a glamorous light. social communication overlooks what is genuinely new and important.14 sustain economic systems that serve acquisitiveness and greed. Neoliberals is a case in point: "Based on a purely . drawing them into perverse communities organized around false. while ignoring or belittling what uplifts and ennobles. Often.themselves to the truth about what is good.Abuses exist in each of the areas just mentioned Economic. Message for the 33rd World Communications Day.
falling further and further behind in the struggle for development. tension. to the detriment of the dignity of and the respect due to individuals and peoples" (Pope John Paul II. more it reflects indefensible Even fundamentally. some nations and peoples suffer exploitation and marginalization. 58). it is not enough for communicators simply to say that their job is to report things as they are.benefit all are exploited for the advantage of the few The process of globalization "can create unusual opportunities for greater prosperity" (Centesimus Annus. by communicators. but side by side with it. communication structures and policies and the allocation of technology are factors helping to make some people "information rich" and . it "considers profit and the law of the market as its only parameters. These expanding pockets of privation in the midst of plenty are seedbeds of envy. 156). and insofar as this reflects a decision selectivity. means of communication that ought to . resentment. and conflict.(economy to the common good" (Centesimus Annus.economic conception of man". This underlines the need for "effective international agencies which will oversee and direct the . and even as part of it. But some instances of human suffering are largely ignored by media even as others are reported. That undoubtedly is their job. Ecclesia in America. 58 Faced with grave injustices. In such circumstances.
media then serve to drive them apart. along with training in its use. it is all too common for political leaders to manipulate public opinion through the media instead of fostering informed participation in the political process. then. and to provide all individuals and nations with the basic conditions which will enable them to share in development" (Centesimus Annus. and . media often contribute to the injustices and imbalances that give rise to suffering they report. depends on information In such ways. 35). They misrepresent opponents and systematically distort and suppress the truth by propaganda and "spin". The conventions of democracy are observed. Rather than drawing people together.even survival. Communications and information technology.condition Political. but techniques borrowed from advertising and public relations are deployed on behalf of policies that exploit particular groups and violate .others "information poor" at a time when prosperity. "It is necessary to break down the barriers and monopolies which leave so many countries on the margins of development. creating tensions and suspicions . Unscrupulous politicians use media for .15 demagoguery and deception in support of unjust policies and oppressive regimes. is one such basic .that set the stage for conflict Even in countries with democratic systems.
the media popularize the ethical relativism and utilitarianism that underlie today's culture of death. Critics frequently decry the superficiality and .16 bad taste of media. individuals? human relationships. Evangelium Vitae. not degrade. They participate in the contemporary "conspiracy against life" by "lending credit to that culture which presents recourse to contraception. Pope John . abortion and even euthanasia as a mark of progress and a victory of freedom. Entertainment media feature presentations of a corrupting. while depicting as enemies of freedom and progress those positions which .them The problem takes various forms. It is grossly irresponsible to ignore or dismiss the fact that "pornography corrode and sadistic violence and debase exploit sexuality. too.(are unreservedly pro-life" (Evangelium Vitae.fundamental rights. news media avoid or oversimplify them. 70 Often. 17 Cultural. and although they are not obliged to be somber and dull. Especially women and young people. Instead of explaining complex matters carefully and truthfully. It is no excuse to say the media reflect popular standards. for they also powerfully influence popular . undermine marriage . they should not be tawdry and demeaning either. including exploitative treatments of sexuality and violence. dehumanizing kind. standards and so have a serious duty to uplift.(Paul II. including the right to life (cf. sterilization.
Societies can and should learn from one another. They benefit from an increase in contacts.and family life.them in living contact with their cultural heritage Communication across cultural lines is desirable. Traditional cultural expressions are virtually excluded from access to popular media in some places and face extinction. particular attention should go to providing children and young people with media presentations that put .(Communications Media: A Pastoral Response. But transcultural communication should not be at the expense of the less powerful. meanwhile the values of affluent. In considering these matters. That so much communication now flows in one direction only? From developed nations to the developing and the poor? Raises serious ethical questions. cultural domination imposed through the means of social communication also is a serious. 33). Have the rich nothing to learn from the poor? Are the powerful deaf to the voices ?of the weak . foster anti-social behavior and weaken the moral fibre of society itself" (Pontifical Council for Social Communications. Pornography and Violence in the . Today "even the least-widespread cultures are no longer isolated. 10 On the international level. secularized societies increasingly supplant the traditional values of societies less wealthy and powerful. but they also suffer from the pressures of a powerful trend toward uniformity" (Toward a Pastoral Approach To Culture. growing problem.
Instead of promoting learning. but adults also suffer from exposure to banal. trashy presentations. treating religion with incomprehension.Educational. too. perhaps even contempt. these include ignoring or marginalizing religious ideas and experience. as an object of curiosity that does not merit serious attention. Children and young people are especially harmed in this way. promoting religious fads at the expense of traditional faith. Among the causes of this abuse of trust by communicators is . media can . with the aim of controlling what people know and denying them access to information the authorities do not want them to have. which seeks to expand people's knowledge and skills and help them pursue worthy purposes.18 social communication and religion there are temptations on .17 distract people and cause them to waste time. trying to imprison transcendence within the confines of rationalism .greed that puts profits before persons Sometimes. media are used as tools of indoctrination. weighing religion and religious experience by secular standards of what is appropriate. and favoring religious views that conform to secular tastes over those that do not. This is a perversion of genuine education.harness their energies in the service of ideology Religious. not narrow their horizons and .both sides On the side of the media. treating legitimate religious groups with hostility. In the relationship between the means of .
Still less is it a vehicle for ideology.exclusivism that foment disdain and hostility toward others In short. using media as instruments for control and domination. and amendment of life. downplaying the Gospel's demand for conversion. manipulative style. practicing unnecessary secrecy and otherwise offending against truth. fanaticism. the media can be used for good or for evil? It is a .(transcendent" (Fides et Ratio.19 matter of choice. as if they were products competing in a glutted marketplace. encouraging fundamentalism. presenting religious messages in an emotional. and religious . Today's media often mirror the post-modern state of a human spirit "locked within the confines of its own immanence without reference of any kind to the . or manipulate viewers and readers and listeners as mere ciphers from whom some advantage is .and skepticism. failing to understand special that reasonable standards for religion's of good media practice like objectivity and even-handedness may preclude treatment institutional interests. while substituting a bland religiosity that asks little of people. "It can never be forgotten that communication through the media is not a utilitarian exercise intended simply to motivate. repentance. The media can at times reduce human beings to units of consumption or competing interest groups. persuade or sell. 81 The temptations on the side of religion include taking an exclusively judgmental and negative view of media.
they will be signs of hope" (Pope John Paul II. The means of social communication. 1998 SOME RELEVANT ETHICAL PRINCIPLES Ethical principles and norms relevant in other fields also . Communication must always be truthful. and. It is the task of communication to bring people together and enrich their lives. and accountability in the use of public resources and the performance of roles of public trust are always applicable. can help to create and sustain a human community based on justice and charity. Message for . properly used.liberty and to authentic community among persons Ethics in social communication is concerned not just with what appears on cinema and television screens.(the 32nd World Communications Day. The ethical dimension relates not just to the content of communication (the message) and the process of communication (how the communicating is done) but to fundamental structural and systemic issues. Principles of social ethics like solidarity. justice and equity.20 apply to social communication. often involving large questions of policy bearing upon the distribution of sophisticated technology and product (who shall be information rich and who shall be information . on radio broadcasts. whether product sales or political support.sought. and these things destroy community. subsidiary. in so far as they do that. not isolate and exploit them. but with a great deal else besides. since truth is essential to individual . on the printed page and the Internet.
These questions point to other questions with economic and political implications for ownership and control. process.21 systemic issues? the fundamental ethical principle is this: The human person and the human community are the end and measure of the use of the media of social communication. At least in open societies with market economies.recipients of communication. and spiritual goods. 46).according to an inclusive conception of the common good Even to reasonable people of good will it is not always immediately clear how to apply ethical principles and norms to particular cases. the largest ethical question of all may be how to balance profit against service to the public interest understood . ethicists and moralists. Individuals have irreducible . Everyone deserves the opportunity to grow and flourish in respect to the full range of physical.poor?). reflection. . structural and . intellectual. emotional. discussion. and others concerned In all three areas? Message. and dialogue are needed. cf. but it also requires attention to the "inner dimension" (Sollicitudo Rei Socialis. communication should be by persons to .persons for the integral development of persons Integral development requires a sufficiency of material goods and products. professional communicators. We offer what follows with the hope of encouraging such reflection and dialogue? Among communication policy makers. moral. 29.
22 good of persons cannot be realized apart from the common good of the communities to which they belong. and the like. exaggerated nationalism.community exists to serve Thus. "a firm and persevering determination to commit oneself to the common good" (Sollicitudo Rei Socialis. ethnic cleansing. while social communication rightly looks to the needs and interests of particular groups.cultural. 38). racial supremacy. in the name of class conflict.collective interests A second principle is complementary to the first: The . There is a pressing need for equity at the international level. it should not do so in a way that sets one group against another? For example.dignity and importance. political. Similar problems . . The virtue of solidarity. religious Communicators and communication policy makers must serve the real needs and interests both of individuals and of groups. where the misdistribution of material goods between North and South is exacerbated by a misdistribution of communication resources and information technology upon which productivity and prosperity greatly depend. and may never be sacrificed to . at all levels and of all kinds. This common good should be understood in inclusive terms. as the sum total of worthy shared purposes to whose pursuit community members jointly commit themselves and which the . ought to govern all areas of social life? Economic.
or fail to do. "where the constant transformation consumption of the methods certain of production skills and and devalues acquired professional expertise" and "those who fail to keep up with the times can easily be marginalized" (Centesimus Annus.also exist within wealthy countries. intergroup and interreligious conflicts. Today especially. and the suppression .(33 Clearly. political repression and violations of human rights. illiteracy. women and minorities. the elderly and unborn. . we continue to believe that "the solution to .of indigenous cultures Even so. then.23 problems arising from unregulated commercialization and privatization does not lie in state control of media but in .as well as families and religious groups. children and youth. the international community and international communications interests should take a generous and inclusive approach to nations and regions where what the means of social communication do. there is a need for broad participation in making decisions not only about the messages and processes of social communication but also about systemic issues and the allocation of resources. the oppressed and marginalized. The decision makers have a serious moral duty to recognize the needs and interests of those who are particularly vulnerable ?the poor.bears a share of the blame for the perpetuation of evils like poverty. the sick and disabled.
indefeasible norm. For example. for "when people follow their natural inclination to exchange ideas and declare their opinions.more regulation according to criteria of public service and in greater public accountability. They are also performing a social duty" (Communio et Progressio. There are obvious instances. considered from an ethical perspective. 5 The presumption should always be in favor of freedom of expression. messages that seek to foster hatred and conflict among individuals and groups. although the legal and political frameworks within which media operate in some countries are currently changing strikingly for the better. they are not merely making use of a right. the morbid depiction of violence where no right to communicate exists. too.(exclusion" (Aetatis Novae. 45). this presumption is not an absolute. Still. libel and slander. free expression should always observe principles like truth. Plainly. elsewhere government intervention remains an instrument of oppression and . It should be noted in this connection that.respect for privacy Professional communicators should be actively involved in developing and enforcing ethical codes of behavior for their profession. and . in cooperation with public representatives. obscenity and pornography. fairness.part of this continuing effort . Religious bodies and other groups likewise deserve to be .
and not just speak to them. and "box office". 1987 Circulation. already mentioned. this objection may be answered by the concept of the "niche". and perhaps especially. in fact. This principle applies even. are sometimes said to be the best indicators of public sentiment. along with market research. concerns . the legitimate interests of minorities To some extent. where media are privately .(Specialists. This involves learning about people's needs. Since these cannot be counted on to safeguard either the public interest as a . profits.Another relevant principle. No doubt the market's voice can be heard in these ways. September 15. systematic.owned and operated for profit In the interests of public participation.24 public participation in making decisions about communications policy. Los Angeles. broadcast ratings. the only ones necessary for the law of the market to operate. communicators "must seek to communicate with people. Address to Communications . according to which particular . But decisions about media content and policy should not be left only to the market and to economic factors. not skewed in favor of particular groups. this participation should be organized. and genuinely representative. especially. being aware of their struggles and presenting all forms of communication with the sensitivity that human dignity requires" (Pope John Paul II. At all levels.whole or.
stations. recipients have obligations. 37)?a forum for exchanging ideas and information. fostering solidarity and peace. The approach is legitimate. contents and make responsible choices. according to ethically sound criteria.deserve audiences conscientious about theirs The first duty of recipients of social communication is to be discerning and selective. Communicators attempting to meet their responsibilities . 9 Professional communicators are not the only ones with .((Toward a Pastoral Approach To Culture. a lack of responsible feedback and a certain discouragement of interpersonal relationships" . . too. mode of operation. The Internet in particular raises concerns about some of the "radically new consequences it brings: a loss of the intrinsic value of items of information. Today everybody needs some form of continuing media education. programs. and channels are directed to particular audiences. up to a point. They should inform themselves about media their structures. an undifferentiated uniformity in messages that are reduced to pure information. Audiences.periodicals. But diversification and specialization organizing media to correspond to audiences broken down into ever-smaller units based largely on economic factors and patterns of consumption should not be carried too far.25 ethical duties. drawing individuals and groups together. about what to read or watch or listen to. Media of social communication must remain an 'Areopagus' (cf. Redemptoris Missio.
Gal 4:17-23). agencies. . 34 Similarly. media education helps people form standards of good taste and truthful moral . the Church's practice of communication should be exemplary. The media propose. peer pressure. First and foremost. the following words have a broader application: "A community. a mentality and model of life in constant contrast with the Gospel. resisting the easy path of uncritical passivity. with the evangelical clarity and inner freedom of those who have learned to know Christ (cf.problems and opportunities created by social communication Besides promoting media education. and programs . Families. 28. children and young people should be open to formation regarding media. and often impose. acting as models of prudent use of media in the home.judgment. should learn to use them for personal and community growth. reflecting the highest standards of truthfulness. For their children's sake. and commercial exploitation. aware of the influence of the media. an aspect of conscience formation Through her schools and formation programs the Church should provide media education of this kind (cf. In this connection.whether by personal study or participation in an organized program or both. Directed originally to institutes of consecrated life.(Apostolic Life. parents and children together will find it helpful to come together in groups to study and discuss the . both critically and fruitfully" (Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of . Aetatis Novae. the institutions. Communio et Progressio. parents have a serious duty to help their children learn how to evaluate and use the media. Fraternal Life in Community. as well as their own. More than just teaching about techniques. parents must learn and practice the skills of discerning viewers and listeners and readers.26 of the Church have other important responsibilities in regard to social communication. by forming their consciences correctly and developing their critical faculties (cf. in many areas one hears of the desire for deeper formation in receiving and using the media. According to their age and circumstances. 107). 76). Familiaris Consortio.
unless properly designated.awkward questions Catholics. and young lay Catholics.(teaching (cf.accountability. Canon 822. Beyond that. especially as it is contained in God's revealed word and expressed by the teaching of the Magisterium. persons in formation in religious communities. one must bear in mind that "these disconcerting questions are often asked by most of our contemporaries" (Towards a Pastoral Approach to Culture. truthful answers to these seemingly . No one. or imply he or she does. This is true not only of seminarians. the Church's own media should be committed to communicating the fullness of the truth about the meaning of human life and history. including the right of access to the media for this purpose. respect for the pastors. Even though the questions they ask are "sometimes embarrassing or disappointing. especially when they in no way correspond to the message we have to get across". and consideration for the common good and the dignity of persons (cf.1 Those who represent the Church must be honest and straightforward in their relations with journalists. has a right to speak for the Church. Canon 212.3. Canon 227 The Church would be well served if more of those who hold offices and perform functions in her name received communication training. 34). with due regard for the integrity of faith and morals. The right of expression includes expressing opinions about the good of the Church. For the Church to speak credibly to people today. however. have the right of free expression. Provided the media are "neutral. but Church personnel generally. sensitivity to human rights. and other relevant principles and norms. those who speak for her have to give credible. Pastors should encourage use of media to spread the . and personal opinions should not be presented as the Church's . open and honest". Code of Canon Law. like other citizens.(Gospel (cf. Pastors also should . Canon 227). they offer well-prepared Christians "a frontline missionary role" and it is important that the latter be "well-trained and supported".
in fact. are. A two-way flow of information and views between pastors and faithful. is sometimes obliged to practice secrecy and confidentiality.2. Right practice in communication is one of the . freedom of expression sensitive to the well being of the community and to the role of the Magisterium in fostering it. Within the communion of faith.(10. Like other communities and institutions. and are consequently endowed with true Christian dignity. who are invested with a sacred power.2.(even destructive messages (cf. 18).offer their people guidance regarding media and their sometimes discordant and .3. 20 The right of expression must be exercised with deference to revealed truth and the Church's teaching. dedicated to promoting the interests of their brethren. Communio et Progressio. 3 Similar considerations apply to internal communication in the Church. and with respect for others' ecclesial rights (cf. and responsible public opinion all are important expressions of "the fundamental right of dialogue and information within the Church" (Aetatis Novae. . so that all who belong to the People of God. cf. attain to salvation" (Lumen Gentium. the Church sometimes needs in fact. "holders of office. Canon 822. . may through their free and well-ordered efforts toward a common good.ways of realizing this vision .1. But this should not be for the sake of manipulation and control. Canon 212. Canon 220). .
rather. available for both good and evil uses. of new and emerging media But despite their immense power. And this is a task in which everyone has a role to play.28 remain.implications. education. People can tap directly into quantities of data beyond the reach of many scholars and students just a short time ago. humankind is well along . with enormous potential for good and ill. entertainment. the arts. Ethics in the media is not the business only of specialists. It is commonplace to view events.politics. the reflection and dialogue that this document seeks to .27 in creating a global network for the instantaneous transmission of information. and will . The choice is ours. Continuing research is needed into the impact. Communication technology constantly achieves new breakthroughs.CONCLUSI ON As the third millennium of the Christian era begins. or plunge to the depths of human degradation. from sports to wars. The media do not call for a new ethic. the distinction between communicators and recipients blurs. wherever they may be. commerce. happening in real time on the other side of the planet. and value judgments in science. An individual can ascend to heights of human genius and virtue.encourage and assist must be broad and inclusive . only media? That is to say: instruments. they call for the application of established principles to new circumstances. and every other field This network already is directly accessible to many people in their homes and schools and workplaces? Indeed. and especially the ethical . the means of communication are. religion. tools. As interactivity increases. whether they are specialists in social communication or specialists in moral philosophy. ideas. while sitting alone at a keyboard and screen. .
will they be committed to the common good? Or will they be selfish and inward-looking. racial. More and more. less sensitive. In the world of media. but it raises an inescapable question: Will the audience of the future be a multitude of audiences of one? While the new technology can enhance individual autonomy. the special contributions which the Church brings to the .30 discussion of these matters are a vision of human persons and their incomparable dignity and inviolable rights. might the 'web' of the future turn out to be a vast. in a way that does no harm and serves the best interests of all. Will these communities be informed by justice.Social communication can join people in communities of sympathy and shared . less prone to fail As we have said.any less fragile. by the desire for profit and political control. It is hard for people consistently to communicate honestly with one another. moreover. fragmented network of isolated individuals? Human bees in their cells? Interacting with data instead of with one another? What ?would become of solidarity? What would become of love? In a world like that In the best of circumstances. its speed. by rivalries and conflicts between groups. while respecting the cultural traditions of each. it has other. the inherent difficulties of communicating often are magnified by ideology. even religious? At others' expense? Will new technology serve all nations and peoples.29 interest. less desirable implications. and by other social ills. technology allows people to assemble packages of information and services uniquely designed for them. decency. human communication has serious limitations. Instead being a global community. or will it be a . they do not make the reaching out of mind to mind and heart to heart . Today's media vastly increase the outreach of social communication? Its quantity.tool to enrich the rich and empower the powerful? We have to choose The means of communication also can be used to separate and isolate. and respect for human rights. is more or less imperfect and in danger of failing. There are real advantages in that. committed to the benefit of particular groups? Economic. and a vision of human community whose members . political.
and especially with professional communicators? Writers. The need for these two visions is especially pressing "at a time when we are faced with the patent inadequacy of perspectives in which the ephemeral is affirmed as a value and the possibility of discovering the real meaning of life is cast into doubt". She may not keep the truth about the human person and the human community to herself. 13). lacking them. we might say. with men and women from the world of culture and the arts. producers.owners. editors. and policy makers in this field Along with its limitations. she must share it freely. Pope Paul VI. the Church seeks dialogue and collaboration with others: with public officials. in coming to . who have a particular duty to protect and promote the common good of the political community. calling him to share in his creative power". always aware that . "With loving regard. reporters. Criteria for Ecumenical and Inter-Religious Cooperation in Communications).are joined by the virtue of solidarity in pursuit of the common good of all. 41. "many people stumble through life to the very edge of the abyss . administrators. with scholars and teachers engaged in forming the communicators and audiences of the future.(without knowing where they are going" (Fides et Ratio. correspondents. the divine Artist passes on to the human artist"? And. the Church stands forth as an "expert in humanity" whose expertise "leads her necessarily to extend her religious mission to the various fields" of human endeavor (Sollicitudo Rei Socialis. cf. who share her desire that media be used for the glory of God and the service of the human race (cf. 6 In the face of this crisis. technical personnel? Together with .31 creative activity. to the communicator as well?"a spark of his own surpassing wisdom.people can say no to the truth? And to her Attempting to foster and support high ethical standards in the use of the means of social communication. Populorum Progressio. with members of other churches and religious groups. performers. human communication has in it something of God's . Pontifical Council for Social Communications.
from out of the press of his people. it is appropriate. their vocation and their mission" (Letter to Artists. Mk 1:22. He adjusted to his people's way of talking and to their patterns of thought. artists and communicators "come to a full understanding of . not just . etc. to speak of Jesus as a model for communicators.understand this. and this Son communicates to us now and always the Father's . He did not waste time on idle speech or on vindicating himself. and he taught them "as one who had authority" (Mt 7:29."spoke out of the predicament of their time Throughout Jesus' public life crowds flocked to hear him preach and teach (cf. "In these last days" God the Father "has spoken to us by a Son" (Heb 1:2).love and the ultimate meaning of our lives While he was on earth Christ revealed himself as the perfect communicator. consumerism.32 Catholics. a vocation: to speak out against the false gods and idols of the day? Materialism. Mt 8:1. hedonism. and the truth. not even when he was .4. and the rest? holding up for all to see a body of moral truth based on human dignity and rights. Lk 5:1. He told them about the Father and at the same time referred them to himself. and the life" (Jn 14:6) and "he who has seen me has seen the Father" (Jn 14:9). 1 The Christian communicator in particular has a prophetic task. in bringing them to a close.(time.18. cf. 1 Cor 15:24 While these reflections are addressed to all persons of good will. Mk 2:2. he utterly identified himself with those who were to receive his communication. narrow nationalism. Jesus will restore all things and return them to the Father (cf. and unconditional respect for all human life from conception to natural death. love of enemies. the universal destination of goods. and seeking the more perfect realization of the Kingdom in this world while remaining aware that. explaining." Through his incarnation. He spoke from within. "I am the way. that is to say. Lk 4:32). at the end of .(themselves. and he gave his message not only in words but in the whole manner of his life.1. He preached the divine message without fear or compromise.). the preferential option for the poor. And he .
accused and condemned (cf. Mt 26:63, 27:12-14; Mk 15:5, 15:61). For his "food" was to do the will of the Father who sent him (Jn 4:34), and all he said and did was .spoken and done in reference to that Often Jesus' teaching took the form of parables and vivid stories expressing profound truths in simple, everyday terms. Not only his words but his deeds, especially his miracles, were acts of communication, pointing to his identity and manifesting the power of God (cf. Evangelic Nuntiandi, 12). In his communications he showed respect for his listeners, sympathy for their situation and needs, compassion for their suffering (e.g., Lk 7:13), and resolute determination to tell them what they needed to hear, in a way that would command their attention and help them receive the message, without coercion or compromise, deception or manipulation. He invited others to open their minds and hearts to him, knowing this was how they would be drawn to him and his Father .((e.g., Jn 3:1-15, 4:7-26 Jesus taught that communication is a moral act: "For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks. The good man out of his good treasure brings forth well, and the evil man out of his evil treasure brings forth evil. I tell you, on the day of judgment men will render an account for every careless word they utter; for by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned" (Mt 12:34-37). He cautioned sternly against scandalizing the "little ones", and warned that for one who did, "it would be better... if a great millstone were hung round his neck and he were thrown into the sea" (Mk 9:42; cf. Mt 18:6, Lk 17:2). He was altogether candid, a man of whom it could be said that "no guile was found on his lips"; and further: "When he was reviled, he did not revile in return; when he suffered, he did not threaten; but he trusted to him who judges justly" (1 Pt 2:2223). He insisted on candor and truthfulness in others, while condemning hypocrisy, dishonesty? Any kind of communication that was bent and perverse: "Let what you say be simply 'Yes' or 'No'; anything more than this comes from .(evil" (Mt 5:37
Jesus is the model and the standard of our communicating. For those involved .33 in social communication, whether as policy makers or professional communicators or recipients or in any other role, the conclusion is clear: "Therefore, putting away falsehood, let everyone speak the truth with his neighbor, for we are members one of another... Let no evil talk come out of your mouths, but only such as is good for edifying, as fits the occasion, that it may impart grace to those who hear" (Eph 4:25,29). Serving the human person, building up human community grounded in solidarity and justice and love, and speaking the truth about human life and its final fulfillment in God were, are, and will remain at the heart of ethics in the .media
Verbal & Non-verbal Skills
Strong verbal and nonverbal skills are needed to promote both personal success and the health of the organization. 1. VERBAL SKI.LL "Verbal skill includes all messages composed of words, either spoken or written." Perception, the process of creating meaning based on experience, shapes verbal communication in several ways. Perception influences the sender’s attitude toward the receiver, and verbal messages reflect that attitude. Properties of verbal skills Smoothness of delivery (lacks stuttering, awkward pauses, etc.) Intelligible speech (not too loud or soft, not dropping off the end of sentences) Variable tone (avoidance of a monotonous tone) Appropriate sense of humor
Examples Small talk or conversation o Sharing jokes o Sharing and discussing of ideas (politics, religion, sports, music, technology, internet, current events, fashion, and movies are all common topics.) o Teaching or learning
Verbal vs oral communication
as both make use of words — although like speech. NVC is important as: "When we speak (or listen). Such messages can be communicated through gesture. A). the situation and the message will determine the appraisal. Nonverbal communication can occur through any sensory channel — sight. face. Clothing and bodily characteristics . as well as prosodic features such as rhythm. symbols and infographics. body movement and even how an office is arranged. both may contain paralinguistic elements and often occur alongside nonverbal messages. such as a grunt. vocal sounds that are not considered to be words. Thus. meaning "of or concerned with words. or singing a wordless note. 4) 2. dress. It includes how a person uses his or her voice. touch or taste. are nonverbal. An audience is simultaneously processing both verbal and nonverbal cues. our attention is focused on words rather than body language. emotion and speaking style. including voice quality. spatial arrangement of words." (Givens. written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style. smell. rather. hairstyles or even architecture. intonation and stress. facial expression and eye contact." and do not use "verbal communication" as a synonym for oral or spoken communication. Nonverbal communication "Nonverbal communication is any message other than spoken or written words that attempts to convey meaning. Speech may also contain nonverbal elements known as paralanguage. But our judgement includes both. Likewise." Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. p. 2000. Sign languages and writing are generally understood as forms of verbal communication. Body movements are not usually positive or negative in and of themselves. or the use of emoticons. object communication such as clothing. sound.Scholars in this field usually use a strict sense of the term "verbal". body language or posture.
lighting conditions. hair. C). when they want to make more of an impact with their speaking. . For example. Melamed & Bozionelos (1992) studied a sample of managers in the UK and found that height was a key factor affecting who was promoted. Physical environment Environmental factors such as furniture. research into height has generally found that taller people are perceived as being more impressive. Environmental conditions can alter the choices of words or actions that communicators use to accomplish their communicative objective. temperature. interior decorating. skin color. weight. for example. standing on a platform. colors. B). odors. and music affect the behavior of communicators during interaction. Often people try to make themselves taller. height. and clothing send nonverbal messages during interaction. architectural style. gender. The space between the sender and the receiver of a message influences the way the message is interpreted. noise.Elements such as physique. Proxemics "Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive the physical space around them".
social. 2. but people may still feel some degree of ownership of a particular space.The perception and use of space varies significantly across cultures and different settings within cultures. Hargie & Dickson (2004. but only for a set period. and social role. Hall during the 1950s and 60s. personal. Although people have only a limited claim over that space. p. Interaction territory: this is space created by others when they are interacting. For example. For example. Proxemics was first developed by Edward T. Primary territory: this refers to an area that is associated with someone who has exclusive use of it. and public space. For example. Public territory: this refers to an area that is available to all. others will walk around the group rather than disturb it. 3. they often exceed that claim. Hall's studies were inspired by earlier studies of how animals demonstrate territoriality. . 4. there is no “right” to occupancy. The distance between communicators will also depend on sex. For example. someone may sit in the same seat on train every day and feel aggrieved if someone else sits there. 69) identify 4 such territories: 1. status. Secondary territory: unlike the previous type. when a group is talking to each other on a footpath. a house that others cannot enter without the owner’s permission. it was found that people take longer to leave a parking space when someone is waiting to take that space. The term territoriality is still used in the study of proxemics to explain human behavior regarding personal space. such as a parking space or a seat in a library. Space in nonverbal communication may be divided into four main categories: intimate.
• E). structure our time and react to time is a powerful communication tool. the speed of speech and how long people are willing to listen.D). Movement and body position a. This is the usual pattern that is typically found in Latin America andMiddle East. Chronemics "Chronemics is the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. Kinesics . • Polychronic time schedule (P-time): Personal involvement is more important than schedules where the emphasis lies on personal relationships rather than keeping appointments on time. The M-pattern is typically found in North America and Northern Europe. Time perceptions include punctuality and willingness to wait. The timing and frequency of an action as well as the tempo and rhythm of communications within an interaction contributes to the interpretation of nonverbal messages. Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey (1988) identified 2 dominant time patterns: Monochronic time schedule (M-time): Time is seen as being very important and it is characterised by a linear pattern where the emphasis is on the use of time schedules and appointments. and people tend to do one thing at a time." The way we perceive time. Time is viewed as something that can be controlled or wasted by individuals. and helps set the stage for communication.
c. and gestures."Kinesics is the study of body movements." It was developed by anthropologist Ray L. and the level of fondness a person has for the other communicator. and the like. Posture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean. facial expressions. where one person’s left side is parallel to the other’s right side. facial warmth or pleasantness. arm position. smiling. and body openness. b. body orientation. in analogy to a phoneme which is a minimal unit of sound. Birdwhistell in the 1950s. Gesture . leads to favorable perception of communicators and positive speech. childlike behaviors. Birdwhistell proposed the term kineme to describe a minimal unit of visual expression. a person who displays a forward lean or a decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentiment during communication. Posture "Posture can be used to determine a participant’s degree of attention or involvement." Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal relationships suggest that mirror-image congruent postures. direct body orientation. the difference in status between communicators. Kinesic behaviors include mutual gaze.
affect displays. or verbal and nonverbal communication. Speech-independent gestures are dependent upon culturally accepted interpretation and have a direct verbal translation. A wave hello or a peace sign are examples of speech-independent gestures. such as winking. or rolling one's eyes. this form of nonverbal communication is used to emphasize the message that is being communicated. and adaptors. Speech related gestures are intended to provide supplemental information to a verbal message such as pointing to an object of discussion. like a smile. nodding. • Gestures can be also be categorised as either speech-independent or speechrelated. • and finally. face and eyes. psychologists Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen suggested that gestures could be categorised into five types: emblems. . • an affect display is a gesture that conveys emotions. Speech related gestures are used in parallel with verbal speech. regulators. and also include movements of the head. Gestures such as Mudra (Sanskrit) encode sophisticated information accessible to initiates that are privy to the subtlety of elements encoded in their tradition. • regulators are gestures that control interaction."A gesture is a non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning. The boundary between language and gesture. • illustrators are gestures that depict what is said verbally. According to Ottenheimer (2007). an adaptor is a gesture that facilitates the release of bodily tension. can be hard to identify. such as quickly moving one's leg. such as a goodbye wave. illustrators. such as turning an imaginary steering wheel while talking about driving." They may be articulated with the hands. arms or body. Emblems are gestures with direct verbal translations.
" E). a pat on the shoulder. and scratching. attention. patterns of fixation. and blink rate. "Eye contact can indicate interest. e. and the manner of touch. . These behaviors are referred to as "adaptor" and may send messages that reveal the intentions or feelings of a communicator. Eye gaze "The study of the role of eyes in nonverbal communication is sometimes referred to as "oculesics"." . The meaning conveyed from touch is highly dependent upon the context of the situation. Haptics "Haptics is the study of touching as nonverbal communication. and brushing an arm. lips. high fives.d. and frequency of glances. picking. holding. holding hands. pupil dilation. hand). amount of gaze. kissing (cheek." "Touches that can be defined as communication include handshakes. the relationship between communicators. and involvement." Touching of oneself during communication may include licking." "Gaze is comprised of the actions of looking while talking. back slapping. looking while listening. Paralanguage "Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) is the study of nonverbal cues of the voice.
Dance and Nonverbal Communication Dance is a form of nonverbal communication that requires the same underlying faculty in the brain for conceptualization. The voice set is the context in which the speaker is speaking. creativity and memory as does verbal language in speaking and writing. can all give off nonverbal cues. A voice qualifier is the style of delivering a message . and yawning. as this can be misinterpreted) Smile (but not overdoing) Remembers names during conversation . Trager developed a classification system which consists of the voice set. pitch and accent. as opposed to whispering "Hey stop that". Characterizers are emotions expressed while speaking. resonance. • The voice qualities are volume. collectively known as prosody. pitch. voice qualities. symbolic and elusive meanings. age and a person's culture. • F). and accent. such as laughing. rhythm. nasality. however. Vocal segregates such as "uh-huh" notify the speaker that the listener is listening. with its ambiguity and multiple. and vocalization.Various acoustic properties of speech such as tone. Properties of non verbal skills Confident stance (standing up straight but not at attention) Relaxed manner (not too tense. articulation. This can include the situation. both forms have vocabulary (steps and gestures in dance). qualifiers and segregates. gender. not falling asleep) Body language in sync with the verbal message Leans forward while talking Open stance (not close hands) Touching conversation partner (only in appropriate situations. yelling "Hey stop that!". Dance. They give each individual a unique "voice print". mood. Paralanguage may change the meaning of words. tempo. • Vocalization consists of three subsections: characterizers. Means of self-expression. crying. The linguist George L. grammar (rules for putting the vocabulary together) and meaning.for example. assembles (choreographs) these elements in a manner that more often resembles poetry.
Conflicting Verbal and nonverbal messages within the same interaction can sometimes send opposing or conflicting messages. Repeating "Repeating" consists of using gestures to strengthen a verbal message. ambivalence. substituting. Complementing Accurate interpretation of messages is made easier when nonverbal and verbal communication complement each other. nonverbal messages can interact with verbal messages in six ways: repeating.Express emotions Express interpersonal attitudes To accompany speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers and listeners Self-presentation of one’s personality Rituals (greetings) Interaction of verbal and nonverbal communication When communicating. or frustration. conflicting. complementing. Conflicting messages may occur for a variety of reasons often stemming from feelings of uncertainty. 3. such as pointing to the object of discussion. A person verbally expressing a statement of truth while simultaneously fidgeting or avoiding eye contact may convey a mixed message to the receiver in the interaction. 1. . messages have been shown to be remembered better when nonverbal signals affirm the verbal exchange. 2. Nonverbal cues can be used to elaborate on verbal messages to reinforce the information sent when trying to achieve communicative goals. When mixed messages occur. nonverbal communication becomes the primary tool people use to attain additional information to clarify the situation. regulating and accenting/moderating. great attention is placed on bodily movements and positioning when people perceive mixed messages during interactions.
voice pitch. when nonverbal behavior does not effectively communicate a message. Retrieved on March 14. Regulating Nonverbal behavior also regulates our conversations. touching someone's arm can signal that you want to talk next or interrupt. People learn to identify facial expressions. a person who is verbally expressing anger may accent the verbal message by shaking a fist.org/wiki/Information_Communication_technology" Categories: Communication Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia. online Etymology dictionary. 5. Nonverbal signals can be used without verbal communication to convey messages. Touch. and gestures are some of the tools people use to accent or amplify the message that is sent. from .4.wikipedia. 6.org/wiki/Nonverbal_communication" Categories: Communication ^ communication. body movements. For example. Substituting Nonverbal behavior is sometimes used as the sole channel for communication of a message. verbal methods are used to enhance understanding. Accenting/Moderating Nonverbal signals are used to alter the interpretation of verbal messages. REFERENCES Retrieved "http://en. 2008. Retrieved on March 14. ^ media. nonverbal behavior can also be used to moderate or tone down aspects of verbal messages as well. and body positioning as corresponding with specific feelings and intentions. For example. office of superintendent of Public instruction.
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