The Issue of Sustainability and Role of Bio-fertilizers

An Indian Perspective
By- Dr. US Awasthi

The Presentation Focuses On
Fertiliser Consumption and Food Grains Production Scenario in India; Causes of Declining Crop Productivity; Sustainability of Farmers; Deficiency of Nutrients in Soil; Use Of Balanced Fertilisers and Biofertilisers; Comparison to other Countries; and IFFCO’s efforts to increase Crop Productivity.

Stagnation in Food grains Production in India
• Till 1997-98 strong correlation is found between Fertilizer consumption and food grains production • After 1997-98, this relationship distorted Most of States are experiencing increase in fertilizer consumption with slower pace of crop productivity Some states witness consumption of fertilizer picking up without any conspicuous gain on agricultural crop productivity
in '0 0 0 M T

Exploring Relationship Between Foodgrain Production & Fertilizer Consumption
20000.0 18000.0 16000.0 14000.0 12000.0 10000.0 8000.0 6000.0 4000.0 2000.0 0.0
NPK Consumption Foodgrain Production

200 180 160 140
in M illio n M T

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

1 9 6 6 -6 7

1 9 6 9 -7 0

1 9 7 2 -7 3

1 9 7 5 -7 6

1 9 7 8 -7 9

1 9 8 1 -8 2

1 9 8 4 -8 5

1 9 8 7 -8 8

1 9 9 0 -9 1

1 9 9 3 -9 4

1 9 9 6 -9 7

1 9 9 9 -2 0 0 0

2 0 0 2 -0 3

The Role of Fertilisers
• Increase productivity • Therefore, there has to be a positive correlation between use of fertilisers and crop yield • The crop yield is falling and not in proportionate to fertilizer consumption

Causes Of Declining Crop Productivity
• Imbalanced and indiscriminate use of chemical fertilisers • Occurrence of multi-nutrients deficiency such as Zinc, boron, sulphur etc. besides NPK • Rain dependent agriculture - About 2/3 area • Inadequate irrigation facilities • Continuous fragmentation of land, unfavourable for adoption of technology • Land holding pattern and Predominance of marginal and small farmers

Land Holding Pattern And Sustainability
80 % of Indian Farmers are Small and Marginal with operational holding of less than 1.4 hectares Wheat and Rice are the two Major crops grown in India – The average yield for Wheat is 2617 Kg / Hectare and – The average yield for Rice is 2101 Kg / Hectare “Minimum Support Price” (MSP) is not favourable and viable compare to net costs to farmers

Factors For Sustainability
Raise Farm Income Increase crop productivity through balanced use of Fertilizers Managing Cost of Inputs Increase fertilizer use efficiency Generation of Additional Income to Farmers through allied activities

Major Cause: Nutrient Deficiency In Soil
Photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O carbohydrates (CHO) + O2

• Besides NPK, Sulphur, Zinc And Calcium are also required in good quantity. • Other nutrients such as Iron, Boron etc. though required in small quantities, but their deficiency significantly impacts plant growth & life. • Micronutrient deficiency (Zn, Boron, Iron & Sulphur) in Indian Soil is increasing

Nutrients are taken up primarily by the roots in the form of an aqueous solution in the soil

Innumerable experiments prove there is Significant increase in Yields by application of secondary & micronutrients along with NPK nutrients

Use Of Balanced Fertilisers
• Use of Balanced Fertilisers, Organic fertilisers and Bio-fertilisers can provide viable leverage to increase crop productivity • It enrich the soil with important nutrients • Bio-fertilisers has potential to generate additional income to farmers from the same size of land • Types of Bio-fertilisers
– Rhizobium, – Azotobactor, – Azospirillium

COMPARISON TO OTHER COUNTRIES
Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 India Pakistan Bangladesh France Sri Lanka China United Kingdom Egypt N. Zealand Fertiliser Uses Kg/Ha 104.7 164.1
Kg/Ha

Average Yielf of Foodgrain + Cereals
Egypt Yield China Yield Sri Lanka Yield India Yield

8050 7050 6050 5050 4798 4050 3050 2857 2050 1837 1050 50
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

6283

6437

6542

6766

7060

7010

7289 6845

7347

188.6 215.9 271.8 275.1 315.1 471.5 668.5

4695

4862

4791

4626

4789

4742

4745

5044

2984 1921

3025 1919

3025 1938

3212

3159 2038

3341

3219 2098

3475

2030

1910

2103

Country Egypt China Srilanka India

2003 Kg/ha 7209 4745 3219 2098

2004 Kg/ha 7347 5044 3475 2103

Increase in Yield Kg/ha 138 299 256 5

Due to higher level of consumption, productivity is on rise in Egypt, China, Srilanka

IFFCO’s Efforts to Increase Agricultural Productivity
• Soil testing – 5 Mobile soil testing vans with a annual capacity to analyze 30000 soil samples free of cost – Free Soil testing facility at Phulpur and Kalol • Production of bio-fertilizers at CORDET Phulpur and Kalol Producing : - Rhizobium, Azotobactor, Azospirillium, PSB as an integral part of integrated nutrient management • Proposal to set-up a bio-fertilizer plant is in pipeline • Provided KIOSKS to cooperatives to disseminate information related to agriculture in 10 Indian languages

IFFCO’s Efforts to Increase Agricultural Productivity
• Organizing various promotional and educational programmes for the benefit of cooperatives and farmers to increase productivity of crops • Linkages with State Agriculture Research Universities / Research Institutions - Through 17 IFFCO chairs in the disciplines of: – Agronomy, – Soil Science, – Extension and Cooperation, – Agro Economics and Fertilizer Technology • Various Cooperative development and Welfare Programmes:

Thank You
Dr. U.S Awasthi
Managing Director Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Ltd. IFFCO Sadan, C-1 District Centre, Saket New Delhi-110017 INDIA e-mail: mdoffice@iffco.nic.in

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